Albert Einstein

From Wikiquote Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was an agnostic Jewish German-Swiss-Austrian-American physicist who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time. He is best-known for his Special and General Theories of Relativity, but contributed in other areas of physics. He became famous for his explanation of the photoelectric effect (for which he received the Nobel Prize).

Contents
1 Sourced 1.1 General sources 1.1.1 Youth 1.1.2 1900s 1.1.3 1910s 1.1.4 1920s 1.1.5 1930s 1.1.6 1940s 1.1.7 1950s 1.1.8 Posthumous publications 1.2 Principles of Research (1918) 1.3 Viereck interview (1929) 1.4 Wisehart interview (1930?) 1.5 Religion and Science (1930) 1.6 Mein Weltbild (1931) 1.7 My Credo (1932) 1.8 Obituary for Emmy Noether (1935) 1.9 Science and Religion (1941) 1.10 Only Then Shall We Find Courage (1946) 1.11 Religion and Science: Irreconcilable? (1948) 1.12 The World As I See It (1949) 1.13 "Why Socialism?" (1949) 1.14 On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation (1950) 1.15 Out of My Later Years (1950) 1.16 Essay to Leo Baeck (1953) 1.17 Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1954) 1.18 Albert Einstein: A guide for the perplexed (1979) 1.19 Sidelights on Relativity (1983) 1.20 Einstein's God (1997) 1.21 Einstein and Religion (1999) 2 Disputed 3 Misattributed 4 Quotes about Einstein 5 External links

A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving...

A happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much on the future.

Sourced
General sources
Youth A happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much on the future. "My Future Plans" an essay written at age 17 for school exam (18 September 1896) The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein Vol. 1 (1987) Doc. 22 1900s Dear Habicht, / Such a solemn air of silence has descended between us that I almost feel as if I am committing a sacrilege when I break it now with some inconsequential babble... / What are you up to, you frozen whale, you smoked, dried, canned piece of soul...? Opening of a letter to his friend Conrad Habicht in which he describes his four revolutionary "Annus Mirabilis" papers. (May 1905)
Mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing — a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind.

E = mc² The equivalence of matter and energy was originally expressed by the equation m = L/c², which easily translates into the far more well known E = mc² in Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? (http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/E_mc2/www/) published in the Annalen der Physik (27 September 1905) : "If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c²." In a later statement explaining the ideas expressed by this equation, Einstein summarized: "It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing — a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind. Furthermore, the equation E = mc², in which energy is put equal to mass, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light, showed that very small amounts of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy and vice versa. The mass and energy were in fact equivalent, according to the formula mentioned before. This was demonstrated by Cockcroft and

Walton in 1932, experimentally." Atomic Physics (1948) by the J. Arthur Rank Organisation, Ltd. (mp3 audio file of Einstein's voice (http://www.aip.org/history/einstein/sound/voice1.mp3) ) We shall therefore assume the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and a corresponding acceleration of the reference system. Statement of the equivalence principle in Yearbook of Radioactivity and Electronics (1907) 1910s How does it happen that a properly endowed natural scientist comes to concern himself with epistemology? Is there not some more valuable work to be done in his specialty? That's what I hear many of my colleagues ask, and I sense it from many more. But I cannot share this sentiment. When I think about the ablest students whom I have encountered in my teaching — that is, those who distinguish themselves by their independence of judgment and not just their quick-wittedness — I can affirm that they had a vigorous interest in epistemology. They happily began discussions about the goals and methods of science, and they showed unequivocally, through tenacious defense of their views, that the subject seemed important to them . Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. Thus they might come to be stamped as "necessities of thought," "a priori givens," etc. The path of scientific progress is often made impassable for a long time by such errors. Therefore it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analysing long-held commonplace concepts and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend, and how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. Thus their excessive authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, or replaced if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason. Obituary for physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, Physikalische Zeitschrift 17 (1916) I am by heritage a Jew, by citizenship a Swiss, and by makeup a human being, and only a human being, without any special attachment to any state or national entity whatsoever. Letter to Alfred Kneser (7 June 1918); Doc. 560 in The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein Vol. 8 I have also considered many scientific plans during my pushing you around in your pram! Letter to his son Hans Albert Einstein (June 1918) Make a lot of walks to get healthy and don’t read that much but save yourself some until you’re grown up. Letter to his son Eduard Einstein (June 1918) Dear mother! Today a joyful notice. H. A. Lorentz has telegraphed me that the English expeditions have really proven the deflection of light at the sun. Postcard to his mother Pauline Einstein (1919) By an application of the theory of relativity to the taste of readers, today in Germany I am called a German man of science, and in England I am represented as a Swiss Jew. If I come to be represented as a bête noire, the descriptions will be reversed, and I shall become a Swiss Jew for the Germans and a German man of science for the English! Statement to The Times [London] (28 November 1919), quoted in The New Quotable Einstein (2005) by Alice Calaprice (http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7921.html) ISBN 0-691-12075-7 Variant: If my theory of relativity is proven successful, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew. (Address to the French Philosophical Society at the Sorbonne (6 April 1922); French press clipping (7 April 1922) [Einstein Archive 36-378] and Berliner Tageblatt (8 April 1922) [Einstein Archive 79-535]) Variant translation: If my theory of relativity is proven correct, Germany will claim me as a German and France will say I am a man of the world. If it's proven wrong, France will say I am a German and Germany will say I am a Jew. Variant: If relativity is proved right the Germans will call me a German, the Swiss will call me a Swiss citizen, and the French will call me a great scientist. If relativity is proved wrong the French will call me a Swiss, the Swiss will call me a German and the Germans will call me a Jew. 1920s How much do I love that noble man More than I could tell with words I fear though he'll remain alone With a holy halo of his own. Poem by Einstein on Spinoza (1920), as quoted in Einstein and Religion (1999) by Max Jammer "Einstein's Poem on Spinoza" (with scans of original German manuscript) at Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University (http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/Einsteins_poem/Spinoza.html) We may assume the existence of an aether; only we must give up ascribing a definite state of motion to it, i.e. we must by abstraction take from it the last mechanical characteristic which Lorentz had still left it. … But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable inedia, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it. On the irrelevance of the luminiferous aether hypothesis to physical measurements, in an address at the University of Leiden (5 May 1920) I am neither a German citizen, nor do I believe in anything that can be described as a "Jewish faith." But I am a Jew and glad to belong to the Jewish people, though I do not regard it in any way as chosen. Letter to Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, 3 [5] April 1920, as quoted in Alice Calaprice, The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (2010), p. 195; citing Israelitisches Wochenblatt, 42 September 1920, CAPE, Vol. 7, Doc. 37, and Vol. 9, Doc 368. Raffiniert ist der Herrgott, aber boshaft ist er nicht.
It is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analyzing long-held commonplace concepts and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend... Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens.

If my theory of relativity is proven successful, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew.

How much do I love that noble man More than I could tell with words…

" I. Said to Samuel J Woolf.einsteinandreligion. Berlin. but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the "old one. Maybe God is malicious. p. This simple thought made a deep impression on me. Work is x.) As quoted in Subtle is the Lord — The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (1982) by Abraham Pais einsteinandreligion.. there remains something subtle. p. Vol. Interview with Rabindranath Tagore (14 April 1930). as quoted in Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel (1988) by Banesh Hoffman I never think of the future. who after deriding ideas of God and religion at a dinner party in the home of the publisher Samuel Fischer. quoted in Why Did Einstein Put So Much Emphasis on the Equivalence Principle? by Dr.com/books?id=Af84fBmzmVYC&pg=PA305&dq=Belgenland) to an interview at Belgenland (December 1930). and other slight variants. I believe in Spinoza's God. Einstein in his Kyoto address (14 December 1922). Whether you can observe a thing or not depends on the theory which you use.com/spinoza. Aphorism for a friend (18 September 1930) [Einstein Archive 36-598]. The theory says a lot. Kessler I believe in Spinoza's God. cannot be analyzed. As quoted in Cherished Illusions (2005) by Sarah Stern." (Die Natur verbirgt ihr Geheimnis durch die Erhabenheit ihres Wesens. 14. Einstein: His Life and Universe (2007). Interview with Rabindranath Tagore (14 April 1930). it is good. am convinced that He does not throw dice. then A = x + y + z. ed. which was the ship on which he arrived in New York that month. New York. Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies (AAPPS) Bulletin. upon hearing that an experimental result by Dayton C. Clark. Letter to his son Eduard (5 February 1930). Shapiro I was sitting in a chair in the patent office at Bern when all of sudden a thought occurred to me: If a person falls freely he will not feel his own weight. quoted in Unification of Fundamental Forces (1990) by Abdus Salam ISBN 0521371406 Try and penetrate with our limited means the secrets of nature and you will find that. at any rate. Answer paid 50 words. Response to atheist Alfred Kerr in the winter of 1927.org/pdf/abstracts/abstracts_23.einsteinandreligion. “How I Constructed the Theory of Relativity. p. p. Objecting to the placing of observables at the heart of the new quantum mechanics. and in The Tagore Reader (1971) edited by Amiya Chakravarty The really good music. Fred R. behind all the discernible concatenations. not in a God Who concerns Himself with the fate and the doings of mankind. Summer 1929. that we cannot see through to it. 15. Cited with additional notes in The Ultimate Quotable Einstein by Alice Calaprice and Freeman Dyson." I. religious. am convinced that He does not throw dice. (April 1921)] as quoted in Einstein (1973) by R. Lesikar If A is success in life. but not by means of ruse. G. Said to Vladimir Bargmann. but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the "old one." Einstein replied in only 25 (German) words. It is the theory which decides what can be observed. Miller of Cleveland. I have not found a better expression than 'religious' for the trust in the rational nature of reality that is. It impelled me toward a theory of gravitation. Einstein." As quoted in Einstein : Science and Religion (http://www. It is the theory which decides what can be observed. Attributed in The Encarta Book of Quotations (http://books.” Translated by Masahiro Morikawa from the text recorded in Japanese by Jun Ishiwara. at least to a certain extent. Who reveals Himself in the lawful harmony of the world. play is y and z is keeping your mouth shut. Fate has made me an authority myself. as quoted in Walter Isaacson. but he's not malicious. published in The Religion of Man (1930) by Rabindranath Tagore. The Born-Einstein Letters (translated by Irene Born) (Walker and Company. pp. if true. But an inner voice tells me that it is not yet the real thing. whether of the East or of the West. not in a God Who concerns Himself with the fate and the doings of mankind. Who reveals Himself in the lawful harmony of the world. But the result turned out to be false. talking about the events of "probably the 2nd or 3rd weeks" of October 1907. 222. while others say he meant that nature is mischievous but not bent on trickery. Remark made during Einstein's first visit to Princeton University.[specific citation needed] Subtle is the Lord.. at any rate.worldnpa. and in The Tagore Reader (1971) edited by Amiya Chakravarty To punish me for my contempt of authority.html) Originally said to Princeton University mathematics professor Oscar Veblen. No. To that extent I am. accessible to human reason. The theory says a lot. "Nature hides her secret because of her essential loftiness. had queried him "I hear that you are supposed to be deeply religious" as quoted in The Diary of a Cosmopolitan (1971) by H. related by Heisenberg. This quote is commonly paraphrased "God does not play dice" or "God does not play dice with the universe".pdf) in Equivalence Principle – April 2008 (15th NPA Conference) who cites A. would contradict his theory of gravitation. Life is like riding a bicycle. 1971) ISBN 0-8027-0326-7." When asked what he meant by this he replied. as quoted in Einstein in America (1985) by Jamie Sayen . aber nicht durch List. 109 I have second thoughts.html) by Arnold V. To keep your balance you must keep moving. however. Ch. Fred R. Letter to Max Born (4 December 1926). It comes soon enough. Princeton UP (2010) p 230 1930s Life is like riding a bicycle. Robert J.google. Veneration for this force beyond anything that we can comprehend is my religion. 2. In response the telegrammed question of New York's Rabbi Herbert S. during Heisenberg's 1926 lecture at Berlin. May 1921. published in The Religion of Man (1930) by Rabindranath Tagore. Some say by this remark Einstein meant that Nature hides her secrets by being subtle. but malicious He is not. but malicious He is not. ed. 2006] Variant translation: God may be sophisticated. also in The Yale Book of Quotations (2006).W. I was startled. but he ain’t mean" is a variant translation of this (1946) Unsourced variant: "God is subtle but he is not malicious.com/faith. 222. Heaston (http://www. 17-19 (April 2005). [The Yale Book of Quotations.Subtle is the Lord. "God is slick. indicating that God leads people to believe they understand things that they actually are far from understanding. Goldstein in (24 April 1929): "Do you believe in God? Stop. To keep your . in point of fact. Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. Shapiro. while Einstein was in Princeton for a series of lectures. Spinoza's ideas of God are often characterized as being pantheistic. Expanding on this he later wrote: "I can understand your aversion to the use of the term 'religion' to describe an emotional and psychological attitude which shows itself most clearly in Spinoza. 367 I believe that whatever we do or live for has its causality. Whether you can observe a thing or not depends on the theory which you use. intangible and inexplicable.com (http://www.

Response to a letter from an unemployed professional musician (5 April 1933) as quoted in Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1981) edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 The editors precede this passage thus. The Human Side : New Glimpses From His Archives (1981) ISBN 0691023689 Unsourced variants: Gravitation is not responsible for people falling in love. that everything should be as simple as it can be..teslasociety. Read no newspapers. Make friends with a few animals. so to speak. he must have been something of a kindred spirit.wordorigins. Experience naturally remains the sole criterion of the usefulness of a mathematical construction for physics. Dubbed 'Einstein's razor'.. Environment (1950) by Harry Holtzman. strictly speaking. in effect. Nothing will end war unless the people themselves refuse to go to war. a real factor in scientific research. Einstein received a letter from a professional musician who presumably lived in Munich. "On the Method of Theoretical Physics" The Herbert Spencer Lecture. from Time magazine (14 December 1962)[2] (http://www." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (29 December 1934) It was following the breakthroughs by Enrico Fermi and others did the use of nuclear power become plausible. Communication. The human mind is unable to conceive of the four dimensions. so how can it conceive of a God. The Herbert Spencer Lecture. 163-169. p. 2000). Einstein's letter (http://www. / You can't blame gravity for falling in love.00. 221. stimulating progress. Letter to Vegetarian Watch-Tower (27 December 1930) I am not only a pacifist but a militant pacifist.. Vol. Techie @ www.” or “Make things as simple as possible.jpg) to Nikola Tesla for Tesla's 75th birthday (1931) Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing that people do — but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it.Note the careful anonymity of the first sentence — the recipient would be safer that way:" Albert Einstein: The Human Side concludes with this passage. but in no way can they be derived from it.” This may seem very similar to Occam's razor which advocates the simplest solution. but not simpler. whereas imagination embraces the entire world. however. Cosmic Religion : With Other Opinions and Aphorisms (1931) by Albert Einstein. As quoted in Albert Einstein. 2nd edition (May 30. I congratulate you on the great successes of your life's work. and out of a job. Quoted in The Expanded Quotable Einstein. also published in Philosophy of Science. p.. "Early in 1933.. but not one bit simpler. I take it to be true that pure thought can grasp the real. But the actual creative principle lies in mathematics. who accepts in real earnest the assumption of causality. that the man of science is a poor philosopher. it is normally taken to be a warning against too much simplicity. and enjoy the natural beauties of Munich's surroundings.” Another early appearance. ISBN 0691070210 balance you must keep moving. as the ancients had dreamed. 165.. His letter is lost. Thus. and the classics of other lands. try to find a few friends who think as you do. before whom a thousand years and a thousand dimensions are as one ? From Cosmic religion: with other opinions and aphorisms (1931). Our experience hitherto justifies us in trusting that nature is the realization of the simplest that is mathematically conceivable. It would mean that the atom would have to be shattered at will. p.872923. No. Princeton University Press.com/einsteinletter. "Physics and Reality" in the Journal of the Franklin Institute Vol. yet at the same time. 97.html) : “We try to keep in mind a saying attributed to Einstein—that everything must be made as simple as possible. 138 I see a clock. from On the Method of Theoretical Physics. followed by the original passages in German. in a certain sense. I am the one to whom you wrote in care of the Belgian Academy. delivered at Oxford (10 June 1933). For any one who is pervaded with the sense of causal law in all that happens. it is used when an appeal to Occam's razor results in an over-simplified explanation that leads to a false conclusion.org and JSTOR] There is a quote attributed to Einstein that may have arisen as a paraphrase of the above quote. 2 (April 1934). Quoted in Einstein's Philosophy of Science (http://plato. it is good. Goethe.It is my view that the vegetarian manner of living by its purely physical effect on the human temperament would most beneficially influence the lot of mankind. p. pp.edu/entries/einstein-philscience/) Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing that people do — but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it.stanford. on Mars among alien creatures and blot out any deeper interest in the actions of those creatures. [thanks to Dr. For knowledge is limited. delivered at Oxford (10 June 1933). "Atom Energy Hope is Spiked By Einstein / Efforts at Loosing Vast Force is Called Fruitless.time. 1. The earliest known appearance of Einstein's razor is an essay by Roger Sessions in the New York Times (8 January 1950)[1] (http://select. 101 As an eminent pioneer in the realm of high frequency currents.. but no simpler. Interview with George Sylvester Viereck (January 1931) I believe in intuition and inspiration. Neither the religion of fear nor the social-moral religion can have any hold on him. Issue 3 (March 1936) It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. Why then should it not be the right thing for the physicist to let the . Page 208.html?res=F30615FE3559137A93CAA9178AD85F448585F9) . Jotted (in German) on the margins of a letter to him (1933). As quoted in Has Science Discovered God? : A Symposium of Modern Scientific Opinion (1931) by Edward Howe Cotton. E.com/time/magazine/article/0. I am willing to fight for peace. pub. commonly given as “Everything should be made as simple as possible. also in Transformation : Arts. Then you will become a cheerful man once more and nothing will be able to trouble you. 183. However. giving birth to evolution. and certainly not without justification. Lessing.. Imagination is more important than knowledge. which certainly applies to music. that we cannot see through to it. I believe that whatever we do or live for has its causality. Albert Einstein. I am convinced that purely mathematical construction enables us to find those concepts and those lawlike connections between them that provide the key to the understanding of natural phenomena. Kant. All of science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday thinking. read the wonderful writers of earlier times. all that survives being Einstein's reply.nytimes. but not simpler. It has often been said. The musician was evidently troubled and despondent. It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. Bear in mind that those who are finer and nobler are always alone — and necessarily so — and that because of this they can enjoy the purity of their own atmosphere. It is. Make believe all the time that you are living. but I cannot envision the clockmaker. the idea of a Being who interferes with the sequence of events in the world is absolutely impossible.” There is not the slightest indication that [nuclear energy] will ever be obtainable.com/gst/abstract. I shake your hand in heartfelt comradeship. He said. Useful mathematical concepts may well be suggested by experience. where Sessions appears to be paraphrasing Einstein: “I also remember a remark of Albert Einstein. Covici-Friede. p.9171.

