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Official Report

of the Games of the

XXV Olympiad
Barcelona 1992
Official Report
of the Games of the
XXV Olympiad
Barcelona 1992

Volume III

The organisation
The preparation of the Games

Director of the Report:
Romá Cuyàs

Cover illustration:
Original picture by Antoni Clavé
produced specially for this edition and
kindly presented to COOB'92 by the artist

Graphic design:
Zimmermann Asociados, S.L.

Editorial coordination and

Thema Equipo Editorial
COOB'92 would like to thank the
following companies for their help with
the preparation of this work:

And special thanks for assistance with

distribution to:

Fotomecànica Barcelona; Cromoarte
Printing, binding and case:
Cayfosa Indústria Gràfica
Ikonorex Special Matt de 150 g
manufactured by Zanders and distributed
in Spain by Torraspapel, S.A.
Enciclopèdia Catalana, S.A.
Published by:
COOB'92, S.A.
© 1992 COOB'92, S.A.
Plaça de la Font Màgica, s/n
08038 Barcelona
84-7868-107-8 (4 Volume set)
84-7868-110-8 (Volume III)
Editor's note by Romá Cuyàs 9

1. The organisation of the competitions 11

1.1. The sports 13

1.2. Objectives of the organisation 13

1.3. Organisation and evolution of the Sports Directorate General 15

Sports organisation 15
Planning, control and logistics 16
Relations with the IFs and the NOCs 17

1.4. Sports organisation projects 17

The technical-sports committees 17
Agreements with the IFs 17
The multi-sports blocks 18
The sports technicians 19
The test events and the Competitions '91 21
The organisation staff during the Games 23

1.5. Sports logistics projects 25

Calendar and timetable 25
Publications 26
The referees training programme 27
Sports material 28
Entries 29

1.6. Summary 30

2. The torch and the ceremonies 33

2.1. The Olympic torch 35

Objectives, sectors and phases of the project 35
The route and the association with companies and institutions 35
The relays and the bearers 36
The convoy and the operation 37

2.2. The ceremonies 41

The opening and closing ceremonies 41
The victory ceremonies 49

3. The media 53

3.1. Press and photographers 55

Human resources 56
Press centres 57

3.2. Ràdio-televisió Olímpica'92 (RTO'92) 62

The project: from the ORTJO to the birth of RTO'92 62
The resources of RTO'92 65
The international signal for the Games 65
Personalized coverage 67
Telecommunications 72

3.3. The Communications Media Centre 73

Rental spaces at the MPC 75
Rental spaces at the IBC 77

4. The adaptation of the facilities 79

The stages of the Olympic adaptation 81

The scope of the project 81
Contracting 83
Programming and implementing the adaptation 86
The human resources 87

5. Materials logistics 89

5.1. Materials management 91

Planning and managing the supplies 91
Type and surface area of the warehouses 92
Storage, distribution and transport 94
The organisation at the units 95
Human resources 96

5.2. Import-export operations 97

The operation before the Games 98
Materials requiring special treatment 99

5.3. Uniforms 101

6. Technology 105

6.1. General considerations and evolution 107

The phases of the technology projects 111
Organisation and evolution of the technology projects 113
The project 114
Strategies and adaptation 117
The CIOT 121
Human resources 122
The systems and services 123
The operation of the technology systems 124

6.2. Computing 127

Architecture and equipment 127
Multiple Access to Communication and Information (AMIC) 133
Operations Management Information System (SIGO) 139
The Barcelona'92 results management system 145
Internal computing 149
The Alcatel project 154

6.3. Telecommunications 157

Public telecommunications 157
Private telecommunications 160
Radio communications 163
Electronics 167
Electronic security 173
The organisation of the telecommunications operation 179

7. Accommodation 181

7.1. The Villages 183

Agreements with the promoters 183
Space distribution and adaptation works 184
The planning and organisation model for the Villages 185
Human resources 186
The Barcelona Olympic Village 186
The Olympic Villages in Banyoles and La Seu d'Urgell 198
The Parc de Mar Village 199
The Vall d'Hebron Village 199
The Montigalà Village 200
Occupation of the Villages 201

7.2. Hotels and ships 203

Planning 203
The operation 207
The ships 209
7.3. The International Youth Camp 215
The location 215
The adaptation 216
The resources 217

8. Olympic Family Services 219

8.1. Accreditations 221

The phases of the project 221
Basic criteria 221
The project: scope, elements and technology 221
The pre-arrival operation 228
The operation 231

8.2. Reception 237

The services 237
The Olympic area at Barcelona airport 237
Human resources 237
The evolution of the project 239
The operations phase 242

8.3. Protocol 245

The protocol project 245
Structure of the External Relations Division and human resources 245
Visits and other official functions 246
The protocol working party 247
The grandstand at the ceremonies 250
VIP services 251

8.4. Transport 255

The services 255
The management of parking spaces at the units 260
Resources 261
Organisation during the operational phase 262
Traffic and transport regulations during the Games 262
Traffic during the Games 266

8.5. Health care services 269

Planning the health care services 269
Human and material resources 270
The operational plans 271

8.6. Language services 281

Translation and correction of texts 281
Style books and sports glossaries 282
Interpretation 283
Announcers 285

8.7. Catering 287

Catering for competitors and officials 287
Catering for the judges and referees 290
Catering for the media 292
Catering for the VIPs 295
Catering for Team'92 295

8.8. Meteorology 299

The preparation of the project 299
The operation during the Games 299

9. Olympic security 303

9.1. Security at the Games 305

Planning 305
Organisation during the Games 305
Emergencies 307
The implementation of the projects 307
9.2. Security at COOB'92 312
COOB'92 internal security 313
Access control 313
Security at the units and in the cities 314
Human resources for security: internal security 315

10. Image and communication 319

10.1. Identity and design 321

The Barcelona'92 symbols 321
Signposting and the look 323
Other projects 333

10.2. The promotion of the Games 345

The travelling exhibition 345
The permanent exhibition 345
The Cobi cartoons 346
The promotion campaigns 347
Promotional material 349

10.3. Relations with the media 351

The Alcatel project for Barcelona'92 352
The official newspaper 355

10.4. Publications 357

The Publications Department 357
The Publications Plan 357

10.5. Public information 363

The human resources 363
Range of information 363
Information publications 367

10.6. The Official Report and Film 369

The Official Report 369
The Official Film 371

11. Commercial management 375

11.1. The commercial programme 377

Sponsorship 377
The licences 383
The collections 387
The lotteries 388
The concessions 388

11.2. The Sponsors Reception Centre 389

11.3. The television rights 390

11.4. The tickets 395

The main characteristics of the tickets 395
Prices 395
Distribution 395
Sales of tickets during the Games 400

12. Appendices 403

12.1. The associate companies 405

12.2. The COOB'92 publications 413

12.3. Tables, maps and photo credits 421

Editor's foreword The Olympic Games are one of the most complex and demanding events
Romà Cuyàs i Sol today. To guarantee success a high level of planning is indispensable, but
Director of so is a capacity for improvisation to deal with the incidents which
the Official Report
inevitably crop up in a project which simply cannot be rehearsed
beforehand. The Barcelona Games, which bore little resemblance to
earlier Olympics, called for an effort of preparation and organisation
which was without precedent in this country in terms of length or intensity.
The eleven chapters of this volume, which is entitled The organisation,
describe the process of preparing and operating all the projects which
COOB'92 mounted to produce the results described in Volume IV,
Sixteen days in summer.
First of all, it talks about the sports organisation itself: the competitions
and the route of the torch and the ceremonies. The next four chapters deal
with the "material" aspects of planning: adaptation of the venues, logistics,
technology and accommodation. Next comes a description of the work
done in the field of the services which the Organising Committee had to
provide for the Olympic Family, and a fundamental matter: security. Last
are the two aspects in which the Barcelona'92 organisation stood out most
notably from earlier Olympics: image and commercial management.
To produce the book which the reader has in front of him, clarity had to
be combined with precision of information. The reports written by the
organisation project managers had be restyled with the twofold aim of this
Report in view: to supply all the information which may be of use to the
organisers of future Games and people interested in the world of sport,
but to do so in a manner which will appeal to a wider audience.
Our hope is that the quantity and quality of the information —text and
illustrations— in this volume do justice to the quantity and quality of the
work done in the organisation of the Games which have been
acknowledged as the best in modern history.
The sports organisation
The sports selected together. Since the Candidature
covered the competition phase, three demonstration sports had
system, the grounds and the The 1987 edition of the Olympic Charter, been planned (one more than the number
material required for all the
events on the programme, which was valid for the organisation of the provided for in the Olympic Charter):
including human resources, Barcelona Games, included a list of 24 pelota, roller hockey and taekwondo.
referees and judges, sports on the Olympic programme: the 23 23 applications for exhibition sports had
publications, draws and
calendar. which had been played at Seoul (archery, been received: bowling, seven-a-side
athletics, basketball, boxing, canoeing, football, golf, karate, Canary wrestling,
cycling, equestrian sports, fencing, León wrestling, swimming with flippers,
football, gymnastics, handball, hockey, orienteering, parachuting, petanque,
judo, modern pentathlon, rowing, Valencian pelota, slalom canoeing,
shooting, swimming, table tennis, tennis, racquets, raid militaire (a long distance
volleyball, weightlifting, wrestling and cross-country race on horseback), water
yachting), with the addition of badminton skiing, putting, softball, squash, sling shot,
(an exhibition sport in Seoul). The trials, skate sailing and beach volleyball.
responsibilities of the Organising The proposals were all studied, but many
Committee of the Olympic Games were eliminated by the technicians'
(OCOG), the International Federations reports. Some, it was suggested, could be
(IF) and the International Olympic part of the Cultural Olympiad programme
Committee (IOC) itself concerning the and nine were considered viable in theory:
competitions in those sports in Barcelona bowling, golf, karate, parachuting,
were set out in the following terms: petanque, racquets, raid militaire, softball,
"The OCOG is responsible for the and squash. At a later stage the list was
integration of the various sports into the reduced to four: bowling, golf, softball,
programme, but it shall meet the wishes of and squash.
the IFs as far as possible. The final
decision on any conflict of views is made But when, in December 1989, the IOC
by the IOC. The order of all competitions Executive Board accepted taekwondo as
within each sport is the responsibility of the third demonstration sport for 13
the IF concerned after consultation with Barcelona, COOB'92 decided not to
the OCOG." organise any exhibition sports and the
programme was definitively set at 25
Following these instructions, at the end of Olympic and 3 demonstration sports.
1987 the 25 sports which were to be on the
Olympic programme were made official
(the 24 from the Olympic Charter plus Objectives of the organisation
baseball, which had been a demonstration
sport in Seoul). At the request of the IFs, From the outset, all efforts were
new events were introduced in several concentrated on the organisation of the
sports and there were two new disciplines: competitions themselves and the logistical
the women's category in judo, which had aspects most closely related to them.
been a demonstration sport in Seoul, Consequently, a whole series of matters
became part of the official programme (from accommodation for the competitors
and white water slalom returned to the to ticket sales) which, at a championship
canoeing competition. in a single sport, would have come under
the sports organisation were outside its
The 1987 edition of the Olympic Charter scope. The sheer scale of an event such as
also provided for competitions in two the Olympic Games fully justified other
other sports, the so-called "demonstration sectors of the Organising Committee
sports", which are off the official assuming these responsibilities.
programme. The rules for selection,
accreditation, medals and protocol had to And so, for each of the 25 official and 3
be different from those for the official demonstration sports the preparatory
ones. The demonstration sports were work covered the competition system, the
almost always included on the official venue and sports material, the human
Olympic programme at subsequent resources, the referees and judges, the
Games. Displays of traditional or publications, the draws, the calendar and
minority sports, the so-called timetable and the design of the final
"exhibition sports", were also allowed operation. Naturally, the other
alongside the Games. departments of COOB'92 had to be
notified of requirements affecting any
In the case of Barcelona, the project related to the preparation of the
demonstration and exhibition sports were competitions
All this made up the internal The Spanish and Catalan federations, in 1 and 2
Some sports with long
programme of the Sports Division. But turn, played an important part in the traditions introduced
there was also work to be done outside: a sports organisation with technical advice novelties into their
programmes, particularly in
series of committees took charge of and, most of all, through the human the women's category. Some
relations with the world of sport, resources they provided from the outset. examples were the inclusion
beginning with the IOC via the IFs down Moreover, COOB'92 and the Spanish of the 10 km walk in
athletics (1) and the Lechner
to the Spanish and Catalan federations. federations took on an important A-390 class in the yachting
That was one of the unquestionable commitment to train the judges and competition (2).
successes of the sports organisation team scorers for the Games. In the case of most 3
since, as opposed to what had usually of the sports, the training programme got In Barcelona, badminton
was an official Olympic
happened at previous Games, the under way in the third quarter of 1990. sport for the first time.
negotiations reached a satisfactory
conclusion, thus avoiding the 4
Another novelty on the
involvement of the remainder of the Games programme was the
Organising Committee and return of wild water slalom
to the canoeing competition.
interference with other aspects of the It had not appeared since
organisation. Munich in 1972.

According to the terms of the Olympic

Charter, the programming for each sport
must be done in close contact with the
relevant IF and so the people in charge of
the sports organisation coordinated their
task with the technical delegates of the
federations over a period of three or four

1 4

2 3
Organisation and evolution of it was the Sports Commission. It met
the Sports Directorate General quarterly and was made up of members of
every official sports institution (the
Along broad lines, the evolution of the Higher Sports Council, the Generalitat
organisation structure up to the start of Sports Department, the Barcelona
the operational phase may be divided into City Council Sports Department, the
three stages. In the first, which began as Spanish Olympic Committee, the
soon as COOB'92 was constituted, the Spanish and Catalan federations). The
Sports Division was under a deputy purpose of the Commission was to keep
director general. In 1988, when a division the COOB'92 Standing Committee
director and a planning project manager informed of the progress of the sports
joined the team, the second stage began projects.
and the tasks were divided between three
departments: Sports Organisation,
Sports Logistics and Relations with the Sports organisation
IFs and the National Olympic
Committees (NOCs). Lastly, from the An in-depth on-the-spot analysis of the
third quarter of 1990, the Sports Division Seoul Games in 1988 was fundamental to
became the Directorate General of Sports the design of the basic structure of the
and the three departments became Barcelona sports organisation.
divisions. The 27 sports projects on the Olympic
calendar (which had become 28 by April
Aside from this internal organisation, 1989 with the inclusion of taekwondo as
COOB'92 was assisted by a number of the third demonstration sport) were
sports consultancy bodies. The first one divided up into four large multi-sports
had been constituted well before, in 1987: blocks.

Organisation chart of the Sports 15

Directorate General (1991)
The Sports Organisation Department also Planning, control and logistics 1 and 2
As a result of the outbreaks
undertook to study and make proposals of African equine fever
for the exhibition sports and to plan and The planning and projects which were which were detected in
Andalucía in 1989 and
organise the test events and trial runs common to all the sports and basic to the 1990, there was a risk that
before the Games. It also had to pay specific organisation of each competition the equestrian events would
particular attention to the question of the came under the authority of the Sports not be held in Barcelona.
health of the horses as a result of the Logistics Department. Later on we shall
outbreaks of African equine fever be looking at some of the projects that
detected in Andalusia in 1989 and 1990. were carried out.
The IF even contemplated the possibility
of holding the competition elsewhere Two complementary projects for IF
(there was a precedent in Melbourne in services were also set in motion. The first
1956, when the strict quarantine consisted of providing logistical and
regulations prevented horses from human resources support for the
entering Australia and the event was held organisation of federation congresses held
in Stockholm), but in December 1990 the at the same time as the Games: cycling,
IOC Executive Board reached an swimming, modern pentathlon and
irrevocable agreement to hold the volleyball (in Barcelona) and gymnastics
equestrian events in Barcelona. and roller hockey (in Salou). The other
was the preparation of the draws which, in
From the second half of 1991, the 28 the case of most sports, were used to
sports were redistributed in five multi- decide which teams would play which or
sports blocks. Once the test events were to produce the start lists for different
over, COOB'92 appointed all the sports events.
directors for the competition venues.

1 2
During the organisation
Relations with the IFs and the NOCs Sports organisation projects
stage, COOB'92 held
meetings with all the The task of the directors of the multi-
international federations of
the summer Olympic sports sports blocks inevitably included The technical-sports committees
to show them the venues and coordination with the IF of the sports
draft the Games calendar. In within their sphere of competence. The
the photograph, one of the In the second quarter of 1988, a technical-
official visits by members of meetings, convened by the director, were sports committee was constituted for each
the top sporting run and organised by the Department of sport. In each case the committee was
organisations brought the
directors of the International Relations with the IFs and the NOCs, chaired by the president of the Spanish
Rowing Federation (FISA) which reported back to the Chief federation for the sport and there were
to Banyoles (11 April 1988).
Executive Officer's Cabinet. three other members: a secretary, a
representative of the Catalan federation
The NOCs could also request a visit to the and an executive technician. The function
city and a reception by COOB'92 in order of these committees was to advise the
to see the progress of the preparations at Sports Organisation Department and the
first hand. Also in liaison with the Chief other executive bodies of COOB'92.
Executive Officer's Cabinet, 216 visits According to the requirements of each
were organised between 1988 and the first sport, two or three meetings were
half of 1992. convened each year.

Agreements with the IFs

During the first half of 1988 most of the
agreements between COOB'92 and the

International Federations were signed. COOB'92 proposal, the choice was 1 and 2
After the nomination, two
They set out the essential parameters for eventually imposed, but the definitive meetings of the Association
the events (competition system, number competition calendar was not closed until of International Summer
Olympic Federations
of competitors, etc.) and the February 1992, just a few months before (ASOIF) were held in
characteristics of the territorial units the Games. Barcelona: the first in 1989
(competition and warm-up areas, and the second —in the
photographs— in 1991.
spectator capacity, first drafts of the
calendar). In April 1989, taking advantage The multi-sports blocks
of the biannual congress of the
Association of Summer Olympic When designing the basic structure of the
International Federations (ASOIF) which organisation of the 28 projects for the
was held that time in Barcelona, a sports on the Olympic calendar, the
programme of meetings with the Sports Organisation Department
federations was prepared. Among other recognised the need to group them in
things, the meetings provided information balanced blocks. The parameters taken
about the work done at the different into account for establishing the blocks
venues since the signing of the were the number of people who had to be
agreements. mobilized during the competition, the
internal budget assigned, the number of
The only federation with which an venues involved and a subjective
agreement was never signed was the assessment of the degree of complexity of
Hockey Federation, which never accepted the organisation.
the proposed venue; they wanted the
competition to be held in Barcelona and Between the first quarter of 1989 and the
not Terrassa. As the IOC endorsed the last of 1991, the multi-sports blocks

1 2
3, 4 and 5
The work of the sports
established the bases for the work drafted and a copy filled in by each
technicians in charge of common to all of them, deciding the areas technician. From then until the end of
organising the competitions where there would be tasks to be done 1991, other competitions of interest were
for Barcelona'92 began with
the observation of the jointly, specifying the operational scheme selected and observed at a rate of at least
Games in Seoul in 1988. for each block and ensuring coordination two per sport per year, or 214 altogether
with the projects of other divisions of (92 in Spain, 103 in the rest of Europe and
COOB'92. All this was done under the 19 on other continents).
supervision of the technical-sports
committees. Later, the blocks set the From the second half of 1989, according
bases for the competition manuals which to the organisational complexity of each
each sports technician was to draft for the sport the technicians gradually joined the
final operations phase within the full-time staff of COOB'92. Their job was
framework of the Standard Operations to take charge of the organisation project
Plan approved by COOB'92. for each of the 25 sports on the official
programme and the 3 demonstration
sports; from January 1991 they were
The sports technicians classified as sports directors.
The technicians of the technical-sports Over their four years of activity, the
committee for each sport, appointed at sports technicians were in charge of
the suggestion of the IF, began their work drafting the progress reports which were
with an observation of the Seoul Olympic presented periodically to the IFs; they
Games. So that everyone would be chose the particular material required for
gathering the same kind of information, their competition; they attended to the
the Seoul'88 Observation Manual was federation delegations who came to

3 4 19


2 3
1, 2 and 3
COOB'92 organised three
Barcelona to see the progress of the events were concentrated in the year
pre-Olympic events in organisation and visit the venues; they before the Games.
yachting (1), rowing (2) and passed on the requirements of the
canoeing (3), in fulfilment of
the terms of the Olympic competition (results management, First of all, top level official competitions,
Charter and as part of the construction, accreditation, etc.) to project convened by the Spanish federations,
programme of managers in other divisions; they were used to try out the sports
prepared the training programme to be organisation and other functional projects,
The different programmes
held from 11 July 1992 to the end of the especially the technological ones.
for Competitions'91 (which Games; and, in general, they took charge Wherever possible, these competitions
took place between June and of the organisation of the pre-Olympic were held at Olympic venues.
December of that year), had
a unifying image. event or test event in their sport in 1991.
Secondly, at the same venues and on the
The Competitions'91 were a same dates as the Games themselves (one
necessary and useful trial The test events and the year before), the Competitions'91 were
run for the Games for the
whole organisation.
Competitions'91 organised. As there were events in many
sports on the same days, these
As well as observing competitions around competitions could well be regarded as an
the world, COOB'92 was involved in authentic rehearsal for the Games and a
organising some itself as a way of putting preliminary to the dress rehearsals which
the operational projects in progress to the would be held two months before the
test. As early as 1990, simulations were opening.
carried out in the form of school or local
events (some without competition) and The Competitions'91 brought together the
they were repeated in 1991 and 1992. pre-Olympic events which the 1987
However, most of the really important Olympic Charter specifies as obligatory

4 5 21
1 1, 2. 3, 4 and 5
A total of 5,305 people
worked on the organisation
of the competitions, most of
them volunteers. Among
many other functions, the
organisation staff performed
tasks during the Games
which ranged from
measuring (2 and 5) and
results control (1) to ground
maintenance (4) and
managing the sports
material warehouse (3).

22 2 3 5

for the Organising Committee. In the case ensure the smooth running of all the
of Barcelona, they were canoeing, rowing competition venues and training facilities.
and yachting.
Listing the tasks made it possible to
For the directors, the Sports Division establish a common organisation
and the other divisions of COOB'92, the structure, headed by the sports director,
Competitions'91 were a useful trial run for all cases. The Competition
for the final operation. An assessment Organisation Management (the sports
of the results led to a restructuring or director and assistant, the competition
strengthening of some departments, the service and the person in charge of the
appointment over the following months officials and assistant) had four large
of the teams who would manage the dependant departments: competition
competition venues and the control, which covered all functions
establishment of the calendar for related to the practical aspects of the
deployment and occupation of the events at the venue itself, from the
territorial units. preparation and maintenance of the
playing area and results control to public
address systems and audio-visual
The organisation staff during production; sports organisation, which
the Games managed the different parts of the unit
—sports material store, warm-up zone,
A list of the organisation tasks to be mixed zone, changing rooms— and
carried out during the Olympic Games coordinated the victory ceremonies;
was made for each sport and there was a a competitor service; and a training
count of the number of staff required to service.

Sports organisation staff during the 23

Games Competition Training and other Staff
AR - Archery 1 86
AT - Athletics 3 7 427
BA - Baseball 2 118
BB - Basketball 1 3 169
BM - Badminton 1 1 66
BO - Boxing 1 1 91
CA - Canoeing 2 1 268
CY - Cycling 3 272
EQ - Equestrian sports 2 1 511
FB - Football 5 4 188
FE - Fencing 1 179
GY - Gymnastics 2 10 364
HB - Handball 2 4 99
HO - Hockey 1 2 119
JU - Judo 1 1 151
MP - Modern pentathlon 1 138
RO - Rowing 1 128
SH - Shooting 1 1 198
SW - Swimming 2 6 209
TE - Tennis 1 1 262
TT - Table tennis 1 117
VB - Volleyball 3 6 308
WL - Weightlifting 1 1 61
WR - Wrestling 1 1 68
YA - Yachting 1 479
PE - Pelota 2 58
RH - Roller hockey 4 124
TK - Taekwondo 1 5 147
Total 5,405
Calendar and number of
Total victory ceremonies
July August ceremonies

Olympic sports
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

AR Archery 4

AT Athletics 43

BA Baseball 1

BB Basketball 2

BM Badminton 4

BO Boxing 12

CA Canoeing 16

CY Cycling 10

EQ Equestrian sports 6

FB Football 1

FE Fencing 8

GY Gymnastics 15

HB Handball 2

HO Hockey 2

JU Judo 14

MP Modern pentathlon 2
24 RO Rowing 14

SH Shooting 13

SW Swimming 31

DV Diving 4

SS Synchronized swimming 2

WP Water polo 1

TE Tennis 4

TT Table tennis 4

VB Volleyball 2

WL Weightlifting 10

WR Wrestling 20

YA Yachting 10

Ceremonies 9 12 14 17 19 19 23 31 15 12 12 12 23 29 10 257

(*) The four preliminary matches on the first day of the football competition were played on 24 July 1992
Among the parameters to be
Over 5,000 people were needed to carry to draft the calendar and the publications
borne in mind when out all those tasks, the immense majority for each sport or to define material and
preparing the calendar and (over 4,000) being volunteers. Many of staff needs.
the timetable of the
competitions were the peak them had been on a training scheme with
viewing times on the special courses for each sport which had
different continents. been set up by COOB'92 with the Calendar and timetable
2 assistance of the Spanish and Catalan
The daily distribution of the federations. The federations notified their To prepare the calendar, the timetable
victory ceremonies also had
to be taken into account in members of the needs of the Organising and the timing of the events at the Games,
the drafting of the Committee and many of them came to three points had to be borne in mind at
competition calendar.
work on the sports organisation during the outset: the agreements with the IFs,
the competitions. the elimination of any possible overlap
between the events and the ceremonies of
the first and last days of the Games and an
Sports logistics projects individual analysis of each sport.
Questions such as the number of teams in
The Sports Logistics Department took the team sports, the competition system or
part in many of the sports organisation the venue where the events were to be
projects already mentioned; for example, held (and, in some cases, the number of
it was in charge of monitoring the playing areas there) had still not been
competitions which the sports technicians resolved and the work was done on the
worked on around the world. The Sports basis of the most plausible hypotheses.
Organisation Department also played an
important role on specific logistics At the same time, the Polytechnic
projects, as without the technicians and University of Catalonia was preparing a
committees it would have been impossible prototype computer model for drafting

1 2
the calendar, a job which it had been Over the following years, many proposals 1
Notable among the sports
commissioned to do back in the days of for adjusting the competition programmes publications produced were
the Olympic Office. With the aid of that were analysed and the times of the events the 28 explanatory booklets
published a year before the
system and from the data from the last and details of the victory ceremonies Games (white spine), the 28
four Games and the modifications calendar were made more specific. During team manuals (black spine)
and the results books (in
planned for Barcelona, a company the Games, at the Sports Information yellow).
contracted by COOB'92 drafted an initial Centre in the Olympic Village all last
proposal for a calendar between June minute changes were entered into the 2
The sports publications
1988 and March of the following year. On computers and data were collected to department also produced
the basis of that study and bearing in mind make sure that the timetables were being 600 different competition
control forms for use by
the suggestions of the technical-sports observed. referees and judges.
committees and the IFs, a first calendar
was decided and approved by the IOC in
September 1990. Publications
That preliminary calendar provided for a The Sports Publications Department was
whole series of complex parameters, such in charge of drafting documents for the
as the best distribution of the sports over volunteers (a training manual for each
the competition days and the different sport) and the participants in the Games
venues and areas, the timing of the victory (athletes, referees and judges). The most
ceremonies or the interests of the TV important of these were the explanatory
networks with the largest audiences, booklets for each sport. The 1987 edition
particularly the National Broadcasting of the Olympic Charter requires them to
Company (NBC) and the European be prepared with the express agreement
Broadcasting Union (EBU). of the IFs. They must contain the general