arts and sciences are branches of the same tree. "Moral Decay" (1937). with which he attempted to consolidate his power. however it may seem. The essential unity of ecclesiastical and secular institutions was lost during the 19th century. both to protect their own economic status and. in the actual article "Physics and Reality. for intellectual workers to get together. What humanity owes to personalities like Buddha. also. The Evolution of Physics (1938) (co-written with Leopold Infeld) Fundamental ideas play the most essential role in forming a physical theory. those who know Russia best are all more or less of the same opinion. it may well be. the physicist cannot simply surrender to the philosopher the critical contemplation of theoretical foundations. . Yet there was never any doubt as to the striving for culture. 1937 or 1938). Variant: Generations to come. By the way." I consider it important. will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth. One may say the eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility.. there are increasing signs that the Russian trials are not faked. He sees the face and the moving hands. I find it hard to reconcile this point of view with Einstein's gentle. Who would not be cheered by this? But let us not forget that human knowledge and skills alone cannot lead humanity to a happy and dignified life. Humanity has every reason to place the proclaimers of high moral standards and values above the discoverers of objective truth. not formulae. Books on physics are full of complicated mathematical formulae. but this was a delusion. What these blessed men have given us we must guard and try to keep alive with all our strength if humanity is not to lose its dignity. as his knowledge increases.philosopher do the philosophizing? Such might indeed be the right thing to do a time when the physicist believes he has at his disposal a rigid system of fundamental laws which are so well established that waves of doubt can't reach them. Einstein was apparently of a different opinion: he believed that when threatened by Hitler the Russians had no choice but to destroy as many of their enemies within their own camp as possible. But he certainly believes that. 221. and its joy in living. Born commented: "The Russian trials were Stalin's purges. He may call this ideal limit the objective truth. whom he cites in the next sentence. and Jesus ranks for me higher than all the achievements of the enquiring and constructive mind. his picture of reality will become simpler and simpler and will explain a wider and wider range of his sensuous impressions. generally speaking. Written statement (September 1937) as quoted in Albert Einstein. Both churches and universities — insofar as they live up to their true function — serve the ennoblement of the individual. the security of its existence. it may be. Humanity has every reason to place the proclaimers of high moral standards and values above the discoverers of objective truth. It was the approach that was disputed. I believed these show trials to be the arbitrary acts of a cruel dictator. 5 The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is at all comprehensible." reprinted in Out of My Later Years (1956).com/books? id=Q1UxYzuI2oQC&pg=PA240&lpg=PA240&dq=einstein+%22out+of+my+later+years%22+%22will+scarce+believe%22&source=web&ots=xRZlwUOcEY&sig=0o XDqmfWna0) (1950). "Physics and Reality" in the Journal of the Franklin Institute Vol. I was firmly convinced to begin with that it was a case of a dictator's despotic acts. He will never be able to compare his picture with the real mechanism and he cannot even imagine the possibility or the meaning of such a comparison." (This rendition reads as if he is quoting or paraphrasing the statement of someone else — perhaps Immanuel Kant. to the point of senseless hostility. humanitarian disposition. In a comment explaining why he joined the American Federation of Teachers local number 552 as a charter member (1938) Physical concepts are free creations of the human mind. are the beginning of every physical theory. No one doubted the sacredness of the goal. What these blessed men have given us we must guard and try to keep alive with all our strength if humanity is not to lose its dignity. The Human Side: New Glimpses From His Archives (1981) edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 All religions. They seek to fulfill this great task by spreading moral and cultural understanding. and are not. but that there is a plot among those who look upon Stalin as a stupid reactionary who has betrayed the ideas of the revolution. by Freeman Dyson Ch. The Evolution of Physics (1938) (co-written with Leopold Infeld) Human knowledge and skills alone cannot lead humanity to a happy and dignified life. As quoted in Disturbing the Universe (1979)]. even hears its ticking. arts and sciences are branches of the same tree. 24. but he has no way of opening the case. New York. 1971) ISBN 0-8027-0326-7. but he may never be quite sure his picture is the only one which could explain his observations. to secure their influence in the political field. The mediocre mind is incapable of understanding the man who refuses to bow blindly to conventional prejudices and chooses instead to express his opinions courageously and honestly. If he is ingenious he may form some picture of a mechanism which could be responsible for all the things he observes. for he himself knows best and feels more surely where the shoe pinches. published in Out of My Later Years (http://books. Like most people in the West. he must try to make clear in his own mind just how far the concepts which he uses are justified. The Born-Einstein Letters (translated by Irene Born) (Walker and Company. Generations to come. lifting it from the sphere of mere physical existence and leading the individual towards freedom. It is no mere chance that our older universities developed from clerical schools. He may also believe in the existence of the ideal limit of knowledge and that it is approached by the human mind. but it cannot be right at a time when the very foundations of physics itself have become problematic as they are now. In looking for an new foundation. based on lies and deception. While this often-quoted version is given in Einstein: A Biography (1954) by Antonina Vallentin.. 1940s Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. But thought and ideas. Moses. Issue 3 (March 1936) The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible. Though we find it difficult to imagine this kind of internal thing. Later published in Out of My Later Years (1950) Our time is distinguished by wonderful achievements in the fields of scientific understanding and the technical application of those insights. In our endeavor to understand reality we are somewhat like a man trying to understand the mechanism of a closed watch.) Other variants: The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility… The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle. to make possible the comparison with experiment. will scarce believe that such a man as this one ever in flesh and blood walked upon this Earth. The ideas must later take the mathematical form of a quantitative theory. As quoted in Speaking of Science (2000) by Michael Fripp All religions. renouncing the use of brute force.google. when experience forces us to seek a newer and more solid foundation. and its joy in living. All these aspirations are directed toward ennobling man's life. Statement on the occasion of Gandhi's 70th birthday (1939) Einstein archive 32-601. uniquely determined by the external world. the quote is: One may say "the eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility. indeed urgently necessary. and are necessities. p. Letter to Max Born (no date. At a time like the present. the security of its existence. as from Einstein's article "Physics and Reality" in Journal of the Franklin Institute (March 1936).

especially given that elsewhere Einstein defined a "miracle" as a type of event he did not believe was possible—Einstein on Religion by Max Jammer (1999) quotes on p. defending the appointment of Bertrand Russell to a teaching position (19 March 1940).1944) by Gilbert Fowler White. Letter (26 April 1945). and have always been an atheist. Letter to Guy H. responding to a rumor that a Jesuit priest had caused Einstein to convert to Christianity. This independence created by philosophical insight is — in my opinion — the mark of distinction between a mere artisan or specialist and a real seeker after truth. life becomes easier and there is no longer any disappointment. No. yet nobody understands me. In the 23 June article Einstein expanded somewhat on the original quote from the 25 May article: Many persons have inquired concerning a recent message of mine that "a new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move to higher levels.. editor Alice Calaprice suggests that two quotes attributed to Einstein which she could not find sources for. Hebrew University. I can assure you mine are still greater. a world authority and an eventual world state are not just desirable in the name of brotherhood. a miracle. of course. A knowledge of the historic and philosophical background gives that kind of independence from prejudices of his generation from which most scientists are suffering. So many people today — and even professional scientists — seem to me like someone who has seen thousands of trees but has never seen a forest.msnbc. is an exception from lawfulness. 21) Variant: There are only two ways to live your life. 62. asking for contributions to a nationwide campaign by the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists to "to let the people know that a new type of thinking is essential" in the age of atomic weapons. ein Wunder.. as quoted in Space (1978. Today we must abandon competition and secure cooperation. Future thinking must prevent wars. Rowe and Robert Schulmann (2007). and Einstein replied that Liebert's argument dealt "with a domain in which lawful rationality [determinism] does not exist. Vol. The Human Side: New Glimpses From His Archives (1981) edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 Our world faces a crisis as yet unperceived by those possessing power to make great decisions for good or evil. One is as though nothing is a miracle. & Epic Hero (2003) by W.. Hinshaw. Spymaster. I have never talked to a Jesuit priest in my life and I am astonished by the audacity to tell such lies about me. From the article "Atomic Education Urged by Einstein" (http://www. Die Religion der Gebildeten (1941). having forgotten where they came from and not knowing whither they are drifting.info/id54. 2. we are like shipwrecked people on a miserable plank in the open sea. When the expected course of everyday life is interrupted. d. having forgotten where they came from and not knowing whither they are drifting. Today the atomic bomb has altered profoundly the nature of the world as we knew it. they are necessary for survival. kann auch ihre Ausnahme. 5. p. A 'miracle. Einstein Archives 42-606 Why is it that nobody understands me and everybody likes me? Statement (12 March 1944). One is as though nothing is a miracle. "The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them" and "The world we have created today as a result of our thinking thus far has problems which cannot be solved by thinking the way we thought when we created them. Variant: Great spirits have always found violent opposition from mediocrities.msn.htm) .h. As quoted in "The culture of Einstein" at MSNBC (18 March 2005) (http://www. As quoted in Journal of France and Germany (1942 . Physics Professor at University of Puerto Rico (7 December 1944) [EA-674. Reichenstein. so without a primary source the validity of this quote should be considered questionable. nicht existieren." may both be paraphrases of the 1946 quote above. yet everybody likes me? As quoted in The Dark Side of Shakespeare : An Elizabethan Courtier. quoted in an article by Michael R. hence. p. professor emeritus of philosophy at the College of the City of New York. From "Atomic Education Urged by Einstein" (http://www. and the human race consequently finds itself in a new habitat to which it must adapt its thinking. 89 from a 1931 conversation Einstein had with David Reichinstein. where Reichinstein brought up philosopher Arthur Liebert's argument that the indeterminism of quantum mechanics might allow for the possibility of miracles. Einstein Archive.' however. From the viewpoint of a Jesuit priest I am. and later quoted in the article "The Real Problem is in the Hearts of Man" by Michael Amrine. . Diplomat.turnthetide. The latter cannot understand it when a man does not thoughtlessly submit to hereditary prejudices but honestly and courageously uses his intelligence and fulfills the duty to express the results of his thoughts in clear form. Letter to Robert A. cannot exist. 383.com/id/7406337/) Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. p.info/id54. Thorton had written to Einstein on persuading colleagues of the importance of philosophy of science to scientists (empiricists) and science. p. (2 July 1945). The other is as though everything is a miracle. New York Times (25 May 1946).com/books? id=_2qfZRp9SeEC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA62#v=onepage&q&f=false) it seems that White did not specify whether he had heard Einstein himself say this or whether he was repeating a quote that had been passed along by someone else.e. New York Times (25 May 1946)." Often in evolutionary processes a species must adapt to new conditions in order to survive. In The New Quotable Einstein (2005). in excerpt published in Living with Nature's Extremes : The Life of Gilbert Fowler White (2006) by Robert E. we are like shipwrecked people on a miserable plank in the open sea. In previous ages a nation's life and culture could be protected to some extent by the growth of armies in national competition. and it was also reprinted in Einstein on Politics by David E.Letter to Morris Raphael Cohen. 2007) by Jean de Climont Variants: Why is it that nobody understands me. Ron Hess Everyone likes me. wo eine Gesetzmässigkeit nicht vorhanden ist. there where lawfulness does not exist. This must be the central fact in all our considerations of international affairs. Past thinking and methods did not prevent world wars. as quoted in Albert Einstein. Thorton.turnthetide.' D." ('Dort. But once we fully accept this. also its exception. I fully agree with you about the significance and educational value of methodology as well as history and philosophy of science. There are only two ways to live your life. Jerusalem]. The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking and we thus drift toward unparallel catastrophe. A slightly modified version of the 23 June article was reprinted in Einstein on Peace by Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden (1960). The article reported on a telegram sent out by Einstein to "several hundred prominent Americans"..htm) .google. (1997) For the most part we humans live with the false impression of security and a feeling of being at home in a seemingly trustworthy physical and human environment. from the New York Times Magazine (23 June 1946). Do not worry about your difficulties in Mathematics.. The other is as though everything is. But when the expected course of everyday life is interrupted. As quoted in From Yale to Jail : The Life Story of a Moral Dissenter (1993) by David T. 418 I received your letter of June 10th. i. Letter to Barbara Lee Wilson (7 January 1943). Raner Jr. In the light of new knowledge. A new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move toward higher levels. From the context (http://books. otherwise we face certain disaster. Gilmore in Skeptic magazine. Dellinger.

" That means for me more Spinoza than the prophets. What man sees before him from infancy causes no reaction of this kind. Something deeply hidden had to be behind things. Letter sent to Le Corbusier (1946). However. There is no other information in the FBI's released files as to the source of this. 72 (6). Schilpp Since the mathematicians have invaded the theory of relativity.pdf#page=74) ). I made a mistake in selecting America as a land of freedeom.org/title/deutsche-beitrage-einezweimonatsschrift/oclc/183334232) Vol III. from article by Michael R. Raner Jr. originally published as "Zum Siebzigsten Geburtstag Albert Einsteins" in Deutsche Beiträge (Eine Zweimonatsschrift) (http://www. perhaps in the Werner interview he was repeating a quip that he had thought of earlier. I would not have lifted a finger. But intuition is nothing but the outcome of earlier intellectual experience. It is a scale of proportions which makes the bad difficult and the good easy.’” Attributed in FBI Memo. we have to prevent war. p. Another variant ('I do not know with what weapons World War III will be fought. I do not understand it myself anymore. That this needle behaved in such a determined way did not at all fit into the nature of events. Cited as conversation between Einstein and János Plesch in János : The Story of a Doctor (1947). Truman in "The culture of Einstein" by Alex Johnson (http://www. You may call me an agnostic. I would not have lifted a finger. all the governments of the nations have to prepare for war.The position in which we are now is a very strange one which in general political life never happened. and if you have to prepare for war. That the axioms had to be accepted unproved did not disturb me. a mistake I cannot repair in the balance of my life. They'll use rocks!"). they will do it. it was reported that Einstein stated the following: ‘I came to America because of the great.org/title/albert-einstein-philosopher-scientist/oclc/311439) (1949) edited by Paul A. Schilpp. for if we cannot prevent war every nation will use every means that is at their disposal. At the age of 12 I experienced a second wonder of a totally different nature: in a little book dealing with Euclidean plane geometry. no sooner has the epistemologist. Gordon (May 3. This is really the cornerstone of our situation. Letter to Guy H. I do not know how the Third World War will be fought. From Einstein's "Autobiographical Notes" in Albert Einstein : Philosopher-Scientist (http://www. then you are in a state where you cannot abolish war. concerning wind and rain. translated by Edward FitzGerald “In December. than he is inclined to interpret the thought-content of science in the sense of his system and to reject whatever does not fit into his system. Address to the symposium "The Social Task of the Scientist in the Atomic Era" at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.worldcat. but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones') is attributed to an unidentified letter to Harry S. 1949 . I agree with your remark about loving your enemy as far as actions are concerned. reprinted in A Stubbornly Persistent Illusion: The Essential Scientific Works of Albert Einstein (http://books. Namely. but I do not share the crusading spirit of the professional atheist whose fervor is mostly due to a painful act of liberation from the fetters of religious indoctrination received in youth. 1949. he is not surprised over the falling of bodies. and every other point of view must be of secondary importance. but I can tell you what they will use in the Fourth—rocks! From an interview with Alfred Werner. (28 September 1949). by János Plesch. so long as war is not prevented. 102). As quoted in the essay "To Albert Einstein's Seventieth Birthday" by Arnold Sommerfeld. and in spite of all promises they make. who is seeking a clear system. But for me the cognitive basis is the trust in an unrestricted causality. He accepts gratefully the epistemological conceptual analysis. Vol. He therefore must appear to the systematic epistemologist as a type of unscrupulous opportunist: he appears as realist insofar as he seeks to describe . This lucidity and certainty made an indescribable impression upon me. Schilpp (p. 9 (http://books.com/id/7406337/) .AEA 58-217) as quoted in Einstein: His Life and Universe (2007) by Walter Isaacson ISBN 9780743264730 I have repeatedly said that in my opinion the idea of a personal God is a childlike one. On the Christian maxim "Love thy enemy". Discussing the letter he sent Roosevelt raising the possibility of atomic weapons. the Man Who Started It All.org/title/albert-einstein-philosopher-scientist/oclc/311439) (1949) edited by Paul A. was translated specifically for the book by Schilpp. nor concerning the differences between living and non-living matter. At the same time. 12. But I can tell you what they'll use in the fourth. Sourced in The New Quotable Einstein by Alice Calaprice (2005). The Rotarian. June 1948. It is a scale of proportions which makes the bad difficult and the good easy. Liberal Judaism 16 (April-May 1949). do not permit him to let himself be too much restricted in the construction of his conceptual world by the adherence to an epistemological system. (18 April 2005) A new idea comes suddenly and in a rather intuitive way. No 2.google.msn.worldcat. fought his way through to such a system. p. in Albert Einstein : Philosopher-Scientist (http://www. which are set for him by the facts of experience. The scientist. They are dependent on each other.google.gov/einstein/einstein1a. freedom which I heard existed in this country. 2 (1997) The reciprocal relationship of epistemology and science is of noteworthy kind.g. but the external conditions. No." Newsweek Magazine (10 March 1947) When I examine myself and my methods of thought I come to the conclusion that the gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for absorbing positive knowledge. Einstein Archive 30-1104. which came into my hands at the beginning of a schoolyear. the thing that I refer to is this: To have security against atomic bombs and against the other biological weapons. I believe what we should try to bring about is the general conviction that the first thing you have to abolish is war at all costs. Different versions are attributed to conversations as early as 1948 (e. when my father showed me a compass. Epistemology without contact with science becomes an empty scheme. 173. which—though by no means evident—could nevertheless be proved with such certainty that any doubt appeared to be out of the question. 1950 (item 61-4099-25 in Einstein's FBI file—Page 74 in FBI FOIA PDF file 1a (http://foia. because he must do what he does. as for example the intersection of the three altitudes of a triangle in one point.msnbc. I prefer an attitude of humility corresponding to the weakness of our intellectual understanding of nature and of our own being. die das Schlechte schwierig und das Gute leicht macht. however. in a letter to Michele Besso (6 January 1948) Had I known that the Germans would not succeed in producing an atomic bomb. "I cannot hate him. L. Here were assertions. quoted in Modulor (1953) Had I known that the Germans would not succeed in producing an atomic bomb. Science without epistemology is — insofar as it is thinkable at all — primitive and muddled. 1947.com/books? id=0UMEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA9) : "I don't know.fbi. I can still remember—or at least believe I can remember—that this experienced made a deep and lasting impression upon me. A wonder of such nature I experienced as a child of 4 or 5 years. great. cannot afford to carry his striving for epistemological systematic that far. On the Modulor. which could find a place in the unconscious world of concepts (effect connected with direct "touch"). The essay. MSNBC. As quoted by Virgil Henshaw in Albert Einstein : Philosopher Scientist (1949) edited by Paul A. nor concerning the moon or about the fact that the moon does not fall down. Gilmore in Skeptic magazine. 5. In any case it was quite sufficient for me if I could peg proofs upon propositions the validity of which did not seem to me to be dubious.com/books? id=sV8gdLunYo8C&lpg=PP1&pg=PA342#v=onepage&q&f=false) Never do anything against conscience even if the state demands it. Letter to Dr. from "Atom: Einstein.worldcat. February 13. H. Now. New Jersey (17 November 1946) Er ist eine Skala der Proportionen.

but also against those opportunists who are always ready to compromise with the Devil. Am J Phys 32. Evanston. but the striving for such achievement is in itself a part of the liberation and a foundation for inner security. Correspondance. (1950) I have found no better expression than "religious" for confidence in the rational nature of reality. Letter to the Michelson Commemorative Meeting of the Cleveland Physics Society (1952). … For me the Jewish religion like all others is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions.guardian. The word god is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses. (1 January 1951) [Einstein Archive 21-174]. Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it. 1950s Taken on the whole. 1972 What lead me more or less directly to the special theory of relativity was the conviction that the electromotive force acting on a body in motion in a magnetic field was nothing else but an electric field. The Guardian. P. as idealist insofar as he looks upon the concepts and theories as free inventions of the human spirit (not logically derivable from what is empirically given). I would rather choose to be a plumber or a peddler in the hope to find that modest degree of independence still available under present circumstances. Nobody is able to achieve this completely. so its accuracy is questionable. Quoted in Einstein's Philosophy of Science (http://plato. "The Need for Ethical Culture" celebrating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Ethical Culture Society. This delusion is a kind of prison for us. but by non-participation in what we believe is evil. I would not try to become a scientist or scholar or teacher. in our education. The frightful dilemma of the political world situation has much to do with this sin of omission on the part of our civilization. called by us "Universe". as of the stifling of mutual human considerations by a "matter-of-fact" habit of thought which has come to lie like a killing frost upon human relations. has led directly to the impairment of ethical values. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. p.uk/science/2008/may/12/peopleinscience. the Human Side (1979) by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman.etc. . by Josep Maria Corredor.. p35. Unsourced variant : Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen. New Jersey. I believe that pipe smoking contributes to a somewhat calm and objective judgment in all human affairs. science degenerates into uninspired empiricism. IL (1949). as quoted by R. . in Conversations with Casals (1957). indeed. Not to nourish it but to try to overcome it is the way to reach the attainable measure of piece of mind. ISBN 0177710756 Common sense is nothing more than a deposit of prejudices laid down by the mind before you reach eighteen. 206. United Nations radio interview (http://streams. Letter n°190. Letter to California student E. Holzapfel (March 1951) Einstein Archive 59-1013.co. We should strive to do things in his spirit. Statement upon joining the Montreal Pipe Smokers Club. Otherwise I cannot see anything 'chosen' about them. and The Quotable Einstein by Alice Calaprice lists this as "probably not by Einstein". 13 May 2008. p. He experiences himself. Einstein's tribute to Pablos Casals (30 March 1953). Letter to the editor of The Reporter about the situation of scientists in America (13 October 1954). As far as my experience goes. And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. 684). Schilpp.. not only against the oppressors of his countrymen. Princeton.org/einstein. as quoted in The New York Times (29 March 1972) and The New York Post (28 November 1972). Letter to Maurice Solovine. republished in A P French. Variant: The world is a dangerous place. published by Hermann. his thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest—a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. by Pierre Speziali.gandhiserve. I am not thinking so much of the dangers with which technical progress has directly confronted mankind. often directed solely to the practical and factual. Letter of 1950. Gutkind Letter (3 January 1954). Whenever this feeling is absent. I am only passionately curious. Queen and Servant of the Sciences (1952) by Eric Temple Bell.. insofar as it is accessible to human reason. However. and in The New Quotable Einstein (2005) by Alice Calaprice I have no special talents. restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. I would believe that Gandhi's views were the most enlightened of all the political men in our time. not because of those who do evil. Letter to Carl Seelig (11 March 1952).A. has a different and presumably more accurate version of this letter.religion) .) and not be forced to state them a priori.edu/entries/einstein-philscience/) . as positivist insofar as he considers his concepts and theories justified only to the extent to which they furnish a logical representation of relations among sensory experiences. called by us "Universe. the Bible a collection of honourable. The striving to free oneself from this delusion is the one issue of true religion. He may even appear as Platonist or Pythagorean insofar as he considers the viewpoint of logical simplicity as an indispensible and effective tool of his research. Einstein Archives 39-013 A truly rational theory would allow us to deduce the elementary particles (electron. Michele Angelo Besso.. "Childish superstition: Einstein's letter makes view of religion relatively clear" (http://www. Letter to Michele Besso (10 September 1952). As quoted in Mathematics. published in Letters to Solovine (1993) I believe. What I particularly admire in him is the firm stand he has taken. founded by Felix Adler (5 January 1951). 16 (1964)." there is no salvation for humanity.a world independent of the acts of perception.S. (The Library of Living Philosophers. 1903-1955. that overemphasis on the purely intellectual attitude. which she dates to February 12.stanford. He experiences himself. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this." a part limited in time and space. quoted in Albert Einstein. but because of those who look on and do nothing.html) recorded in Einstein's study. ed. Special Relativity. He perceives very clearly that the world is in greater peril from those who tolerate or encourage evil than from those who actually commit it. 2005: ISBN 0691120749). not to use violence in fighting for our cause. The New Quotable Einstein by Alice Calaprice (Princeton University Press. Without "ethical culture. Contribution in Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. Bell did not indicate if he heard the quote from Einstein himself though. but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish.Shankland. his thoughts and feelings as something separated from the rest — a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. they are no better than other human groups. 1950 and describes as "a letter to a distraught father who had lost his young son and had asked Einstein for some comforting words": A human being is a part of the whole. although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. (1950) A human being is a part of the whole. translated from Conversations avec Pablo Casals : souvenirs et opinions d'un musicien (1955). a part limited in time and space. If I would be a young man again and had to decide how to make my living.

It is certainly the case that here. Such a theoretical structure must be quite thoroughly elaborated in order for it to lead to consequences that can be compared with experience. one must allow him his fantasizing. 1999). but not the means to control it. p. That is. then one can hardly view the quantum-theoretical description as a complete representation of the physically real.edu/entries/einstein-philscience/) Now he has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. The intellectual path from the axioms to the empirical contents or to the testable consequences becomes. 1. An explanation of relativity which he gave to his secretary Helen Dukas to convey to non-scientists and reporters. and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion. 9. instead. Helle Zeit—Dunkel Zeit (Europa Verlag. As quoted by LIFE magazine (2 May 1955) That is simple my friend: because politics is more difficult than physics. as quoted in LIFE magazine (2 May 1955) Try to become not a man of success. Indeed. I just want to explain what I mean when I say that we should try to hold on to physical reality. Dunkle Zeit: In Memoriam Albert Einstein (1956) edited by Carl Seelig. But that which we conceive as existing ("real") should somehow be localized in time and space. whether the necessity of logical simplicity leaves any freedom at all. and I do not see how one is . who was Einstein's assistant from 1944 to 1948. p. nevertheless. but rather a search for the logically simplest possibilities and their consequences. (March 1955) as quoted in Science and the Search for God Disturbing the Universe (1979) by Freeman Dyson Ch. 124 What I'm really interested in is whether God could have made the world in a different way. 1938). Iss. We are . but an equation is something for eternity. If one adheres to this program. just conventional. People like us. Paraphrased variant: Put your hand on a hot stove and it seems like an hour. The theorist must accomplish this Herculean task with the clear understanding that this effort may only be destined to prepare the way for a death sentence for his theory. the real in one part of space. whether the requirement of logical simplicity admits a margin of freedom. then one must assume that the physically real in B undergoes a sudden change because of a measurement in A. it is no planless fantasizing. The important thing is not to stop questioning. present. But let him sit on a hot stove for a minute and it's longer than any hour. the empirical fact is the all-powerful judge. Letter to an atheist (1954) as quoted in Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1981) edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 The idea of achieving security through national armament is. ob die Forderung der logischen Einfachheit überhaupt eine Freiheit lässt. as well. Straus.. Vol. das heisst. that is. 3. never lose a holy curiosity. The important thing is not to stop questioning. all aware of the situation regarding what will turn out to be the basic foundational concepts in physics: the point-mass or the particle is surely not among them. also in Expandable Quotable Einstein (2005) edited by Alice Calaprice This was also quoted by Steve Mirsky in Scientific American (September 2002). but within a satirical piece. But its judgment can be handed down only on the basis of great and difficult intellectual effort that first bridges the wide space between the axioms and the testable consequences. Ideas and Opinions (1954). should (in theory) somehow "exist" independently of that which is thought of as real in another part of space. it should also be independent of whether or not a measurement is made in A. A.stanford. p. the pretty girl/hot stove quote is actually the abstract from a short paper written by Einstein that appeared in the now defunct Journal of Exothermic Science and Technology (JEST. B. ever more. 287. Einstein and Religion (PrincetonUniversity Press. Quoted by Ernst G. a disastrous illusion. Vol. If a physical system stretches over A and B. of the marvelous structure of reality. curiosity has its own reason for existing. pp. But in return one comes closer to the preeminent goal of science. after learning of his death. it seems like a minute. might be. 17 "A Distant Mirror" . Statement to William Miller. Quoted in Einstein's Philosophy of Science (http://plato. p. ist.. since for him there is no other way to his goal whatsoever. a lie what you read about my religious convictions. but try rather to become a man of value. My physical instincts bristle at that suggestion. What is thought to be a "system" is after all. 238-239. Equations are more important to me. As translated in Gerald Holton. Tentative deduction takes the place of the predominantly inductive methods appropriate to the youthful state of science. Simpson. When a man sits with a pretty girl for an hour. That means nothing. 1978). One cannot help but be in awe when contemplating the mysteries of eternity. 72 What I am really interested in is knowing whether God could have created the world in a different way. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. ob Gott die Welt hätte anders machen können. What is actually present in B should thus not depend the type of measurement carried out in the part of space A. One should not reproach the theorist who undertakes such a task by calling him a fantast. If one attempts. the field. No. where the "original source" is cited as being a fictitious magazine: Amazingly. as quoted in Best Quotes of '54.publicradio. xii. Ideas and Opinions (1954) The theory of relativity is a beautiful example of the basic character of the modern development of theory. l56 (1957) by James B. Helle Zeit. who believe in physics.It was. the hypotheses from which one starts become ever more abstract and more remote from experience. 102. especially where earlier sources are not cited at all. know that the distinction between past. As translated in Max Jammer. to allow himself to be directed by purely mathematical. that of encompassing a maximum of empirical contents through logical deduction with a minimum of hypotheses or axioms. Zurich. ever longer and more subtle. pg. 71 Was mich eigentlich interessiert. thereby. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of the mystery every day. Letter to the family of his lifelong friend Michele Besso. but not with certainty. That is to say. in other words. as quoted in The New York Times (22 April 1955) Posthumous publications These can be particularly problematic. formal points of view in the search for theories. The theoretician is forced. because the physical experience of the experimenter is not capable of leading us up to the regions of the highest abstraction. so to view it. of course.org/programs/einsteinsgod/unheardcuts. curiosity has its own reason for existing. then what is present in B should somehow have an existence independent of what is present in A. because politics is for the present. also quoted at Einstein's God (NPR) (http://speakingoffaith. 1956).shtml) The important thing is not to stop questioning. That's relativity. in the Faraday-Maxwell sense. at the present state of military technique. The Scientific Imagination: Case Studies (Cambridge University Press. a lie which is being systematically repeated. That's relativity. Response to being asked why people could discover atomic power. in Carl Seelig. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it. of life. '55.