26 1 2
3, 4, 5 and 6
The COE, the HSC and
programme for the sport and specify the The referees training programme
COOB'92 set up a training provisions made, the venue or venues
programme for Spanish where the competition will be held and The aim of this project, which got under
referees which, from 1990 to
1992, trained 1,138 the characteristics of each event to be way late in 1989, was to train a large
technicians, the vast included. In accordance with IOC rules, number of people to work on competition
majority of whom then took the 28 explanatory booklets for control, assisting and, in certain cases,
part in the Games.
Barcelona came out one year before the replacing the technicians appointed by the
Games. IF. The requirements varied widely
according to the sports, both in terms of
Just before the Games, the team manuals the qualifications demanded by the IF
were prepared. They contained all (which could stipulate national or
necessary information for the competitors international category or not insist on any
and the technical documents (the 600 particular one) and the number of people
different forms for competition control), and their functions (which ranged from
which had been formally unified for all the technician in charge of the
the sports. We should also add here the competition to the post of assistant).
publication of the Official Games
Calendar, an indispensable tool for the First, we should list the three important
entire Olympic Family, which was the phases of the project. The first consisted
definitive result of the calendar and of identifying the specific needs of each
timetable project. It was presented in two sport, which was possible thanks to an
ways: day by day and sport by sport. analysis of what the Seoul Games had
been and what the Barcelona Games
should be. The second involved
negotiations with each of the Spanish

4 5

federations (the natural intermediaries special programmes for each sport, whilst
with the IFs), which would be providing the Spanish Olympic Committee was
their technicians. It must be remembered responsible for the administration of the
that each sport had its own problems; in project and for monitoring and assessing
some cases it was just a matter of giving the activities.
the technicians some special training for
the Olympic occasion or experience of The Spanish Olympic Committee, the
international events, whilst in others there Higher Sports Council and COOB'92
was a serious deficit in the number of assumed equal parts in the overall cost of
technicians and their qualifications. The the programme (210 million pesetas),
third and final phase consisted of which lasted for three years (1990,1991
involving the leading Spanish sporting and 1992). Altogether, 1,138 technicians
institutions —the Higher Sports Council benefited from it.
and the Spanish Olympic Committee— in
the project, as it was no longer just a
question of preparing a technical team for Sports material
the Games, but of forming a group of top
level referees for Spanish sport in the The 1987 edition of the Olympic Charter
future. assigned to the Organising Committee the
responsibility for providing the sports
On 22 March 1990, a commission made material to be used by the competitors
up of one representative of each (balls, flooring, gymnastics and athletics
institution was officially constituted. The apparatus, boats, nets) and the
COOB'92 sports technicians directed organisation (chronometers, binoculars,
—and in some cases designed— the measuring tapes, scales, motor cycles for

Appeals jury Commissions Med. Com. Intemat. referees Nat. referees Secretaries' aux. Total Competition control staff
AR - Archery 3 1 9 3 16
AT - Athletics 1 20 318 339
BA - Baseball 3 7 28 38
BB - Basketball 13 22 25 60
BM - Badminton 5 24 94 123
BO - Boxing 27 4 13 36 80
CA - Canoeing 7 45 41 93
CY - Cycling 17 20 20 57
EQ - Equestrian sports 5 20 3 21 113 162
FB - Football 59 30 89
FE - Fencing 11 2 46 10 69
GY - Gymnastics 19 1 124 37 3 184
HB - Handball 6 20 4 26 14 70
HO - Hockey 10 25 1 31 67
JU - Judo 15 1 25 35 2 78
MP - Modern pentathlon 13 1 14
RO - Rowing 22 20 35 77
SH - Shooting 5 1 27 90 123
SW - Swimming 16 48 12 108 11 195
TE - Tennis 94 66 160
TT - Table tennis 9 1 39 49
VB - Volleyball 12 24 26 30 92
WL - Weightlifting 10 18 5 23 2 58
WR - Wrestling 15 60 75
YA - Yachting 21 11 5 40 5 82
PE - Pelota 10 25 35
RH - Roller hockey 5 16 8 29
TK - Taekwondo 32 8 40
Total 201 304 47 967 1023 12 2.554
The responsibility for
following races, auxiliary boats). It was three-day events, the stalls and fences for
supplying all the sports therefore necessary to identify all the the dressage area, the fences for the
material necessary for the requirements and then to obtain the circuits, the gymnasts' powder trays and
events, such as the hammers
for the throw, lay with material on the most advantageous terms. the judges' chairs.
2 and 3
The needs were identified according to A second set of elements were identified
A large part of the sports the criteria of the sports technicians and for design: the holders for the judo belts,
material used at the requirements of the IFs. After the repairs carts, the lane and throwing
Barcelona'92 was designed
with the global image of the agreements had been reached with the circle indicators and the Olympic and
Games in mind, especially
when it was likely to make a
suppliers, there had to be monitoring of world record signs for athletics, the start
major impact on television. the processes of manufacturing, delivering gates for canoeing (slalom) and the
That was the case with the and setting up every element and testing holders for the volleyball, handball and
lane markers for athletics, them all to see that they worked properly, water polo balls. Four design schools in
which were the work of
students of a Barcelona as far as possible in real competitions. Barcelona were invited to make the
design school. design of these elements part of their
At the same time, in coordination with the graduation exercise; the students whose
Image and Communication Division, the work was chosen were also allowed to
visual impact of the material on television control the industrial process.
broadcasts and hence on the global image
of the Games was assessed and the
elements at each competition venue which Entries
most clearly called for a special design
were identified. Professional designers Finding and handling all the data about
were commissioned to prepare the the competitors which was required to
obstacles for the equestrian jumping and organise the competitions and issue the

1 2 3
results was complex indeed. Moreover, control the whole process a tripartite 1 and 4
The sports material ranged
COOB'92 wanted to operate with a single commission was set up with from the racks for the
centralised data base which would include representatives of the IOC, the ASOIF javelins (1) to the floats
separating the lanes for the
all the information about the Olympic and the Association of National Olympic races in the swimming pool
Family, and so the entries for the Committees (ACNO). (4).
competitions became a sort of halfway 2 and 3
house between the accreditations and Meanwhile all the forms and manuals The design of some objects,
results management programmes. necessary for the entries were prepared such as the equestrian
jumping obstacles (2) or the
and last dates were set for the return of judges' seats (3), was
The first calculations of the number of entries by number (25 March 1992) and by commissioned from leading
participants, which were made on the name (10 July 1992) for all the
basis of the data from Seoul and the most delegations.
recent world championships, were
alarming: the figures were so high that At the same time, in accordance with the
they made participation in the sports rules, the number of referees and
competitions quite uncontrollable and, judges needed for the competition was
furthermore, had negative repercussions calculated and the needs of the Parc del
in other fields (accommodation, transport, Mar Village, where they were to be
etc.). For that reason, COOB'92 accommodated, were thus defined.
negotiated with the IOC a maximum
figure of 15,000 participants, 10,000 of
whom would be competitors and 5,000 Summary
officials (technicians and other members
of the delegations). To guarantee that the The results of the planning and
agreement would be observed and to implementation of the different projects

30 2 4

5 and 6
The competition control
—already provided for in the 1988 sports organisation projects much easier
staff (5), such as the referees organisation chart— were very positive. and ensured coherence and homogeneity
and judges (6, wearing hats Although it had no previous experience in among the tasks particular to each one.
with red ribbons), the sports
organisation technicians (6, the organisation of events on such a scale
wearing hats with green or anything approaching it, the Lastly, there are two other notable
ribbons) and the sports Directorate General of Sports did have factors, one internal and the other
volunteers (6, with blue and
white caps), all contributed the unwavering support of all the external. The first was that the action of
to the success of institutions. The advice of the different the sports organisation group at the time
committees was, in turn, another key of the Games was greatly assisted by the
factor in the success of the organisation. experience of the test events and the
Competitions'91. The second was that the
Among the various decisions proved service projects promoted by COOB'92 to
correct by events, we should mention the provide support for the congresses and
distribution of the sports in blocks, which draws held by the IFs during the Games
made coordination between the different were very well received.

5 6 31
The torch bearing the
The Olympic torch reception of the flame by COOB'92 from
Olympic flame is one of the the Greek Olympic Committee, the
most familiar symbols of the arrival at Empúries and the arrival at the
Olympics. The Barcelona
torch was designed by André Objectives, sectors and phases Moll de la Fusta in Barcelona.
Ricard, who prepared a of the project
functional object with a As early as August 1989 COOB'92 had
strong aesthetic impact, at
once innovatory and The ritual of the torch is one of the most commissioned André Ricard to design the
respectful of tradition. important popular Olympic celebrations torch, the safety lamp and the cauldrons
and has been performed at every Games for the route, as explained in Chapter 10
since Berlin in 1936. The organisation of of this Volume. But the planning and
the first part of this ceremony —lighting preparation of the definitive project for
the flame in Olympia and bearing it in the Barcelona'92 torch did not begin until
relays to Athens— is always the task of November 1991. At that time there were
the Greek Olympic Committee; the 10 people from the COOB'92 Commercial
responsibility of the Organising Department working on it; by March 1992
Committee of the Olympic Games begins there were 18. By May, at the close of the
there and covers the remainder of the preliminary phase, the number had risen
journey to the host city. to 23. In the final operations phase (June-
July) 170 people were directly involved
In the Barcelona Candidature Dossier the with the Olympic flame as part of the
plan was for the torch to visit all the convoy.
Olympic cities of the modern era before
arriving in Spain, but that was soon seen
to be unviable because of the enormous The route and the association with
additional cost and complexity of the companies and institutions
operation. It was then decided that the
flame would travel directly from Athens On 1 January 1992, the COOB'92
to Empúries, where it would begin a Standing Committee approved the
journey around the country in order to definitive route of the torch around Spain. 35
give the largest possible number of people A total of 5,940 kilometres had to be
an opportunity to see it pass by. This covered in 43 days, through all the
would encourage all the regions of Spain Olympic subsites and the capitals of the
to feel that the Barcelona Olympic Games autonomous communities (652 towns and
—symbolised by the torch— were really cities altogether) without using the
theirs. motorways. To speed up the pace on the
longest and least populated sections,
Once the definitive project had been bicycle relays were introduced. They
outlined, it was divided into five sectors of covered 1,490 kilometres and the
activity. The marketing department was in remaining 4,450 were done on foot. The
charge of mapping the route, selecting the flame was taken from Sevilla to Tenerife
bearers, designing the model for the flag and from Las Palmas to Málaga by plane;
welcoming ceremonies, liaising with the from Tenerife to Las Palmas by hydrofoil;
institutions and taking care of promotion and from Tarragona to Palma de Mallorca
and the associate companies. The and from the island back to Barcelona by
operations department covered purchases ship.
and logistics, accommodation and catering
services, timetables, the procedures to be COOB'92 provided all the necessary
followed at the bearers' centres and on resources for the route and organised the
the relays and the services for the main logistics (people, torches, uniforms,
convoy. The media department worked accommodation and catering services,
on information (by means of press vehicles, parking, maintenance and
conferences, dossiers and press releases) cleaning). It also supervised the design of
and the accreditation of journalists. The the ceremonies held to welcome the flame
security department coordinated the in 60 different towns or cities.
activity of the security forces (Guardia
Civil and National and Local Police, The whole operation was made possible
basically). Lastly, the special events and by the contribution of three COOB'92
designs department took care of the associate companies. SEAT provided the
design and manufacture of the objects vehicles (including technical service and
required for moving the flame (the torch, maintenance), the meeting points (78
the safety lamp, the cauldrons along the company dealers) and the overnight
way and the cauldron at the Olympic parking spaces (41 of the dealers, where
Stadium) and three unique events: the the vehicles were repaired, cleaned and
refuelled). Mito (Induyco) brought the all the city councils on their territory and 1
On 19 June 1992, the torch
design, manufacture and distribution of took part in selecting the bearers from the was received with full
the bearers' uniforms and the installation volunteers in each community. The city honours at the Monastery of
Montserrat, at a highly
and management of the changing rooms. councils, in turn, took charge of the design symbolic, moving ceremony
The runners' uniform consisted of a of the route of the torch through their held in the presence of the
cities, the organisation of the welcoming abbot, the mayor of
T-shirt, shorts, socks, trainers (supplied by Barcelona and the chief
ASICS) and a hairband. The cyclists wore ceremony and the overnight guardianship executive officer of
a T-shirt and long latex trousers, socks, of the flame in the towns where it rested. COOB'92.
trainers and a safety helmet. Lastly, Coca- 2
Cola took care of the accommodation and The Mito (Induyco)
company's contributions to
catering for the organisation and the The relays and the bearers the organisation of the torch
supply of drinks for the convoy over the route were the bearers'
uniform and the installation
43 stages. The company also worked on a Altogether there were 9,484 relays: 8,885 and management of the
project for international participation on foot and 599 on bicycles. The foot changing rooms.
which was without precedent on any relays were 500 metres, which had to be 3
previous Olympic torch route: in covered in 3 minutes; the bicycle relays The 599 bicycle relays were
association with the NOCs they selected were 2,500 metres and the time 6 minutes. 2.5 km each; the bearer (in
white) was accompanied by
200 bearers from 50 countries, who also Only on the final lap, in Barcelona, were an escort (in red).
ran a relay of the Barcelona torch. the foot relays shortened to 250 metres to
give as many people as possible a chance
But the cooperation of other institutions to carry the torch.
was also indispensable. The authorities of
the autonomous communities made The bearers were selected by quotas: 50%
suggestions for the itineraries between had to be Olympic volunteers from
cities and the landmarks which should be around Spain; the councils of the towns
passed by along the way; they coordinated the Olympic torch passed through had the

36 1 2
8,885 foot relays were run,
right to choose a bearer; and, lastly, the to help them if they tired, felt unwell or
500 m each; the bearer and companies which worked on the torch stumbled and fell. The escorts did one
escort went ahead of the route and the other associate companies relay as bearers and then accompanied
body of the convoy, whose
vehicles were provided by of COOB'92 had an opportunity to cover nine more; on the foot relays, therefore,
SEAT. In the photograph, some of the relays. they ran 5 kilometres in 30 minutes and
one of the international on the bicycle relays they rode 25
relays sponsored by Coca-
Cola. The remaining bearers were chosen from kilometres in 60 minutes.
people who applied. They had to be over
When the flame arrived in a fifteen years old and promise to run the
town where it was to remain
overnight, the temporary
relay in the time available, to wear the The convoy and the operation
cauldron was set up (5) and official bearers' uniform and to observe
the welcome ceremony held the rules laid down by the organisation. Besides the escorts, the bearers had the
beside it. The city councils and authorities of the support of a complex organisation. They
6 autonomous communities the flame gathered at a meeting point —the bearers'
On 10 July 1992, on its way passed through took part in the selection. centre— where they were accredited,
through Extremadura, the
flame visited the city of received the uniform, changed, handed in
Cáceres. The photograph Each bearer carried a new torch, which their clothes for safe-keeping and were
captures the moment when it
left the town hall for was offered to them as a gift if they were given the torch. From there they were
Badajoz. volunteers; those who were not had an taken to the place where they were to
opportunity to buy it at cost price (15,000 start their relay. That point, which the
pesetas). All of them received the uniform bearers already knew —and therefore also
they had worn on their relay as a present their families and friends who wanted to
from COOB'92. watch and accompany them—, had been
marked the previous day by the vanguard
The bearers never ran alone; they were of the convoy with a sticker indicating the
accompanied by an escort, whose job was number of the relay. At the bearers'

3 4 6 37

centres the journalists who wanted to The route pilot vehicle was responsible 1 and 3
The bearers' centre, installed
have a place on the convoy press stand for coordinating the transport of the at a SEAT dealer's, was the
were also accredited, a total of 1,500 all bearers to and from the main convoy and meeting point for all the
bearers for a particular
along the route. seeing that the timetables were observed. stretch and the place where
accreditations were issued to
the reporters covering the
In groups of 40, the bearers were taken by The signposting and traffic control route.
bus from the bearers' centre to a point on vehicles always travelled 500 metres
the road where the convoy would pass by. ahead of the bearer and escort to slow 2
The members of the convoy
They were then taken in groups of 10 to down the traffic coming in the opposite lived long working days.
the starting point of their relays in direction and place the cones and flags They almost always had to
eat along the way.
minibuses which shuttled backwards and which marked out the relays.
forwards to and from the convoy. On this 4
On the stretches where the
journey the bearers received instructions The vehicles which made up the nucleus relays were made by bicycle,
and advice from monitors on how to run were the ones which travelled the convoy had vehicles to
their relay. Once it was finished they were immediately in front of and behind the take care of the technical
collected and taken back to the meeting bearer and the escort. The press platform
point. (a vehicle specially designed for
photographic coverage of the event) went
The escort and the bearer made up the just ahead of the bearer. Then came the
heart of the torch convoy, which consisted convoy management vehicle which carried
of a total of 24 vehicles and 65 members the safety lamp (containing an "original"
of the organisation. Olympic flame to relight the torches if
they went out accidentally) and the Red
The vehicles in the convoy were in four Cross vehicle. The rear of the convoy was
groups: route pilot, signposting and traffic brought up by the support and rearguard
control, nucleus and support/rearguard. vehicles, among them the mobile changing

1 3

2 4
The press platform was a
room, the catering vehicle, the services was eaten on the way or at the bearers'
vehicle designed specially for vehicle and the one for picking up the centres.
the photographic coverage of signposts and markers.
the event and always went
directly ahead of the bearer The convoy functioned very well, as
and escort. Two mobile offices were installed at the demonstrated by the success with the
hotels where the convoy stayed; the media public of the entire itinerary of the
In the minibus which took services were located in one of them. Barcelona'92 torch. This aspect has
them in groups of 10 to the Dinner and breakfast were always taken already been covered in detail in Volume
starting point for their
relays, the bearers received there and lunch too along some of the IV of this Report.
instructions and advice from stages. Most frequently, however, lunch
the monitors.

5 6 39
The Games opening
The ceremonies because of its capacity. Owing to the high
ceremony, the high point of temperatures and humidity which are
the celebrations of
Barcelona'92, was a fine
features of summer in Barcelona, the
example of Mediterranean The opening and closing ceremonies project proposed to hold the ceremonies
expressiveness and the visual in the evening. The recommended length
impact of the city. The opening ceremony marks the was around three hours for the opening
beginning of the new Olympic Games and two for the close. Lastly, the basic
after the four-year wait and is the event concepts which were considered
which usually arouses the greatest degree appropriate as guides for the Barcelona
of expectation all around the world. The ceremonies were defined: modernity, the
closing ceremony brings down the curtain Mediterranean nature of the city,
on the celebrations and signals the innovation, design, the leading role of
beginning of a new period of waiting. The music, dialogue between cultures,
conjunction of Olympic ritual, the originality in the use of folklore. The
presence of the entire Olympic Family, study was approved on 17 October 1989
the attention paid by the press and radio by the COOB'92 Executive Board, which
and television and the fact that they allocated a total budget of 2,000 million
provide an ideal framework for the city pesetas for the two ceremonies.
organising the Games to introduce itself
to the world make these two ceremonies The competition
the high points of the Olympic Games.
The study defined the organisational
They are therefore of special importance model to be used for the production of the
to the host city, which has an opportunity ceremonies. A Barcelona company was
to show its personality, its culture, its commissioned to carry it out, but
originality in the field of show business COOB'92 would have the responsibility
and its organisational capability. for and the last word on the contents, the
organisation and the performance of the
In the specific case of Barcelona, in ceremonies, as well as control over the 41
addition to these general features, budget.
COOB'92 decided to design the
ceremonies with two main objectives in In November 1989 a closed competition
mind: to satisfy a huge radio and was convened between six companies,
television audience (about 3,500 million which were provided with all the
people) and to arouse the enthusiasm of information necessary to present their
the people who would see them live at the projects (facts and figures, plans of the
Olympic Stadium. Stadium, documents on previous
ceremonies) and were paid for the
The preparations expenses involved in drafting them. At the
outset, two of the companies invited to
When preparing the project, COOB'92 tender (Bassat, Ogilvy and Mather and
made an in-depth analysis of previous Sport Sponsoring) merged. In assessing
Olympic ceremonies from Munich the projects. COOB'92 took into account
onwards and of other cultural events and the ideas presented by each group, their
spectacles on a similar scale, such as the viability and the guarantees of
commemorations of the bicentenary of implementation.
the French Revolution (July 1989) or the
celebrations for the 25th anniversary of In the end, on 19 February 1990, the
the independence of Singapore (1990). groups presented the projects to
The Organising Committee also initiated COOB'92. After examination by the
a series of consultations with professionals Standing Committee, three were
from the worlds of sport, the Olympics, eliminated and a final decision was
culture and communications to set the adjourned until a second presentation by
guidelines for the Barcelona ceremonies. the two remaining groups: Ovideo TV and
Bassat-Sport Sponsoring). After the new
The first study made for the project presentations, the two groups were invited
decided what the ceremonies should be to merge, a suggestion which they
like and specified the framework in which accepted. The project and the way in
they were to take place: the day, the which it would be carried out were
approximate time and length. The approved by the COOB'92 Executive
Olympic Stadium was chosen as the Board on 26 May 1990. Thus, on 20 July
setting, although at one time the FC the production company Ovideo-Bassat-
Barcelona Stadium had been considered Sport S.A. (OBS) was formed by mutual
agreement. Ovideo T.V. and Bassat-Sport hold the show together, as a unifying 1,2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
Drawings and costumes from
held equal shares with 49% each; the element which makes it possible for the story board of the
remaining 2% went to COOB'92, which authors of different origins to speak to opening (1, 2 and 3) and
closing (4 and 6) ceremonies
thus reserved a casting vote. one another in a common language. If which were submitted for
what was required was a big approval by COOB'92 in
choreographic show for television, the May 1990. That was when it
The main office was installed in the was decided that the
Pueblo Español in Barcelona but the best possible musical base was essential. cauldron in the Stadium
production department grew so much that would be lit by an arrow
from the bow of an archer on
it was obliged to move to offices and Another idea which was fundamental stage (5).
stores at the Olympic Stadium in 1992. from the start was for figures of
international renown in the world of show
The script business (musicians, performers, actors,
theatre directors) to take part. In order to
The scripts for the ceremonies grew out of make the opening more attractive, it was
certain fundamental ideas: Mediterranean decided to concentrate the Olympic
expressiveness, gaiety, diversity, visual protocol and the parade of the
impact, imagination. There was a clear competitors in the middle of the
determination to bring together elements ceremony; at the closing ceremony,
which were not merely different but even, however, the traditional competitors'
at times, diametrically opposed, though march past was discarded to prevent the
they were all present in the cultural ceremony from dragging on with the risk
tradition of the country. The show had to of disorder on the track, something which
be conceived for the audience at the had already occurred at previous Games.
Stadium, for the city and, most of all, for
the 3,500 potential television viewers all One of the high points was the moment
around the world. Music was chosen to when an archer lit the flame in the

42 5
1 3

2 4
cauldron atop the Stadium with an arrow the original scripts presented for the
which he had kindled from the torch competition, which were later fused. Over
carried by the last bearer; that was, in fact, the first six months of 1991, the definitive
the climax of the opening ceremony, script was polished according to the
together with the unfurling of the giant demands of the budget, which was
Olympic flag (105 x 60 m) over the heads approved by the COOB'92 Executive
of all the competitors as a symbol of the Board in November 1991 and by the IOC
universal nature of Olympism and the Executive Board in December the same
twelve human pyramids which were raised year in Lillehammer.
to represent the twelve countries of the
European Community. Before the script was finally approved, the
OBS production teams had already begun
An notable addition to the first script was to commission the music —the
the inclusion in the two ceremonies of the fundamental part of the ceremonies—,
official song of the Games, whose title was from which the choreography could be
the official slogan of Barcelona'92, designed and the first rehearsals held. On
"Friends for life", with lyrics by Don the one hand, a group of composers
Black and music by Sir Andrew Lloyd linked to the city of Barcelona —Carles
Webber The contents of the opening and Santos, Josep Lluís Moraleda, Carlos
closing ceremonies are described in Miranda, Josep Maria Bardagí, Peret and
Volume IV of this Report. Joan Albert Amargós— wrote new pieces
for the occasion; on the other,
The production distinguished foreign composers in the
world of film and show business in general
OBS began work in October 1990. The were selected to produce special pieces
company immediately began reviewing for the two ceremonies (Ryuichi

Sponsors of the opening and closing

Sponsor Item
Centro de Promoción del Diseño Industrial (DDI) Clothes for the ceremonies
Sociedad Española de Oxígeno Helium gas
Fira de Barcelona Spectators' kit
Ovideo TV Land of Passion retable
Bassat, Ogilvy & Mather Poles for the flags in the parade
Sport Sponsoring Giant Olympic flag
ASICS Archer's luminous footwear
Various Fireworks
Record companies Musical production
Camper Footwear other than sports
Coca-Cola Spectators' kit pin (Cobi)
There were three rehearsals
of the opening ceremony in
real time with all the
performers and musicians,
but, naturally, not the
2 and 8
Aerial view of the Olympic
Stadium during a rehearsal
of the opening ceremony (2),
as the performers
representing the Sun (8)
which guides the adventure
of Hercules from east to west
enter by the east gate.
Rehearsal of the unfurling of
the silver ingot which turns
into the ship on which the
founders of Barcelona make
their voyage of initiation in
imitation of the feat of
4 and 6
Rehearsal of the formation
of the flower motif at the
beginning of the opening
ceremony. The use of the
great blue cloth not only
unified the floor of the
Stadium in a single colour
which served as a backdrop

44 5

3 4
for the choreography; it also Sakamoto, Angelo Badalamenti, Mikis Altogether, over 1,600 people worked
protected the athletics track
and the turf during the Theodorakis and Sir Andrew Lloyd during the preparation and production
rehearsals and was laid in Webber). phases, mostly part time. The volunteers
such a way that part of the
track could be uncovered (about 10,000) who performed in the
quickly for the traditional The Orquestra Ciutat de Barcelona was choreography began rehearsing in
parade of the competitors. commissioned to record the six hours of December 1991. Dance schools, troupes,
5 music for the ceremonies and the theatre groups, regional houses, colleges
The cheerleaders, who were
scattered around the
Ceremonies Choir was formed by and sports clubs all worked on the
Stadium and explained to 150 members of the Orfeó Català, production.
the spectators how to use the Coral Sant Jordi and the Coral
their kits, were a crucial
element in the motivation Càrmina. There were three full rehearsals of the
and participation of the opening ceremony. The first, on 11 July,
public at the opening The recording of the music, the lengthiest behind closed doors and without
part of the production, took place costumes, was the first attempt to bring
The jointed mannequins
between January and December 1991. together all the pieces and study the key
painted in the three colours Hundreds of hours of recording, dubbing, problems: the entrances and exits of the
of the Olympic emblem, mixing and editing in Barcelona, London, performers, their synchronization with the
which were part of the
overture to the opening Vienna, Paris, Madrid and Sevilla had to music and the announcements and the
ceremony, were one of the be coordinated. That was vital, as the coordination of the different directors.
original touches which On 18 and 23 July there were dress
characterised the ceremonies. ceremony was done in play-back: a show
of such characteristics, with simultaneous rehearsals of the full show, this time
The fireworks at the closing
choreography in different parts of the with costumes and props in a Stadium
ceremony were the only Stadium and the symmetrical distribution packed with members of Team'92,
element of the ceremonies
not rehearsed before the
of loudspeakers to receive the sound, members of their families and guests.
night. excluded the possibility of a live The presence of an audience helped to
performance. reduce the tension among the