ucla. 74 When asked by a student what he would have done if Sir Arthur Eddington's famous 1919 gravitational lensing experiment. The consequence was a positively fanatic orgy of freethinking coupled with the impression that youth is intentionally being deceived by the state through lies. if one renounces the assumption that what is present in different parts of space has an independent. as quoted in "Einstein in no-sock shock" (http://www. von Laue. "What must be an essential feature of any future fundamental physics?" Letter to Max Born. a skeptical attitude toward the convictions that were alive in any specific social environment — an attitude that has never again left me. If there is any such concept as a God. 32. p. p. As quoted in Futurevision : Ideas. by Gerald Holton. science is their own special sport to which they look for vivid experience and the satisfaction of ambition. found an abrupt ending at the age of twelve. the most beautiful and most profound religious emotion that we can experience is the sensation of the mystical. and various indeed are they that dwell therein and the motives that have led them thither. published in Albert Einstein-Hedwig und Max Born (1969) "Briefwechsel 1916-55" supposed to divide up the world objectively so that one can make statements about parts. 104 Never memorize what you can look up in books.cs. The astonishing thing is that these discoveries were made at all. in collection donated to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel by Einstein's stepdaughter Margot. Weakland. during a visit to the University of Oxford.. On quantum theory I use up more brain grease (rough translation of German idiom) than on relativity. As quoted in "Recording the Experience" (10 June 2004) at The Library of Congress (http://www.edu/~slu/on_research/eins tein_essay2. 172 In the temple of science are many mansions. French (1980). Insights. All great discoveries have involved such a leap. p. [Academia] places a young person under a kind of compulsion to produce impressive quantities of scientific publications — a temptation to superficiality. and I do not see how one is supposed to divide up the world objectively so that one can make statements about parts. perhaps chiefly. there are yet people who say there is no God. then I don't see at all what physics is supposed to be describing. For what is thought to be a "system" is after all. just conventional. one has not to be astonished that the Chinese sages have not made these steps.P. But I do not doubt that the lion belongs to it even though he cannot at once reveal himself because of his enormous size.html) Working on the final formulation of technological patents was a veritable blessing for me. real existence. and Planck (1980) by Ilse Rosenthal-Schneider. 80 Principles of Research (1918) Addres s at the Physical Society. many others are to be found in the temple who have offered the products of their brains on this altar for purely utilitarian purposes. not to people or objects. It enforced many-sided thinking and also provided important stimuli to physical thought. Mistrust of every kind of authority grew out of this experience.html) at NationalGeographic. responsible for the buildings of the temple of . In essence. In my opinion. and various indeed are they that dwell therein and the motives that have led them thither. for Max Planck's 60th birthday (http://www. As quoted in Einstein.newscientist. later on. Statement to German anti-Nazi diplomat and author Prince Hubertus zu Lowenstein around 1941.com/ngm/0505/resources_who. History. left inside. p. If you want to live a happy life. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree.aip. even though. As quoted by Ernst Straus in Einstein: A Centenary Volume by A. Berlin. Nature shows us only the tail of the lion. But what makes me really angry is that they quote me for support of such views. it has been tempered by a better insight into the causal connections. in a 1962 oral history interview (http://www. through the reading of popular scientific books. of both present and past times.com (May 2005) Even on the most solemn occasions I got away without wearing socks and hid that lack of civilisation in high boots. As quoted by Abraham Pais in Subtle is the Lord:The Science and Life of Albert Einstein (1982) ISBN 0-192-80672-6 I said before..html) In the temple of science are many mansions. a colleague of Einstein in Zurich from 1912 to 1914. As quoted in Cleopatra's Nose. it was a crushing impression. am able to recognise. As quoted in "Who Knew?" (http://www7. New Scientist (15 July 2006) Everybody is a genius. Bucky and Allen G. p.gov/exhibits/world/world-record. the assemblage would be seriously depleted.ns?id=dn9555&feedId=online-news_rss20) . Many take to science out of a joyful sense of superior intellectual power. The theory is correct. Were an angel of the Lord to come and drive all the people belonging to these two categories out of the temple. and Other Passions (1996). Albert Einstein in a letter to his cousin and second wife Elsa. tie it to a goal. Essays on the Unexpected (1995) by Daniel J Boorstin. I am quite aware that we have just now lightheartedly expelled in imagination many excellent men who are largely. 86 Development of Western Science is based on two great achievements — the invention of the formal logical system (in Euclidean geometry) by the Greek philosophers.loc. and the discovery of the possibility to find out causal relationships by systematic experiment (during the Renaissance). and Strategies (1996) by Howard F. not an image of a man that so many have fixed in their minds. 3 Deep religiosity. it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid. Our Planck is one of them. with my limited human mind. p. and that is why we love him. Didsbury.com/article.org/history/ohilist/4904. Autobiographical Notes (1979) Edited by Paul Arthur Schilpp Then I would have felt sorry for the dear Lord. And this mysticality is the power of all true science. As quoted in The Private Albert Einstein (1992) by Peter A. Quoted by Otto Stern. had instead disproved it. As quoted in Reality and Scientific Truth : Discussions with Einstein.nationalgeographic. it is a subtle spirit. which confirmed relativity. my religion consists of a humble admiration for this illimitable superior spirit that reveals itself in the slight details that we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble minds.html) with Thomas S. as quoted in his book Towards the Further Shore : An Autobiography (1968) Through the reading of popular scientific books I soon reached the conviction that much in the stories of the Bible could not be true. but there would still be some men. p. There comes a time when the mind takes a higher plane of knowledge but can never prove how it got there.However. Kuhn In view of such harmony in the cosmos which I. As quoted in The Rhythm of Life : Living Every Day with Passion and Purpose (2004) by Matthew Kelly.

For these people any sphere of human activity will do. the daily effort comes from no deliberate intention or program. 17. p. Vol.com/books? id=dJMpQagbz_gC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA386#v=onepage&q&f=false) by Walter Isaacson.google. 386: I'm not an atheist. Quoted in Einstein: His Life and Universe (http://books. but I am enthralled by the luminous figure of the Nazarene. is the attitude of even the most intelligent human being toward God. Imagination encircles the world. I would probably be a musician. which is helped by a feeling for the order lying behind the appearance. and in many cases our angel would find it a pretty ticklish job to decide.. in spite of these common characteristics.com/spinoza. If I were not a physicist. A finely tempered nature longs to escape from the personal life into the world of objective perception and thought. he places the center of gravity of his emotional life. really less like each other. solitary fellows. This is what the painter. The child knows someone must have written those books. . With this negative motive goes a positive one. Imagination encircles the world. I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. We see a universe marvelously arranged and obeying certain laws. Vol. I am fascinated by Spinoza's pantheism. Now let us have another look at those who have found favor with the angel. The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal elementary laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction.science. the natural scientist. the temple would never have come to be. 202 (26 October 1929). is the attitude of even the most intelligent human being toward God. from Einstein: His Life and Universe (http://books.google. Jews believe in free will. No myth is filled with such life. but straight from the heart. I often think in music." As a child. I received instruction both in the Bible and in the Talmud. but only dimly understand these laws. As quoted in "What Life Means to Einstein : An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck" in The Saturday Evening Post. however artful. 113 . Man tries to make for himself in the fashion that suits him best a simplified and intelligible picture of the world. in order to find in this way the peace and security which he cannot find in the narrow whirlpool of personal experience. There is only the way of intuition. and DNA (1976) by Rene Dubos. also in The Great Influenza (2004) by John M. It does not understand the languages in which they are written. Most of them are somewhat odd. As quoted in The Professor. No one can read the Gospels without feeling the actual presence of Jesus. There is no logical path to these laws. We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with books in many different languages. the Institute. Viereck interview (1929) "What Life Means to Eins tein: An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck" The Saturday Evening Post (26 October 1929) p. one might suppose that there were any number of possible systems of theoretical physics all equally well justified. and the natural scientist do. out of all conceivable constructions. than the hosts of the rejected.. each in his own fashion. "That is what I believe. also in Glimpses of the Great (1930) by George Sylvester Viereck I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. It's possible to be both. His personality pulsates in every word. I reject that doctrine. but I am enthralled by the luminous figure of the Nazarene. Each makes this cosmos and its construction the pivot of his emotional life. I am a Jew. Into this image and its formation. They believe that man shapes his own life. and this opinion is no doubt correct. Variant. uncommunicative. I am a determinist. Imagination is more important than knowledge. not two separate things. but admire even more his contributions to modern thought because he is the first philosopher to deal with the soul and the body as one. from the fetters of one's own ever-shifting desires. I live my daydreams in music. That. In that respect I am not a Jew. Quoted in Einstein: His Life and Universe (http://books. p.com/books?id=dJMpQagbz_gC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA387#v=onepage&q&f=false) by Walter Isaacson. It does not know how. The child dimly suspects a mysterious order in the arrangement of the books but doesn't know what it is. whether they become engineers. any more than a forest can grow which consists of nothing but creepers. But there is no logical way to the discovery of these elemental laws. it seems to me. resting on sympathetic understanding of experience. That. Variant. Viereck There have been disputes on the accuracy (http://www. The state of mind which enables a man to do work of this kind is akin to that of the religious worshiper or the lover. 386. It does not know how. in whatever manner is suitable for him. each in his own way. the speculative philosopher. As quoted in "What Life Means to Einstein : An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck" in The Saturday Evening Post. a simplified and lucid image of the world. Knowledge is limited. I am a Jew. 202 (26 October 1929). the measles of mankind. p. The child dimly suspects a mysterious order in the arrangement of the books but doesn't know what it is. Our limited minds cannot grasp the mysterious force that moves the constellations. Eins tein carefully read the clipping and replied. from Preface to Max Planck's Where is Science Going? (1933): The supreme task of the physicist is the discovery of the most general elementary laws from which the world-picture can be deduced logically. As reported in Einstein — A Life (1996) by Denis Brian. he then tries to some extent to substitute this cosmos of his for the world of experience. Variant translation: One of the strongest motives that lead men to art and science is escape from everyday life with its painful crudity and hopeless dreariness. if it comes to a point.google. theoretically. the speculative philosopher. and thus to overcome it. tradesmen. We see the universe marvelously arranged and obeying certain laws but only dimly understand these laws. I do not believe in free will. the poet. This is what the painter does. the daily effort comes from no deliberate intention or program. Imagination is more important than knowledge. and the poet. As quoted in Glimpses of the Great (1930) by G. But the development of physics has shown that at any given moment. When asked by Viereck if he considered himself to be a German or a Jew. I do know that I get most joy in life out of my violin. We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with books in many languages. Jesus is too colossal for the pen of phrasemongers. p.einsteinandreligion. or scientists depends on circumstances. a single one has always proved itself decidedly superior to all the rest. officers. S. No man can dispose of Christianity with a bon mot. but straight from the heart. Nationalism is an infantile disease. and this Einfühlung [literally.html) of this quotation. Barry The state of mind which enables a man to do work of this kind is akin to that of the religious worshiper or the lover. it seems to me. 117 I'm not an atheist and I don't think I can call myself a pantheist.com/books?id=dJMpQagbz_gC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA386#v=onepage&q&f=false) by Walter Isaacson. I see my life in terms of music. when asked about a clipping from a magazine article reporting his comments on Christianity as taken down by Viereck. What has brought them to the temple? That is a difficult question and no single answer will cover it. p. empathy or 'feeling one's way in']' is developed by experience. can reach them. Man seeks to form for himself. Knowledge is limited. The problem involved is too vast for our limited minds. In this methodological uncertainty. and so to overcome the world of experience by striving to replace it to some extent by this image. only intuition. The child knows someone must have written these books. But of one thing I feel sure: if the types we have just expelled were the only types there were. in order to attain the peace and serenity that he cannot find within the narrow confines of swirling personal experience.

I do not believe in a God who maliciously or arbitrarily interferes in the personal affairs of mankind. I also cannot imagine some will or goal outside the human sphere" has been cited (http://www. men like Democritus. The religions of all civilized peoples. a transcription error. American Magazine. in many of the Psalms of David and in some of the Prophets. Everything that the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. Buddhism. who protects. especially the peoples of the Orient. Quoted in Einstein: His Life and Universe (http://books.com/books?id=l_Gktz_D7FIC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA52#v=onepage&q&f=false) by Charles Fillmore Religion and Science (1930) New York Times Magazine (9 November 1930) Everything that the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. that primitive religions are based entirely on fear and the religions of civilized peoples purely on morality is a prejudice against which we must be on our guard. Variant: "It seems to me that the idea of a personal God is an anthropological concept which I cannot take seriously. Wisehart. The desire for guidance. and not two separate things. according to the limits of the believer's outlook. and exceptionally high-minded communities.. disposes. 387 Wisehart interview (1930?) Every man knows that in his work he does best and accomplishes most when he has attained a proficiency that enables him to work intuitively. M. The development from a religion of fear to moral religion is a great step in peoples' lives. the God who. In general.google. K. even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. that he takes the hypothesis of causality really seriously. and punishes. It is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it. This is the God of Providence. loves and cherishes the life of the tribe or of the human race. it does not appear in any editions of the essay which have thus far been checked. and social ties and needs.htm) as a statement that precedes the last three sentences here. it is precisely among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feeling and were in many cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists. with this differentiation: that on the higher levels of social life the religion of morality predominates. which knows no dogma and no God conceived in man's image. An important advance in the life of a people is the transformation of the religion of fear into the moral religion. That is. sometimes also as saints. just as the man who spends too much time in the theaters is apt to be content with living vicariously instead of living his own life. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking. sometimes also as saints. education. p. The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. And yet. rise to any considerable extent above this level. A Close Look at the World's Greatest Thinker. it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it. so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. Science has therefore been charged with undermining morality. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole. a development continued in the New Testament.google. Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. The beginnings of cosmic religious feeling already appear at an early stage of development. rewards. Francis of Assisi. . Quotes from the interview appear on pp. How can cosmic religious feeling be communicated from one person to another. One has to keep this constantly in mind if one wishes to understand spiritual movements and their development. A God who rewards and punishes is inconceivable to him for the simple reason that a man's actions are determined by necessity. contains a much stronger element of this. The second is: Be independent of the opinion of others. Looked at in this light. The truth is that all religions are a varying blend of both types. he who preserves the souls of the dead. of course. My religion consists of an humble admiration for the vast power which manifests itself in that small part of the universe which our poor. and support prompts men to form the social or moral conception of God. Feeling and longing are the motive force behind all human endeavor and human creation. but the charge is unjust. weak minds can grasp! Much reading after a certain age diverts the mind from its creative pursuits. or even of life itself. I have only two rules which I regard as principles of conduct. Perhaps we live best and do things best when we are not too conscious of how and why we do them. The Jewish scriptures admirably illustrate the development from the religion of fear to moral religion.positiveatheism. Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hopes of reward after death. there are things which we come to know so well that we do not know how we know them.387 I am fascinated by Spinoza's pantheism. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them. especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it.g. external and internal. in however exalted a guise the latter may present themselves to us.com/books?id=dJMpQagbz_gC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA387#v=onepage&q&f=false) by Walter Isaacson. and Spinoza are closely akin to one another. but this might have originated in a paraphrase. which is carried further in the New Testament. June 1930. This is the social or moral conception of God. Variant translation: It is easy to follow in the sacred writings of the Jewish people the development of the religion of fear into the moral religion. The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling. only individuals of exceptional endowments. are principally moral religions. 52-53 of The Twelve Powers of Man (http://books. e.org/hist/quotes/einstein. so that in God's eyes he cannot be responsible. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it. The man who is thoroughly convinced of the universal operation of the law of causation cannot for a moment entertain the idea of a being who interferes in the course of events — provided. no religious basis is necessary. A man's ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy. but I admire even more his contribution to modern thought because he is the first philosopher to deal with the soul and body as one. He has no use for the religion of fear and equally little for social or moral religion. the comforter in sorrow and unsatisfied longing. Hence it is precisely among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feeling and were in many cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists. as we have learned especially from the wonderful writings of Schopenhauer. any more than an inanimate object is responsible for the motions it undergoes. if it can give rise to no definite notion of a God and no theology? In my view. The first is: Have no rules. especially those of the Orient. So it seems to me in matters of principle. or a misquotation. love. The religions of all civilized peoples. are primarily moral religions.