6 7 9 45

Double page overleaf:
Two spectacular panoramic
performers inspired by the prospect of the The clothes were the work of the designer
views of the opening (above) night itself. Antoni Miró and the accessories
and closing (below) (earrings, hairnets and mittens) were by
ceremonies. The Barcelona
ceremonies involved about The only rehearsal for the closing Chelo Sastre. The medal bearers'
1,600 professionals and a ceremony was held on 27 July after a day uniforms and flowers were inspired by
total of 10,000 volunteers of rest for the production team. It was traditional Catalan costumes. The trays
during the preparation and
production. done behind closed doors and in real time. for the medals, lined with black velvet,
The only part kept back for the ceremony also by Chelo Sastre, were kidney shaped
The victory ceremonies, one itself was the last, the fireworks. to make them easier to carry (some
of the most solemn events of Immediately after the dry run, with just a bearers carried as many as 20 medals
the Olympic Games, were
held, according to the rules, few hours' leeway, the stage was weighing about 5 kilograms, which they
at the end of each dismantled to make way for the athletics had to hold for up to a quarter of an
competition. The design of
the bouquet and medal events which began the next morning; hour).
bearers' clothes —inspired only the loudspeakers and fixed lighting
by traditional Catalan elements were left mounted. One of the most difficult tasks was the
costumes—, and those of the
guides for the VIPs, were by updating of the flags, as in 1991 and early
Antoni Miró, and the design 1992 there were a large number of
of the accessories by Chelo
Sastre. The victory ceremonies changes to the international political map.
Some came just a few days before the
Concerning the victory ceremonies, Rule Games. The last-minute participation of
65 of the Olympic Charter, 1987 edition, committees such as that of Bosnia-
the one used for the Barcelona Olympic Herzogovina meant that flags had to be
Games, states: made just 24 hours before the opening
ceremony. At the outdoor venues 10 and
"The medals shall be presented during the 12 metre flagpoles were installed, whilst at
Olympic Games by the President of the the indoor ones a simple elevator was
IOC (or a member selected by him), designed with an electric motor and
accompanied by the President (or his system of pulleys and velcro supports to
deputy) of the IF concerned, if possible hold the flags in place. 49
immediately after the event at the place
where the competition was held (...) The The operation
flag of the winner's delegation shall be
hoisted on the central flagpole and those In the operation for the victory
of the second and third on adjoining ceremonies eight teams took part,
flagpoles on the right and left, as they face working in rotation at all the venues. The
the arena. Meanwhile, the anthem system made it possible to work with
(abbreviated) of the winner's delegation is fewer people and have more control over
played, during which the three the material needed.
competitors and the spectators shall face
the flags." Each team was assigned between two and
five venues, according to the number of
Design and preparation of the awards and the coordination of dates and
materials times. The eight teams met daily at the
Font Màgica building in the Montjuïc
This section included the preparation of Area, from where they were distributed
the materials to be given to the victors around the venues with all the necessary
(medals, diplomas, cycling shirts, plaques, material: medals, bouquets, trays,
bouquets), the extras (flags, trays, clothes, uniforms, make-up, ironing board and
accessories for the volunteers) and the iron, flags and accessories. If the team
materials for the infrastructure (flagpoles, went to the same venue on consecutive
flag raisers and podiums). days, they could leave their material there
in the store. Moreover, there were two
As explained in Chapter 10 of this complete teams on stand-by to cover any
Volume, the sculptor Xavier Corberó was emergency caused by delays, failure to
commissioned to design the medals and turn up, weather, etc., according to a
the manufacture and sponsorship were contingency plan which even included a
undertaken by the Fábrica Nacional de helicopter. After a study of the number of
Moneda y Timbre (the Mint), which also flags which might be required for the
produced the diplomas. The bouquets ceremonies, a final figure of 3,500 was set.
were the work of Blai Puig, who brought a
Mediterranean air to the proceedings by The teams also travelled with the medals
combining the carnation and the and other awards, including the reserves
limonium on a branch of vegetable fibre. in the event of a tie, and the flowers. The
honorary diplomas which the eight top anthems up to the last moment. The 1, 2 and 5
Three moments from the
classified competitors received were participation of the twelve Soviet flag-raising at victory
printed each day, shortly after the final, in republics, some of which had not yet ceremonies in the Parc del
Segre in La Seu d'Urgell (1),
a typeface by the designer Javier Mariscal, approved their national anthem, was the Banyoles Lake (2) and the
and were delivered the day after to the most critical point. Two extreme cases INEFC (5).
chefs de mission at the Olympic Village. were Ethiopia and Iran, whose anthems
were brought by the delegations the day
The time of the national anthems was they arrived in Barcelona, 25 July. But the
limited to 50 seconds. Given the variety of emergency system was standing by to
supports on which the anthems of each record them in the same style as the
delegation were received, COOB'92 others.
decided to obtain the scores and, if
possible, a demonstration tape to re- The opening fanfare and the parade
record them on compact disc. Later, using march, two of the most memorable
technology by Philips, one of the joint elements of the ceremonies, were
partners of the Games, an interactive CD commissioned from Carles Santos. He
was produced, which made it possible to composed a fanfare lasting 16 seconds and
put the different pieces of music for the a march for the parade in classical style,
ceremonies in sequence with intervals for with a repetitive, catchy melody which
the commentators' text. many spectators ended up humming to
The arrangements for the recordings of
the anthems had to be completely Human resources
standardised so that they all had the same
orchestration. Political changes also made During the Games, eleven people from
it difficult to have the music for all the the staff of COOB'92 made up the team

50 1 2
The bouquets presented to
and were in charge of all the tasks of interviewed. They were found in schools,
the winners, a mixture of management and coordination. colleges and gymnasiums. The selection
carnations and limonium, was made according to criteria of
were designed by Blai Puig.
The medals awards were organised availability and physical coordination and
4 through eight teams working on a rotation lack of inhibition in movements and
The Cuban athletes, in the system which required a minimum of postures.
foreground, who came third
in the 4 X 100 m, and the twenty-eight members, divided into five
US team, winners in the areas of responsibility: three VIP guides, The training of the volunteers was severe:
event, listening to the
anthem of the United States nine medal and bouquet bearers, five they had to set aside one day a week from
after receiving their medals. competitors' guides, eleven flag bearers 1 February to 15 June and full time
6 and raisers and one team leader. dedication from then to the close of the
The president of the IOC, Games on 9 August. The 248 volunteers
Juan Antonio Samaranch, at To find the 248 volunteers —140 girls and did courses in choreography (with practice
the victory ceremony for the
football competition, gave 82 boys— who finally made up the eight in relaxation, rhythm and aesthetics of
the medals to the members of teams there was a selection process from movement) and in make-up and
the Spanish team.
among the 3,000 or so people who were hair dressing.

3 4 6 51

There were far more
The media Press and photographers
journalists at the
Barcelona'92 Games than at The scale of the Barcelona Olympic Early in 1989, COOB'92 created the Press
any previous ones. They were
provided with every facility Games had suggested well beforehand Operations Division to plan and, to a
for their work, as we can see that the news coverage would reach large extent, to implement the projects for
in this view of the press unprecedented dimensions. COOB'92 the services and facilities which had to be
stand at the Palau Sant
Jordi, with positions worked from the outset to provide provided for the journalists and
equipped for television reporters, photographers and radio and photographers during the Games.
commentators (left) and
newspaper reporters television broadcasters with the best
(behind). possible services and facilities. The 1987 edition of the Olympic Charter
established the minimum services which
The expectations aroused were more than the Organising Committee must provide
fulfilled. The media flocked to in for the press, but COOB'92's idea went
Barcelona in far greater numbers than at far beyond that. So that the supply would
previous Games: 12,831 people were correspond to the real needs of the
accredited. And all of them, whether they reporters, the Press Operations Division
worked for newspapers and magazines or made a detailed study of earlier Games
for radio or television, were able to work and observed a large number of sports
in comfort. competitions organised all around the
world. The Division also kept in close
contact with representatives of the
Spanish and international press and the
IOC Press Commission.

The organisation model which was

eventually applied to the Barcelona

Media accreditations Accreditation Description Number
E Senior staff, writers and photo editors 2,825
EP Photographers (pool and non-pool) 778
ES Specialised writers and subsite writers 309
EPs Specialised photographers and subsite photographers 100
ETE Computer staff, electricians, maintenance staff and laboratory staff 290
ENR Radio and television without broadcasting rights 221
PC Administrative staff, drivers, couriers and interpreters 357
Subtotal press 4,880

Radio and television

RT (RTA, RTB, RTC) Management, administrative staff, directors, producers, commentators, technicians, camera operators and
support staff 7,705
RTLs Staff support staff and couriers 246
Subtotal radio and television 7,951

Total 12,831
Games included setting up a press centre Human resources 1
The equipment provided for
at each competition venue, one at the the accredited reporters was
Olympic Village and one at each media In 1991 the team which made up the Press more than adequate, as
shown in this view of the
village (a total of 46), in addition to the Operations Division grew from the commentators' positions in
Main Press Centre (MPC). Furthermore, original four people to over thirty, who the Palau d'Esports in
for the first time in the history of the came from every field of communication. Badalona.
Games, there was a proposal to create an Their average age was also thirty and they 2
Olympic Agency which would produce were in charge of planning a set of Each competition venue had
a press centre providing
and distribute fast, up-to-the-minute services which later, during the Games, reporters with a wide range
information about the sports competitions would be in the hands of almost 4,000 of services. In the photo, the
press director for hockey at
people. the entrance to the press
The Press Operations project had a centre at the Hockey
Stadium in Terrassa.
chance to prove its worth as early as 1989, In mid-1991 the task of selecting and
but the real challenge came in the year training the staff who would be working at
before the Games and in particular at the the press centres began. Each one would
Competitions'91, which revealed the be under the authority of a director, who
modifications that needed to be made was chosen for his knowledge of the sport
before the event itself. Based on this to be played there and his managerial
experience, the common operations capacity. Each director put forward a list
model for all the press centres was drafted of the people who would be working
within the framework of the Standard most closely with him, in particular the
Operations Plan approved by COOB'92. assistant director. The remaining posts
were filled with the help of the corps of
volunteers who were at the disposal of

1 2
3 and 4
The desks on the press stands
January 1992 marked the beginning of the Press centres
were ideal for the journalists catchment and selection phase for the
to work at during the event.
There they were brought
staff who would be working at the MPC: Services
copies of the start lists, staff from COOB'92 itself, technicians
results and news (3), and from associate companies, temporary At each venue press centre the journalists
they had TV monitors workers and volunteers. All of them were (including the photographers and
which received images and
results, as well as telephone given special training over periods of one technicians) had an opportunity to see the
points (4). to three months to enable them to carry sporting competitions live and were
out the task they had been assigned. provided with a series of services to assist
them with their work.
In finding the writers for the Olympic
Agency, the assistance of the Information Press grandstand
Sciences Faculty of the Autonomous
University of Barcelona (UAB) and the The reporters watched the competition
Barcelona Institute of Journalists was from desks installed on the press grandstand
decisive, as was the contribution of the which had been specially designed to
University School of Translators and provide optimum working conditions. Each
Interpreters (EUTI) of the UAB in one had two work stations, a TV monitor
selecting the translators. receiving images of the events with the
information provided by Results
Management and images from the RTO'92
international signal, two telephone
connections and a power point. Periodically,
volunteers distributed printouts of results,
statistics, line-ups, news and start lists.

3 4 57

In the work room at the
In addition to the desks, the press stand material. At the Olympic Stadium, the
press centre at the Real Club had a large number of observers' positions Palau d'Esports in Badalona and the Parc
de Polo —as in all the press separated from those of the radio and del Segre in La Seu d'Urgell there was
centres— there were AMIC
terminals, the system of television workers; they were simple seats also a fully equipped photographic
information and from where reporters could watch the laboratory.
communication for the competition.
Olympic Family (on the
right in the foreground), and Telecommunications room
DOCUMENT system There were also special stations for the
terminals supplying results
for all the day's events via a exclusive use of photographers on the Telefónica supervised and equipped the
tactile screen (at the back of press stand. In addition, in accordance telecommunications room, which was the
the room).
with Article 41 of the Olympic Charter, transmission centre for the press.
2 the photographers' pool was established Journalists could send their reports to
The press conferences were
held in the interview room with five international agencies (AFP, AP, their organisations by means of phone
and were usually chaired by EFE, UPI and REUTER), which had booths with different forms of payment
the press director of the exclusive access to the competition area. and a fax service.
venue in question. In this
case, the press director in
Badalona is dealing with
journalists interviewing
Mixed zone Organisation and resources
Magic Johnson in the
interview room of the Palau Journalists, photographers and The press director of a particular sport
broadcasters had access to the mixed was the person in charge of the operation
zone, an intermediate obstacle-free space of the press centre at the venue —or
between the competition area and the venues— where the events in that sport
changing rooms, where they could ask were held. This person was under the
brief questions of competitors who were authority of the venue director, although
willing to give their first impressions of in certain aspects, such as the Olympic
the event which had just concluded. Agency, he was in direct contact (and
therefore in constant communication)
Interview room with the MPC. The press director's main
job, with the help of an assistant director, 59
The official press conferences for medal was to give support to the journalists for
winners and teams were held in the their work and, in most cases, to chair the
interview room, which was equipped with press conferences. The heads of the
booths for simultaneous interpretation in different sections worked under the
at least the four official languages of the supervision of the press director.
Work room
The head of photography assisted the
The work room, located beside the photographers with their work and
information desk, was for the use of controlled the positions in the competition
reporters. It had terminals for receiving area and on the stands. According to
the Olympic Family information system need, all photographers could move freely
(AMIC) —computers supplying general around the positions assigned to them by
information about the Olympic Games—; their accreditation (playing area, press
DOCUMENT terminals, providing the grandstand or public stands). As they
results for the events of the day, which could not leave these positions during the
could be obtained via a tactile screen; competition, they were provided with an
photocopiers, free phones on the Olympic internal photographic courier service
network and pay phones with outside which collected the used rolls of film and
lines. The room was also equipped with delivered them to the MPC, where they
TV monitors and, in some cases, video were developed.
monitors which reproduced images from
the international RTO'92 signal. Writers
Reprographics room and dark room The chief writer at each venue was
responsible for controlling the work of the
At most venues a reprographics room and reporters at the press centre and ordering
a dark room were installed next door to and supervising the information in the
the work room. In the reprographics room four official languages of the Games. In
copies of the results and start lists were most cases, the translators were on the
produced and sent on to the press stand same premises as the writers.
and the work room. The dark room was
for handling urgent photographic
The writers went to the playing area, the journalists on the press stand and in the 1, 2, 3 and 4
Photographers had special
mixed zone or the VIP grandstand to hold work room, as well as to the occupants of positions according to their
flash interviews, summarize the the VIP grandstand. accreditations, at each venue
(1, Olympic Stadium; 2,
statements made at the press conferences, Piscines Bernat Picornell; 3,
write up the news reports with facts and Summary Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron,
figures and details of the progress of the and 4, Palau d'Esports in
competition and draft chronicles and All the services provided by the 45 press
summaries of the day's sport. They had centres functioned well during the Games.
assistance and technical advice from a But perhaps the one which made the
specialist or statistician, both experts in a greatest impact and was most widely used
particular sport. by the press was the AMIC system, which
dealt with about 8 million references
All the material was processed at the (including 3.5 million for results and news
MPC to be distributed through the and 1.2 million for biographies). The MPC
Olympic Agency. and the Olympic Village recorded the
highest number of references, about
Results 80,000 a day at each.
The person in charge of editing and
distributing the results managed the
reprographics centre. His main task was to
establish priorities for issuing information
according to how the competition was
progressing and to ensure that the
volunteers distributed copies to the

60 4
1 2

Staff and capacity of the press centres Positions on stand
by sport Venue Staff Desk Chair Total Workroom Interview room
AR Camp de Tir amb Arc 25 80 72 152 42 44
AT Olympic Stadium 207 1.000 800 1.800 300 350
BA Estadi de Beisbol de Viladecans 27 40 75 115 32 43
BA Estadi de Beisbol de I'Hospitalet 33 100 94 194 52 60
BB Palau d'Esports de Badalona 69 300 260 560 130 124
BM Pavelló de la Mar Bella 31 48 77 125 40 40
BO Pavelló Club Joventut Badalona 47 154 208 362 100 171
CA Canal Olímpic de Castelldefels 32 124 128 252 67 70
CA Parc del Segre de la Seu d'Urgell 23 40 48 88 48 50
CY Velòdrom 48 128 122 250 90 90
CY Circuit de Ciclisme de l'A-17 24 84 204 288 60 60
CY Circuit de Ciclisme de Sant Sadurní 14 100 117 217 64 64
EQ/MP Real Club de Polo 38 100 140 240 72 75
EQ Centre d'Hípica del Montanyà 30 40 40 40 30
FB Estadi del FC Barcelona 31 132 294 426 144 90
FB Estadi Luis Casanova de Valéncia 25 178 164 342 100 128
FB Estadi del RCD Espanyol 20 150 150 300 84 124
FB Estadio La Romareda de Zaragoza 23 76 75 151 64 76
FB Estadi de la Nova Creu Alta de Sabadell 22 72 92 164 64 60
FE/MP Palau de la Metal-lúrgia 36 72 78 150 32 32
GY Palau Sant Jordi 81 304 245 549 156 135
GY Palau d'Esports de Barcelona 27 170 82 252 16
HB Palau d'Esports de Granollers 37 88 170 258 60 89
HB Palau Sant Jordi 81 304 245 549 156 135
HO Estadi d'Hoquei de Terrassa 32 128 124 252 60 72
JU Palau Blaugrana 48 75 96 171 80 90
MP Estadi Pau Negre 4 50 50
RO Estany de Banyoles 34 90 128 218 80 70 61
SH/MP Camp de Tir Olímpic de Mollet 46 98 50 148 60 289
SW/MP Piscines Bemat Picornell 83 260 384 644 240 140
SW Piscina de Montjuïc (salts de trampolí) 53 64 60 124 64 80
sw Piscina de Montjuïc (waterpolo) 53 36 76 112 64 80
TE Tennis de la Vall d' Hebron 58 196 121 317 144 120
TT Polisportiu Estació del Nord 40 80 78 158 56 63
VB Palau Sant Jordi 81 304 150 454 156 135
VB Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron 16 36 45 81 60 48
VB Palau d'Esports de Barcelona 27 170 170 16
WL Pavelló L'Espanya Industrial 33 150 84 234 64 140
WR INEFC 30 80 110 190 60 105
YA Olympic Harbour 82 80 107
RH Palau Blaugrana 48 75 96 171 80 101
RH Pavelló d'Esports de Reus 17 28 36 64 44 36
RH Pavelló de I'Ateneu de Sant Sadurní 18 24 40 64 64 64
RH Pavelló del Club Patí Vic 18 24 36 60 36 36
PE Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron 9 60 60 60 48
PE Frontó Colom 10 53 53 22
TK Palau Blaugrana 48 75 96 171 80 101
Village Vall d'Hebron 19 100
Village Montigalà 37 180
Olympic Village 22 40 133
For each sport the venues where the competition was held are listed. The totals are not given as the venues with more than one sport
appear with the data for each.
Ràdio-televisió Olímpica'92 The project: from the ORTJO to 1 and 2
The international radio and
(RTO'92) the birth of RTO'92 television signal brought
images of all the Olympic
sports to the whole world.
About 3,500 million people (almost three- It had been foreseen from the outset that To make this possible, 3,337
quarters of the world population) watched in addition to the various existing factors professionals from RTO'92
worked at the International
images of the 1992 Games on television at of complexity in Barcelona (the increase Broadcast Centre (1) and the
some stage of the proceedings. This was in the number of sports, events and hours venues (2).
possible thanks to the 7,951 broadcasters of transmission), it would also be 3
from around the world who were necessary to incorporate the latest To follow the yachting
accredited in Barcelona and the 3,337 advances in technology. Bearing in mind events, the prows of the
boats were equipped with
members of staff who worked for RTO'92 all these factors, it was considered from cameras providing images
and provided live coverage of all the the very beginning of the Candidature without vibration thanks to
the Wescam system.
Olympic sports —except for a few phase that an organisation would have to
preliminary events—, a total of 2,800 be created specially to take care of the 4
hours of live images. coverage of the international radio and For the first time, a
periscope which transmitted
television signal. The different Spanish shots from below and above
These figures, all of them production and radio and TV networks of the time, the water was used to send
images of the swimming.
audience records, are proof in themselves particularly the public ones, were invited
of the paramount importance of television to take part in the venture.
in the promotion of the Olympics; they
also show the extraordinary The first report to set out the minimum
organisational complexity generated by requirements for coverage of the Games
the need to guarantee so many hours' provided a clear definition of the
broadcasting from so many venues, for so objectives of the organisation: "The basic
many sports and to so many countries task of the Radio and Television
around the world. Organisation for the Olympic Games

1 2
One of the technological
(ORTJO) will be to produce the elements of the huge Communications
innovations of the television international signal for the Olympic Media Centre, of which the MPC was also
broadcasting of the Games Games; the secondary task will be to assist part.
was the incorporation of
stabilised optic gyro-zoom the radio and television organisations
cameras. taking part to produce their unilateral Thus, on 28 January 1988, the Organisme
programmes." de Ràdio i Televisió Barcelona'92
The television broadcasts of (ORTB'92) was born, though in the end it
the synchronized swimming The need to guarantee that the was called Ràdio-televisió Olímpica'92
and water polo were also
innovatory: they used international signal was produced (RTO'92).
underwater microcameras objectively and impartially was one of the
operated by remote control.
crucial factors in choosing to create the
ORTJO, rather than turning to an existing
radio and television organisation, as other
Organising Committees had done.
Similarly it was decided not to use the
Ràdio-Televisió Espanyola (RTVE)
production centre in Sant Cugat or the
Corporació Catalana de Ràdio i Televisió
(CCRTV) centre in Sant Joan Despí, but
to set up an International Broadcast
Centre (IBC) designed specially for the
occasion, where no other programmes
would have to be produced at the same
time. The availability of sufficient space in
the Montjuïc Area made it possible to
install the IBC there as one of the

3 4 6 63

On the canopy of the
The resources of RTO'92 41 from the NBC, 17 from ICRTV and 8
Olympic Stadium was a from other organisations.
monorail carrying a camera RTO'92 hired and managed the
activated by remote control
which, from a height of 35 m, production resources and staff required Moreover, RTO'92 found a variety of
provided unusual and to guarantee success in three broad fresh solutions which guaranteed the
spectacular overhead shots fields: the infrastructure at the quality of the transmissions and helped
of the 100 m and 110 m
hurdles. competition venues, the IBC and the broadcasters with their work, most of
telecommunications. them applied for the first time at an event
of the nature of the Barcelona Games.
Under the heading of human resources, The generalised use of digital technology
contracts were signed with RTVE, meant a substantial improvement in the
CCRTV and the European Broadcasting quality of the images, but also —indeed,
Union (EBU), which incorporates all the most important of all— it guaranteed that
main European networks. These contracts the recordings of the 2,800 hours of
established the cession of services and international signal would not deteriorate
technical resources by these organisations with the passage of time, however often
to RTO'92, which took charge of their they were reproduced. Cameras which
administration. provided more expressive images were
used for sports production, making it
Later, agreements were reached with possible to film unprecedented shots of
other networks around the world, such as the competitors in action. This was the
National Broadcasting Company (NBC) case, for example, with the underwater
in the United States or the Instituto cameras or the special ones operated by
Cubano de Radio y Televisión (ICRTV), remote control.
thus making RTO'92 a fully international
organisation, enriched by cultural variety
and the conjunction of different working The international signal for
criteria. the Games
Lastly, during the period of the Games As set out in its foundation statutes, the
3,083 specialist radio and television staff main function of RTO'92 consisted of
worked for RTO'92, to which we should producing and distributing the
add the 254 people who worked on international signal for the Barcelona
production under contracted services Games which, for the first time in history,
agreements. provided live coverage of all the sports on
the official programme (with the
Initial forecasts for the production exception of just a few preliminary
resources were easily surpassed. The first events).
calculations had provided for about 200
cameras, but in the end 500 fixed and 200 In Barcelona, this signal included not only
mobile cameras —automatic ENGs, live images but also replays, slow motion
remote control and special units— camera and the graphics with information
were used. The cameras were distributed about start lists, numbers, names of
at a ratio of between 5 and 45 per venue competitors, flags and initials of countries,
(counting the walking, Marathon and results and world and Olympic records. In
cycling circuits), according to the accordance with the terms of the 1987
importance of the events held at Olympic Charter, all these facts and
each one. figures were given in the Roman alphabet.
The graphics created by RTO'92 were
The Olympic Stadium and the Palau Sant widely accepted by TV channels all
Jordi were the only venues to have around the world; only NBC in the United
permanent radio and television States replaced them with its own for its
installations. The others were covered by broadcasts. The video signal used the
over 50 mobile units, mostly loaned by PAL system with a definition of 625 lines.
RTVE (15), CCRTV (4) and different The radio signal was independent of the
EBU organisations (19): the BBC TV signal as it consisted of atmospheric
(Britain), the RAI (Italy), FR3 (France), sound.
ARD/SWF and ZDF (Germany) and SVT
(Sweden). The 1,200 specialists who By definition the international signal must
worked on these mobile units were a be objective. This means that it may not
further illustration of the international centre interest on the competitors of a
nature of RTO'92: 491 were from RTVE, particular country, but must report on the
130 from CCRTV, 513 from the EBU, events with the impartiality required by
Venue RTO'92 Other networks Mobile units at the competition
venues by sport
AR Camp de Tir amb Arc FR3 (France) ARD-Radio (Germany), NBC (USA)
AT Olympic Stadium YLE (Finland) BBC-TV (Great Britain), Televisa (Mexico), Channel 7 (Australia),
ARD-TV (Germany), CTV (Canada), BOJP (Japan pool),
NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), RMC-TV (Monte Carlo), TF1 (France),
TVE, A2 (France), Canal Plus (France), B1250-HDTV
AT Circuit Olímpic de Marató EBU pool BOJP (Japan pool), NBC (USA)
AT Circuit de Marxa EBU pool
BA Estadi de Beisbol de I'Hospitalet NBC (USA) NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA)
BA Estadi de Besibol de Viladecans ICRTV (Cuba) NBC (USA)
BB Palau d'Esports de Badalona TV3 NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), TVE, B1250-HDTV
BM Pavelló de la Mar Bella DR (Denmark) NBC (USA)
BO Pavelló Club Joventut Badalona NBC (USA) ARD-TV (Germany), NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA)
CA Parc del Segre de la Seu d'Urgell FR3 (France) NBC (USA), B1250-HDTV
CA Canal Olímpic de Castelldefels TVE NBC (USA)
CY Velòdrom TVE ARD-TV (Germany), NBC (USA)
CY Circuit de Ciclisme de l'A-17 EBU pool ARD-TV (Germany), NBC (USA)
CY Circuit de Ciclisme de Sant Sadurní EBU pool ARD-Radio (Germany), NBC (start-finish compound and Cava Alzinar compound)
EQ Real Club de Polo BBC (Great Britain) ARD-TV (Germany), NBC (USA), B1250-HDTV
EQ Centre d'Hípica del Montanyà TVE BBC-TV (Great Britain), NBC (USA)
FB Estadi de la Nova Creu Alta de Sabadell TV3
FB Estadi del FC Barcelona TV3 Televisa (Mexico), NHK-HDTV (Japan), WE, B1250-HDTV
FB Estadi del RCD Espanyol TV3 NBC (USA)
FB Estadi Luis Casanova de Valencia TVE TVE
FB Estadio La Romareda de Zaragoza TVE
FE Palau de la Metal-lúrgia RAI (Italy) B1250-HDTV
GY Palau Sant Jordi ARD/DFF (Germany) NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), TVE, B1250-HDTV
GY Palau d'Esports de Barcelona TVE NBC (USA), TVE
HB Palau d'Esports de Granollers NRK (Norway) NBC (USA), TVE
66 HB Palau Sant Jordi NRK (Norway) NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), TVE, B1250-HDTV
HO Estadi d' Hoquei de Terrassa RTP (Portugal) BBC-TV (Great Britain), NBC (USA)
JU Palau Blaugrana TVE BBC-TV (Great Britain), NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), B1250-HDTV
MP Circuit de Marxa EBU pool
RO Estany de Banyoles TVE BBC-TV (Great Britain), NBC (USA)
SH Camp de Tir Olímpic de Mollet ARD/SWF (Germany) ARD-Radio (Germany), NBC (USA)
SW Piscines Bernat Picornell TVE BBC-TV, Channel 7, BOJP (Japan pool), NHK-HDTV (Japan),
NBC (USA), TVE, Antenne 2 (France), Canal Plus (France), B1250-HDTV
SW Piscina de Montjuìc WE NBC (USA), TVE
TE Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron BBC (Great Britain) BBC-TV (Great Britain) ARD-TV (Germany), NHK-HDTV (Japan), TVE,
TT Polisportiu Estació del Nord SVT (Sweden) ARD-TV (Germany), NBC (USA)
VB Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron TVE NBC (USA)
VB Palau d'Esports de Barcelona TVE NBC (USA), TVE
VB Palau Sant Jordi TVE NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), TVE, B1250-HDTV
WL Pavelló L'Espanya Industrial JRT (Yugoslavia)
YA Olympic Harbour ZDF (Germany) DRT (Denmark), TVE
RH Palau Blaugrana TVE BBC-TV (Great Britain), NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), B1250-HDTV
PE (*)
TK Palau Blaugrana TVE BBC-TV (Great Britain), NHK-HDTV (Japan), NBC (USA), B1250-HDTV
The European Broadcasting Union pool was made up of the following networks:
BRT (Belgium, NOS (Netherlands), RTA (Algeria), TSR (Russia), TV3 and TVE.
(*) No mobile units installed.
1 an international audience according to the of skills there, from the camera operators
Norwegian television mobile
unit. interest of the competitions as they located at strategic points from where
progress. For this reason, some television they could capture the best shots to the
For the television broadcast networks used the international signal in producer who decided from the mobile
of the walk and the combination with their own unilateral unit which image to use at any given
Marathon and some of the coverage, which allowed them to report moment, not forgetting the electricians,
athletics events held in the
Olympic Stadium, electric from an angle more in harmony with the sound technicians, controllers and others.
vehicles were used. particular interests of their audiences. At the Olympic Stadium, for example,
3 250 people were working directly for
The rowing events, held on For the channels which wanted to RTO'92.
Banyoles Lake, were
recorded by cameras on personalize their broadcasts, RTO'92
board boats, among others. provided a series of resources and services But apart from the infrastructure required
at the forty or so competition venues and for the production of the international
the IBC and assisted with the transport of signal, RTO'92 was also in charge of
audio and video signals between all supplying all the material which the 140
points. accredited radio and TV channels could
rent to personalize their own coverage.
This personalized coverage also included
Personalized coverage everything which was exclusive to each
channel: from the commentators who
The production of images to be seen on talked over the images to the mixing
television screens in the four corners of —in the most complex cases— of the
the globe began, naturally, at the venue images of the international signal with
where the event to be broadcast was those of other cameras which a particular
taking place. It was therefore essential to channel had installed on the platforms
have a large team of people with a variety supplied by RTO'92 for the purpose.