soon degenerates. the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific research. A contemporary has said. Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends can have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them the strength to remain true to their purpose in spite of countless failures. luxury — have always seemed to me contemptible. have been Kindness. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people — first of all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness is wholly dependent. in the face of all these ties. and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving. my friends.. Only those who realize the immense efforts and. It is an irony of fate that I myself have been the recipient of excessive admiration and reverence from my fellow-beings. not unjustly. to understand the few ideas to which I have with my feeble powers attained through ceaseless struggle. has its due place. have shown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world and through the centuries. force attracts men of low morality. and a continual consolation and unfailing well-spring of patience in the face of the hardships of life. From a letter by Albert Eins tein to Profes sor Chaim Tchernowitz of the Jewish Ins titute of Religion in New York (Hebrew Union College). or My View of the World or The World As I See It (as trans lated for the title essay of the 1949 book: "The World As I See It" (http://www. but not will as he will. it alone creates the noble and the sublime. outward success. This plague-spot of civilization ought to be abolished with all possible speed. Jewish Telegraphic Agency (Jewish Daily Bulletin)[fix citation] Mein Weltbild (1931) "Mein Weltbild" (1931) [i.html) ) ] Various trans lated editions have been published of this essay. outward success. Variant translation: In my opinion. I have never lost a sense of distance and a need for solitude. That a man can take pleasure in marching in formation to the strains of a band is enough to make me despise him. December 31. and all the pestilent nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism — how I hate them! War seems to me a mean. have been Truth." has been an inspiration to me since my youth up. Schopenhauer's saying. which borrow countenance from the obscurity and inaccessibility of certain passages in the Talmud. My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. Beauty. This feeling mercifully mitigates the sense of responsibility which so easily becomes paralyzing. To support this cultural work would thus mean an important achievement for the Jewish people. with my whole heart.com/worlds ee. my own and others'. my friends. without the occupation with the objective world. An autocratic system of coercion. senseless violence. life would have seemed to me empty. they must be able to choose their leader." has been an inspiration to me since my youth up. an autocratic system of coercion soon degenerates. He has only been given his big brain by mistake. and Truth.. Heroism by order.It is therefore easy to see why the churches have always fought science and persecuted its devotees. a backbone was all he needed. The trite objects of human efforts — possessions. which I abhor. The Talmud must be made an open book to the world. But the led must not be coerced. This topic brings me to that worst outcrop of the herd nature. or even my immediate family. The cause of this may well be the desire. living and dead. in order to cut the ground from under certain malevolent attacks. luxury — have always seemed to me contemptible. but not will as he will. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength. The ideals that have lighted my way. In human freedom in the philosophical sense I am definitely a disbeliever. in my opinion. one man must do the thinking and directing and generally bear the responsibility. Kepler and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary labor in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics! Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived chiefly from its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of the mentality of the men who.e. it conduces to a view of life in which humor. What a deep conviction of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand. The really valuable thing in the pageant of human life seems to me not the State but the creative. with my whole heart. through no fault. My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. and Beauty. Schopenhauer's saying. life would have seemed empty to me. In the second place. A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men. were it but a feeble reflection of the mind revealed in this world. or even my immediate family. that in this materialistic age of ours the serious scientific workers are the only profoundly religious people.. contemptible thing: I would rather be hacked in pieces than take part in such an abominable business.. of the need for solitude — a feeling which increases with the years. On the other hand. and then for the many. that "a man can do as he will. I am quite aware that for any organization to reach its goals. unknown to us. the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors. and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully. including one titled "What I Believe". Without the sense of fellowship with men of like mind. sentient individual. and it prevents us from taking ourselves and other people too seriously. my home. above all. of anti-Semitic origin. Variant translation: I am truly a 'lone traveler' and have never belonged to my country. another compilation which includes it is Ideas and Opinions (1954) How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn. Everybody acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity. in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment. while the herd as such remains dull in thought and dull in feeling. I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country. My political ideal is democracy. 1930. I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves — this critical basis I call the ideal of a pigsty. surrounded by a skeptical world. Goodness. and a continual consolation and unfailing well-spring of patience in the face of the hardships of life. above all. or portions of it. The ideals which have lighted me on my way and time after time given me new courage to face life cheerfully. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind.. and no merit. My World-view. of preoccupation with the objective. remote as it is from the immediate realities of life. of my own. to whose destinies we are bound by the ties of sympathy.. and I believe it to be an invariable rule that tyrants of genius are succeeded by scoundrels. Let every man be respected as an individual and no man idolized. for what purpose he knows not. my home. can issue. The scientific organization and comprehensive exposition in accessible form of the Talmud has a twofold importance for us Jews. Variant translation: I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves — such an ethical basis I call more proper for a herd of swine. For force always attracts men of low morality. It is important in the first place that the high cultural values of the Talmud should not be lost to modern minds among the Jewish people nor to science. that "a man can do as he will. but should operate further as a living force.eins teinandreligion. though he sometimes thinks he senses it. the devotion without which pioneer work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp the strength of the emotion out of which alone such work. The really valuable thing in the pageant of human . I maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research.. unattainable for many. the military system. For this reason I have always been passionately opposed to systems such as we see in Italy and Russia to-day. The ordinary objects of human endeavor — property.. the personality.

nor do I wish it otherwise. This disgrace to civilisation should be done away with at once. p. and justice has preserved me from feeling isolated. In this sense.html) ) Our situation on this earth seems strange. Although I am a typical loner in daily life. a sense. I am often worried at the thought that my life is based to such a large extent on the work of my fellow human beings and I am aware of my great indebtedness to them. beauty. but he cannot will what he wills” accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others even if they are rather painful to me. (Full text online (http://www. and his eyes are dimmed. life seems to me not the State but the creative. and in this sense alone.com/credo. as published in Einstein: A Life in Science (1994) by Michael White and John Gribbin This repeats or revises some statements and ideas of Mein Weltbild (1931). My Credo (1932) Speech to the German League of Human Rights. no longer marvel. I am an adherent of the ideal of democracy. is as good as dead. I am against any nationalism. is as good as dead. 179 The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious.. He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe. be it never so tiny. 44 The most beautiful emotion we can experience is the mysterious. I would rather be torn to shreds than be part of so base an action! It is my conviction that killing under the cloak of war is nothing but an act of murder. It is elementary forms — it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude. whose gross forms alone are intelligible to our poor faculties — this knowledge.He who joyfully marches to music in rank and file has already earned my contempt. since for him the spinal cord would fully suffice. Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of all true art and science. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of true art and true science. sentient individual. In our daily lives we only feel that man is here for the sake of others. and only this sense. and justice has preserved me from feeling isolated. As quoted in Introduction to Philosophy (1935) by George Thomas White Patrick and Frank Miller Chapman. It was the experience of mystery — even if mixed with fear — that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate.. I always have a high regard for the individual and have an insuperable distaste for violence and clubmanship. such notions are for the fears or absurd egoism of feeble souls. no longer feel amazement. The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. The most beautiful and deepest experience a man can have is the sense of the mysterious. This awareness of the lack of freedom of will preserves me from taking too seriously myself and my fellow men as acting and deciding individuals and from losing my temper. really exists and manifests itself as the highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty. To know that what is impenetrable for us science. or has a will of the type of which we are conscious in ourselves. if not dead.. As quoted in his obituary in The New York Times (19 April 1955) It is enough for me to contemplate the mystery of conscious life perpetuating itself through all eternity. is as good as dead. I am a deeply religious man. My passion for social justice has often brought me into conflict with people. Anyone to whom this of true art and true feeling is alien. my consciousness of belonging to the invisible community of those who strive for truth. He who knows it not and can no longer wonder. how violently I hate all this. as did my aversion to any obligation and dependence I do not regard as absolutely necessary. In this sense I am religious. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. Although I am a typical loner in daily life. An individual who should survive his physical death is also beyond my comprehension. Every one of us appears here involuntarily and uninvited for a short stay. p. To me it suffices to wonder at these secrets and to attempt humbly to grasp with my mind a mere image of the lofty structure of all that there is. Herein lies the germ of all art and all true science. is as good as dead: his eyes are closed.einsteinandreligion. p. As quoted in Introduction to Philosophy (1935) by George Thomas White Patrick and Frank Miller Chapman. without knowing the whys and the wherefore. of the reason that manifests itself in nature. deplorable love-of-country stance. Enough for me the mystery of the eternity of life. Neither can I believe that the individual survives the death of his body. how despicable and ignoble war is. that stands at the cradle The finest emotion of which we are capable is the mystic emotion. I rank myself among profoundly religious men. a snuffed-out candle. whose purposes are modeled after our own — a God.. to reflect upon the marvelous structure of the universe which we dimly perceive. together with the single-hearted endeavor to comprehend a portion. He has been given a large brain by mistake. which are only accessible to our reason in their most is the mysterious. It was the experience of mystery — even if mixed with fear — that engendered religion. To sense that behind anything that can be experienced there is a something that our mind cannot grasp and whose beauty and sublimity reaches us only indirectly and as a feeble reflection. and the inkling of the marvellous structure of reality. who is no longer capable of wonderment and lives in a state of fear is a dead man. I do not believe in freedom of the will. Variant translations: The fairest thing we can experience is the mysterious. He to whom this emotion is a stranger. then at least blind. As quoted in After Einstein : Proceedings of the Einstein Centennial Celebration (1981) by Peter Barker and Cecil G. my consciousness of belonging to the invisible community of those who strive for truth. this is religiousness. who is but a reflection of human frailty. 44 Variant translations: I am satisfied with the mystery of life's eternity and with a knowledge. the personality. who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe. All these motives made me into a passionate pacifist and anti-militarist. is as good as dead. in short. who can no longer wonder and stand rapt in awe. Heroism at command.. beauty. It is the underlying principle of religion as well as all serious endeavor in art and science. of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty. for those whom we love and for many other beings whose fate is connected with our own. in this sense. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot The most beautiful experience we can have penetrate. as did any exaggerated personality cult. a snuffed-out candle. Variant translation: I cannot imagine a God who rewards and punishes the objects of his creation. and to try humbly to comprehend an infinitesimal part of the intelligence manifested in nature.. In this sense. this feeling . our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty. . He who never had this experience seems to me. even in the guise of mere patriotism. Schopenhauer's words: “Man can do what he wants. Berlin (Autumn 1932). I am a the fundamental emotion deeply religious man. Shugart. Social equality and economic protection of the individual appeared to me always as the important communal aims of the state. although feeble souls harbor such thoughts through fear or ridiculous egotisms. senseless brutality. although I well know the weaknesses of the democratic form of government. his eyes are closed. I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures. and in this alone. of the marvelous structure of existence — as well as the humble attempt to understand even a tiny portion of the Reason that manifests itself in nature. which only in their most primitive forms are accessible to our minds: it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true religiosity. Privileges based on position and property have always seemed to me unjust and pernicious. It is the source of all true art and science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger. that is the core of the true religious sentiment.

In the judgment of the most competent living mathematicians. Even though the realms of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other. for otherwise it would not be possible to count Buddha and Spinoza as religious personalities. These conflicts have all sprung from fatal errors. That is. with incalculable harm to human progress. Philosophy and Religion. and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary. just. thinking and acting. Accordingly. but most of those who are.com/s cienceandreligion. published by the Conference on Science. Beneath the effort directed toward the accumulation of worldly goods lies all too frequently the illusion that this is the most substantial and desirable end to be achieved. Its anthropomorphic character is shown. help. Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life. in the broadest sense.mcs. Science without religion Though I have asserted above that in truth a legitimate conflict between religion and science cannot exist. the phenomenal world. and guidance. comprehensible to reason. This source of feeling. A person who is religiously enlightened appears to me to be one who has. it is the attempt at the posterior reconstruction of existence by the process of conceptualization. Science and Religion (1941) Science. Occurrences in this domain are beyond the reach of exact prediction because of the variety of factors in operation. religion without once again on an essential point. will deny that the idea of the existence of an omnipotent. there are decisive weaknesses attached to this idea in itself. springs from the sphere of religion. Science is the century-old endeavor to bring together by means of systematic thought the perceptible phenomena of this world into as thoroughgoing an association as possible. fortunately. It seems to me that what is important is the force of this superpersonal content and the depth of the conviction concerning its overpowering meaningfulness. scientific method in most cases fails us. even to a slight extent. New York (1941). also. When the number of factors coming into play in a phenomenological complex is too large. this is where the struggle of the Church against the doctrines of Galileo and Darwin belongs. investigators and thinkers have always been persons of this kind. what means will contribute to the attainment of the goals it has set up. During the youthful period of mankind's spiritual evolution human fantasy created gods in man's own image. will of necessity lose its effect on mankind. but are bound up with the development of the individual's own feeling. Man sought to alter the disposition of these gods in his own favor by means of magic and prayer. the poetry of logical ideas. A doctrine which is able to maintain itself not in clear light but only in the dark. science is blind. for instance. who. and omnibeneficent personal God is able to accord man solace. I cannot conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. Inc. In this effort toward logical beauty spiritual formulas are discovered necessary for the deeper penetration into the laws of nature. or at any rate to influence. which have been painfully felt since the beginning of history. letter to the Editor of The New York Times. the thoughts of all those who have given this question serious consideration.html) It would not be difficult to come to an agreement as to what we understand by science. I must nevertheless qualify this assertion is lame. a minority composed of those who recognize early in their lives that the most beautiful and satisfying experiences open to humankind are not derived from the outside. For science can only ascertain what is. and in this way have set themselves in opposition to religion. and aspirations to which he clings because of their superpersonal value. 1935 Full text online (http://www-history.st-andrews. a religious person is devout in the sense that he has no doubt of the significance and loftiness of those superpersonal objects and goals which neither require nor are capable of rational foundation. This qualification has to do with the concept of God. however. To put it boldly. They exist with the same necessity and matter-of-factness as he himself. feelings. I still remain convinced that I can never under any circumstances bring together. And even after finding an answer which may satisfy me at this particular moment. Nobody. This means an intervention on the part of religion into the sphere of science. However inconspicuously the life of these individuals runs its course. by virtue of its simplicity it is accessible to the most undeveloped mind.html) The efforts of most human-beings are consumed in the struggle for their daily bread. How can this be combined with the goodness and righteousness ascribed to Him? The main source of the present-day conflicts between the spheres of religion and of science lies in this concept of a personal God.ac. Pure mathematics is. that is. To this there also belongs the faith in the possibility that the regulations valid for the world of existence are rational. A conflict arises when a religious community insists on the absolute truthfulness of all statements recorded in the Bible. how is it possible to think of holding men responsible for their deeds and thoughts before such an almighty Being? In giving out punishment and rewards He would to a certain extent be passing judgment on Himself. Nevertheless no one doubts that we are confronted with a causal connection whose causal components are in the main known to us. Though religion may be that which determines the goal. not because of any lack of order in nature. . in its way.Obituary for Emmy Noether (1935) Emmy Noether. The more a man is imbued with the ordered regularity of all events the firmer becomes his conviction that there is no room left by the side of this A religious person is devout in the sense that he has no doubt of the significance and loftiness of those superpersonal objects and goals which neither require nor are capable of rational foundation. nevertheless. On the other hand. regardless of whether any attempt is made to unite this content with a divine Being. religion without science is blind. including every human action. The genuine artists. The idea of God in the religions taught at present is a sublimation of that old concept of the gods. on the other hand. But. it has. with reference to the actual content of historical religions.einsteinandreligion. They exist with the same necessity and matter-of-factness as he himself. One seeks the most general ideas of operation which will bring together in simple. In this sense religion is the age-old endeavor of mankind to become clearly and completely conscious of these values and goals and constantly to strengthen and extend their effect. then every occurrence. The situation may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame.uk/Obits 2/Noether_Emmy_Einstein. representatives of science have often made an attempt to arrive at fundamental judgments with respect to values and ends on the basis of scientific method. none the less the fruits of their endeavors are the most valuable contributions which one generation can make to its successors. learned from science. One need only think of the weather. liberated himself from the fetters of his selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts. by the fact that men appeal to the Divine Being in prayers and plead for the fulfillment of their wishes. A Symposium. nevertheless there exist between the two strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies. but there is. But when asking myself what religion is I cannot think of the answer so easily. Fräulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began. relieved of this struggle are largely absorbed in further improving their worldly lot. If one conceives of religion and science according to these definitions then a conflict between them appears impossible. later published in Out of My Later Years (1950) Full text online (http://www. but not what should be. to the best of his ability. if this being is omnipotent. and every human feeling and aspiration is also His work. But science can only be created by those who are thoroughly imbued with the aspiration toward truth and understanding. logical and unified form the largest possible circle of formal relationships. every human thought. certainly. by the operations of their will were supposed to determine.. published May 5. in which case prediction even for a few days ahead is impossible. either through fortune or some special gift.

What complicates the solution. . While it is true that science. It may help to recall that many recognized before the bomb ever fell that the time had already come when we must learn to live in One World. it is those who propound such views that are the enemies of true religion. For him neither the rule of human nor the rule of divine will exists as an independent cause of natural events. with the establishing of ideals for the individual and communal life. For the function of setting up goals and passing statements of value transcends its domain. it is of vital importance for the preservation of true religion that such conflicts be avoided when they arise from subjects which. Future thinking must prevent wars. otherwise we face certain disaster. This occurs whenever this religious stock of ideas contains dogmatically fixed statements on subjects which belong in the domain of science. indeed. This is. with incalculable harm to human progress.com/irrec. As the issues are greater than men ever sought to realize before. In light of new knowledge…an eventual world state is not just desirable in the name of brotherhood.. the time is short. but as springing from personal ambition and fear of rejection. those individuals to whom we owe the great creative achievements of science were all of them imbued with the truly religious conviction that this universe of ours is something perfect and susceptible to the rational striving for knowledge.ordered regularity for causes of a different nature. the independent and fundamental definitions regarding goals and values remain beyond science's reach. the doctrine of a personal God interfering with natural events could never be refuted. The great moral teachers of humanity were. As regards religion. the recriminations will be fiercer and pride more desperately hurt. in the immediate. and murder would be unable. The stakes are immense. indeed all men. Yet. Scholars. with the establishing of ideals for the individual and communal life. Religion is concerned with man's attitude toward nature at large. Today we must abandon competition and secure cooperation. give up that source of fear and hope which in the past placed such vast power in the hands of priests. are not really essential for the pursuance of the religious aims. fraud." Science. Past thinking and methods did not prevent world wars. it is necessary for survival. will of necessity lose its effect on mankind. teachers of religion must have the stature to give up the doctrine of a personal God. Science not only purifies the religious impulse of the dross of its anthropomorphism but also contributes to a religious spiritualization of our understanding of life. It leads to methodical action if definite goals are set up in advance. A people that were to honor falsehood. In their struggle for the ethical good. the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine religiosity does not lie through the fear of life. and with mutual human relationship. republished in Ideas and Opinions (1954) Full text online (http://www. seems to have made it sufficiently evident that such a defeatist view is wholly unwarranted. they would hardly have been capable of that untiring devotion which alone enables man to attain his greatest achievements. While it is true that scientific results are entirely independent from religious or moral considerations. in fact. one is generally agreed that it deals with goals and evaluations and. To be sure. the task colossal. in a way. man’s own genius. content of the religious traditions which is likely to come into conflict with science. in general. The further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances. however. These ideals religion attempts to attain by exerting an educational influence on tradition and through the development and promulgation of certain easily accessible thoughts and narratives (epics and myths) which are apt to influence evaluation and action along the lines of the accepted ideals. Only Then Shall We Find Courage (1946) New York Times Magazine (23 June 1946) Many persons have inquired concerning a recent message of mine that "a new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move to higher levels. artistic geniuses in the art of living. bitter fighting. that is. and the fear of death. however." they are likely to differ on the meaning of "religion. in economic as well as in political life. and with mutual human relationship. If this conviction had not been a strongly emotional one and if those searching for knowledge had not been inspired by Spinoza's Amor Dei Intellectualis.einsteinandreligion. and blind faith. means of action. in the real sense. It is this mythical. Today we must abandon competition and secure cooperation. Religion is concerned with man's attitude toward nature at large. is the fact that while most people readily agree on what is meant by "science. must move forward in the faith of that philosopher who held that there is no problem the human reason can propound which the human reason cannot reason out. otherwise we face certain disaster. The study of the social patterns in certain so-called primitive cultures. to be sure.html) Does there truly exist an insuperable contradiction between religion and science? Can religion be superseded by science? The answers to these questions have. There are pessimists who hold that such a state of affairs is necessarily inherent in human nature. and the human race consequently finds itself in a new habitat to which it must adapt its thinking. as far as these are not predetermined by the inalterable hereditary disposition of the human species.. defamation. on the other hand. the actual spectacle more resembles a battlefield than an orchestra. a more difficult but an incomparably more worthy task. by science. Thus. But I am persuaded that such behavior on the part of the representatives of religion would not only be unworthy but also fatal. This must be the central fact in all our considerations of international affairs. This must be the central fact in all our considerations of international affairs. for they imply thereby that religious teachings are Utopian ideals and unsuited to afford guidance in human affairs. to subsist for very long. produces knowledge and. given rise to considerable dispute and. will not destroy him. indeed. with the emotional foundation of human thinking and acting. since otherwise this community is bound to perish. In their labors they will have to avail themselves of those forces which are capable of cultivating the Good. in my own mind there can be no doubt that in both cases a dispassionate consideration can only lead to a negative answer. Everywhere. the True. for this doctrine can always take refuge in those domains in which scientific knowledge has not yet been able to set foot. The moral attitudes of a people that is supported by religion need always aim at preserving and promoting the sanity and vitality of the community and its individuals. conceives of achievement not as derived from the love for productive and thoughtful work. For a doctrine which is able to maintain itself not in clear light but only in the dark. and the Beautiful in humanity itself. This competitive spirit prevails even in school and. the guiding principle is one of ruthless striving for success at the expense of one's fellow men." Often in evolutionary processes a species must adapt to new conditions in order to survive. for centuries. or rather this symbolic. While religion prescribes brotherly love in the relations among the individuals and groups. may reach important conclusions as to the compatibility and incompatibility of goals and evaluations. to the extent of its grasp of causative connections. Science not only purifies the religious impulse of the dross of its anthropomorphism but also contributes to a religious spiritualization of our understanding of life. indirectly. destroying all feelings of human fraternity and cooperation. Today the atomic bomb has altered profoundly the nature of the world as we know it. Religion and Science: Irreconcilable? (1948) The Christian Register (June 1948). But we may hope — we must hope — that man’s own creation. but through striving after rational knowledge.

independently thinking and judging personalities the upward development of society is as unthinkable as the development of the individual personality without the nourishing soil of the community. Bernard Shaw There are few enough people with sufficient independence to see the weaknesses and follies of their contemporaries and remain themselves untouched by them. a being to whom one stands to some extent in a personal relation. the steam engine — each was discovered by one man. therefore. The individual. We call him good or bad according to how he stands in this matter. And yet such an attitude would be wrong. We eat food that others have grown. material. or Gandhi armed with the money-bags of Carnegie? Religion in Science You will hardly find one among the profounder sort of scientific minds without a peculiar religious feeling of his own. Good and Evil The true value of a human being is determined primarily by the measure and the sense in which he has attained to liberation from the self. and even in bad taste. Money only appeals to selfishness and always tempts its owners irresistibly to abuse it. Only to a tiny minority is it given to fascinate their generation by subtle humour and grace and to hold the mirror up to it by the impersonal agency of art. Without creative. Greeting to G. which is usually decried as a particularly materialistic country. thoughts. It looks at first sight as if our estimate of a man depended entirely on his social qualities. unjustified. Of Wealth I am absolutely convinced that no wealth in the world can help humanity forward. we have. The prestige of government has undoubtedly been lowered considerably by the prohibition law. compared with it. We see that our whole nature resembles that of the social animals. The greater part of our knowledge and beliefs has been communicated to us by other people through the medium of a language which others have created. unregarded lives. The Meaning of Life What is the meaning of human life. or of organic life altogether? To answer this question at all implies a religion. and actions are directed towards promoting the good of his fellows. My experience teaches me that this idealistic outlook is particularly prevalent in America. live in houses that others have built. in so far as he succeeds in keeping himself from the shackles of selfish desire.S. thank God. But there are plenty of the well-endowed ones too. and thereby create new values for society — nay. It is an open secret that the dangerous The example of great and pure characters is the only thing that can produce fine ideas and noble deeds. which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that. The future. spiritual. It is clear that all the valuable things." (1921) The cult of individual personalities is always. Can anyone imagine Moses. nature distributes her gifts variously among her children. but rather as a member of a great human society. it is a purely human affair. the man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unfortunate but almost disqualified for life. to admit that we owe our principal advantage over the beasts to the fact of living in human society. and moral. The example of great and pure characters is the only thing that can produce fine ideas and noble deeds. which we receive from society can be traced back through countless generations to certain creative individuals. The consciousness of this extraordinary state of affairs would be unbearable but for one great consoling thought: it is a welcome symptom in an age which is commonly denounced as materialistic. Is there any sense then. attributing superhuman powers of mind and character to them. the cultivation of edible plants. It is beyond question closely akin to that which has possessed the religious geniuses of all ages. to select a few of them for boundless admiration. who has delighted — and educated — us all. And these isolated few usually soon lose their zeal for putting things to rights when they have come face to face with human obduracy. is every whit as necessary and determined as the past. This proves that knowledge and justice are ranked above wealth and power by a large section of the human race. Society and Personality The man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unfortunate but almost disqualified for life. however deeply it may be tinged with awe. even in the hands of the most devoted worker in this cause. in my view. and I am firmly convinced that most of them live quiet. To be sure. Only the individual can think. in putting it? I answer.The World As I See It (1949) For the title essay in this work see Mein Weltbild (1931) above. to him.A. even set up new moral standards to which the life of the community conforms. you ask. There is nothing divine about morality. comparable to those of the higher animals. The prestige of . This has been my fate. wear clothes that others have made. But it is different from the religion of the naive man. This feeling is the guiding principle of his life and work. For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and the law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced. When we survey our lives and endeavors we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. His religious feeling takes the form of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law. A man's value to the community depends primarily on how far his feelings. Jesus. Some Notes on my American Impressions first published as "My First Impression of the U. which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to the grave. The use of fire. all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection. a sublimation of a feeling similar to that of a child for its father. But the scientist is possessed by the sense of universal causation. that it makes heroes of men whose ambitions lie wholly in the intellectual and moral sphere. The health of society thus depends quite as much on the independence of the individuals composing it as on their close political cohesion. To-day I salute with sincere emotion the supreme master of this method. It strikes me as unfair. For the latter God is a being from whose care one hopes to benefit and whose punishment one fears. Without language our mental capacities would be poor indeed. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has not so much in virtue of his individuality. if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast-like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly conceive. and the contrast between the popular estimate of my powers and achievements and the reality is simply grotesque.

can be objectively justified.. with the hope that later on the whole may be fitted consistently into a general relativistic scheme. especially those of the priests.increase of crime in the United States is closely connected with this. but on the whole in faithful compliance with legally established rules. The part of passive spectator is unworthy of this country and is bound in the end to lead to disaster all round. free and unhindered discussion of these problems has come under a powerful taboo. in my opinion. the real source of the evil. whatever their position in society. so that we may reach a new stage in the life of nations. And in this respect science resembles the state. May the conscience and the common sense of the peoples be awakened. simple. I do not see any reason to assume that the heuristic significance of the principle of general relativity is restricted to gravitation and that the rest of physics can be dealt with separately on the basis of special relativity. especially those of the priests. his position in society is such that the egotistical drives of his make-up are constantly being accentuated. as a protective force. It is the duty of every man of good will to strive steadfastly in his own little world to make this teaching of pure humanity a living force. not man for the state. This must be changed. accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals. so far as he can. Christianity and Judaism If one purges the Judaism of the Prophets and Christianity as Jesus Christ taught it of all subsequent additions. it is necessary to remember that a planned economy is not yet socialism.monthlyreview. In other words. But he does not experience this dependence as a positive asset. short and perilous as it is. that the social behavior of human beings may differ greatly. only through devoting himself to society. Since. The United States is the most powerful technically advanced country in the world to-day. depending upon prevailing cultural patterns and the types of organisation which predominate in society. If one purges the Judaism of the Prophets and Christianity as Jesus Christ taught it of all subsequent additions. although historically understandable. The people of this country must realize that they have a great responsibility in the sphere of international politics. to annihilate each other or to be at the mercy of a cruel. The achievement of socialism requires the solution of some extremely difficult socio-political problems: how is it possible. Its influence on the shaping of international relations is absolutely incalculable. By using the means of production. which are by nature weaker. All human beings. in view of the farreaching centralisation of political and economic power. the worker produces new goods which become the property of the capitalist. I do not think that such an attitude. through comparative investigation of so-called primitive cultures. self-inflicted fate. Unconfirmed: The following quotes have been cited as being from The World As I See It but are not in later abridged editions of the original 1949 book and thus these citations are not yet confirmed. Unknowingly prisoners of their own egotism. one is left with a teaching which is capable of curing all the social ills of humanity. The comparative smallness of what we know today as gravitational effects is not a conclusive reason for ignoring the principle of general relativity in theoretical investigations of a fundamental character. The individual has become more conscious than ever of his dependence upon society. or even to his economic existence. he may consider himself and the community to which he belongs lucky. The owner of the means of production is in a position to purchase the labor power of the worker. It concerns the relationship of the individual to society. We see before us a huge community of producers the members of which are unceasingly striving to deprive each other of the fruits of their collective labor — not by force. I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils. The essential point about this process is the relation between what the worker produces and what he is paid. On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation (1950) Scientific American (April 1950) This is the reason why all attempts to obtain a deeper knowledge of the foundations of physics seem doomed to me unless the basic concepts are in accordance with general relativity from the beginning. as an organic tie. if only in the essential interests of the Americans. I do not believe that it is justifiable to ask: What would physics look like without gravitation? . in which the essay was published. Man can find meaning in life. are suffering from this process of deterioration. but by his minimum needs and by the capitalists' requirements for labor power in relation to the number of workers competing for jobs. and unsophisticated enjoyment of life. they feel insecure. A planned economy as such may be accompanied by the complete enslavement of the individual. This situation makes it difficult to use our empirical knowledge. But America is a large country and its people have so far not shown much interest in great international problems. but rather as a threat to his natural rights. Referring to the Monthly Review. under present circumstances.. and it forces us to apply free speculation to a much greater extent than is presently assumed by most physicists. in looking for the fundamental concepts and relations of physics.org/598einst. lonely. among which the problem of disarmament occupies first place today. where people will look back on war as an incomprehensible aberration of their forefathers! The state is made for man. I consider the foundation of this magazine to be an important public service. If he makes an honest attempt in this direction without being crushed and trampled under foot by his contemporaries. In so far as the labor contract is free what the worker receives is determined not by the real value of the goods he produces. to prevent bureaucracy from becoming all-powerful and overweening? How can the rights of the individual be protected and therewith a democratic counterweight to the power of bureaucracy be assured? Clarity about the aims and problems of socialism is of greatest significance in our age of transition. because of their biological constitution.htm) (1949) Monthly Review New York (May 1949) Modern anthropology has taught us. Nevertheless. It is on this that those who are striving to improve the lot of man may ground their hopes: human beings are not condemned. The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is. government has undoubtedly been lowered considerably by the prohibition law. Moreover. and deprived of the naive. It is important to understand that even in theory the payment of the worker is not determined by the value of his product. progressively deteriorate. while his social drives. namely through the establishment of a socialist economy. one is left with a teaching which is capable of curing all the social ills of humanity. both measured in terms of real value. however comprehensive. The last war has shown that there are no longer any barriers between the continents and that the destinies of all countries are closely interwoven. I have now reached the point where I may indicate briefly what to me constitutes the essence of the crisis of our time. "Why Socialism?" (http://www.