1 2 3 67
Usually that meant that the channel had commentators developed by COOB'92 in
to send a mobile unit to the compound at association with IBM. This was a
the sports venue itself. computerized tactile screen system called
CIS (Commentator Information System),
In this field too, initial calculations were which provided facts and figures in real
left far behind: the 800 commentators' time about the most important
positions available in Seoul increased to competitions: athletics, gymnastics (artistic
about 1,500 in Barcelona and the number and rhythmic), swimming (races and
of requests for space on the camera diving), cycling, equestrian events and
platforms and in the compounds was also canoeing (slalom). Moreover, 200 RTO'92
far higher. liaison officials distributed photocopies
with the most important information
Commentators' positions about the competitions to the
commentators at all the venues.
The commentators reporting on the
competitions for the various networks Altogether there were 1,200
were working from positions with the best commentators' positions with this
possible view. Each one was equipped equipment and about 300 other positions
with a table, three chairs, a commentators' which had just a telephone connection;
unit, two sets of earphones and two from the reporting positions, other
microphones, a TV monitor to receive commentators could provide internal
images of the competition in progress and information for their network, but not for
others taking place at other venues at the the audience. Moreover, in addition to the
same time and, lastly, a new information commentators' positions, RTO'92 set up a
system for the exclusive use of total of 1,600 observers' positions from

Venue TVE TV3 EBU NBC ICRTV Others Total RTO'92 mobile unit staff
AR Camp de Tir amb Arc 24 24
AT Olympic Stadium 52 14 24 1 91
AT/CY/MP Circuit races* 22 99 1 122
BA Estadi de Beisbol de I'Hospitalet 21 21
BA Estadi de Beisbol de Viladecans 17 17
BB Palau d'Esports de Badalona 54 54
BM Pavelló de la Mar Bella 17 17
BO Pavelló Club Joventut Badalona 20 6 26
CA Canal Olímpic de Castelldefels 37 37
CA Parc del Segre de la Seu d'Urgell 28 28
CY Velòdrom 30 30
EQ Real Club de Polo 29 29
EQ Centre d'Hípica del Montanyà 14 14
FB Estadis del FC Barcelona/RCD Espanyol 20 20
FB Estadi Luis Casanova de Valencia 21 21
FB Estadio La Romareda de Zaragoza 21 21
FB Estadi de la Nova Creu Alta de Sabadell 19 19
FE Palau de la Metal-lúrgia 23 23
GY/HB/VB Palau Sant Jordi 44 23 16 83
GY/VB Palau d'Esports de Barcelona 25 25
HB Palau d'Esports de Granollers 32 32
HO Estadi d'Hoquei de Terrassa 41 41
JU/TK Palau Blaugrana 36 36
RO Estany de Banyoles 49 49
SH Camp de Tir Olímpic de Mollet 23 23
SW/MP Piscines Bernat Picornell 34 34
SW Piscina de Montjuïc 48 48
TE Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron 45 45
TT Polisportiu Estació del Nord 17 17
VB/PE Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron 23 23
WL Pavelló L'Espanya Industrial 25 25
WR INEFC 47 47
YA Olympic Harbour 2 56 58
Total 491 130 513 41 17 8 1,200
* Circuit Olímpic de Marató, Circuit de Marxa, Circuit de Ciclisme de l'A-17, Circuit de Ciclisme de Sant Sadumí and Circuit de Cros.
1 and 2
The commentators'
where commentators waiting their turn or broadcasters interested in personalization.
positions, as at the Piscines having to transmit information on Demand was such that new platforms
Bernat Picornell (1) or the programmes or summaries later in the day were installed at all the competition
Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron
(2), always commanded an could also follow the competition. venues. At the Olympic Stadium, for
optimum view of the example, RTO'92 built a "gondola" above
competition area and were Camera platforms the main booth to locate 30 or so of the
fully equipped. Among
other services, they had a 120 cameras which covered the opening
new system of information As we have said already, in order to ceremony.
for commentators.
personalize the coverage the network in
question could take its own cameras to the Compounds
venue. It also needed production control
set up in its own mobile unit with the The compounds were large open areas
necessary staff. This meant that not many where the mobile units receiving the
networks had the resources necessary to images from the cameras and producing
personalize broadcasts and no network the programmes to be sent later to the
could personalize the broadcasts for all IBC were located. They were equipped
the sports, only the ones which were of with services of all kinds, always close to
most interest to their audience. Even so, the venue, and usually just outside
requests to place cameras at the venues (sometimes even inside).
were far more numerous in Barcelona
than at earlier Olympic Games. The compounds were designed to hold the
RTO'92 mobile units and those of other
In most cases, the criterion followed was networks which had applied for
to extend the international signal camera personalized broadcasts from the venue in
platforms to make room for the question. Although they were calculated

1 2 69
Venue Commentators' positions Observers' positions Commentators' positions at the
AR Camp de Tir amb Arc 17 24
AT Olympic Stadium 159 170
BA Estadi de Beisbol de Viladecans 14 24
BA Estadi de Beisbol de I'Hospitalet 18 20
BB Palau d'Esports de Badalona 67 126
BM Pavelló de la Mar Bella 18 20
BO Pavelló Club Joventut Badalona 64 63
CA Canal Olímpic de Castelldefels 40
CA Parc del Segre de la Seu d'Urgell 22 27
CY Velòdrom 53 41
CY Circuit de Ciclisme de l'A-17 29 32
CY Circuit de Ciclisme de Sant Sadumí 40 35
EQ/MP Real Club de Polo 46 40
EQ Centre d'Hípica del Montanyà 18 16
FB Estadi del FC Barcelona 66 65
FB Estadi Luis Casanova de Valencia 20 37
FB Estadi del RCD Espanyol 24 30
FB Estadio La Romareda de Zaragoza 20 32
FB Estadi de la Nova Creu Alta de Sabadell 24 32
FE/MP Palau de la Metal-lúrgia 30 36
GY/HBA/B Palau Sant Jordi 86 70
GY/VB Palau d'Esports de Barcelona 50 56
HB Palau d'Esports de Granollers 27 37
HO Estadi d'Hoquei de Terrassa (camp 1) 24 40
HO Estadi d'Hoquei de Terrassa (camp 2) 14 20
JU Palau Blaugrana 47 42
RO Estany de Banyoles 51 60

70 SH/MP Camp de Tir Olímpic de Mollet 23 8

SW/MP Piscines Bernat Picomell 95 75
SW Piscina de Montjuïc (salts de trampolí) 41 40
SW Piscina de Montjuïc (waterpolo) 30 24
TE Tennis de la Vall d' Hebron (pista central) 52 42
TE Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron (pista núm. 1) 28 32
TT Polisportlu Estació del Nord 29 30
VB Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron 30 40
WL Pavelló L'Espanya Industrial 36 40
WR INEFC 38 36
YA Olympic Harbour 24 25

Commentators from
and sized in each case according to collected and processed the applications
different TV networks (in the demand, RTO'92 was able to accept last- from the networks which were interested
background) describe to minute requests and accommodate all the before the Games began. Moreover, all
their audiences a wrestling
event being contested at the mobile units in the compounds without the channels which had acquired the
INEFC, whilst reporters and disturbing the internal operation of the rights to personal broadcasts were allowed
photographers work from areas. to bring ENG cameras into the venues
their positions on the press
stand (foreground). —with no guarantee of a free space on the
ENG cameras platforms—, provided that the cameras
The ENG or "hand-held" had been duly accredited.
cameras were much used for The different networks personalized the
the production of recorded
programmes and summaries. broadcasts by installing their own cameras Mixed zones
on the platforms and through a mobile
The mobile units were unit in the compound which was used for For the personalized broadcasts, the radio
parked in the compounds the production of live programmes. In and television networks mainly attended
beside the venue, as here at addition, the ENG (Electronic News interviews with competitors whose
the Palau d'Esports in
Granollers. Gathering) cameras were a resource used opinions were most likely to be of interest
even more frequently at the Games, as to their audiences. These flash interviews
they were suitable for the production of were held in the mixed zones, located —at
recorded programmes or summaries. all the venues— between the changing
rooms and the competition area, where
Unlike the live broadcast cameras, the the competitors passed just before or after
ENG cameras did not need a mobile unit an event.
to send the signal, as they recorded
images on a tape which would be used Whether broadcasting live or recording
later for production. To guarantee a space (through the ENG and recording
for them on the platforms, RTO'92 cameras), the networks waited in the

2 3 71
mixed zone for the competitors they Telecommunications 1 and 3
The flash interviews with
wanted to interview. To avoid a crush, an competitors, before and after
order of priorities was established: the live The international signal and the events, were held in the
mixed zones located between
RTO'92 camera, then the other live personalized signals of the different the changing rooms and the
cameras, the live radio stations, the ENG networks had to reach the IBC from the competition area, as at the
cameras, the editor-in-chief of the unit mobile units where they were produced. Palau Blaugrana (1) or the
Olympic Stadium (3).
and the press. To guarantee the quality and security of
the circulation of the audio and video 2 and 4
A good telecommunications
Pre- and post-unilaterals signals, RTO'92 designed a network in system was indispensable for
association with Telefónica and Retevisión. guaranteeing that the
international signal and the
RTO'92 provided yet another way of signals from channels
making personal broadcasts for all This network made it possible to transport personalising their
networks which did not have their own broadcasts were transmitted
the signal by different means according to from the mobile units to the
mobile unit. One of the cameras used by its origin. To avoid problems of saturation IBC.
RTO'92 during the competition was of the radioelectric spectrum in the city of
placed at the disposal of the organisations Barcelona, the Montjuïc (including the
which did not have live cameras, once a IBC), Diagonal, Vall d'Hebron and Parc
booking had been made. This enabled de Mar Areas and the Collserola mast
them to hold interviews or include were linked by an optical fibre network.
commentaries in front of camera in the The signal from all the venues in the
competition area itself up to five minutes subsites was also transmitted to the
before the event began or five minutes Collserola mast, but in that case through
after it ended. microwave links. Both systems were
duplicated with back-up links in case of a
failure of the main network.

1 3

2 4
Diagram of the transmission of the As can be seen from the diagram, us here, even if briefly, is how this
television signals
when the signal had reached the IBC it "communications mega-city" of almost
1 Olympic Stadium was transported along another 100,000 square metres was constituted.
2 Barcelona Satellite optical fibre network to the Penedès
Communications Centre
3 Collserola mast satellite communications centre, from The Candidature project had already
4 Subsites
5 Other competition venues in
where it could be sent to any point of reckoned that, for the first time in the
Barcelona the globe. history of the Olympic Games, the MPC
6 Telecommunications room and IBC would form a single complex,
located in the Barcelona Trade Fair
Commentators The Communications Media Centre precinct at the foot of Montjuïc. The MPC
used the Palau de Congresses and the
Recorders The operations base where all the Palau Firal and the IBC halls 1, 2 and 13.
activities of the press and photographers In both cases, the space available had to
Càmeres de televisió came together was the Main Press Centre. be shared between the area for the
For the radio and television broadcasters, common services required by the users of
Direct optical fibre it was the International Broadcast Centre. the centre (press, photographers, radio
network These two huge spaces together made up and TV broadcasters) and the area
Alternative optical fibre the common services area in the Plaça de designed to meet media demands for
network l'Univers, the giant Communications rental space. Whilst the common services
Media Centre (CMC). The services area was predictable from the outset, the
provided by the CMC during the Games rental space was always subject to possible
for the entire media group —and last-minute variations, and so indeed it
specifically the operation of the MPC and turned out.
the IBC— have been dealt with in
Volume IV of this Report. What concerns

1 2


1 and 2
The Communications Media
Rental spaces at the MPC When conversion work began on the
Centre (CMC) was divided MPC in May 1992 the spaces requested
into a common services area The rental space and equipment service at had already been allocated to the media
and two large spaces: (1) the
International Broadcast the MPC did not begin to take final shape organisations, which had, in turn,
Centre (IBC) and (2) the until March 1991. Initial estimates completed the indispensable
Main Press Centre (MPC). indicated that the rental space for press administrative procedures. Before the
3 and photographers would have to be opening of the MPC on 11 July everything
The operations base for about 8,200 m2, and so the whole of the was ready and waiting and during the
journalists and
photographers was the MPC, Palau Firal was set aside for the purpose, Games the space and services rental
which had this large work
whilst the Palau de Congresses was continued to function and was able to
reserved for the common services. For the meet all last-minute demands.
4, 5 and 6 first time, the project included the
At the MPC all the rental production of a computer programme
spaces were in the Palau
Firal. Among the agencies specially designed to manage the space
and newspapers from all rental service.
over the world that occupied
the 8,000 m2 of space was
"USA Today" (4) and
the Japanese agencies
The last date for reception of firm
Chunichi & Tokyo (5) and applications from the media around the
Kishimoto (6). world was 30 September 1991;
confirmation involved immediate
payment of 50% of the rent for the space
and services. When the final date came,
the number of applications made it
necessary to modify the initial forecast, as
12,000 m2 of rental space were required.

4 6 75

Communications Media
Owner and manager of the
Fira Oficial i Internacional de
Mostres de Barcelona
Year of inauguration
Olympic Village: 5.5 km
IOC residence: 3km

General plan
1 Accreditations Centre
2 Common Services Centre (CSC)
3 International Broadcast Centre
4 Main Press Centre (MPC)
5 Pedestrian access
6 Vehicle access
7 Entrances to underground car
8 Emergency exit
9 Loading and unloading area
10 General stores
Ground floor
COOB'92 Services
11 Accreditations Centre and
Observer Services Centre
12 General logistics stores,
telecommunications, photography
and common services area
13 Restaurant
76 14 Bar
15 Kitchen
16 Food store

International Broadcast Centre

17 Reception and information area
18 Radio and television stores
19 Meeting room
20 Reprographics room
21 Internal security room
22 Radio and television unilateral
technical area
Main Press Centre (MPC)
23 Reception and information area
24 Protocol and services area
25 Left luggage
26 International agencies rental
offices area
27 Space reserved for offices of the
Barcelona International Trade
1, 2, 3 and 4
In the IBC rental spaces the
Rental spaces at the IBC areas were distributed around the three
television networks had the halls (1, 2 and 13) available.
production centres for their As with the MFC, the confirmation of
programmes, often with
studios from where they bookings for rental spaces made it The conversion of the halls began just ten
could report to their necessary to increase the original months before the start of the Games and
audiences. The network with provisions for the total surface area of the was completed on the day of the official
most space was NBC of the
United States (2); Japan was IBC (35,000 m2) to 45,000 m2, twice the opening of the IBC, 1 July. One month
among the countries sending area occupied by the same centre in before, the RTO'92 offices and all the
the largest number of
resources, as we can see here Seoul. The rental and common service staff working in them had moved there.
from the TBS (1 and 3) or
FNN (4) studios.

1 2 3

The capacity of the Piscines
The adaptation of the facilities Consequently, for the adaptation project
Bernat Picornell was each and every one of the particular
increased by 7,500 seats on The differences (in architecture, space requirements of the different sectors had
temporary stands. Their size
and the steep slope by which distribution, basic networks and even to be specified, whether for the areas
they rose to their full height image and signposting) between the themselves or for the technological
made the venue extremely ordinary conditions of use of the various infrastructures, cable television,
facilities and the requirements generated computer and electrical networks or
by the Olympic Games were the motive air-conditioning.
for the Olympic adaptation project, which
was designed to prepare the sites for the
occasion. The scope of the project was The stages of the Olympic
considerable; it included the conversion of adaptation
43 competition venues, 44 training
facilities, 19 residential areas (Villages, The adaptation project can be divided
hotels and ships), 34 support centres and into two clearly differentiated stages. The
17 service centres (hospitals, accreditation first (on which the Sports, Press, RTO,
centres, reception, etc.). Technology, Ticketing and other divisions
worked) consisted of distributing the
The new facilities were built bearing in spaces according to their function and use
mind the fact that they would be used for and the estimated needs of each kind of
different purposes after the Games, user, while the second involved the
although they had to be prepared first and detailed internal distribution of each of
foremost for strictly Olympic use. With the large spaces, also according to the
the existing ones, efforts were made to groups which would be using them. These
adapt the different spaces to the specific two phases were carried out between
requirements of the activities that were to autumn 1989 and June 1991.
take place during the Games and the
needs of the various sectors which would As early as the beginning of the second
be taking part: press and photographers, phase, a competition was convened to
radio and television broadcasters, assign the different projects. By this
competitors, spectators, VIPs). means, four engineering companies and
one architecture and engineering studio
Given the scope of the projects of were chosen. Each was provided with the
adaptation of the Villages, the Main Press necessary documents to draft the final
Centre (MPC) and the International project. During this period, it was
Broadcast Centre (IBC), the respective essential for all the parties involved to
divisions were put in charge, as explained consult with each other on the
in the relevant chapters. adaptation projects and therefore the
people in charge, the users and the
At the competition venues, the areas to be authors of the different projects all took
used for sport were adapted to the an active part. The projects were
demands of the International Federations, definitively formalised between October
whilst the spaces for the use of the media and December 1991.
obeyed the criteria set out by the IOC for
the minimum requisites for the written, A project approval committee, made up
graphic and electronic coverage of the of all the parties which had intervened in
Games. the process, was responsible for giving the
green light. In this last phase of
The application of these guidelines was integration and in the formal act of
the starting point for the adaptation of all approval the representatives of the
the facilities. Furthermore, it had to be projects involved and the unit managers
remembered that some of them, such as or their assistants played a particularly
the Estació del Nord, were not normally important role. At the end of January
used for sport; others were used for the 1992, after forty days of intensive work, all
practice of sports other than the ones the projects had been approved.
which would be played there during the
Games; and others, such as the Palau
d'Esports in Barcelona, had to cater for The scope of the project
competitions in more than one sport, the
effort involved being far greater due to The basic adaptation work for the
the fact that the same venue had to be Olympic Games ranged over aspects as
prepared for quite disparate kinds of different as architecture, electrical and
sporting activity. mechanical installations, data-processing,
telecommunications, radio and television essence. Demands were assumed 1
The Terrassa hockey ground
and the image of the facilities. according to expenses and expenses was among the venues
according to indispensable needs in a requiring the most
adaptation, both of the
We can have an idea of the scope of the complex process in which, once the playing field and the
work done from the volume of materials projects had been approved and the surroundings. In the picture,
the moment when the
used. Among the most noteworthy are the budgets closed, the latter were close to the artificial turf is finally laid.
397 prefabricated booths (with a surface forecasts (at very high percentages). The
area of 6,300 m2), 160 tents (with a total general budget for the adaptation of 2
The Pavelló de la Vall
surface area of 30,000 m2), 1,300 kiosks sports facilities and support centres was d'Hebron, a new
(with a total surface area of 11,700 m2), 8,680 million pesetas, of which 7,355 construction of recognised
architectural merit, during
90,000 seats to increase the spectator million were for the former and 1,325 the adaptation phase.
capacity at the venues, 75 kilometres of million for the latter.
fencing, 2,972 desks for the press and
1,688 for RTO'92, equipment for boosting The basic architectural operations
the lighting (4,500 kW), 160 generators consisted of extending and distributing
(57,865 kW), the continuous feed system space to meet functional needs for
(3,600 kVa), air-conditioning (18,000,000 enclosing sites and ordering circulation.
frigories, equivalent to four times the
power of the air-conditioning installed at Prefabricated awnings and modules were
the Palau Sant Jordi), 900 kilometres of used to extend the spaces, kiosks were
cable, 10,500 tables, 25,000 chairs, 3,500 installed for concessionaires and
armchairs, 20,000 cupboards, 5,000 waste organisation services, shady areas were
paper baskets, 1,080 chemical toilets and created for the outdoor venues and the
167 simultaneous interpretation booths. sites were enclosed with double
fencing, around the perimeter and in the
Throughout the entire process of drafting interior.
the projects, budgetary control was of the

1 2
3 and 4
The adaptation of the venues
As part of the distribution of space, needs in the fields of computers,
required the installation of technical rooms were set up (for radio, telecommunications and radio and
about 90,000 seats to extend television, sound control, security, data- television, main rings, branch circuits,
spectator capacity and over
4,000 desks for the press and processing, scoreboards, distribution networks and terminals were
RTO'92. telecommunications, commentators) and installed.
areas provided for the organisation and
the different groups of users. The Other Olympic adaptation work consisted
spectator capacity was increased at some of signposting the facilities according to
venues by installing temporary stands; the established image criteria and
desks were put in for the press and RTO; extending or supplying fire extinction and
chemical toilets were provided wherever air-conditioning equipment. Furthermore,
necessary; and the rooms were all landscape gardening work was done in the
furnished. surroundings.
All the facilities were equipped with a
double supply of electricity: public system Contracting
plus generator or two generators.
Moreover, all of them were provided with Contracting was undoubtedly one of the
an electrical distribution network and keys to the Olympic adaptation process.
conduits to meet the technological It began a year before the Games, even
requirements of communications, before the different projects were
information processing, etc. This complete, and therefore when their exact
distribution network also had control scope was still unknown.
elements, particularly a continuous feed
system, which guaranteed an COOB'92 acted as main contractor;
uninterrupted flow of power. To meet this method was chosen as it was

3 4 83
1 1 and 5
Two details of the assembly
of the temporary stands at
the Piscines Bernat
The rear part of the stands
installed in Banyoles for the
rowing competition, with the
application of the Olympic
look which brought unity
and beauty to the venues.
View of the temporary
stands at the Real Club de
View of the extension to the
Velòdrom d'Horta, with a
temporary stand with nearly
3,000 seats.

84 2 3 5

The lighting at some of the
considered to be the most suitable for a Lastly, an agreement was signed with new
venues was boosted to project of such characteristics, in which installers and extended to adaptation and
improve visibility for provision for possible last-minute changes maintenance during the Games. The sum
television broadcasts.
—as indeed was the case— and the for these contracts represented 40% of
7, 8 and 9 inescapable need to finish the work by a the budget; the remaining 60%, set aside
160 tents (with a surface date which could not be postponed could for minor civil works, was distributed
area of just over 30,000 m2)
were used to extend the have left the Organising Committee in a among various industrial firms. This
spaces and 1,300 kiosks particularly vulnerable position. flexibility in contracting, necessary for the
(with a surface area of
11,700 m2) were installed for reasons already explained, meant that an
concessionaires and the
services of the organisation.
For the supply and assembly average of fifteen industrial firms worked
—two crucial sectors which had to be on each facility.
10 guaranteed in good time because of the
All the venues had an great demand, sometimes generated by
electric network and Thus, with these specific provisions for
conduits for computers and COOB'92 itself—, framework contracts each aspect of the adaptation work (the
communication. were established between autumn 1990 establishment of framework contracts to
and spring 1991. Through competitions, cover the basic elements and flexibility in
the assembly of the temporary stands was contracting for activities and facilities
awarded to three suppliers, and the from a list of industrialists selected
awnings, the kiosks, the screens, the according to their capacity and cost),
signposting, the fencing, the containers, general requirements and all supplies
the desks and the chemical toilets to one could be guaranteed and COOB'92 was
supplier each. In this way the assured of the control of this extremely
Organising Committee could work with complex operation.
global estimates and at unit prices.

6 7 9 85

8 10
Programming and implementing made on each work. In this way the facts
the adaptation and figures necessary for an intervention
at the right moment were constantly
Simultaneous operations at different sites, available.
the interlinking of activities and the short
time period available for the works Thanks to the planning which was a
(except in the case of the venues built by feature of the contracting and the
COOB'92), as the owners ceded the programming of the measures to be taken,
facilities between 22 April and 15 June, the implementation consisted of meeting
called for a precise, tailor-made method, the forecasts without any hiccups other
with information in real time and strict than the predictable ones. The activities
computerized monitoring, which provided that required the most attention and time
a week by week report on the progress of were the assembly of the temporary
the works, supplemented every day by stands to increase the spectator capacity
direct explanations. at some of the venues and the extension
of the electric power supply.
This computerized monitoring was based
on a list drawn up from a model project Twenty days before the opening of the
which enumerated all the possible Games, the operational tests began and
activities connected with the standard one week before the assembly was already
areas of the adaptation project. These complete, except for a few small details, at
activities were awarded percentage points almost all the facilities. Of the whole set
according to expenses and the answers of adaptation works, approximately 20%
—strictly affirmative or negative— have not been dismantled, but left as
provided information about the finished permanent improvements to the facilities.
facilities and the percentage advances

Stages of Olympic adaption
Distribution of space and equipment by function

Internal distribution of space and equipment by function

Global requirements of the services networks

Adaptation project. Assignment

Drafting the Olympic adaptation project

Contracting the suppliers

Adaptation for Competitions'91

Adaptation projects approved

Olympic adaptation works done


1989 1990 1991 1992

Over 1000 chemical toilets
The human resources The structure resulting from this growth
were used to supplement the in staff numbers was organised
permanent services at the The adaptation of the facilities was territorially in three areas of activity:
competition venues in view
of the extensions and basically done by the Infrastructures and Montjuïc, the rest of Barcelona and the
temporary spaces which had Construction Divisions. The weight of the subsites. At each facility there was a
been added. programming of the permanent projects person in charge of the services and
2 and the adaptation was borne by the another in charge of civil works, who was
A moment of the installation Infrastructures Division, whilst the final under the authority of the head of the
of the track at the Olympic
Stadium. operation and the implementation of the territorial unit in question.
projects was the responsibility of the
Both the prefabricated Construction Division.
modules and the tents
provided extra space for the The number of facilities, their dispersion
organisation services at
many venues. and the tight margin of time available to
adapt them to the needs of the Games
called for an increase in human resources:
thus, between January and May 1992 the
original number of 35 members of staff
had grown to 128. They came from the
engineering firms that had carried out the
projects and some of the associate
companies, among others; in order to
control growth, they joined the full-time
staff gradually as the projects reached

1 2 3 87
The materials management
Materials logistics First, a general criterion was adopted:
project included transferring responsibility for storing the
coordinating the supply of The Materials Logistics Department was materials and distributing them directly at
goods, storing materials,
distributing them to the in charge of three main projects: materials their destinations to the suppliers to save
different units and the management, import-export operations on expenses, reduce the strain on
operation of collecting and the distribution of uniforms. administrative resources and simplify the
everything up after the
Games. The COOB'92 Materials management was a particularly operation by cutting down the number of
general warehouses covered complex operation owing to the wide times the material would have to be
a surface area of 21,000 m2,
to be used for storing the variety (from promotional items, such as transported.
wide range of materials bathrobes, pins, track suits and stationery,
required for the organisation
of an event on the scale of to electronic or computer equipment, in Second, a logistics supplier, Danzas S.A.,
the Olympic Games. addition to all the sports material) which was commissioned with the management
had to be stored, distributed and of the general warehouses and the
transported to the facilities. distribution of the materials to the
The import-export operations,
concentrated mainly in the six months Third, COOB'92 rented the spaces to be
leading up to the Games, also involved a used as general warehouses directly.
wide range of materials which had to be
given special treatment.
Planning and managing the supplies
Lastly, controlling the production and
manufacture of the 50,000 uniforms Different people and divisions were
required for the Games was also a large involved in the process of choosing and
scale operation. supplying the materials, as they were the
ones in charge of the projects which would
These are the three aspects which we shall decide which and how many materials
be analysing in detail in this chapter. would be needed and where they had to
be delivered. For example, the transport
project proposed radiocommunication 91
Materials management between most of the vehicles in the fleet
and the transport command post. These
The materials management project requirements were passed on to the
included coordinating the supply of goods, division responsible, in this case
storing materials, distributing them at the Telecommunications and Electronics,
places where they would be needed when which gathered together the needs for all
the time came and collecting them once projects in this field. Once the division
the Games were over. had analysed them and decided on the
materials and equipment, it grouped them
The most problematic points of this by similar characteristics, investigated the
operation were the planning and market, invited tenders and chose the
quantification of the materials, as in order supplier according to the sponsorship
to have exact facts and figures and not just agreements already signed. The Logistics
more or less approximate estimates, other Division intervened to settle the logistical
COOB'92 projects had to have been aspects of the deliveries with the supplier
completed. (dates, places, packaging, etc.) and to
provide administrative support.
In June 1989 the Logistics Department
began the job of analysing and planning As the contracting could not be
the organisation and management system postponed until the spaces and services
and in January 1990 presented the had been finally decided —for the reasons
preliminary project to the COOB'92 already explained—, this system was
management. It identified the three based on the framework contracts already
fundamental features which would be established, plus the price of the
definitively established in the project materials, the services connected with
produced in October the same year. delivering them, setting them up and
collecting them at the end.
Given the organisational complexity of
this operation (mainly due to the For the purposes of logistical management
impossibility of foreseeing real needs far and inventories, the classification criteria
enough ahead), the project was simplified were based on the nature of the materials
by means of three strategies. and were grouped under four headings
(family, subfamily, category and
subcategory), up to a total of 25 families A computer programme was designed to
divided into 106 subfamilies. This monitor the stocks and control the budget
classification was most useful from the simultaneously.
operational point of view.
The supplies were analysed from two Type and surface area of the
complementary points of view. First, in warehouses
the preliminary project of January 1990,
the purchases budget expected 10% to be To have an element for extrapolating and
spent that year, 20% in the second half of comparing the data from Los Angeles and
1991 because of the Competitions'91, and Seoul the ratio between the square metres
the remaining 70% in the first six months needed and the number of competitors
of 1992. The real percentages of was calculated.
distribution of the purchases were 2% in
1990, 25% in 1991 and 72% in 1992. In Los Angeles in 1984, there was a
centralised model (that is to say, little
At the same time, the needs were storage space at the units) which used
analysed by divisions and projects, i.e., 29,230 square metres of general
from the point of view of types of warehouse for 6,000 competitors, a ratio
material. In this case there was of 4.88 square metres per competitor.
considerable divergence between the In Seoul in 1988, on the other hand, a
forecasts and the reality due to changes decentralised model was applied, with
made to the projects and distribution by 18,000 square metres of general
units. Altogether, 10% of these orders warehouses for 8,000 competitors, a
were placed in 1990, 20% in 1991 and ratio of 2.25 square metres per
70% in 1992. competitor.

Construction • 3,568 orders (32 %) Orders processed by the divisions
(total: 11,138)

Others • 2,861 orders (26 %)

Administration and finance • 1,442 orders (13 %)

Villages • 1,253 orders (11 %)

Telecommunications and electronics • 783 orders (7 %)

Sports logistics • 689 orders (6 %)

Image and communication • 542 orders (5 %)

For Barcelona, with a decentralised model Font Màgica (the ground floor of one of
which bore more resemblance to Seoul the COOB'92 buildings): Font Màgica
than to Los Angeles, the ratio set was 3 (250 m2); El Prat, 6 kilometres from
square metres per competitor, slightly Barcelona (11,000 m2); Port (2,000 m2);
more than in Seoul, as Barcelona would Zona Franca (7,000 m2), and Enher, 10
not have the use of the Olympic facilities kilometres from Barcelona (800 m2). The
until close to the Games, which made it total available was 21,000 m2, 70 % of the
necessary to use the general warehouse as planned 30,000 m2, and the maximum used
a materials depot. was 14,500 m2, 48% of the expected
amount. The movement of merchandise in
Bearing in mind how the needs evolved, these warehouses was 9,962 m3 in 1991
we may say that the reality was quite (21% of the total) and 37,649 in 1992
different from the forecasts, as reflected in (79%).
the table. The differences between the
expected and the real use of the As far as storage at the units was
warehouses were a consequence of the concerned, it was decided to have one
management of supplies and the warehouse at each, provided that the
application of the criterion that the material was managed directly by
suppliers should take charge of the COOB'92, and space was leased to some
storage of their materials. Moreover, suppliers (Telefonica, Seiko and Coca-
storage capacity at the venues was greatly Cola, among others) so that they could
increased during the final weeks of the manage their own warehouses.
adaptation phase.
The space available at the unit
The needs were covered using the warehouses was 17,275 m2: 8,750 m2 at the
following premises, all rented except for Olympic Villages and 8,525 m2 at the

Quarterly evolution of space 93

requirements at the central warehouses

* The first estimates, which were made before all the projects had been closed and therefore in ignorance of real needs, were
revised downwards when it was confirmed that the suppliers would assume responsibility for storing the material ordered from
In the end, the warehouses were used far less than expected, as storage space at some sites became available earlier than
remaining units. The maximum use of of the facilities, began just a few days
these warehouses was about 70%. before the opening ceremony and lasted
until the end of the Games, when there
was an increase in activity when the
Storage, distribution and transport materials had to be collected and returned
to the COOB'92 warehouses. During this
The storage and distribution operation period the general warehouses reached
was divided into three stages. During the maximum occupation, a total of 14,500 m2.
first, in 1991, 9,000 m2 of warehouses were
available and 3,000 m2 were used, basically The logistics operation involved 457
for the internal needs of COOB'92 and journeys and 11,236 m3 transported in
the special requirements of the 1991 and 1,615 journeys and 42,406 m3
Competitions'91. transported in 1992. The total number of
cubic metres transported (53,642) was
Later, the conversion and adaptation greater than the total movement in the
phase (the first half of 1992) involved general warehouses (47,611); the difference
large scale movement of materials and is accounted for by the goods which were
10,300 m2 of warehouses were used, transported from one unit to another
distributed around four premises. There without passing through the general
was also a fleet of vehicles belonging to warehouses.
Danzas, S. A., consisting of six heavy
goods lorries, four large ones, seven small
ones and five small vans.

The third stage, in which most of the

materials were moved around the interior

94 Equipment used for handling

material at the sites
1, 2, 3 and 4
The central warehouses had
The organisation at the units The materials management department at
a fleet of vehicles of their each unit was responsible for monitoring
own. Moreover, during the The Logistics Department prepared the the supply of the materials which were
Games each unit had its own
vans for transporting small system and drafted an operations under the direct control of COOB'92. But
packages. manual for the physical and not all the units had a materials
administrative management of the management team, as the volume of
materials, for moving them at the units activity at some of them (such as the
and for stocktaking. training facilities) did not justify one and
others were serviced by nearby units.
It also took charge of the planning,
recruitment and supply of staff. This The management and coordination of
involved selecting and hiring 546 people dismantling the units was the final task of
on a temporary basis (as volunteers could the Logistics Centre. That was the stage
not be asked to work over such a long which called for the greatest effort of
period), who formed teams at each unit coordination between the materials
from February 1992, together with the management teams at the units, the
32 people who already worked in the Logistics Centre, the Assets Sales
department. Department and the suppliers who had
loaned material.
During the Games, the department
became a Logistics Centre and
coordinated the implementation of three
projects: Olympic cargo, production and
distribution of uniforms and materials

1 2 4 95

Human resources Summary
The activities involved in materials An overall assessment of the project is
management, apart from a few occasional positive, both in terms of the good service
services which were subcontracted during provided and the monitoring of the
the Games, were carried out by 578 movement of material and stocktaking.
people. The functional distribution of The importance given to materials
these human resources is shown in the management and the conviction that the
table. work had to be done with precision were
highly influential factors in this positive
During the centralised phase, the balance.
Logistics Department had one member of
staff in 1989, nine in 1990 and fifteen in The coordination of the management of
1991. In 1992 they began to move to their the different supplies between the
new work places at the units. Logistics Department and Administration
and Finances Division had good computer
The gradual incorporation of new back-up, which was of great assistance
members of staff, which was particularly with budget control and stocktaking.
intense in June and July 1992, and their
training were important functions of the The subcontracting of storage and
department. distribution to a logistics supplier was also
highly positive, as it was a guarantee that
the necessary resources could be obtained
almost immediately and at a reasonable
price. Moreover, the vans managed by

Directors and assistants Auxiliaries and administrative staff Total Distribution of human resources for
materials management
Olympic Villages 14 232 246
Logistics centres 10 22 32
Other sites 64 236 300
Total 88 490 578
1 and 2
The dismantling and
COOB'92 and assigned to the units were had to be imported or exported for the
collection of materials at the also most useful, as they left part of the Games.
units —one of the more supplier's transport capacity free and
complex logistical aspects—
called for great coordination provided considerable flexibility in the On the one hand were the operations
and an increase in security case of small transport. which COOB'92 or its supplier companies
at the sites to protect had to carry out for purchases abroad and
COOB'92's assets.
The dismantling and collection of on the other the import and export of
materials at the units may well have been materials for the groups which took part
the most critical aspect; responsibility for in the Games (National Olympic
the operation continued into the period Committees, International Federations,
after the Games, when everyone was etc.). These materials were known as the
naturally tired. Good direction and Olympic cargo.
coordination by the unit managers and
increased security to protect the assets Fernando Roqué Especialidades, S.A., of
which were still under the responsibility of the Royal Nelloyd Group, was assigned
COOB'92 were all the more necessary the category of official supplier of
during this final stage. international goods transport and customs
agent and worked in close cooperation
with the Spanish customs authorities to
Import-export operations simplify the formalities and obtain
exemptions from duty.
COOB'92 assumed responsibility for
planning and coordinating the In 1990 and 1991, COOB'92 and its
international transport and customs suppliers imported a large number of
dispatch service for all the materials that goods, basically special building materials,

1 2 97
technological and sports equipment. total of 2,841 tonnes (75% by the media; 1
COOB'92 coordinated the
Altogether 197 operations were carried the remaining 25% were re-exports of international transport and
out. material imported temporarily by customs formalities for the
materials which had to be
COOB'92 or its suppliers). imported or exported for the
Games. Arms, horses and
The operation before the Games Imports during the first half of 1992 boats received special
treatment adjusted to legal
conditions. Many of the
The customs and transport manual set out Users of imports No. boats for the yachting events
arrived in Barcelona in
the customs formalities for the Olympic containers and were
cargo and specific procedures for the COOB'92 and industrial suppliers transported direct from the
dispatch point to the
import of certain materials. The manual of the Games 541 Olympic Harbour.
and the labels for the Olympic cargo were Media 124
sent at the end of April 1992 to the people NOC and IF 263 The arms and ammunition
in charge of the groups who would be Other groups (IOC, VIPs, etc.) 59 were transported to the
taking part in the Games. Mollet shooting range in
security vans.
Total 987
Over the six months leading up to the
Games, 987 import operations (196
definitive and 791 temporary) were
carried out.

During that period, imports reached a

total of 5,306 tonnes. The users appear in
the table below. Once the Games were
over there were 582 export operations, a

98 2
Warehouses of the official
COOB'92, the Customs Authority and operational, worked full time. Sixteen
supplier of international Fernando Roqué Especialidades, S.A. large and medium tonnage vehicles were
goods transport and customs
decided to set up a warehouse for used for distribution.
receiving merchandise from where the
4 and 6 customs formalities for imported material This import operation was further
The horses were transported would be carried out. When the material complicated by the transport strike in
by a specialised agent
according to the sanitary arrived at the frontier (La Jonquera, France on the days immediately before
regulations for the import of Barcelona airport, the Port of Barcelona, the Games, which brought the road
live animals. 188 horses
were taken to the Real Club the Barcelona TIR terminal and Girona accesses, the customs posts and the Iberia
de Polo and El Montanyà
for the equestrian
airport, mainly), a transit document was cargo terminal to a standstill. Fortunately,
competition. prepared at the COOB'92 customs the organisation was able to react
warehouse, which was independent of the accordingly and successfully overcome the
Most of the boats coming general warehouse and located on the difficulties of a few unexpectedly critical
from Europe arrived in Zona Franca industrial estate. From there, days.
Barcelona on trailers. the materials were distributed directly to
their destinations and the formalities for
the import documents were expedited. Materials requiring special treatment
At that warehouse, which was in Arms, horses and boats received special
operation from 11 July to 30 September treatment, according to the legal
and had a surface area of 7,000 m2—of conditions that applied to them. Arms and
which 4,000 m2 were used at the time of ammunition for the shooting and modern
maximum activity—, 7,000 tonnes of pentathlon events, for example, were kept
merchandise were received and 20 in the custody of the Guardia Civil on
members of staff, administrative and arrival in the country and were

3 4 6 99


1 and 2
The need to outfit all the
transported to the Mollet shooting range Another a priori consideration in this
different groups taking part in security vans. Altogether, about 600 project was to simplify and standardise
in the organisation of the weapons and their ammunition were the measurements and design of the
Games called for a complex
operation to plan, moved. uniforms (with minimum tailoring) as far
manufacture and distribute as possible to make production easier.
over 50,000 uniforms. The horses were imported by a specialised
agent with due observation of the health The manufacture and distribution were
regulations for the import of live animals commissioned from El Corte Inglés, the
and transported direct to the Real Club de department store, which had the capacity
Polo and El Montanyà equestrian centre. to carry out an operation as complex as
188 horses were transported in all. The this one. COOB'92 assumed direct
cooperation of the authorities involved control, amongst other reasons so that the
helped to ensure the success of the right uniform would be given to the right
operation. person at the right moment.
The boats belonging to the competitors The phases of this operation were: design
arrived in containers which were of the uniforms, calculation of the
transported direct from the dispatch point requirements, requisites for production,
to the Olympic Harbour. There were 150 allocation of the uniforms to the staff,
in all, but that figure does not take into distribution and dealing with incidents.
account the ones which arrived on trailers
(most of them from Europe) and the ones In the process of calculating the
which the organisation imported direct in requirements, the first step was to obtain
mid-1991. initial estimates of the total number of
people who would be working in the
organisation; the second was to decide the
Uniforms numbers of each type of uniform
according to the work places; the third
Following the tradition already was to calculate the quantities by type and 101
established at earlier Olympic Games, sex; and the last was to calculate the
uniforms had to be made for the different quantities by size, type and sex.
groups: Team'92, the referees and the
judges, a total of about 50,000 people. The uniform supplier needed to have the
The uniforms for the people taking part most exact calculation possible from the
in the opening and closing ceremonies outset so as to begin production according
were the responsibility of Ovideo-Bassat- to real needs.
At the end of 1990, COOB'92 produced
This project involved the Image and statistics of sex and age from the
Communication Division (which took volunteers data base, but without relating
charge of the design, as explained in them to the type of uniform (although
Chapter 10 of this volume), the Planning certain estimates could be made from the
and Control Division (which decided on expected numbers of staff for medical
the different types and calculated the care, drivers and so on).
number that would be required by
Team'92), the Sports Division (which In summer 1991, while the volunteers who
calculated the number for the referees had to be accredited for Competitions'91
and judges) and the Logistics Department were at the Font Màgica, measurements
(which assumed the tracking and control were taken for these 6,700 people. That
of manufacture and distribution). provided the first statistical measurement
base, which was applied to the uniforms of
The Team'92 uniforms were designed for the auxiliary staff. At the end of 1991, the
easy identification of the group and the measurements for the 1,000 people who
style matched the overall style of the made up the staff of COOB'92 were taken
Games. The number and variety of and the information was used as a basis
models were limited so that they could be for the tailoring. Lastly, in order to collect
quickly recognised by the public and the the most reliable data, in December 1991
Olympic Family and designed for the jobs all the volunteers were asked to send in
to be done by the people wearing them. their measurements.
According to these criteria, three
categories (management, technicians and Uniforms were assigned automatically to
auxiliaries) were established and five each person from their allocation to work
colours chosen. places, a task which fell to the Planning
and Control Division. Each week —and 1,600 uniforms were issued; 1,100 at the 1
The uniforms were assigned
later on each day—, this information was Olympic Village in La Seu d'Urgell; at El automatically by jobs. The
sent to El Corte Inglés. Corte Ingles in Valencia, 700; at El Corte mustard colour characterised
the uniform of the language
Ingles in Zaragoza, 600, and along the route hosts.
It was calculated that for an absolutely of the Olympic torch, 11,000.
sequential process 15,000 m2 of storage 2
The sports technicians and
space would be required. The different The uniforms were issued as late as possible auxiliaries wore green
distribution centres received the material to avoid loss, last-minute withdrawals, etc. uniforms. The hat was an
indispensable accessory for
from a central warehouse. Production was The process followed a calendar covering people who had to work
staggered so that the process would be requirements, volume of distribution and outdoors.
gradual. issues just a few days before the Games for 3
the judges and referees and foreign Royal blue was the colour of
the organisation technicians
The uniforms were distributed from eight volunteers. and auxiliaries, the largest
points in Barcelona and the subsites, apart group of all.
from the ones which were given out on There were about 2,500 incidents. The main 4
the torch route. In Barcelona, uniforms ones were due to withdrawals and The referees and judges wore
could be collected at the following places: replacements, changes in job allocation, red uniforms, very easy to
El Corte Inglés (Plaça de Catalunya) with a shortages of some sizes and, to a lesser
total of 9,500 given out; El Corte Inglés extent, flaws, theft or loss. They were all
(Diagonal) for the technicians of the resolved with the approval of the Uniforms
general and sports organisation, where Department.
9,200 were issued; and the Palau
d'Alfons XIII in the Barcelona Trade Fair The final balance, although clearly positive,
for the auxiliary staff, where 27,000 were shows that fewer distinctions of type and
issued. At the Banyoles Olympic Village colour for easy recognition by the public

102 1 2 4

The different types of
and the Olympic Family were necessary— were proud to be seen in it during the
uniform were suitable for the notwithstanding the advantages of a clear Games and to be able to keep it as a
tasks of each sector and differentiation by function. It would also souvenir. This personal value placed on the
provided maximum comfort.
have been a good idea to reduce the uniform —setting aside organisational
6 amount of tailoring involved. considerations— made it particularly
The uniforms were important to resolve the incidents and
distributed at eight points in
Barcelona and at each Lastly, we should stress the great value of ensure that the needs of each and every
subsite. the uniform for the people who wore it and person were satisfied.

5 6 103
The Montjuïc tower, by
General considerations and The awarding of large contracts
Santiago Calatrava, rises in evolution
the centre of the Olympic On the basis of the aims and strategies set
Ring. Built with the support
of Telefónica, it was one of out in the Technology Plan, research was
the most important Introduction carried out in the markets for all the
technological contributions necessary components. Tenders were
made by the Barcelona
Games to the city. The Barcelona Candidature for the 1992 invited for each of the important lines of
Games considered one of the key action and the "framework" contracts
elements of the Olympic organisation to were negotiated, that is, the award of the
be the impact and structuring of most important sections of the Plan which,
technology. The Olympic Office therefore in time, would become projects and sub-
commissioned the Barcelona Computing projects. As a consequence of this, all the
and Telecommunications Study (BIT'92) computing hardware was awarded to
which covered all the technology projects IBM, results management software to
and questions about systems, television EDS, operational management software
and electronics which were crucial for the to the Sema Group T & G, Olympic
organisation of the Games. The report's Family communication and computing
recommendations were included in the systems to Eritel, business management
Candidature Dossier which was presented software to Càlcul i Gestió, publishing
to the IOC in March 1986 for approval. systems to Rank Xerox,
Once COOB'92 had been constituted in telecommunications systems to
February 1987, BIT'92 underwent its first Telefónica, fixed radio communications to
revision. During the period of preparation Telettra, PBXs to Ericsson, sound and
for the Games, the technology projects image systems to Philips, the international
operated in a highly autonomous manner. media information system and
In the operations phase, however, all the transmission equipment to Alcatel and
technology projects were integrated office automation to Apple. All these
within the structure of the territorial units contracts were awarded in 1988 and they
and the CIOT (the Technology represented 75% of the budget for 107
Information and Operations Centre). technology.

BIT'92 The companies' participation took the

form of sponsorship, which increased their
Between the last quarter of 1987 and the level of commitment. The final result was
first quarter of 1988, BIT'92 was revised in a technology service of the highest quality
order to clearly establish the aims and with a sponsorship coverage which broke
strategies to be followed. During those records in comparison with previous
months it was decided which projects were Olympic Games.
necessary, what their functions would be
and the magnitude of each was calculated The development of the Technology
in order to estimate the human and Plan
economic resources necessary to carry
them out. The chief aim was not only to Firstly, the support services for internal
establish the main lines of action, but also administration were put into action, that is
to explain to the companies within the to say, the business management system
sector what COOB'92 needed in order to (accounting, pay-roll, purchases etc., with
receive the best tenders. With this in mind, the use of an IBM AS/400) and office
a campaign was undertaken to inform automation and computer assisted design
employers' associations, chambers of (CAD).
commerce and professional associations
about the technology programmes. After the experience gained from the
observation of the Seoul Games in
One of the basic criteria upon which the September 1988, the first revisions to the
revision of BIT'92 was based was the Plan were made. Development teams
grouping of the different projects so as to were created and the initial functional
facilitate subcontracting their specifications were drawn up for the other
development and the final preparations projects.
for all the systems. However, the
requirements, planning and control of the In 1990, rapid progress was made on all
technology projects, as well as the the projects. During the course of the
integration of the different systems all year, the first prototypes were used, which
depended on the COOB'92 technology was useful for confirming the
managerial staff. requirements. The IBM calculation centre
Project Service Company Assignment of projects and services
Internal telephones Network Telefónica
PBXs Ericsson
Cabling Sintel
Public networks Telefonica
Transmission network Ibermic Telefónica
Terminals Telephone Telefónica
Fax Ricoh
Videoconference Telefónica
Radio communications Philips / Indelec
Portable transceivers Motorola
Radio network Telefónica
Wavelength control Directorate General of Telecommunications
CATV Head ends Jerold / Televes
Cabling Sintel
Receivers Philips
Videos Panasonic
Transmission equipment Alcatel
Track instruments Seiko
Scoreboards Alphanumeric Seiko
Sport Baybor / Olimpex
Giant screens Vidiwall Philips
Jumbotron Sony
PA Philips
Sport CCTV Panasonic
Accreditations Photography Kodak
Personal access control IECISA
Materials access control Metal detectors Kryptos / Garret

108 X-ray Siemens

Security CCTV ECV
Intruder detection systems AISA
Project tracking methodology SCYT (CCS)
Computing systems Central systems IBM
Local systems IBM
Basic software IBM
Technical support IBM
Local network design IBM
Simulation IBM / UIB
Monitoring and control software IBM / BIDISA (Legent) SELESTA (Candle)
Company management software (SIGE) Cálculo y gestión
Results management software (SIR) EDS
Commentator information system software (SICC) IBM
Printed results distribution system (DOCUMENT) software and equipment Xerox
Olympic Family Information System (AMIC) software Eritel
Operations management information software (SIGO) LITE (Sema Group, T&G)
Photocopying Xerox
Archiving and documentation Xerox
Space management and CAD Disel
Facilities management Sema Group
Local support for users at fixed sites Centrisa
Office automation (equipment and software) Apple
Office automation (user support) Compuservice
Olympic Games promotion Alcatel
Olympic database CIDC
The design of the
gave support to all the software technological functions between the units
scoreboards was appropriate companies by means of a network of and the centre as part of the general
to the sporting requirements terminals. Kodak was awarded the organisational framework of COOB'92
of the competition venues.
accreditation system, Panasonic was and most importantly, during the
2 named joint partner for the supply of preparatory and operations phases.
The Standard Installations video equipment and Ricoh for the supply
Plan defined the
technological adaptation of of fax machines. Seiko was chosen for Deployment
the territorial units. track and timing instruments and the giant
screen in the Stadium was awarded to In 1991, Competitions'91 put the whole
Sony. organisational structure of COOB'92 to
the test. The technology department
As well as monitoring the general programmed more than a hundred tests in
progress of all the technology systems, order to put the finishing touches to
COOB'92 also put the Standard procedures, equipment, materials and
Operations Plan (PNO) into action. This manpower.
defined the organisational structure which
COOB'92 would have to have during the At the beginning of 1991, the first of the
Games and it included the technology two large Games computers, an IBM
operation model and the Standard ES/9000, the most modern of its kind,
Installations Plan (PNI) which defined the went into operation. During the first six
adaptation of the technological months of the year most of the sound
installations at the different units. systems were installed at the new facilities
and telecommunications rooms were
These plans, which were of supreme prepared for most of the competition
importance for the smooth running of the units. The contracts for the security
Games, made allowance for the sharing of systems and cable television were also

1 2 109
awarded, thereby concluding most of the unit had a high degree of functional
basic contractual arrangements. autonomy. The CIOT coordinated the
territorial operations and the physical
The experience of Competitions'91 led to systems (telephone systems, CATV and
the refurbishment of some parts of the radio communications). More than 5,500
technology facilities at the territorial units people were involved in all the technology
being accelerated and in some cases this projects.
meant having to negotiate with the
owners of the facilities about the Dismantling
possibility of going in before the date of
formal cession to COOB'92. The months Immediately after the competitions had
prior to the Games were spent mainly by finished at the different units, all the
on the one hand, putting the finishing equipment which had been used during
touches to the software, preparing the the Games was dismantled (terminals,
operational procedures and selecting and televisions, telephones, faxes,
training the teams necessary for smooth photocopiers and track equipment) in
operation and on the other, by installing order to leave the facilities in a fit state for
all the necessary computing, their usual purpose again. In some cases,
telecommunications and electronic however, the installations provided for the
equipment. Games (such as cables and sound
equipment) were left behind to form part
The operation of the fixtures at the facilities. Those
responsible for the installation of the
Shortly before the Games commenced, equipment were usually responsible for
COOB'92 decided to establish a the dismantling.
decentralised organisation in which each

Phase Base element Staff Organisation Structure Main tasks Preparation for The organisation process
focus the following phase
Planning System Minimum General Technology Identification and Methodology
for planning Division extent of the Priority
General budget Detailed budgets
Assignment to Contracting
Project Project Needed for control Specialist Data-processing Development Determine final
Development and Systems Construction quantities
Division Operational evaluation
Telecommunications and acceptance
and Electronics
Installation Territorial unit Specific to the Specialist Matrix Design Dismantling
installation Division-Territorial Installation
Unit Implementation
Pre-operation System Own General Territorial Procedures
Volunteers Training
Operation System Own General Territorial Operation
The phases of the technology decide upon a progress calendar and a
projects preparation programme up to the start of
the Games, decide on an implementation
The COOB'92 technology section procedure, award contracts to suitable
included a large number of projects which companies and corporations and decide
belonged to very varied disciplines. There upon the optimum budgets and staffing
were cable and radio telecommunications levels to carry out the whole process.
projects (of different types according to
their purpose and the technology Development of the project
employed), multi-function computing
projects with different equipment, This brought together all the tasks
electronic projects and sound, vision and required of each project since the
electronic security projects. preliminary project, the technologies to be
employed, the entire calendar and all
The diverse nature of all the projects is costs. It also included design, construction
reflected by the progress chart for each and/or codification, the planned events
one. Nevertheless, it is possible to talk of and initial acceptance in those cases when
a generalised structure which covered all the creation of new products or systems
the tasks to be covered by the various had been necessary, as was the case with
projects. all the computing projects and some of the
electronic ones to be used in the
Planning competitions.