condemning the Zionist movement as "nationalistic" is unjustified. of course. we can reach only very inadequately. 40 . one has to be foremost. is being decided. Therefore. p. but which gives a sure foundation to our aspirations and valuations. is something that I cannot believe for a single moment.Revised reprint edition (1995) Essay to Leo Baeck (1953) Statements by Eins tein from Essays Presented to Leo Baeck on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday (1954). On religion and society. But on that stage. to be sure.5 Feb 1921 Nothing truly valuable arises from ambition or from a mere sense of duty. but no presonality. 21 Mar 1942 Philosophy is like a mother who gave birth to and endowed all the other sciences. Since our inner experiences consist of reproductions. Hail to the man who went through life always helping others. In order to be a perfect member of a flock of sheep. Zionism gave the German Jews no great protection against annihilation. which shows itself particularly in the rampant growth of the so-called Theosophy and Spiritualism. 26. knowing no fear. Most people go on living their every-day life: half frightened. 12 The highest principles for our aspirations and judgments are given to us in the Jewish-Christian religious tradition. it has. Politics is a pendulum whose swings between anarchy and tyranny are fueled by perpetually rejuvenated illusions. no one can anticipate. and to whom aggressiveness and resentment are alien.13 Everyone is aware of the difficult and menacing situation in which human society -.c. one should not scorn her in her nakedness and poverty. 39 .shrunk into one community with a common fate — now finds itself. pp. This characteristic is reflected in the qualities of its priests. and I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern with no superhuman authority behind it. p. 63-64 . the intellectuals. p. is for me no more than a symptom of weakness . of the "Jewish faith" but simply because we are Jews. and combinations of sensory impressions. our fate of tomorrow. but delicious in the years of maturity. Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment. with our weak powers.. For scientific endeavor is a natural whole the parts of which mutually support one another in a way which.. but is blind to ends and values.unsent letter The mystical trend of our time. it can only serve. powerful muscles. wonder that this fatal blindness is handed on from old to young and today involves a whole generation. p. Also in Ideas and Opinions (1954) Whoever undertakes to set himself up as a judge of Truth and Knowledge is shipwrecked by the laughter of the gods. Most people are even incapable of forming such opinions. as quoted in The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (2005) edited by Alice Calaprice. on which the actors under the floodlights play their ordained parts. It is a very high goal which. 260 Out of My Later Years . "The Menace of Mass Destruction" in Out of My Later Years (1950) And certainly we should take care not to make the intellect our god. Baeck's birthday was 23 May 1953. But it did give the survivors the inner strength to endure the debacle with dignity and without losing their healthy self respect. Such is the stuff of which the great moral leaders are made. it stems rather from love and devotion towards men and towards objective things. 188 Whoever undertakes to set himself up as a judge of Truth and Knowledge is shipwrecked by the laughter of the gods. Everything that is really great and inspiring is created by the individual who can labor in freedom. p. The attempt to combine wisdom and power has only rarely been successful. The mystical trend of our time. p. Keep in mind that perhaps a similar fate could be lying in wait for your children. Thus already our precarious situation forces us to stand together irrespective of our citizenship. But during the Dreyfus trial in Paris he suddenly realized with great clarity how precarious was the situation of the Jews in the western world. half indifferent. and it is not fastidious in its choice of a leader. On scientific freedom and holism or holistic science. And courageously he drew the conclusion that we are discriminated against or murdered not because we are Germans. life or death of the nations. 46 . Americans. p. So it is no wonder that this fatal blindness is handed on from old to young and today involves a whole generation. The intellect has a sharp eye for methods and tools. I live in that solitude which is painful in youth. etc. they behold the ghostly tragi-comedy which is being performed on the international stage before the eyes and ears of the world. 27. p. is for me no more than a symptom of weakness and confusion. which shows itself particularly in the rampant growth of the so-called Theosophy and Spiritualism. Initially he had been completely cosmopolitan. the concept of a soul without a body seem to me to be empty and devoid of meaning.Out of My Later Years (1950) A collection of Einstein's essays which cover a period of 1934 to 1950. Frenchmen. and then only for a short while. Consider the path by which Herzl came to his mission. Eins tein Archives 28-962. p. It cannot lead. p.letter to Cornel Lanczos. a sheep. Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1954) Politics is a pendulum whose swings between anarchy and tyranny are fueled by perpetually rejuvenated illusions. 68 . But that He plays dice and uses "telepathic" methods.letter In my opinion. 38 I do not believe in immortality of the individual. p. 1946 It seems hard to sneak a look at God's cards. but only a few act accordingly.30 July 47 .17 July 1953 .

which in those years was more carefully covered up by hypocrisy and glittering words than is the case today. Even the conflicts and the realm of religion would be exposed as insignificant. Einstein (Gauthier-Villars: Paris 1956).1038/278215a0 (http://dx.but should hope. Reply to a Roman Catholic student urging him to pray to Jesus Christ. the Virgin Mary. he is unable to fulfill. I never commit to memory anything that can easily be looked up in a book. 106 . they are not certain. rather. Ibid. We are succumbing to illusions produced by our self-created language. 1879—18 April. it stems rather from love and devotion towards men and towards objective things. The article is described as "A brief collection of direct and indirect quotations by or about Albert Einstein. is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality? Is human reason. is that its laws are absolutely certain and indisputable.Albert Einstein and the Cosmic World Order. Physics is essentially an intuitive and concrete science. surely would not approve of such behavior.org/10. Most of so-called philosophy is due to this kind of fallacy. there was religion.From Lettre à Maurice Solvine. above all other sciences.doi. which on the Christian side is the basis for the conciliatory attempt towards Judaism is the same as the love of a child for a cake.org/title/albert-einstein-philosopher-scientist/oclc/311439) . However. in Nature 278. Comment on the Union of Orthodox Rabbis after expelling a rabbi because of his disbelief in God as a personal entity. 215-218 (15 March 1979). it was possible to satisfy the stomach by such participation. To take those fools in clerical garb seriously is to show them too much honor. which is implanted into every child by way of the traditional education machine. -. Ibid. Goldman ISBN 1568219830 The bigotry of the nonbeliever is for me nearly as funny as the bigotry of the believer. 96 . Morrison in "Albert Einstein: 14 March. In Brecher.. I soon discovered the cruelty of that chase. Who would have thought around 1900 that in fifty years time we would know so much more and understand so much less. the nothingness of the hopes and strivings which chases most men restlessly through life came to my consciousness with considerable vitality. Einstein and Religion (1999) Einstein and Religion: Physics and Theology (1999) by Max Jammer ISBN 069110297X when I was a fairly precocious young man. Lanczos (Wiley. able to fathom the properties of real things? One reason why mathematics enjoys special esteem. the tragic-comical is found in this: that the Christian religion demands love from the faithful. 34 . by A. 1955 A guide for the perplexed" by Kenneth Brecher. hatred then leads to persecution when the might of the majority is behind it. As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality. 1956).19 Jun 51 If the believers of the present-day religions would earnestly try to think and act in the spirit of the founders of these religions then no hostility on the basis of religion would exist among the followers of the different faiths. Mathematics is only a means for expressing the laws that govern phenomena. but not man insofar as he is a thinking and feeling being.statement to Christian conference and confusion.worldcat. by C. then. I have always believed that Jesus meant by the Kingdom of God the small group scattered all through time of intellectually and ethically valuable people. that part of her Don Quixote ideal will live on in her children so that they do not sink into philistinism. Moreover.28 Sep 32 There has been an earth for a little more than a billion years.27 Jan 47 . From Einstein's "Autobiographical Notes" in Albert Einstein : Philosopher-Scientist (http://www. even love for the enemy. Thus I came— despite the fact that I was the son of entirely irreligious (Jewish) parents—to a deep religiosity. --Told by P. as a Jewish teacher. … I have always believed that Jesus meant by the Kingdom of God the small group scattered all through time of intellectually and ethically valuable people. Thus intolerance and hatred ring through the oily words of the clergyman. As the first way out. As for the question of the end of it I advise: Wait and see! p. In Brecher. because it is indeed superhuman. he. and convert to Christianity. Sidelights on Relativity (1983) ISBN 048624511X How can it be that mathematics. Einstein's God (1997) Einstein's God — Albert Einstein's Quest as a Scientist and as a Jew to Replace a Forsak en God (1997) by Robert N. while those of other sciences are to some extent debatable and in constant danger of being overthrown by newly discovered facts. Nothing truly valuable arises from ambition or from a mere sense of duty. Albert Einstein: A guide for the perplexed (1979) doi:10. That means that it contains the hope that the object of the love will be eaten up.. The faithful adherent of a religion will try first of all to convince those that believe in another religion and usually he goes on to hatred if he is not successful. A man who is convinced of the truth of his religion is indeed never tolerant. merely by taking thought. At the least. One has a feeling that one has a kind of home in this timeless community of human beings that strive for truth. he is to feel pity for the adherent of another religion but usually it does not stop there. and as far as they are certain. being after all a product of human thought which is independent of experience. This demand. -. without reaching a better understanding of anything. New York.1038/278215a0) The most important tool of the theoretical physicist is his wastebasket. Letter to Rabbi Solomon Goldman of Chicago's Anshe Emet Congregation If I would follow your advice and Jesus could perceive it. Moreover. p. p. they do not refer to reality. The fact that man produces a concept "I" besides the totality of his mental and emotional experiences or perceptions does not prove that there must be any specific existence behind such a concept. everyone was condemned to participate in that chase. without experience. In the case of a Christian clergyman. By the mere existence of his stomach. The love.

Schilpp (p." The Listener 54 (1955): 370-371 It seems to me that the idea of a personal God is an anthropomorphic concept which I cannot take seriously. Sullivan. in response to a question about whether he was a "free thinker". 1 January 1951 The idea of a personal God is quite alien to me and seems even naive. . even though later on. I do not believe in the fear of life. so that ultimately the belief in the existence of fundamental all-embracing laws also rests on a sort of faith. The contemplation of this world beckoned like a liberation. in the spectrum of this or that element. "A Talk with Einstein. As long as I can remember. and one in the face of which we with our modest powers must feel humble. and I soon noticed that many a man whom I had learned to esteem and to admire had found inner freedom and security in devoted occupation with it.org/title/albert-einstein-philosopher-scientist/oclc/311439) (1949) edited by Paul A. I am of the opinion that all the finer speculations in the realm of science spring from a deep religious feeling. Out yonder there was this huge world. by a wish addressed to a supernatural Being. it lost some of its original poignancy. and primitive feelings. but by immutable laws. I cannot prove to you that there is no personal God. 24 January 1936 letter in response to a sixth-grader (Phyllis Wright) asking whether scientists pray. and I wonder whether one can ever successfully render to the majority of mankind a more sublime means in order to satisfy its metaphysical needs. Scientific research is based on the assumption that all events. They are creatures who—in their grudge against the traditional "opium for the people"—cannot bear the music of the spheres. My God created laws that take care of that. the rest are details. From a 1930 interview with J." from an existence which is dominated by wishes. 17 December 1952 About God. The pursuit of science leads therefore to a religious feeling of a special kind. we have to admit that our actual knowledge of these laws is only an incomplete piece of work (unvollkommenes Stückwerk). What we call science has the sole purpose of determining what is. but the determination of aims is beyond its scope. and I have never regretted having chosen it. Therefore. hopes. Gross. I am also not a "Freethinker" in the usual sense of the word because I find that this is in the main an attitude nourished exclusively by an opposition against naive superstition. Freud endorsed this view in his latest publication. I'm not interested in this or that phenomenon. which differs essentially from the religiosity of more naive people. I do not believe in the God of theology who rewards good and punishes evil. W. Einstein responded that the book only dealt with the concept of a personal God. was a first attempt to free myself from the chains of the "merely personal. this kind of religiousness. science degenerates into uninspired empiricism. However.. At least that is the way I see it. Wherever this feeling is absent. The Wonder of nature does not become smaller because one cannot measure it by the standards of human moral and human aims. His universe is not ruled by wishful thinking. All the same. at least partially accessible to our inspection and thinking. and if so. I feel also not able to imagine some will or goal outside the human sphere. which was thus lost. N. I have resented mass indoctrination. which makes itself felt today in scientific investigations. including the actions of mankind. in the fear of death.org/title/albert-einstein-philosopher-scientist/oclc/311439) (1949) edited by Paul A. as well as the insights which they had achieved. They are like slaves who are still feeling the weight of their chains which they have thrown off after hard struggle. I also believe that. 26 April 1947 Disputed . Through the reading of popular scientific books I soon reached the conviction that much in the stories of the Bible could not be true.. Suspicion against every kind of authority grew out of this experience. Schilpp (p. From a letter to his friend Maurice Solovine. For such a belief seems to me preferable to the lack of any transcendental outlook of life. The determining of what ought to be is unrelated to it and cannot be accomplished methodically. but if I were to speak of him. From an interview with William Hermanns in the summer of 1954 I want to know how God created this world. were the friends which could not be lost. however. Salaman. I cannot accept any concept based on the authority of the Church. every one who is seriously engaged in the pursuit of science becomes convinced that the laws of nature manifest the existence of a spirit vastly superior to that of men. Then there are the fanatical atheists whose intolerance is of the same kind as the intolerance of the religious fanatics and comes from the same source.worldcat. My feeling is insofar religious as I am imbued with the consciousness of the insufficiency of the human mind to understand deeply the harmony of the Universe which we try to formulate as "laws of nature. It is a different question whether belief in a personal God should be contested.worldcat." It is this consciousness and humility I miss in the Free-thinker mentality. I want to know His thoughts. 5). it was a crushing impression. I believe that we have to content ourselves with our imperfect knowledge and understanding and treat values and moral obligations as a purely human problem—the most important of all human problems. and that without such a feeling they would not be fruitful. E. but it has proved itself as trustworthy. On the other hand. From a letter to Murray W. which exists independently of us human beings and which stands before us like a great. are determined by the laws of nature. I cannot accept your opinion concerning science and ethics or the determination of aims. Speaking of the spirit that informs modern scientific investigations. From Einstein's "Autobiographical Notes" in Albert Einstein : Philosopher-Scientist (http://www. because of a better insight into the causal connections. 3). The consequence was a positively fanatic [orgy of] freethinking coupled with the impression that youth is intentionally being deceived by the state through lies. Similar motivated men of the present and of the past. From Einstein's "Autobiographical Notes" in Albert Einstein : Philosopher-Scientist (http://www. The art of today can hardly be looked upon at all as expressive of our religious instincts. From a letter to Eduard Büsching (25 October 1929) after Büsching sent Einstein a copy of his book Es gibt keinen Gott [There Is no God]. 5). Science can only arrange ethical propositions logically and furnish the means for the realization of ethical aims. However. eternal riddle. that is. I would be a liar. It is quite clear to me that the religious paradise of youth. The mental grasp of this extrapersonal world within the frame of the given possibilites swam as [the] highest aim half consciously and half unconsciously before my mind's eye. in blind faith. is the only creative religious activity of our time. a research scientist will hardly be inclined to believe that events could be influenced by a prayer. Schilpp (p. this faith has been largely justified by the success of science. From a letter to Beatrice F. I myself would never engage in such a task. a skeptical attitude towards the convictions which were alive in any specific social environment—an attitude which has never again left me.(1949) edited by Paul A. From a 7 August 1941 letter discussing responses to his essay "Science and Religion" (1941) I have found no better expression than "religious" for confidence in the rational nature of reality as it is accessible to human reason. Murphy and J. what they pray for I was barked at by numerous dogs who are earning their food guarding ignorance and superstition for the benefit of those who profit from it. My views are near to those of Spinoza: admiration for the beauty of and belief in the logical simplicity of the order and harmony which we can grasp humbly and only imperfectly. We followers of Spinoza see our God in the wonderful order and lawfulness of all that exists and in its soul ("Beseeltheit") as it reveals itself in man and animal. The road to this paradise was not as comfortable and alluring as the road to the religious paradise.