This included all the essential tasks This phase also included the tasks
necessary to decide upon the equipment associated with the exact dimensioning of
needed, determine the scope of the tasks, all the elements necessary for the

General planning of the 111

technological projects Planning

Project development




1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

A moment from the
operation, human resources and which supported the preparation for the
Europa B Athletics technological equipment as well as other Games. The content and length of the
Championship held in material resources. It was necessary to preparatory and installation phases was
August 1991 at the Olympic
Stadium. At the decide on the total quantity of resources dependent on the nature of the various
Competitions'91, COOB'92 needed and distribute them amongst more projects. In general, however, it can be
tested the technological than a hundred spaces or facilities where
structure which would have said that most of the projects were carried
to operate during the Games. technology had been assigned a role. out in accordance with the programme set
Other tasks, which naturally were also out in the Table on page 111. The
adapted to real needs, were aimed at Olympic Games preparation support
ensuring the practicability of the systems projects in advance of this calendar were:
and at guaranteeing their ability to cope
with the large scale of the Olympic Games. • Office automation, operative from the
first quarter of 1988
Installation • Internal administration computing
systems, operative from 1988 or 1989
This included all the tasks necessary to depending on the applications
ensure that the products or systems were • Publications Centre, operative from
installed at the established places and on 1989
the dates required in order to be able to • The design assistance and space
carry out the tasks prior to the operation management centres, operative from
and the operation itself. These tasks could 1989
be very different depending on the nature • The digitalized documentation archive,
of the products or services. Special operative from 1990
mention should be made of all the systems • The internal telephone network,
which required the physical installation of operative from 1988
cabling, since this had to be integrated • Radio networks, operative from 1990
with other activities connected with • The electronic security system, operative
preparing the competition units and from 1989, according to needs and most
Olympic Villages. In most cases this especially, 113
preparation was performed in a very • The Games calculation centre (CSA)
limited period of time. Another important and the technical systems service,
task was the deployment of terminal operative from the beginning of 1990.
equipment at the units.
Also some projects which included
With respect to the installation of reservation services (as was the case with
networks, the small number of specialised the Olympic Family Accommodation)
companies in the market made it were operational well before the Games,
absolutely necessary both to plan well and generally in 1991, but in some cases, at the
to have a large measure of flexibility in beginning of 1992.
order to re-route the cabling in the event
of problems.
Organisation and evolution of the
Preparation for the operation technology projects
This encompassed all the activities aimed Like the whole Olympic organisation, in
at training of the personnel who would 1988 the COOB'92 technology section
have to operate the systems, supply was at the planning stage. At that time,
technical support and training to all the there were a very small number of people
groups who would be the end users. on the technology staff (there were 10
people for all technological functions) and
The operation they were working on a very broad basis.

This heading covers not only the actual In addition to the tasks of the
operation of the systems but also all those identification of each system, the
tasks aimed at putting them into determination of its scope, of the global
operation and maintaining them fully progress and installation calendar (tasks
operational without neglecting either mentioned above in the section dealing
performance or capacity. with the planning phase), a transition was
made to the next stage using the following
Despite the fact that most of the systems procedures:
were designed to be operational during
the Olympic Games, some had to be • a specific methodology for monitoring
operational long before, such as those the technology projects
• giving priority to activities within each controlling the progress made,
system accepting the product or system once it
• drafting specific contracts with the had been developed and bringing the
sub-contractors, and equipment and human resources
• detailed project budgets which were deployment proposals into action in such
followed until the end of the Olympic a way as to ensure a smoothly running
Games. operation.

The various projects were awarded at the The organisational focus given to the staff
end of 1988 and at the beginning of 1989 was a specialist one and the project
(see the Table on page 108), which meant managers were appointed according the
that most of the projects entered the the nature of the project in question. This
progress stage at the beginning of 1989. was also reflected in the organisation
chart, which had a hierarchical structure
(project, system, division, from lower to
The project higher) forming part of the COOB'92
Data-processing or Telecommunications
The basic element upon which work was and Electronics Divisions.
carried out in 1989 was the project, and
this entailed a large increase in the Under the global criteria for approving
number of staff in the technology section the product/system, a process called
(74 people in 1991) who were responsible operative evaluation was included for
for leading the 58 plans included in the many of the systems developed. The
Master Plan. They acted as an interface system was placed in conditions which,
between the users and the companies for while not exactly the same as the final
defining the requirements, monitoring and ones, allowed adjustments and changes to

Block Nature Project System typology
1 Distribution of standard equipment. No special installation needed Photocopiers
(just electric power) Pagers
Television monitors
Closed-group radiotelephony
Short-range radiotelephony
Mobile telephones

2 Distribution of standard equipment. Special installation needed Electronic security

(usually cabling, prior design) Conference rooms
CCTV for sport
Office automation
Accreditations (photography)

3 Systems development (hardware and software) Results information system (SIR)

Commentator information system (SICO)
Olympic Family information system (AMIC)
Business management information system (SIGE)
Track instruments
Results distribution system (DOCUMENT)

4 Complex central services Internal telephones

Data telecommunications network
Data processing centre
Publications centre
Private radiotelephony network
Public networks
1 and 2
The first projects developed
be made which would have been differed according to the level of
by the technology impossible during the short period of time complexity.
department were the support the Olympic Games lasted.
services for COOB'92
internal management: Installation
company management and The main steps to be taken in order to go
office automation. on to the following phase were: The installation phase was important
because of its scale (see the Table on page
a) to determine the number of terminals 118) and because of the time limitations
and the location of each of them imposed by the date fixed for the opening
(necessary for network design and for the of the Games and by the dates on which
installation phase) the different facilities were ceded to
b) to determine the human resources COOB'92 by their owners. During this
necessary for the operation phase, relations with the team responsible
c) to prepare the user and training for adapting the units were very important.
documentation (necessary for the For example, the fact that a quality power
preparation stage prior to the operation). supply was available at the right moment
was fundamental in order to consider the
Project implementation installation and testing of the networks and
technological equipment complete.
When considering the implementation of
the project and especially the installation, Preparation of the territorial unit
it is worth remembering that not all the
projects were of the same complexity or This phase took place at the same time as
length. The Table on page 114 groups the the operation preparation phase, which
projects according to this criterion; called for the creation of a specific
implementation and installation naturally structure.

1 2 115
The key element was the territorial unit, resources intended for the operational
for which the technology installation, phase and using the products or technical
especially the networks, had been services which were the result of the
designed and the installation and integration of one or more projects (which
deployment of terminals prepared and is what we have described as systems).
undertaken. Thus, the Results Information Service
(SIR) was the final product obtained by
In spite of the fact that during this phase integrating the projects of timing, track
the main objective was the territorial unit, instruments, score boards, results
the organisational focus was on the information, information for
projects, that is to say, following the commentators, DOCUMENT and so on.
specialist criteria with a complementary The operational phase was prepared for
monitoring structured according to unit or by each unit and system by system. The
group of units. In carrying out the organisational focus was, necessarily, a
installation, thought was given, not only to wide one since the same people had
the operation, but also to preparing for responsibilities for different systems.
dismantling, a very large task that would During this phase, the main tasks were to
have to be carried out at a time when it draw up the operational procedures and
was foreseen that the COOB'92 staff team training, which took the form of
would be somewhat tired. trials.

Preparation for the operation The operation

Preparation for the operation took place Finally the operational phase began. It
at the level of the territorial unit, was short, intense and had a structure
whenever possible with the human similar to the previous one, that is, it was

Typical organisation chart for
technology in a territorial unit
Electronic security was one
administered by each territorial unit with important events and the order of priority
of the projects included in coordinated central support from the of functions.
the Olympic CIOT.
programme. In accordance with the principle of
conservative planning it was decided to
The Seiko company supplied Strategies and adaptation prepare the technology systems which
track instruments and required a certain amount of development
screens. The projects were drawn up and a year before the Games commenced.
3 structured according to strategies which Thus, there would be sufficient time to
The Results Management took account of the nature of the venue or absorb any unforeseen delay and to
System was the product of
integrating the time-keeping, facility in question. These are detailed devote the necessary time to the tasks of
track instruments, below. preparation and operation.
scoreboards, results
information, commentator
information, DOCUMENT Fixed date As it was realised that the plan would
and other projects. often be inadequate unless everyone knew
The service had to be provided during a that there were also unavoidable
set time period which was determined by commitments involved, the second main
fixed dates, which meant that all the tasks point was to take part in important test
of development, installation and events that would be held to coincide with
preparation had to be carried out in the dates set for the completion of the
sufficient time to avoid the occurrence of projects.
situations which it would not be possible
to resolve at the last moment. The The third key point was the order of
strategy adopted to confront this priority of the functions which had to be
challenge rested on three main points: included in each of the three versions
conservative planning, participation in planned for technological products, in

1 3 117

such a way that the first version included Another strategy, adopted especially for
absolutely essential functions and the the large-scale computing systems, was
other versions included other, desirable simulations which put all the software and
ones. hardware tools available into operation.

Short duration Large scale

The second characteristic of the service The third characteristic of the technology
was its short duration and consequently service was its large scale, and this made
the practical impossibility of correcting the standardisation and industrialisation
errors and of making adjustments to the of certain processes advisable.
system after it had been put into
operation, which is usual under more When talking of large scale, this refers not
normal circumstances. In order to meet only to absolute terms—4,500 personal
this challenge, there was a two-pronged computers installed during the operations
thrust to the organisational strategy: phase is a respectable figure—but also to
operative evaluation and simulations. the organisational complexity implied by
staging the events for 28 sports during a
An operative evaluation was made after short period of time simultaneously and at
the initial acceptance of the technological a large number of different venues. On
systems when it had been shown that they many occasions this complexity also
were in working order. It consisted of involved certain repetitive aspects. To a
putting the system into operation either certain extent this meant that once a
with real tests or by means of simulations system had been developed, a replica,
in order to reveal any possible faults often with minor modifications, could be
which could only be exposed in this way. made for each of the units.

Quantity Quantity Technology quantities
Private telephones 10,000 Giant screens 3
Public telephones 1,000 Sound at venues 65
Standard telephones 2,000 Conference rooms 47
Fax terminals 617 Accreditation lines 38
Ibermic lines 225 Access control bar-code readers 550
TMA terminals 407 Hand-held metal detectors 1,850
Press terminals 3,900 Arcos detectores de metales 387
Radio-trunking terminals 2,110 CCTV cameras 470
Portable transceivers 3,800 Portable terminals for the press 4,000
Pagers 3,340 PS/2 - AMIC terminals 1,510
Televisions 10,000 PS/2 - SIGO terminals 300
Videos 1,200 PS/2 - SICO terminals 1,050
Head ends 53 PS/2 - SIR terminals 950
Displays 31 DOCUMENT terminals 605
Photocopiers 700 Office automation computers 715
1,510 AMIC terminals were
Standardisation made this replication computers and preparing them for
distributed around the sites much easier with respect to design, the operation.
for information and assignment to the unit and the
communication among the
different sectors of the industrialisation of the installation Immediate response
Olympic Family and the process. This standardisation, which
organisation. assured the homogeneity which is so The need to receive an immediate
2 important when operating on so large a response when using the systems, as well
Desks reserved for the media scale, also had a positive impact on the as their critical nature and visibility, were
working in Banyoles, the site
of the rowing competition. operation, since it facilitated the all matters to be borne in mind. For these
Cable television (CATV) homogenisation of the operating reasons it was decided to use proven
provided links between all
the Olympic subsites and the procedures, giving a great deal of technology, to freeze innovation, to
International Broadcast flexibility to the assignment of staff and provide redundant solutions and to have
simplifying their training. emergency procedures available.

Another basic strategy to confront the The use of the most modern proven
scale of the operation was the technology meant that the people
industrialisation of the processes. This was responsible had to choose with great care.
especially applicable to the tasks of When a new technology is introduced in
installation. Thus, thanks to the effort that computing it is still in a phase in which it
had been put into the design and is frequently updated. For the user it is
organisation of the process, there could be very important to continue with one
speedy accomplishment of certain particular version, leaving aside the
activities which, under other possible advantages that a new version
circumstances, would have taken longer may provide if this would entail a lack of
than the time available. This strategy was stability.
applied, for example, to deploying

1 2 119
It was also necessary to take other design and straightforward 1 and 2
View of the main room of
precautions to head off any unforeseen documentation. the Information and
events. The most important was to Technology Operations
Centre (CIOT). The CIOT,
prepare alternative solutions in case the In all of the systems which were operated which came into operation
applied procedures failed. Emergency directly by members of the Olympic in May 1992, was in charge
of an exhaustive monitoring
procedures were also prepared to provide Family (SICO, DOCUMENT, AMIC) a of the central and local
minimum operational capability so that in large number of volunteers who had been technological systems which
no case would the operation of the Games trained during the preparation stage of the functioned during the
be paralysed. Games were given the task of resolving
any doubts or problems that might arise.
The impossibility of rehearsal
The last characteristic which it is
Finally, the practical impossibility of necessary to mention regarding the
having a prior rehearsal for the users for development of the technology systems is
most of the systems was borne in mind. that they had to be developed, or at least
Many of the users, even if they formed started, without the direct participation of
part of the Olympic organisation, were the end users. Many of them appeared a
volunteers who had very little time to few days before the Games began and
familiarise themselves with the system. others were incorporated into the
The other users were members of the organisational structure of COOB'92 after
Olympic Family for whom it was the projects were under way, often
practically impossible to plan for training without being aware of project
due to the large number of people requirements, since many of them were at
involved and the dates of arrival. It was the stage of defining the scope of their
precisely for this reason that it was own projects and organisational strategies.
decided to opt for an easy-to-operate This had a very important effect on the

1 2
The Olympic back-up
definition of the project requirements was implemented based on some sixty
network was monitored from which, contrary to what would have been territorial units (the only structure that
one of the CIOT desirable, was made in an improvised could work for the Olympic Games) and a
installations, by staff from
the world of computers or manner in order to press ahead. central coordinating organ was created
university faculties and and informed of all the problems that
technical schools. To take account of the risks that were could not be solved locally or that might
inherent in this unavoidable situation, affect other units. This centre provided
flexible applications were designed and the necessary support to solve the
operative evaluations were carried out. problems and as far as technology was
The design of the applications and the concerned, the centre was the Technology
tools used in the systems allowed for a Information and Operations Centre
certain flexibility, and it was consequently (CIOT). The CIOT started work at the
possible to change some of the requisites beginning of May 1992 in order to
(especially those concerned with the monitor the installation phase, which
outputs) with the minimum of fuss. included such matters as the basic
preparations, the installation of
These points characterised the systems equipment and putting the applications
and teams as having strategies aimed at into operation.
integration, decentralisation, ergonomics
and robustness. In order to inform the people involved in
any incident, an exhaustive monitoring of
the central (telephone network, data
The CIOT transmission network and central
computers) and local (results
As the Olympic organisation entered the management) systems took place during
final straight, a decentralised structure the operational phase.

3 121
Another important aspect was the fact demonstrated their ability at coordination
that the operations directors of the in similar work places.
different companies involved in the
Games technology were all in one place in The technicians responsible for the results
order to ensure that, in the event of and for system support were practising
incidents, no unilateral decision which professionals chosen from the world of
might have an adverse effect on the other computing. For system support tasks, the
systems would be made. Faculty of Computer Studies was
approached, as well as the vocational
training technical schools, while for the
Human resources tasks of information systems support,
university students with a knowledge of
The success of technology depended languages were selected. For the
especially on the operation of the numerous operational tasks, young people
computing systems and between the ages of 18 and 24 years of age
telecommunications equipment, but the were chosen. Finally, people over the age
training given to the staff who were of 25, with non-technical or teacher
behind the whole operation should not be training qualifications, were chosen as
forgotten. paper distribution coordinators.

The managerial posts for each unit The training these groups received varied
(director of technology, manager and according to what was expected of them.
assistant manager of results management,
data-processing manager and The managers received an all round
telecommunications manager) were general training since the tacit assumption
allocated to people who had already was that with their own initiative and

1989 Main stages in the training of
technology staff
October Description of the functions of results management
December Quantification of human resources requirements

January/March Selection of results heads
June Start of training
October Course for heads of results

January Complete results training plan
February Testing plan
May Selection of runners for results distribution
October First course for results technicians
November Course for technology directors
December Definitive description of computing functions

January Selection of volunteers for the information systems
February Selection of support volunteers for the systems
March Two extra class-rooms set up
April Training of volunteers for the information systems
May CIOT begins operating
Training of TV results operators
1,2 and 3
Results management room
capacity for organisation, they would Olympic organisation was a determining
at the Olympic Stadium (1 absorb all the information. On the other factor for their performance.
and 3) and the Piscines hand, the volunteers, the operators and
Bernat Picornell (2). The
technological success of the the support staff received more precise Finally, it should be mentioned that
Games depended, to a large and detailed instruction. during the training process and the
extent, on the preparation of operational phase, there were very few
the staff of Team '92, who
followed a thorough training Four computing rooms were available for drop-outs. For example, of some 600
programme in the staff training: one at the Font Màgica site operators, only 15 left before the Games
organisation stage.
from October 1990, which was used and most of them for reasons connected
fundamentally for the training of people with their work.
working on results management, one at
the INEFC building from October 1991,
used to train the technicians and results The systems and services
managers, and two at the Estació del
Nord, from March 1992, for the Olympic In the following sections we shall describe
Family information systems support the systems and the technological services
training. After training in theory, there according to their scope, composition and
was practical training which was both function before and during the Games.
intensive and extensive depending on the
subject matter. The order followed is essentially that of
the structure of the projects which
In many cases, especially the generated these systems and services, in
administrative and technical managers, accordance with the Master Plan, rather
professional interest in getting to know a than any other conceptual classification or
new environment, OS/2, in such a the final operation. Consequently, the
complex and dynamic context as the transmission of the cable television signal

1 2 123

to the territorial units is included in the With regard to telecommunications, the
section dealing with electronics and not projects have been grouped under the
telecommunications because the following headings:
COOB'92 organisation structure had seen
it that way. To quote another example, • Public telecommunications projects
the human resources administration and • Private telecommunications projects
materials management applications are • Radio communications
included in the section dealing with • Electronics and sound
internal computing since they were based • Electronic security
on the use of the IBM AS/400 computer
used for that purpose.
The operation of the technology
With regard to the section on computing, systems
the following projects have been
considered: The operation of the technology systems
was based on structures oriented towards
• Architecture and equipment decentralisation (results control, sound,
• AMIC (Multiple access to information scoreboards), support for the users in all
and communication) systems the operated themselves (AMIC,
• SIGO (Operations management portable transceivers, telephones,
information system) DOCUMENT) and the maintenance of
• SIR (Results information system) the equipment.
• Internal computing (together with
business administration and office These structures, mostly covered by
automation) volunteers and directed by technology
• The Alcatel project. chiefs at the units, people with proven

Source Preparation stage Operation stage Human resources for the technology
projects in the preparation and
COOB'92 staff 90 90 operation stages
Companies 575 2.530
Temporary 300
Volunteers 2.600
Total 665 5.520

Function Preparation stage Operation stage

Management 50 50
Project managers 50
Technicians 500 1.070
Administrative 65
Territorial management 300
Operators 2.600
External technological services 1.500
Total 665 5.520
experience in the field who also be deployed quickly at any territorial unit.
cooperated with the volunteers, worked Some of the CIOT's main functions were
very efficiently and in a way which was to note, address and track the problems
fully integrated with the other sectors of that arose. The "crisis table", which
each territorial unit. consisted of the people responsible for the
sponsoring companies' technological
The central operation was controlled systems (IBM, Telefónica, etc.), was also
fundamentally from the Olympic at the CIOT and operated throughout the
Calculation Centre and from the GOT as Games.
a support centre.

The central computers at the Olympic

Calculation Centre were connected to all
the Games computer networks. The back-
up copies were also made here daily and
the data bases used were restructured.
However, the main function of the centre
was to monitor the central computers and
all the networks (telephone, video, data
telecommunications and local networks).
As was the case with results management,
the monitoring and/or verification of
outputs was also performed centrally.

The CIOT also provided mobile

centralised technical support which could

Number of incidents at the CIOT 125


One of the outstanding
Computing Results management
Olympic Family
information systems was the Results management included the
AMIC (Multiple Access to
Information and Architecture and equipment applications which supported the
Communication), through organisation and the sport itself in the
which all its members could Three large computing projects were
consult the public various competitions. It entailed the
information generated by devised for the Barcelona Olympic collection, either manually or
COOB'92 and exchange Games: the internal systems, the automatically, of the partial data as it was
messages via the electronic
mail. support systems to promote the Games produced, the necessary calculations in
and the various systems for the accordance with the rules and the supply
The results of the organisation. of information to the organisers, the
competitions were collected judges and the media about the progress
by hand or automatically by
organisation staff and sent The internal systems were necessary to of the competition so that they would be
by computer to the officials ensure the smooth running of the able to monitor the data and the results
and reporters to keep them COOB'92 organisation considered from during the programmed events. This last
constantly up to date with
the progress of the events. the business point of view. This included application was channelled through the
office automation and the different Commentator Information System
aspects of business administration, such as (SICO), a group which was also
accounting, costs, and staff. responsible for the subsystem of
distributing the printed results by means of
Within the support system to promote the electronic pigeon-holes (DOCUMENT).
Games, the Alcatel project is especially
noteworthy. It was operative from The operations management
October 1990 until the day before the information system
opening of the Games and it provided
3,600 users around the world (mainly The operations management information
people associated with the media) system (SIGO), which was for the exclusive
with a modem link with a data base use of organisation staff, consisted of
containing information about the process logistic applications which supported the
of organising the Games which was large and complex Games organisation. 127
generated and maintained by SIGO brought together the following
COOB'92. projects: accreditation, accommodation,
transport, reception and departure,
The systems for the organisation were reservation of press services, health
operational from a few months before the services, tickets, calendar and Team'92.
Games and provided support for planning,
the organisation and the operation. They The communications and information
were divided into three groups: system systems for the Olympic Family
area projects, application projects and
computing operation projects. Finally, the communications and
information systems for the Olympic
System area projects Family consisted of the applications which
allowed all the members to consult the
The system area basically covered the public information generated by
aspects of defining and implementing the COOB'92. By the use of electronic mail,
computing architecture which would be these systems also provided
used during the Games and is analysed in communication between members of the
a separate section. The projects involved Olympic Family who could use the system
in this group were to design the central on a self-service basis from 1,510 intelligent
configuration, to design the local PS/2 terminals distributed around all the
configurations, the installation and Olympic areas. The two subsystems were
making all the configurations operative. known to the users as a single product with
the name of AMIC (Multiple Access to
The application projects Information and Communication).

In accordance with the main operational The computing operation projects

aims, there were three large systems
associated with the projects in the The group of computing operation
applications area: results management projects included the central configuration
(SIR), operations management (SIGO) exploitation plan, opening the Olympic
and the communication and information Calculation Centre, the security and
systems for the Olympic Family (AMIC emergency plans, the planning of the
and DOCUMENT). decentralised operations and their
relationship with the central operation which operated independently on an
and the definition and opening of the AS/400 and only received essential data
CIOT, the centre which would help the from the operational management system
overall operation to work hand in hand running on the host. The Games operation
with the various decentralised ones. systems were the ones which had the
closest relationship with real time and they
The functional relationship between were consequently more integrated.
the systems
The system architecture criteria
When considering the relationships
between the systems, COOB'92 combined A large number of facts was borne in
two criteria: the first was integration, mind when considering the design of the
which eliminated redundancies and data Games computing system and they can be
contradictions, and the second was grouped into the following specific
autonomy, which reduced complexity, functional criteria:
since it cut down the number of
interconnections between areas. This Coherence and the integration of the
combination of criteria entailed the information
isolation of the Alcatel project for
Barcelona'92, since it operated on an All the Games operation systems shared
independent dedicated computer. the same central relational data base
Similarly, the office automation was only subsystem (DB2) running on the host. This
connected to the central computers did not necessarily mean that there was
through batch transfers. The same criteria only one occurrence of a particular datum,
were applied to the Company since if this had been the case problems
Management Computer System (SIGE) might well have arisen with performance as

Data-processing and
Systems projects
1 and 2
The characteristic green
it was being used by different applications, alternative route in the event of a system
desks, reserved for radio and but rather that there was one system crash.
television commentators, responsible for the generation, maintenance
were equipped with a
monitor to receive the and duplication of each kind of data. c) The local autonomy of the most critical
international television applications. In spite of what has been
signal and the information Security said above, it was not desirable for the
provided by Results
Management, a progress of the competitions to depend on
commentators' unit with The shortness of the Games period meant the availability of the host. For this
earphones and microphone
for two people and a that the chances of interruption of the reason, the SIR, SICO and some other
telephone (TMT-Press) service had to be reduced to a minimum, systems were designed to support the
which could be activated by
a magnetic card. Altogether even when arising from the system's lack respective applications locally by means of
there were about 1,500 of running in, which was due to the a local area network. It was only
commentators positions with impossibility of testing it at full load
desk at all the venues. necessary to access the host in order to
before the operation. The plans therefore consolidate the information from the
made allowance for a series of security different units and to distribute it to all
measures such as: the others. This structure guaranteed the
continuity of the service for the
a) The prior simulation of the main competitions and for television.
system transactions at full load using a
suitable tool (TPNS). d) The use, in the most standardised
manner possible, of tools which offered a
b) The duplication of the critical hardware greater degree of reliability and of
elements which provided alternative availability of the service whenever they
communication routes between the host had passed the test of sufficient
and the main units and the automatic experience. This was the reason why there
re-establishment of the session via an was a massive use of relatively new

1 2 129
technologies (communal integrated data was used to reinforce the security of the
bases, token-ring networks, APPC critical applications. Similarly, this
communications, Escon fibre optic distributed processing capacity, in contrast
channels and intelligent work stations). with an absolutely centralised system,
made it possible to share processing
The global distribution of the capacity between the central computer
information in real time and the intelligent terminals. This was
fundamental, since if the almost 5,000
The global distribution of the information terminals which constituted the Games
in real time was the functional network had accessed the data base host,
characteristic that most distinguished the and with consultations which were not
Games computing system. The design of necessarily simple ones, this could have
the applications was thought out in such a represented an excessive load which might
way that authorised persons, wherever have led to excessive dimensioning of the
they may be, could immediately have central computer and the lines of
access to any information. For example, a communication. These provisions
commentator located at any competition facilitated and standardised the use of the
unit could follow the progress of the applications with PS presentation tools.
competitions at another unit practically to The ergonomics of the 3,270 terminals
the second. This strategy was also applied which were used on a self-serve basis was
to the distribution of printed results. not the most suitable for the Olympic
Family, who had differing knowledge of
The cooperative process the use of computing systems. On the
other hand, it was necessary to make a
As mentioned above, the local processing great effort at standardisation in order to
capacity of the intelligent work stations avoid confusion amongst the users, since

Main data relationships
between computing projects
1 and 2
Details of one of the two
many of the products had their own Data Processing Centre (CPDO) worked
large COOB'92 central standards of use and presentation. for the results systems, operational
computers, IBM model management and the AMIC and also
ES/900, which were
installed at the Olympic These two objectives mainly affected the administered the network which connected
Data-Processing Centre Olympic Family information and all the terminals to these systems. It had two
(CPDO). The CPDO communications systems. Achieving them large computers, an ES/9000-720 (capable
provided service for the
Results Management System, involved the use of cooperative processing of executing 120 million instructions per
the Information System for between the host and the work stations. second) and an ES/9000-500. These two
Operations Management
and the whole network of The application of PS/2 terminals based computers shared the task and, in the case
almost 5,000 terminals on the OS/2 Presentation Manager of a break-down, each one could
which operated during the
Games. resolved all the problems related with automatically substitute the other for a
dialogue, navigation and user period of time. The CPDO was situated in
3 and 4
Views of the work room at presentation. Only previously prepared one of the pavilions at the Barcelona Trade
the CPDO. During the consultations which had a verified format Fair Centre beside the International
Games, the centre was were circulated through the lines of Broadcast Centre (IBC) and was operative
renamed the Auxiliary
Services Centre (CSA), for communication. The user -machine from February 1991 until the end of
security reasons. dialogue was resolved locally. September 1992. During the Olympic
Games it was called the Auxiliary Services
The computing infrastructure Centre (CSA) for reasons of security.

The computing infrastructure of this There was also an emergency centre

architecture was based on IBM computers. equipped with an ES/900-400 which would
At COOB headquarters there was a small have substituted the CPDO in the event
calculation centre equipped with an IBM of disaster. The premises of a sponsoring
AS/400 for the Company Management company, SEAT, were prepared for this
Computer System (SIGE). The Olympic task but they were never used.

1 2 3 131

1 Like the other COOB'92
divisions, the Technology
Division produced a series of
publications, both technical
and popular, about all the
projects under their care:
BIT'92, Results System,
Radiocommunications, etc.
2, 3, 4 and 5
The extensive use made of
the AMIC by all sectors of
the Olympic Family was one
of the successes of the Games
in the field of information.
Terminals were installed at
all the competition venues (2
and 4), the hotels (3) and the
press centres (5).

2 3 5

In addition to serving approximately 100 technological advances in communications
terminals connected to the AS/400, the on the other, are two aspects which oblige
CPDO also provided service to the 4,323 an Olympic Games Organising
intelligent terminals and the 1,135 printers Committee to offer the Olympic Family,
distributed around all the Olympic areas in especially the media, information systems
more than a hundred different places. which maintain the flow of information at
These terminals and the CPDO computers all times and in real time about the
formed a large private network which was progress of the events taking place.
the result of interconnecting the local area
networks distributed around all the sites. Following the Olympic information
systems tradition which was started at
Logistical aspects and operations Munich and consolidated at Los Angeles,
but with the aim of making a qualitative
In view of the scale of the task and the leap forward in line with new
time limits involved, great efforts were technological tendencies and
called for in the installation this large developments, COOB'92 considered it
computing and telecommunications necessary to make a wide-ranging and
infrastructure. The CPDO was in powerful information system available.
operation in no more than six months. In
October 1990 the computers were Amongst the various information systems
installed and a team of more than fifty presented at Barcelona'92, the AMIC is
people was organised which began to especially worthy of note. This system
serve the organisation in March 1991. combined the advantages of having a
large amount of Games information
For a period of five months, from available at the units and in the city,
February 1992 until the beginning of July treated in such a way that it was easy for
of the same year, nearly 5,000 terminals of the users to understand, even for people
every kind were deployed and assembled who were not accustomed to using
at more than a hundred different places. computers. The system also allowed for 133
This effort, which was a complete success communication between all the members
in terms of the period of time involved of the Olympic Family.
and the quality of the service later
provided, was possible thanks to the The aims
organisation's high degree of
standardisation. It should be pointed out This system had to be intuitive to use
that the creation of a virtual factory for since the short duration of the Olympic
the personalisation and loading of Games meant that there was no time for
software on the intelligent terminals was learning beforehand. Nevertheless, it had
something new in Spain. to search for information according to the
user's criteria and not in a restrictive or
All these tasks of computer installation predetermined manner and to allow
coincided with the work involved for the personal access systems for anyone who
final preparation of the territorial units. wanted to formulate a specific requests.
These tasks, which would normally have
been carried out sequentially, therefore There had to be a great deal of high
required good planning and meticulous quality information concerning the
management. progress of the Games available at any
moment when an event was taking place.
The teleloading of software from the Furthermore, the system had to provide
CPDO to all the terminals should also be direct access to the various associated
mentioned. This system allowed the sources of information (calendar, results,
necessary software changes to be biographies, news, competition rules,
rationalised and checked and later Olympic Family services and so forth)
distributed in a controlled manner to the without complicated search procedures.
terminals concerned.
In order to maintain the system's universal
character, the user interface and all the
Multiple Access to Communication information was available in the four
and Information (AMIC) official languages of the Olympic Games.

The fact that the Olympic Games are a Due to the dispersion of the Olympic
focus of world attention for fifteen days, facilities and of the mobility of the people
on the one hand, and the importance of taking part, the information system had to
be integrated with a communications biographies, meteorology, textual
system which fulfilled the function of information, news and historical
personal mail and allowed interpersonal information about the Olympic Games.
communication and user confidentiality by
means of personal mailboxes with an easy Biographies
directory access system for the addressees.
A team from the COOB'92 Press
Finally, it also had to provide for the Operations Division spent a year
dissemination of communications and compiling 10,000 athlete's biographies
news to different groups and establish including personal and sporting
connections with external systems such as information. Once the athlete's
pagers and telexes. participation in the Games was confirmed,
6,500 of these 10,000 biographies were
The components made available for consultation by the
AMIC. It also contained the entry data
To meet these objectives, the AMIC for all the other participants in the Games
possessed three basic elements: the and the results for every participant in
information content, a computer system Barcelona'92.
for loading, maintaining, retrieving and
presenting information and an electronic Meteorology
mail system complete with operational
elements such as terminals, support staff In this section users could read the 12
and manuals. kinds of daily bulletins prepared by the
National Meteorological Institute from
The information content of the AMIC 16 July to 9 August which contained long,
was grouped into the following five areas: medium and short term forecasts, the

Distribution of AMIC terminals
(Total 1,510)
Over the 33 days it was in
meteorological data for Barcelona and the Olympic News Agency system. This
operation (from 11 July to subsites and the weather conditions for consisted of 157 journalists and 77
12 August), the AMIC was the main cities around the world. The translators distributed around the venues
consulted 8,067,972 times.
frequency of issue of these bulletins was under the coordination of a central news
2 variable, from every two hours to once a room situated in the MPC. In total, it was
An AMIC screen. The system day, according to the type of bulletin
provided information about possible to consult 2,903 sport-related
results of the competition, concerned. news items (interviews, statements and
biographies of the stories) or items of general news
competitors, weather
forecasts, news about the Textual information (ceremonies, formal events, Olympic
Games and general Villages and MPC), as well as the daily
information about the city,
all in the four official This information collected before the listing of the various formal events that
languages of the Games. Games commenced included general would be taking place.
information about the city of Barcelona,
its history and culture, descriptions of the Olympic Games historical information
venues, competition rules, useful
telephone numbers, biographies of This section included the medals lists, the
important figures in the Olympic records and the best times for the
movement and information about the Olympic sports, as well as the results from
Paralympic Games. the respective world championships.
News In order to offer information of a different
nature, the AMIC could access the data
All the textual information which was bases of other computing systems. In this
produced by the press centres at the way it was possible to have the results of all
venues from 11 July to 12 August was the competitions as well as the accreditation
channelled to the AMIC by means of the data for each member of the Olympic

1 2 135
Family and operations staff. This data was part of the processing, such as dialogue
used automatically by the AMIC to activate management, generation of presentation
the electronic mailboxes. It was possible to formats and communications control.
request information about the regular
Olympic Family transport services either by The central computer applied all its
selecting the route or destination. Finally, potential to the management of a large
there was also information available relational data base (DB2). The electronic
concerning the Olympic calendar, which mail system, Office Vision, was used for
gave the day and time of all the events that intercommunication between all the
would be taking place during the Games. different groups of the Olympic Family.

All the information could be consulted in As well as software and the information
the four official languages of the Olympic content, there were other elements, some
Games, that is to say, in Catalan, Spanish, essential and some more aesthetic in
French, and English. nature, which completed the system and
ensured that it would operate smoothly.
The computing system
As support for the AMIC, more than 500
The software was developed by the Eritel volunteers were chosen. Their task
company. Personal computers of the PS/2 consisted of helping the users during the
range were used in the application first few days the system was running and
architecture as consultation terminals and helping to solve the non-technical
were connected to a central CPDO problems that might arise.
computer of the ES/9000 series. The
potential of the local OS/2 operating system From the end of 1990, the number of
was used to give the terminals the largest consultation terminals it would be

English • 4,025,882 consultations (49.9 %) Use of AMIC
(from 11 July to 12 August)
References by language
(Total 8,067,972)

Spanish • 2,162,197 consultations (26.8 %)

Catalan • 1,460,290 consultations (18.1 %)

French • 419,531 consultations (5.2 %)

Results, medals and calendar • 2,267,302 consultations (28.1 %) References by subject

(Total: 8,067,972)

Other consultations • 1,949,040 consultations (24.2 %)

News • 1,578,547 consultations (19.6 %)

Mail • 1,197,234 consultations (14.8 %)

Biographies • 1,074,839 consultations (13.3 %)

The AMIC Cobi.
necessary to install at the various Olympic not altogether comparable, AMIC was
facilities was estimated. Finally, some used four times as much.
2 1,510 consultation terminals and 713
Detail of one of the AMIC
results screens. Among the printers were made available to the users. The draw on the central computer was
many options, this was the On the days prior to the opening of the always kept below the levels which had
one which was referred to Games, 23 consultation terminals were been estimated during the simulations and
most often (28% of the
total). installed at various organisations and system tuning. At the busiest moment, (29
institutions outside the Olympic network. July at 6 p.m.) there was a draw of 29.4
Mips (12.3 transactions per second) which
The operation was below the 35.9 which had been
estimated as the hypothetical maximum
The AMIC operation commenced on 11 saturation, while the response time was
July with the opening of the Olympic the same as had been forecast according
Villages and the Main Press Centre. to the kind of consultation.
Beforehand, there had been an intense
period of installation, not only of the It should be pointed out that at no time
COOB'92 general network, but also of the during the operation period were there
terminals themselves at 82 competition, any serious problems that might have
service and support units and at 44 isolated endangered the service or the quality of
points, such as hotels and public buildings. the data. It is not possible to doubt the
success of the AMIC system, especially
The figures in the tables above after the opinions expressed by the users
demonstrate the extensive use which was and especially by the press. The fact that
made of this system during the Olympic this system was for the general use of the
Games. In comparison with the system entire Olympic Family was also part of
used at Seoul in 1988, even if the data are that success.

1 2 137

The Operations
Operations Management b) Limit the computerisation of the
Management Information Information System (SIGO) procedures to all the systems which were
System (SIGO) consisted of repetitive, high volume and with a high
a set of computer systems
providing support for the SIGO was all the computing systems degree of stability.
Olympic Family. Among which gave support to the Olympic
them the accreditations Games operations area. This project c) Predict, both from a technical and
project was notable for its
volume. In addition to the provided operating solutions based on resources point of view, the capacity
accreditation document, it very flexible functional systems which for large scale modification of the
provided a link with the
access control systems, the were simple but complete. systems obtained from the test events
SIR and the AMIC. in 1991.
2 Function
The Olympic Family d) Use the computing projects in this
transport services were also A numerous group of SIGO projects lent area as elements to stimulate the
based on computer support
to establish the schedules for support to the Olympic Family services operational project which they
the journeys and the routing such as reception, accreditation, supported and obtain, by means of needs
sheets for the regular and on
request services. accommodation, transport, medical care analysis, a better idea of the operational
and the reservation of press facilities. The capacity of the department which was
projects which covered these functions to use them.
had a close relationship with each other
since, as far as the users were concerned, e) Guarantee the coherence of the
the only supplier of services was information used in the different systems.
Two other factors, characteristic of a
This conditioned the technical project of this kind, need to be added.
architecture of the corresponding Firstly, the projects which the SIGO
Olympic Family services computing system was to support were to finalise
projects. The other projects in this area their procedures later than was
gave support to more isolated functions convenient for the computing system.
such as tickets, the deployment of human Aspects such as defining the scope of the 139
resources (Team'92) and the calendar. service or guaranteeing the availability of
resources such as hotels and vehicles were
The level of support provided by SIGO priorities and it was necessary to make a
varied. In some cases the functional and decision about them before defining how
computing projects were totally the operation would be executed. In some
integrated, as was the case, for example, cases it was premature to some extent to
with the accreditation project. In others, allocate staff since they were areas with a
computing was no more than a support dimensioning and level of criticality which
tool as was the case, for example, with the would not be known until the beginning of
medical services. 1990. This led to an unwelcome delay in
the compilation of requirements, which in
The operation of the SIGO project was some cases lasted until June 1990 and led
not limited to the period of the Games, to an overload of the analysis and
but included the previous planning, programming stages, which in turn made
preparation and booking stages. They the work of the development team more
consequently operated over a long period, critical.
in many cases beginning in 1991. This fact,
together with the characteristics of the Secondly, the harmonisation of the
Olympic project (a unique operation different systems to obtain the computing
which took shape more clearly as the coherence mentioned previously derived
Games approached) meant that there had from the Integrated Data Base (IDB).
to be a period of project maintenance in While COOB'92 gave the contracted
order to adapt them to requirements that development companies freedom in
were always changing. design, a coordination team was formed to
ensure a single definition for the IDB.
Planning While it is true that this decision saved
time and avoided problems during the
The following are the basic strategies, project integration phase since it
taken from BIT'92, adopted at the considerably reduced the number of
beginning of 1989: technological interfaces, the coordination
necessary to obtain consensus about the
a) Draw up an advance project in order to design of the IDB meant delaying the
have an initial version available start on the technical design for some
(release 1) in 1991. projects.
During the preliminary project the However, it was finally concluded that the 1
The computer systems
possibility of using already existing kind of solutions they offered were not making up the SIGO varied
software was considered in order to suited to the problems posed by the according to their purpose.
To prepare the software for
counter these inhibiting effects. In the Olympic projects. In some case they were Barcelona'92, the computer
case of SIGO, for example, the sources suitable for longer-lasting organisations, packages used at earlier
were the software used at previous the problems raised not being sufficiently Games and the ones on the
market were studied.
Olympic Games (technically the most similar to those of an organisation which
similar was Calgary) and packages which would only last for a matter of days. In
already existed for specific sectors which other cases they did not lend themselves to
posed similar problems even if they were the large volumes involved, although they
not necessarily sports organisations. may have provided good solutions to the
problems raised by other circumstances.
The software from Calgary was used as a Consequently, it was necessary to embark
prototype and it provided a very valuable on new development for all the projects.
learning bank for the design technicians.
Nevertheless, the fact that the system was Description of the projects
not integrated with the others, the lack of
coverage for certain areas which needed Accreditations
to be mechanised and its fragility due to
heavy last minute modification were The aim of the accreditations project was
among the considerations which dismissed to identify, enter and manage information
the idea of using this software directly. about all the members of the Olympic
Family. This entailed the production of an
For existing packages, applications were identification document which specified
studied in the areas of accommodation, the data concerning the accredited person,
transport, tickets and medical services. the privileges this person might have and

Cobi, dressed as a bellboy,
the entry points at which entrance was Transport
welcomes the members of the permitted. This system had interfaces with
Olympic Family to the the access control system (500 control The Olympic Family transport service,
hotels. The accommodation
project was equipped with points), the SIR for athletes and the regular or on request, needed computing
special software. AMIC for all other members of the support which took into account the
Olympic Family. complexity caused by so many vehicles,
The press services used a the difficulty of organising tests and
computer system for All the data about the members of the making final adjustments. As transport
reserving and renting space
and equipment at the MPC. Olympic Family was processed at six was critical, the services had to be
accreditation centres. The system was scheduled, resources controlled and the
designed to process some 15,000 journeys planned with routing slips
accreditations in a single day. prepared for the buses.

Accommodation There was a total of 2,100 vehicles and

4,500 people working to provide 200
The Olympic Family accommodation regular routes between 8,000 points of
project meant administering a large departure and final destinations.
number of rooms and hotel beds. It was
necessary to make an inventory of the Reception
resources, organise reservations and
invoices and administer the The reception project required computing
accommodation at the Olympic Villages support to prepare the arrival and
and Press Villages. It was estimated that departure operations for the Olympic
some 50,000 people could be Family. The management of resources
accommodated per day at the Villages, such as vehicles and hosts, which could
hotels and ships moored in the port. not be dimensioned to always cover peak

2 3 141
periods, had to be optimised and the different medical commissions, the
personalised treatment received by medical services project used information
certain groups prepared. The maximum about medical treatment received from
estimated volume was 15,000 arrivals in the Olympic Family. The computer
one day. system had to support the monitoring of
treatment and the management of the
Press services Olympic Village polyclinic.

The press services project consisted of a There were 45 units with medical facilities
booking system, the renting of space for which had been equipped to deal with
offices, photographic laboratories and so 1,000 people per day if necessary.
forth and the hiring of equipment such as
furniture and terminals to the journalists Tickets
who were to work in the MPC. An
inventory was drawn up of all the items The ticket project used a computer
and services to be reserved and the application in two basic parts: coverage of
necessary contracts and payments were the functions and distribution to the
made. Some 55 different items could be Spanish public, dependent on the
reserved and it was estimated that 250 computer network of Banesto, and
media organisations would make use of massive data-processing, including the
the service. lottery system and inventory and
allocation management. The computing
Medical services design was applied to the reservation of
tickets for events for which demand
In order to compile the various exceeded supply, to the allocation of
monitoring and control reports for the places and to sales to the general public.

142 Structure of the

computing system
1 The project was dimensioned to cope with had to deal with the register and make the
The SIGO also included a
computer back-up system for a volume of 6 million tickets distributed developments known.
identifying the different around 2,600 sales points throughout
work places of all the staff
on Team'92. Spain. The stage during which discussions were
taking place with the International
2 and 3
To draft the official Team'92 Federations about the days and times
calendar of the Olympic each event would be held was used to deal
Games, a computer decision- The Team'92 project needed a computing with the large number of variables which
making programme was
created by the Polytechnic system which would support the usually arise during the drafting of an
University of Catalonia. identification and quantification of the Olympic calendar, such as the overlapping
work places at each unit. It covered the of events in which the same competitor is
allocation of staff and their functions, participating, appropriate timing,
uniform and deployment. Consequently, expected audience and lighting
the computing system defined the posts requirements.
and the functions and assigned the most
suitable person to each post and each task. The operation
Calendar The SIGO projects successfully achieved
their aim of supporting the Games
The calendar project consisted of two operations during the operation and the
parts. The first was a system to assist preparatory months, and they were
decision-making developed by the essential for the organised and efficient
Polytechnic University of Catalonia progress of the Games.
(UPC) and the second covered
administration and the register of changes There was sufficient capacity to
to this information. The computing system continuously adapt the projects to the

1 3 143

General view of one of the
operation and different users. From the organisation or the information systems,
stands at the Piscines Bernat beginning of 1992 it was necessary to limit had its own sub-system. Accomplishing a
Picornell, where the press the scope of changes in the projects which unified results system was an important
worked. Designed specially
for them, an integrated did not affect the basic structure of the challenge which had to be met in order to
Results Information System applications. Similarly, the projects were avoid inconsistencies.
(SIR) was developed and progressively technically refined until they
used with great success. The
SIR provided the necessary gave excellent performance. Whenever The most important point in this context
information at the beginning possible they were put through their paces was to demonstrate to the television
of each competition,
collected the data as they before the Games commenced. agencies that the system, despite being
were generated and new, was sufficiently reliable and would
calculated the results and
distributed them to other The projects and modifications to them work properly, providing a faultless
systems and devices, such as were carried out within the established results service.
the scoreboards and period of time and within the estimated
television screens.
budgets. One of the most difficult The basic premise of the results
problems was the simultaneous management system was that the Games
installation of the computing should be considered as a single event and
infrastructure and the maintenance of a not as the sum total of all the
high quality service to users who were competitions in the different sports with
already connected. each disconnected from the others. It was
also important for the system to be
The Olympic Games had never previously connected to others which were operating
had such a large and effective level of in parallel, such as the AMIC and
computerisation in these areas. accreditations; it had to allow access to
the results from all the units; and, finally,
it had to give support from a centralised
The Barcelona'92 results place in order to obtain the list of athletes
management system accredited and entered for each sport.

Aims Components
Computing is increasingly important in The following projects were included in
first class sports competitions in two the results management system:
aspects: training and measuring the scores
obtained in competition. Track instruments
During the athlete's training period, the These are the instruments which measure
parameters which define performance are the distances reached or the time taken by
under consideration, providing data which the competitors and the ones which
can be used to improve it. This is the register the decisions of the judges by
province of biomechanics, amongst other means of specialised terminals. The Seiko
disciplines. company was responsible for providing the
Olympic venues with suitable equipment.
The second aspect has a direct
relationship with the period of duration of The Results Information Service
the Games and concerns the structuring
and definition of a system which permits The results information service (SIR)
the management of the competition prepared the information necessary to
results and their rapid dissemination. In start the competitions, collected the data
the case of the Olympic Games, the large from the measuring instruments or
number of competitions, their allowed them to be introduced manually,
geographical dispersion and the short calculated the results applying the
period of time made a computing support established rules and distributed them to
system necessary. It had to cover the the other systems and devices such as
needs of different groups as diverse as scoreboards and TV title generators. The
referees, judges, the sports organisation, system was structured in two parts, one
television, press agencies, the local at each venue and the other a central
organisation, radio commentators, the computer.
public and announcers.
The Commentator Information System
An integrated results system was (SICO)
developed for the Barcelona Games and
used with great success. Each function, The SICO collected the results from the
whether television, the press, the sports SIR and distributed them around the
commentators' terminals and managed The development of the project
the commentators' access to them. The
commentators could select information Preparations for the project commenced
according to sport, competition and in January 1989, bearing in mind the
language. International Federations' requirements
for each sport. In July of the same year, at
The Printed Results Distribution the World Athletics Cup, the first pilot
System test was held for the production and
distribution of photocopied material for
The Printed Results Distribution System the press.
based on touch sensitive screens
complemented the traditional wooden In February 1990, RTO'92 chose new
pigeon-holes. It meant that the day's equipment being developed by the Pesa
competition results could be printed at company to produce TV titles. In May
any Olympic Area. The use of 1990, the first version of the local SIR
DOCUMENT drastically reduced the software was finished and was ready to
number of photocopies that would have use in real competitions, the first of which
been made using a traditional system. was Euroarc'90 held in July. The SIR
design for the central computer
Fundamental aspects of the system and commenced in September 1990 with the
operation were the autonomy of the SIR aim of testing the product during
in the case of external errors, the multi- Competitions'91. With respect to the
venue SICO commentators with access to results service for television, a trial was
the AMIC biographies and finally the held during the Joaquim Blume Memorial
complete availability of all the results at held in the Palau Sant Jordi in November
all the units via AMIC and DOCUMENT. 1990. The SICO was presented at a

The results management
1 and 2
The DOCUMENT terminals
meeting of the Olympic Broadcasters in the different areas differed widely. The
were a novelty at the Advisory Committee (OBAC) which was competitions showed that the success of
Barcelona Games and one held the same month and it had an results management depended greatly on
more complement to the
Information for the Olympic excellent reception. the quality of the entries. They also
Family. By means of tactile demonstrated the need to test the
screens they could first see In March 1991, the logistic support team installation and to leave time to carry out
and then obtain printouts of
the results for all the events for the events was constituted. In May of trials. The task of deciding the
as they ended. Altogether the same year the first draft list was made communications protocol between the
there were 605 terminals
distributed around the sites of the sports which would have automatic results management service, the sports
which could be accessed in results title generation for television and organisation and the International
any of the four official
languages of the Games. at the same time, an agreement was Federations also commenced with
reached with the Andorran Olympic Competitions'91.
Committee whereby COOB'92 would be
responsible for the results management of In November 1991, systematic tests
the Small European States Games, which commenced on individual software
were about to be held there. It was a great packages and integration with other
opportunity to accomplish a multi-sport systems. In order to carry out these tests
operation with central integration and and the whole operation, the results
with every kind of service, notable among managers started to take part. The first
them being the connection to television. two did so in December and this process
continued until June 1992 when there was
Competitions'91 were held during the a total of twenty-five. These people had
months of July and August and the results an allocated function and place from the
management service was there. Events very beginning and they were essential for
showed that what had been considered monitoring matters concerning each sport.
the aims and the degree of preparedness

Results systems during the Games. Total 147

Resources used
PS/2 terminals 2,000
DOCUMENT terminals 605
Number of DOCUMENT servers 155
Staff 1,097
Number of model documents 7,001
Photocopies made 15,058,000

1 2

The back-up network
Finally, in May 1992, the decentralisation Internal computing
managed from the CIOT phase began. From that moment on,
received a permanent flow of emphasis was placed on controlling the Internal computing gave support to the
data from the venues and
intervened in the event of a installation and carrying out tests so that organisation with the aim of facilitating
system breakdown. the software, the other systems with which internal functions and computing systems
it communicated and the installation for planning, administration and control
All the competition venues which had been made would function of COOB'92 in its business aspects.
had a room for without problems. Results tests were
photocopying the results
sheets and other documents carried out in which the volume of activity There were two large blocks of
of interest. This information generated was three times larger than at applications: the Company Management
was delivered to the press by
volunteers (runners) at the the busiest moment during the Games. Computer System (SIGE) and office
commentators' positions and automation.
the VIP stands, or in It was at this time that many requests
pigeonholes at the press
centres. Altogether, during were received from the International The Company Management
the operational phase of the
Games over 15 million
Federations and television channels for Computer System (SIGE)
photocopies were made. modifications to the software and the
most essential ones were made. The group of SIGE projects included the
classic applications of a computerised
The organisation during the Games company, that is to say, all those
connected with financial information
Results management at the competition (such as accounting, invoicing, payments,
venues was structured in four groups. The finances and budget administration),
first was responsible for links with the supplies, stores, the contracting of services
sports organisation, vital members of the and human resources (payroll, attendance
organisation. The second concentrated on control and staff management).
the proper functioning of the computers
and programs under the development Applications and tools which had special
technicians. The third gave service to the relevance for the COOB'92 organisation
results users and included an output were integrated into the SIGE, such as
checker who, in addition to controlling project control, aimed at monitoring the
local activity, acted as a link with the projects and programmes of the Master
centralised support for the users of the Plan, the management of Olympic
service which were external to the unit volunteers and the applications dedicated
such as the MPC, IBC, press agencies and to preparing the Olympic security
AMIC. measures.