These two statements are very similar. See the Urban Legends Reference Pages (http://www.com/FreePdfViewer. natural and spiritual. With no known citation to an Einstein work. Variant: The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/archive/200706A19. but neither has been properly sourced. The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources. in The Art of the Shmooze (1998) by Bret Saxon and Steve Stein.google. Cornelius Greenway of Brooklyn. I am predominantly critical concerning the activities.com/books?id=T5R7JsRRtoIC&pg=PA94) : The wording of the statement you have quoted is not my own. Notable Einstein scholars such as John Stachel and Thomas J. through history of the official clergy. widely quoted. I cannot in good conscience write down the statement you sent me as my own.com/time/magazine/article/0. Evil is the absence of God. he was almost certainly quoting philosopher Immanuel Kant (from the conclusion to the Critique of Pure Reason (1788). it is implied to be something said by Conan O'Brien. and seem to paraphrase some ideas in the essay "Religion and Science". I made this statement during the first years of the Nazi-Regime — much earlier than 1940 — and my expressions were a little more moderate. knowing that they had always boasted of their devotion to the cause of truth. will account for the inefficacy of any argument.asp) for more discussion. Einstein himself stated that the quote was not an accurate record of his words or opinion. even if reduced to my actual words (which I do not remember in detail) gives a wrong impression of my general attitude. in my judgement. This statement has been attributed to others before Einstein. Any information on any definite original sources for these is welcome.. After the quote appeared in Time magazine. 7 (http://books. and especially the political activities. or any evidence whatever. As quoted in How to Think like Einstein : Simple Ways to Break the Rules and Discover Your Hidden Genius (2000).9171. Misattributed Contempt prior to investigation is what enslaves a mind to Ignorance. and Healers (2000) by Nina L. were mute. and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things. The quote is preceded by “In this connection it is worth quoting in free translation a statement made by Professor Einstein last year to one of my colleagues who has been prominently identified with the Protestant church in its contacts with Germany. 429. the universities immediately were silenced. but they. were silenced in a few short weeks.” (March 1943) [4] (http://www. 38 (http://www. Covering both the natural and the spiritual. I looked to the universities to defend it. Thus. The matter is all the more embarrassing to me because I. Parkes Cadman. I am forced thus to confess that what I once despised I now praise unreservedly. natural and spiritual as a meaningful unity. (1961). where it is attributed to "Youth. If Einstein said this. Two things inspire me to awe: the starry heavens and the moral universe within. where it is presented as a quote of Einstein. but now I feel a great affection and admiration because the church alone has had the courage and persistence to stand for intellectual truth and moral freedom. but the source of the phrase "contempt prior to investigation" seems to have been William Paley. Then I looked to individual writers who. In his original statement Einstein was probably referring to the actions of the Emergency Covenant of Pastors organized by Martin Niemöller. This is similar to a quote attributed to Mark Twain: "I never let my schooling get in the way of my education". As quoted in Voices of Truth : Conversations with Scientists. This or similiar statements are more often misattributed to Herbert Spencer. this statement appears in this form in the Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary-School Principals. and that more especially of men of rank and learning in it. p. as a meaningful unity. June 1932. too.html) . McFarlane (author of Buddha and Einstein: The Parallel Sayings) know of this statement but have not found any source for it. a minister in Harbor Springs. Since then my remarks have been elaborated and exaggerated nearly beyond recognition.] While based on something that Einstein said.snopes. The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education.com/books?id=IGFdZSGLLK8C&lpg=PP1&pg=PA7#v=onepage&q&f=false) . but they. Einstein was more vehement in his repudiation of the statement (14 November 1950) [5] (http://books. it would be Buddhism. Eintein wrote back “It is true that I made a statement which corresponds approximately with the text you quoted. The second part of the quote appears in A Treasury of Jewish Quotations by Joseph L. who asked if Einstein would write out the statement in his own hand.aspx?img=61598330&firstvisit=true&terms=Einstein) . Only the church stood squarely across the path of Hitler's campaign for suppressing truth. variant: "Only a life in the service of others is worth living". avoids dogmas and theology. Attributed in “The Conflict Between Church And State In The Third Reich”. (23 December 1940). like yourself. no. is resolved into a principle which. in A View of the Evidences of Christianity (1794): The infidelity of the gentile world. p. Then I looked to the great editors of the newspapers whose flaming editorials in days gone by had proclaimed their love of freedom. 45. It's become appallingly clear that our technology has surpassed our humanity.765103.google. This quote does not actually appear in "Albert Einstein: The Human Side" as is sometimes claimed. Vol.00. when the revolution came in Germany. I never had any special interest in the church before.It is high time the ideal of success should be replaced with the ideal of service . Thinkers. it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things. but no definite citation is provided. It should transcend a personal God and avoid dogmas and theology. and the Confessing Church which he and other prominent churchmen such as Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer established in opposition to Nazi policies. Being a lover of freedom. contempt prior to examination. viz.com/religion/einstein.newspaperarchive.time. its first attribution to Einstein appears to have been in an email story that began circulating in 2004. p. If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs. my former statement. Michigan wrote to Einstein to check if the quote was real. no publication of this statement has been located prior to it's use in the film Powder (1995) written by Victor Salva. p. Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future: It transcends a personal God. like the universities. had written much and often concerning the place of freedom in modern life. Shortly after Hitler came to power in Germany I had an oral conversation with a newspaper man about these matters.” [Emphasis added. Baron (1977).. 156. . it covers both the natural and the spiritual. Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile." but it isn't clear what source this is referring to. by S. Diamond. but.html) In a later letter to Rev. as literary guides of Germany. in the earliest occurence of this yet located. La Crosse Tribune and Leader-Press (28 October 1934)[3] (http://www.

but because of the people who don't do anything about it. variant: If you can't explain something to a six-year-old. The world is a dangerous place to live.com mentions its use in a beekeepers' protest in 1994 in Europe [6] (http://www." It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education. If only I had known. 1965-66. Einstein revealed an instinctive reason for his inability to accept the purely statistical interpretation of wave mechanics. I would rather choose to be a plumber or a peddler in the hope to find that modest degree of independence still available under present circumstances. cites to Rita Mae Brown. German quote attributed to Einstein in Huters astrologischer Kalender 1960 [A] Translated by Tad Mann. He hypothesized that your answer to that question would determine your destiny. no more men! A variant .snopes.com/quotes/einstein/bees. v. but until a reliable historical source can be found to support this." . Die physikalischen Erkenntnisse unterstreichen die Macht der Sterne über irdisches Geschick. skepticism is warranted. Not everything that can be counted counts. Einstein never said any such thing. Deshalb ist sie eine Art Lebens-elixier für die Gesellschaft! English: Astrology is a science in itself and contains an illuminating body of knowledge. From William Bruce Cameron's Informal Sociology: A Casual Introduction to Sociological Thinking (1963). said "that all physical theories. Skeptical Inquirer. According to The Quote Verifier (2006) by Ralph Keyes. It taught me many things. whence they had traveled from Brussels to attend the Fresnel centenary celebrations. in a 1954 letter to the editor at The Reporter magazine. This was simply cited as an anonymous saying in the earliest publication which has been located: How to Give a Damn Good Speech: Even When You Have No Time to Prepare (2000) by Philip R. The most fundamental question we can ever ask ourselves is whether or not the universe we live in is friendly or hostile. and other sources (http://www.com/search? hl=en&tbo=p&tbs=bks:1&q=%22not+everything+that+can+be+counted%22+einstein+princeton&start=0&sa=N) claim that Einstein had a sign with these words in his office in Princeton. p. Frequently attributed to Richard Feynman Probably based on a similar quote about explaining physics to a "barmaid" by Ernest Rutherford P.You do not really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother.com/books? id=KMsB1GE8dBEC&lpg=PA92&dq=%22Not%20everything%20that%20can%20be%20counted%20counts%22&pg=PA92#v=onepage&q=%22Not%20everything%20that attribute the quote to Cameron. Vol. A number of recent books (http://www. unidentified 1987 work Contradicted by Denis Hamel. 99 Though widely attributed in these forms.google.. but without citation of an original source. "If I would be a young man again and had to decide how to make my living. 98 Variant: The world is a dangerous place. 31. citing Abeilles et Fleurs (Bees and Flowers. man would have no more than four years to live. The End of the Einstein-Astrology-Supporter Hoax.asp) suggesting invention and attribution to Einstein for political reasons. who used to state that "it should be possible to explain the laws of physics to a barmaid. having a final discussion with de Broglie on the platform of the Gare du Nord in Paris. pp. and I am greatly indebted to it. and probable origin. astrology reinforces this power to some extent.' " Clark's book does not give a reference for this specific statement by de Broglie."Professor Einstein. no more pollination . The earliest known occurrence. Keyes notes that Einstein "did use similar words to make a very different point" when he wrote. 6 (Nov-Dec 2007). but because of those who look on and do nothing. where the statement seems to have been a loose summation of Einstein's ideas rather than a quote: "Albert Einstein once commented that the most fundamental question we can ever ask ourselves is whether or not the universe we live in is friendly or hostile. p74. the learned scientist. Die Astrologie ist eine Wissenschaft für sich. it has since become attributed to Einstein in several publications. No. I would not try to become a scientist or scholar or teacher. No more bees. their mathematical expressions apart ought to lend themselves to so simple a description 'that even a child could understand them. As quoted in Breakthrough : Israel in a Changing World (1996) by Gad Yaacobi. four years later all humans would also have disappeared" appears in The Irish Beekeeper. The earliest source on google books that mentions the quote in association with Einstein and Princeton is Charles A. Geophysical evidence reveals the power of the stars and the planets in relation to the terrestrial. Quoted in Morris Berman: Coming to Our Senses (1989) pp. This has been quoted in a relatively few places on the internet. Snopes. Ich habe viel aus ihr gelernt und vielen Nutzen aus ihr ziehen können. Sumner Davis. once calculated that if all bees disappeared off the earth. The comment is part of a longer paragraph and does not appear in quotations in Cameron's book.19-20. you really don't understand it yourself. 92) (http://books. p..google." Einstein. Variously misattributed to figures also including Benjamin Franklin and Mark Twain. so this may come from the same source. but seems to have no earlier source than an obscure web essay "Reinventing Failure: Designing Success" by Harald Anderson. I should have become a watch-maker. Hoenikker used to say that any scientist who couldn't explain to an eight-year-old what he was doing was a charlatan. It was a reason which linked him with Rutherford. 41 The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results. the house magazine of Union Nationale de l'Apiculture Française) for June 1965." If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth. This is why astrology is like a life-giving elixir to mankind. In turn. Clark says that Louis de Broglie did attribute a similar statement to Einstein: To de Broglie. Garfield's 1986 book Peak Performers: The New Heroes of American Business. Theibert. 13. not because of those who do evil. As quoted in Conscious Courage : Turning Everyday Challenges Into Opportunities (2004) by Maureen Stearns. and not everything that counts can be counted. but it follows a quote by de Broglie in the previous paragraph which is attributed to de Broglie's book New Perspectives in Physics. this from Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle: Dr.google. p. and not everything that can be counted counts. Die Astrologie aber unterstreicht in gewissem Sinne wiederum die physikalischen Erkenntnisse. they are apparently paraphrased from the quote in Conversations with Casals (1957) listed above. Aber eine wegweisende. in which he wrote on p. not because of the people who are evil. The Expanded Quotable Einstein: "Attributed to Einstein […] An excellent example of a quotation someone made up and attributed to Einstein in order to lend an idea credibility. 418 of Einstein: His Life and Times by Ronald W.com/search? hl=en&q=%22not%20everything%20that%20can%20be%20counted%20counts%22%20cameron&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbo=u&tbs=bks:1&source=og&sa=N&tab=wp) such as The Student's Companion to Sociology (p. the earliest attribution of this to Einstein yet located is in Miracles (2003) by W. 39-43 Alice Calaprice. 156: Albert Einstein liked to underscore the micro/macro partnership with a remark from Sir George Pickering that he chalked on the blackboard in his office at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton: "Not everything that counts can be counted. 5. p. Cf.

Audio excerpts of famous speeches: e=mc2 & relativity (http://www.time. p.th. our problems. New Perspectives in Physics. Attributed to Chaim Weizmann.albert-einstein.gov/foiaindex/einstein. if he hadn't done this he might have theoretically predicted the universal expansion that was first observed by Edwin Hubble. arms race (http://www.. by his simplicity. in his autobiography My World Line: An Informal Autobiography (1970).dcs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/psources/ps_einstein.uk/science/2008/may/12/peopleinscience.com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein2.org/598einst.guardian. From discord make harmony.com/biographies/atol/einstein.htm) Theory of relativity in 4-letter words or shorter (http://www.com/index. xix Much later.st-and.html) Einstein's wife: Mileva Maric (http://www.html) Einstein explained his theory to me every day.einstein. but what he understood by religion was something far more subtle than what is usually meant by the word in popular discussion.ac. from which I carried away an indelible impression of Einstein's great human qualities.pupress.alberteinstein.org/exhibitions/einstein/index. Louis de Broglie.html) Einstein's letter to Roosevelt (http://www.. find simplicity. as quoted in "Childish superstition: Einstein's letter makes view of religion relatively clear" in The Guardian (13 May 2008) (http://www. Here the "cosmological term" refers to the cosmological constant in the equations of general relativity.amnh. but no source can be found showing that Einstein stated them. George Gamow.einsteinandreligion. 2.html) Juergen Schmidhuber's Einstein biographical highlights (http://www.html) .bigear.se/physics/laureates/1921/press. 1. Out of clutter.txt) Albert Einstein: Why Socialism? (http://www. I like quoting Einstein.princeton. His head was in the clouds. but his feet were on the ground. which credits Carl Seelig.org/opb/einsteinswife/) Albert Einstein Biography from "German-American corner: History and Heritage" (http://www. .ox. I shall always remember the enchantment of all those meetings.de/~jr/physpiceinfam. 4 (http://www.caltech.guardian. pp. and finally 3. Simpson's Contemporary Quotations (6822) credits Nigel Calder.org/vol1no4/wheeler. after a long trans-Atlantic journey.time.monthlyreview. and by his friendliness.org/wgbh/nova/einstein/) The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921 (http://www.org/) Einstein Papers Project at Caltech (California Institute of Techology) (http://www. as quoted in "Voice of America" in The Guardian (1 March 2002) (http://www.pbs. he would launch into a profound and original discussion of a variety of scientific and other problems.time. by his general kindness.info/) Einstein Timeline (http://www.mpiwg-berlin.a comprehensive listing of online resources about Einstein.westegg.org/history/einstein/index.biz) Einstein at the American Institute of Physics (http://www.aip.nobel.html) Einstein and Religion (1999) by Max Jammer (http://www.4365429. John Archibald Wheeler.co. he remarked that the introduction of the cosmological term was the biggest blunder he ever made in his life.pdf) (PDF document) "Childish superstition: Einstein's letter makes view of religion relatively clear" in The Guardian (13 May 2008) (http://www. Then again.uk/Archive/Article/0.de/living_einstein) Albert Einstein Online (http://www.religion) Retrieved from "http://en. 44.religion) Einstein was a giant.germanheritage.html) Official Einstein Archives Online : 3000 documents (http://www. a slightly different version appears in David Bodanis.guardian.00. and times: 1.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Einstein. Impossibility of atomic energy (http://www.php) NOVA : Einstein Revealed at PBS (http://www. gaiety would gain the upper hand and he would strike a more personal note and even disclose some detail of his day-to-day life.edu/chapters/s6681. reverting to his characteristic mood of reflection and meditation. 80–81 [H]is work revolved around three rules which apply to all science.uni-frankfurt.info/finding_aid/) Albert Einstein Archive at the University of Jerusalem (http://www.uk/science/2008/may/12/peopleinscience.html) — Albert Einstein (http://www. whose value Einstein initially picked to ensure that his model of the universe would neither expand nor contract. p. Those of us who are not so tall have to choose! Richard Feynman.physik.html) FBI files (http://foia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein" .nobel. interviewed in Cosmic Search Vol.ch/~juergen/einstein. Studs Terkel.pbs.ru/FILOSOF/EJNSHTEJN/theworld_engl. In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. p.einstein. Scotland (http://www-gap.com/einstein/) .com/~breadbox/txt/al. and Wheeler didn't indicate in the interview whether he was quoting something Einstein had told him or giving his own description of how Einstein worked.htm) (1979).co. 182 Like many other great scientists he does not fit the boxes in which popular polemicists like to pigeonhole him.html) Einstein on Science and Religion (http://www. No. John Brooke (http://users.Quotes about Einstein Arranged alphabetically by author I was particularly won over by his sweet disposition.pbs. Mead. Einstein's Universe (1979). and on my arrival I was fully convinced that he understood it.ac.alberteinstein. Albert Einstein: A Documentary Biography (1956).com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein3... The three principles are sometimes attributed to Einstein himself. Know why? Because nobody dares contradict you.4273.ram) . Occasionally.uk/~theo0038/biogbrooke. as quoted in Collective Electrodynamics : Quantum Foundations of Electromagnetism (2002) by Carver A.html) Profile at the University of St Andrews.fbi.se/physics/laureates/1921/index. when I was discussing cosmological problems with Einstein.html) Einstein at the American Museum of Natural History (http://www.wikiquote.mpg.htm) Einstein family pictures (http://www.com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein1.idsia. E=mc².ram) . It is clear for example that he had respect for the religious values enshrined within Judaic and Christian traditions . External links Official Einstein® website (http://www.ram) (From Time magazine archives) Albert Einstein: The World as I see it (http://lib.muppetlabs.co.edu/) Living Einstein at the Max Planck Institute (http://living-einstein.

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