The function of CIOT with respect to Planning

results management was to manage a
back-up network and control the quality The needs of the COOB'92 internal
of the output. systems were dealt with independently of
the needs of the various operational
The back-up network, which had spheres during the Olympic Games. This
computers which constantly received data separation, which was decided upon in
from all the units, meant that in the event 1988, was supremely practical and
of a system crash at a unit, it would be constituted an organisation success in
possible to continue with CIOT activities. view of the scale of the internal
Since there were no important problems computing.
during the course of the Olympic Games,
this network was only used to carry out The number of entries and the
operations outside the unit's normal promptness with which the business
working times such as the correction of aspects of the organisation had to be
data and the resending of messages to the computerised meant that the hardware
AMIC and press agencies. was chosen especially for these
applications regardless of the kind that
The systematic verification of the output would support the Games operation
control was carried out at the units with computing system. The computing plan
the local users in mind but focusing on the reflected the main characteristics of the
central users such as the MPC, IBC, the Olympic project which were speed,
Olympic Village and the AMIC. The pragmatism, and a short period of use
output verification detected some errors, (some five years).
understandable given the large volume of
data, and prevented them from being The first phase of the project commenced
exposed to the users. in 1988 with the contracting of services
which were to be implemented in 1989. of them quite considerable, had to be
The following year the finishing touches introduced as the need for them arose.
were put to the system and in 1991
modifications began to be made to adapt The applications software was based on
the COOB'92 internal computing system existing packages of proven efficacy which
to the period during which the Games could be modified quickly and easily and
would be held. In 1993 the system was adapted to any given situation or changing
shut down and the equipment dismantled. situation. The Càlcul i Gestió company
provided suitable solutions.
When planning the computing solutions,
account was taken of the peculiar Development
characteristics of COOB'92 and the type
of organisational environment, providing The project was developed on the basis of
for new or as yet unimplemented COOB'92's own methodology. The
procedures, the constant increase in greatest concentration of resources took
COOB'92 staff within a physically and place in 1989 with 14 full time staff
functionally changing environment and members. In 1990 and 1991 there was a
continuously changing management. The stable team of three staff to develop and
planning was particularly complicated maintain the SIGE software.
because it was not possible to begin the
process with a solid basis or with The operation
functional knowledge. It was difficult to
know what the needs would be during the The SIGE project and its application was
short period of life of COOB'92. This designed right from the start by bearing in
consequently meant that new mind that all the professionals would use
requirements and changes, some of them the instruments specific to their own field.

150 The Company Management

Information System (SIGE)
Like the application, the hardware office automation projects were divided
architecture was designed to enable the into two parts: one dedicated to
maximum decentralised exploitation of departmental computing and the other to
the entire system. personal use.

The hardware configuration for business The group of departmental computing

management consisted of a 44 megabyte projects was responsible for providing
IBM AS/400, model B60 with a 6,850 tools and support for very specialised
megabyte disk space, 12 data organisation functions. Computing
communication lines, tapes, diskettes and systems were established to assist with the
cartridges. Furthermore, for the work competition venue space management (by
stations there were 66 monitors, 72 PS/2 means of CAD), for the publishing and
personal computers connected in printing of publications (with a system
emulation and 64 printers. ceded by Rank) and for the storage and
recovery of documents in the form of an
Office automation image on optical disk with the Philips
Megadoc system.
COOB'92's concept of office automation
was that of a group of projects which All these projects were analysed by the
would provide facilities to the COOB'92 Computing Division,
departments and to the Olympic specifically by the internal computing
organisation staff. It was considered to be section. Operative responsibility lay
an area of vital importance for facilitating with the departments performing the
the tasks of preparing for the Games and tasks which these tools were used to
for standardising the working methods of support.
COOB'92 departments and divisions. The

Types of general-purpose 151

software in COOB'92
Basic office automation technology meant that the equipment had to be easy 1
COOB'92 was equipped
was conceived as being a tool with to transport and install. with computer back-up tools
which to answer the needs of personal for highly specialised
functions such as assistance
information handling in order The solution was provided by Apple, with space management at
to improve and integrate office which supplied Macintosh personal the venues, which was
procedures. computers equipped with standard word supplied through computer-
assisted design (CAD)
processors, spreadsheets and drawing packages.
The organisation sought a solution programs which were connected to a 2
which would mean that most of the common network over which The Company Management
information would be generated in its intercommunication was possible using Computer System (SIGE)
included the classic
final form or would require little electronic mail software. applications of all
additional work in order to achieve the computerised companies
(budget control, invoicing,
definitive presentation. The appropriate All the printers were Postscript laser salaries, storage control,
tool was a personal computer which machines and they were distributed staff management, etc.).
would meet the aims of maximum around areas which included a variety of 3
autonomy and maximum productivity set users. There was a maximum of ten For basic data-processing
by COOB'92. It had to be easy to learn, computers per printer and a minimum tasks, COOB'92 decided to
equip all departments with
quick to install, easy to relocate and it had of six. Apple computers with
to provide maximum quality printouts. standard text-processing and
drawing programmes and
Autonomy and productivity are the There was a notable growth in the use of spread sheets. The network
objectives of any computing project. The computers. In 1987 it was estimated that was interconnected by
ease of learning, however, was a key aim there would be nearly one computer for electronic mail software.
for the Olympic organisation given the every four people but the final proportion
short duration of the project and the large was one computer for every 1.7 people,
increase in staff in a short period of time. including network servers.
Furthermore, changes in the work places

1 2

4 and 5
A AS/400 series IBM was
COOB'92 equipped a computing important to be able to send printer spool
the hardware chosen by classroom in which to train staff in the outputs off line and even on line to the
COOB'92 to supply basic use of computers (system, word large laser printing systems such as that of
computer back-up for all the
SIGE projects. processing, electronic mail, spreadsheets Rank Xerox installed in the COOB'92
and drawing programs). From time to Publications Centre. COOB'92's AS/400
time, courses were held on databases and was also connected to the IOC's AS/400 in
other more complex tools. Users of Lausanne in Switzerland in order to use
internal mail could, according to their electronic mail systems and facilitate work
tasks, access other computing station passthrough. Amongst other
environments via the local network. With connections the token rings were
the Macintosh, the users could connect to particularly noteworthy between both the
the applications to which they had access AS/400 and the IBM PS/2 stations and
on the central administrative computer, between the remote communications
an AS/400, they could send information to control units and the IBM 3745 host. In
the different COOB'92 departments and order to carry out these functions a
they could use AppleLink international complex communications network had to
electronic mail network. be established which crammed all the
COOB'92 buildings (Font Màgica,
In spite of the fact that each computing Olímpia, Rosa and Hèlios) with cables.
environment, which we have called
COOB'92 internal computing, was to Office automation during the Games
some extent autonomous, for practical
purposes solutions were sought in order to During the Games, office automation was
be able to transfer data between the placed at the service of the functions of
AS/400 and the office automation system each unit and so it was not a question of
based on Apple Macintosh. It was there being one computer per person, or

4 5 153
one between two or three, but rather, the The content covered all aspects of the 1
As joint partner of the
computers were at the disposal of the Barcelona'92 Olympic Games: the history Games in media information
people who needed them. of previous Olympic Games, the equipment and services,
Alcatel distributed almost
Directory of the Olympic Movement and 4,000 terminals like the one
There was no increase in the number of contemporary Barcelona, Catalonia and in the photograph in 50
computers for the final operation; the Spain. These main headings were countries on the 5
ones already available were redistributed. complemented by daily news bulletins and
However, nearly twice as many printers an electronic mail service.
were required due to the territorial
dispersion of the equipment. The information was presented in a
manner structured to the needs of the user
and in the four official languages of the
The Alcatel project Olympic Games. Access to the
information was on a world scale
The purpose of the Barcelona Alcatel regardless of the mobility of the user. The
project was to provide an information hot system also guaranteed the users the
line for the media and people connected minimum cost for each communication.
with the Olympic movement throughout
the five continents, some 4,000 users in all. Planning
From 8 October 1990 to 24 July 1992, it
could be consulted 24 hours a day. The In order to achieve these aims a
system meant that the progress made in unique data base was configured on the
the preparations for the Barcelona'92 host which gave easy access to the users
Olympic Games could be followed via a worldwide data transmission
throughout the world in real time. network.

2 and 3
The Alcatel project for
When users with a portable computer, a Searching for information was easy for the
Barcelona'92, which came made-to-measure local application and user. There was a clear information
into operation on 8 October other components provided free by the hierarchy and a set of facilities such as a
1990 and continued until the
day before the opening project wanted to use the service, all they word search, which meant that
ceremony, provided the had to do was find a local telephone line information could be obtained quickly.
media with detailed to connect to and pay for the local call The fact that the networks of different
information about the
progress of the Olympic from their work stations to the nearest suppliers appeared to the users as a single
organisation. access point. The cost of the connection network was also a considerable
between the access point and the central advantage. Generally speaking, therefore,
computer was paid for by the project. the project consisted of integrated
subsystems which took the form of a
The central computer and network single product based on standard
maintenance service was available 24 materials combined in a new way. Point to
hours a day, seven days a week. point transmission error correction
guaranteed the reception of clean
The nature of the project information.

Of the many factors which characterised The preparation and distribution of the
the conception, development and equipment on the basis of a direct and
implementation of the project, it should personalised project presentation was a
firstly be noted that it was a worldwide huge logistical operation.
project which had access points in almost
fifty countries in order to ensure the
permanent availability of the service,
which was guaranteed by multiple access
routes in an extensive network.

2 3 155

1 and 2
The installations of the
Telecommunications contributed by joint partners and official
Barcelona Satellite suppliers.
Communications Centre in
the Alt Penedès district
(40 km from Barcelona), an Introduction The support from Telefónica played a
ultramodern group of land significant role in the success of the
stations for satellite The Olympic Games is an event that puts projects. The telecommunications
communications. During the
Games it acted, with the exceptional demands on network was restructured for 1992 with
Buitrago station (2) and the telecommunications. There were three the installation of 19 traffic centres,
Guadalajara Satellite
Communications Centre, as key factors in the structuring of the 450,000 digital links, 800,000 digital lines,
a worldwide distribution telecommunications: the users, the sites 500 high capacity and 900 low capacity
centre for the television
signals received by the IBC and the purposes for which they were to transmission systems, 115 radio links,
from the competition venues. be used there. The number of users 65,000 km of fibre optic cable and
determined the dimensioning of the 1,300 km of conduit. Of the
telecommunications systems and 325,900 million pesetas invested by
networks. The number and location of the Telefónica, 93,862 were devoted to
sites determined the geographical scope of Games-related works or projects.
the network of fixed services and the Amongst the most remarkable of these
coverage of the mobile services. The type were the Montjuïc tower, the Collserola
of use determined the type of information mast, the Barcelona Satellite
and communication and the support Communications Centre and the
required, whether voice, data, images or Castellbisbal Teleport. The majority of
control signals. these systems used public carrier
networks, with more than 35,000 terminals
It was necessary to provide networks for used only by the Organisation.
private use within the territorial units and
to integrate them into public networks in The projects, which had been prepared by
order to link them with the rest of the the Telecommunications and Electronics
world. Hence, the media at Barcelona'92 Division, were coordinated in each
could transmit the results of the department by a project manager. There 157
competitions around the world from their were three such project managers in the
commentary positions, from the press first quarter of 1990 and the number had
areas and from the television cameras and grown to twenty-six by the end of 1991.
studios. A variety of transmission During the operational phase they were
methods was used, including fibre optic, distributed between the CIOT and the
coaxial and parallel cables, radio links, main venues as heads of technology or
satellites and infra-red. telecommunications.

The design and planning work done as

part of the telecommunications Public telecommunications
architecture project ensured proper
installation, operation and dismantling of This area consisted of the following
all the telecommunications systems and projects: final service terminals, services
services. with direct access to the public network,
tariffs and usage, and transmission
The initial studies helped to define the services. The common denominator of all
projects that constituted the architecture. these services was their support by the
The Barcelona Computing and Telefónica public network.
Telecommunications Study (BIT'92) laid
down a general framework for its The telephone and standard fax systems
development. Later, the COOB'92 Master installed at the territorial units were
Plan identified, with the corresponding generally a back-up for the Olympic
budget allocation, each of the projects network. Nonetheless, some units,
that was later to be implemented in the because of their dimensions or because it
organisational phase. These projects were was impossible to extend the Olympic
divided into three project areas: public network to reach them, functioned
telecommunications, private entirely with the standard telephone
telecommunications and radio system. The final figure was 1,738 lines
communications. —17% less than the initial estimate—plus
601 PBX lines, that is, 2,339 lines in all.
The total budget for the They were used mostly for long-distance
telecommunications architecture project calls, since local calls were made via the
represented an investment of nearly 7,000 Olympic telephone system.
million pesetas, over half of which was
A total of 617 fax machines were used. Redundancy of lines was maintained 1
Television transmitter on the
This was 14% less than forecast at the throughout the service, including the Collserola mast.
planning stage. The great majority of possibility of loading the entire traffic on a
terminals, some 70%, were of the single circuit. In the case of the Olympic The Barcelona Games data
advanced thermosensitive paper type, but Ring, the links with the CSA used two transmission network
supplied service for the
others were also used, such as TMA redundant 34 Mbps circuits, with different COOB'92 computer and
mobile telephony (3% of the total) in the routes and accesses. office information systems.
Marathon and yachting. The support came from the
IBERMIC network,
In 65% of the 272 circuits, the installed by Telefónica, with
The COOB'92 computer and office dimensioning was of 64 kbps, while there special requirements for
criticality and redundancy.
automation systems were served by the were also 50 circuits at 64 kbps via the
Barcelona Olympic Games data Olympic telephone network, as a back-up
transmission network. The support was of IBERMIC, for the most important
the IBERMIC network, installed by units. The evolution of the network called
Telefonica, with special criticality and for a few low-velocity circuits (9.6 kbps)
redundancy requirements. At the Olympic to be raised to 64 kbps and for new
Calculation Centre (CSA) an exchange circuits for hotels identified at the last
was installed with lines ranging from moment, even though the topology was
2,400 bps to 64 kbps and X-25 IBERPAC frozen in early 1992.
circuits for the DOCUMENT terminals.
In the final operational phase no incidents
The topology of the network regarded the occurred in the circuits during
territorial units as local area networks and competition time. Outside these hours
the outputs as concentration points, while there were 57 incidents, all of them
communication between the latter and the resolved in an average time of 22 minutes
CSA was considered point-to-point. between notification and correction. In

1 2
The Olympic telephone
the circuits rented to the Olympic Family which received lines from the territorial
system was a key project in there were 132 incidents, with an average units. At CECOR, an exchange was
the telecommunications repair time of two hours. installed which concentrated the 148 lines
department. The topology of
the network was configured with different levels. The emergency
in four interconnected access During the Games, the telex service was telephone network at the Villages was set
nodes (the four Olympic mostly discarded in favour of other
areas), linked to the public up so that residents could establish fast
network. services such as fax or electronic mail, communication in the event of a serious
except by the press from countries where incident, illness or act of terrorism. One
The outstanding telex is still habitually used. Thus, of the telephone was installed on each floor in
technological innovation of 1,015 telexes sent, 23% went to India, order to optimise the resources of the
the Barcelona Games for the
media was the use of an 20% to Cuba and 16% to Nigeria. telephone exchanges and each group of
integrated voice and data Altogether, the organisation installed 34 5 houses shared the same line. The final
terminal (the TMT-Press). telex lines in the press centres at the
This provided dimensioning was 1,004 lines, of which
communication with any various sites and 9 at the MPC. COOB'92 618 were in the Barcelona Olympic
country by voice or by used 11 lines for its own purposes, Village, with nearly 2,000 telephone
telephoto or fax, using a
simple personalised installed in the accreditation centre, the terminals.
magnetic card sold by residences of IOC members and the
airport, as well as 5 lines for the AMIC- Telefónica rented telecommunications
TELEX server, which made it possible to services to the Olympic Family using a
send telexes from any AMIC terminal. booking procedure agreed with the
Organising Committee. This involved the
The installation of a dedicated telephone publication of a Telecommunications
network enabled direct, unswitched Guide, with a run of 30,000 copies. The
communication for users with specially most significant technological innovation
critical needs, such as Olympic security. in this service was the use of an integrated
One concentrator was the CECOR 3, voice-data terminal, the TMT-PRESS,

3 4 159
which enabled voice communications to be The topology of the network was The Olympic telephone network
maintained with any country, as well as the configured with four access areas, Nodes
connection of wire photo or fax equipment connected one with another and with the
using a personalised magnetic card. Nine public network. Each area was connected Territorial unit PBX
hundred of these terminals were in to the various Ericsson exchanges at the Standard telephone
operation during the Games, installed in sites—73 in total—by 2 Mbps digital links.
the work rooms of the press centres. Some The network supported a total of 11,000 Radio-messaging
of them were dedicated to fax terminals: 8,533 analogue, 2,000 digital, Telephone network at the units
transmissions. Telefónica installed some 253 data adaptors at 64 kbps (TAUs) and
3,000 further terminals in the press stands, 150 cordless phones type pre-DECT-CT3 Voice mail
for personalised service and for the media (Digital European Cordless Telephone). Message transmission centre
that had requested them, and, in specially- The Olympic network also served the
fitted centres, 860 modular telephones in media at the MPC and the IBC: they Public telephone network
which credit and prepayment cards could could call other units without charge. One
be used. Nearly 1,000 public telephone terminal was provided for every four Automatic mobile telephone
boxes were installed at the venues for the journalists.
use of the spectators. Vall d'Hebron-La Fira:
15 units in Barcelona
Diversification and redundancy, as well as Diagonal: 12 units in Barcelona
connections to be public network via plus l'Hospitalet and Viladecans
Montjuïc: 10 units in Barcelona
Private telecommunications routes to different exchanges, gave a plus Castelldefels, Granollers,
maximum capacity of 40,000 calls per Mollet, Sabadell and Terrassa
The Olympic telephone network was a hour. To confirm the viability of this Parc de Mar: 9 units in Barcelona
plus Badalona
key project that provided exclusive voice project, the Polytechnic University of
and data communication for the Olympic Catalonia carried out a simulation. During
organisation throughout the geographical the first few days of the Games there were
area in which the Games took place. peaks of 30,000 calls per hour; the highest


The four nodes group the various territorial units in Barcelona plus some of the subsites closer to the city.
Telephone in the Olympic
concentration was at the CMC (from The fact that it was a digital network
Harbour. About 1000 public which some 70,000 calls per day were enabled data transmission, thus providing
phone boxes were installed made, while there was considerable, an alternative to the IBERMIC network.
at the sites.
though more uniform, traffic at the Parc Other innovative applications were image
2 de Mar Area (between 50,000 and 60,000 transmission at 64 kbps from the closed
The Coordinating Medical calls per day). By the end of the Games circuit television cameras of the security
Centre had a switchboard
manned by volunteers which more than 4 million calls had been made. system to the central control and the
distributed the incoming Various value-added systems were used distribution of black lists of accreditations.
with the Olympic telephone system for
3 the control and supervision of the A very popular service was the CT-3
At all the media Villages
and venue press centres there network. Thus, at the CIOT, information cordless phones, using the 888 MHz band,
was an area set up by was available regarding the state of at the Olympic Ring and the Media
Telefónica with regular traffic, routes between the four Olympic Centre. Despite the mobility and small
telephone, fax and telex
services. Areas could be varied and the various size of these terminals, they gave the user
resources of the network could be the same facilities as any digital
The closed group radio optimised dynamically. telephone. Finally, five videotelephone
telephone apparatus
(RGTC - Trunking),
terminals were installed and connected to
supplied by Philips, The operation was supported by 320 the network, which established video links
provided a voice operators, whose basic task was the at 64 kbps between the Barcelona mayor's
communication service by
radio to different groups of rapid search of directories to facilitate office, the CEO of COOB'92, the CPO,
users, particularly to the management. Ericsson's Team the president of the IOC and the CIOT;
Olympic Family transport Directory system was used. Another these locations were also equipped for
service was itemised billing by area, as audio conference.
well as information about the
type of call, duration and destination The final installation of the Olympic
number. network took place between February and

1 2 3 161

The Collserola mast
June 1992. It should be noted that 35% of channels needed (16), the use of mobile
designed by the British the internal systems had been brought equipment installed in ships and in the
architect Norman Foster, into operation in 1991 for the test events vehicles for the itinerant competitions
rises majestically above the
new city skyline. Promoted and trial runs that took place that year. (cycling, Marathon) and the installation of
by a consortium formed by During the Games, the organisation of the repeaters at those Olympic sites whose
Telefónica, Retevisión, the maintenance, administration of the service dimensions demanded it, called for the
Barcelona Metropolitan
Corporation, Iniciatives, and user support was carried out by a definition of a highly complex
S.A. and the Corporació team of eight people (including staff from operational and logistical plan, with the
Catalana de Ràdio and
Televisió, it constitutes, with COOB'92 and suppliers), who were involvement of a large number
the Montjuïc tower, a responsible for a total of 130 people of persons in the distribution, installation
telecommunications node distributed around the venues and other and storage of the material. During the
and physical carrier. The Olympic sites. In order to track any operational phase there was a
Collserola mast allows rapid technical incidents, a technical service radio room at all the sites, staffed by
installation of emergency or
temporary radio and number was set up by Telefónica, which Motorola staff.
television links and supplies channelled calls directly to the CIOT.
occasional one-off services
which are not available on The SRRT equipment had a 2.5% failure
the user networks. rate. Maintenance response was optimal,
Radio communications since it was based on the immediate
substitution of terminals from a reserve
This are consisted of three projects: stock.
mobile radio communications, the paging
system and wavelength management. At the request of COOB'92, the SRRT
supplier also provided the Olympic
Mobile telephony Family with a terminal hire service at two
levels: one with coverage for an Olympic
Two levels were identified within the site and another for city-wide coverage.
radio communications projects: one was The procedures for obtaining and using
the territorial level, and the other the the equipment was described in the Radio
functional or personal level. The Communications Guide published by
territorial systems were planned and COOB'92 and the DGT. Altogether,
implemented using short-range 890 portable terminals, 120 mobile ones,
radiotelephony (SRRT), which enabled 13 base stations and 24 repeaters (located
different groups of users to communicate at Collserola) were contracted; the band
with each other within an Olympic site, as used was a continuation of the wavelength
well as city-wide systems for covering segment allotted to COOB'92.
itinerant competitions using portable
transceivers operating on a single channel. Mobile telephony made it possible for all
the members of an organisation with a
The massive use of this system mean that particular responsibility to be
each site had to have a permanently open, permanently in touch with one another.
dedicated channel for each work group, to The TMA-900 TACS network, which was
which they could have immediate access set up by Telefónica in 1991, covered all
and which would allow rapid all-to-all the Olympic sites and the main access
communication. This involved highly routes. 407 terminals were used, some
complex technical requirements and a 20% under initial forecasts. 70% of them
precise wavelength plan for each unit. For were portable and assigned to an
this purpose, the Telecommunications individual, 16% were assigned to vehicles
Department (DGT) made available a part of the COOB'92 fleet and the remaining
of band III of the television spectrum, 14% were transportable terminals for very
with a strict logistical plan for wavelength specific applications. The portable
control that proved most effective. When terminals used, from Philips, were small
assigning the number of transceivers to and easy to use, and they were supplied
each territorial unit, the dimensions of the directly to the user. The failure rate was
site and the activities of the various very low (about 3%).
groups were taken into account, according
to whether it was a venue, a support The closed group radiotelephony system
centre or a Village. The forecasts made at (CGRT-Trunking) provided a voice
the planning stage were exceeded by some communications service by radio for
25%, making it necessary to purchase various groups of users, mainly in the
extra units and to re-use others. Olympic Family transport vehicles. The
network, set up by Telefónica, consisted
The variety of different terminals, in of 24 base stations, distributed all over
accordance with the number of working Catalonia and coordinated by a
management centre. The terminals were terminals was 15% and of mobile 1 and 4
The short range radio
supplied by Philips (1,650 mobile terminals, 2%. telephone service (RTCA)
terminals and 460 portable ones) and provided communication
between the different groups
installed, administered and maintained by The paging system of Olympic Family (1) and
Telefonica Servicios (TS-1). In the final organisation users (4) within
The COOB'92 radio paging service made the sphere of a single
phase of the implementation of the territorial unit. The
service a series of network problems arose it possible for Organisation staff to apparatus and maintenance
as a result of installation deadlines and receive instant written messages via service were supplied by the
Motorola company.
changes to the software, which made it pocket alphanumeric receivers supplied
necessary to have a special plan in hand to by Indelec-Philips. The service was 2
The COOB'92 radio-
ensure coverage for the mobile terminals supplied by Telefonica Servicios (TS-1) messenger service, supplied
of the COOB'92 fleet. The utilisation of via the Mensatel network. Access to the by Intelec-Philips, allowed
the organisation staff to
the service showed that, once the network service was via an operator or any AMIC receive instant written
had been stabilised and the users became terminal. Finally, 3,340 terminals were messages via a small pocket
familiar with the operation, the shared used, 25% more than the forecast alphanumeric receiver.
access system was of great help in number. 90,251 messages were sent, 3
communicating with the vehicles. approximately 50% of them via the The mobile telephone system
(TMA - TAGS) kept the
operator service and the other 50% via members of the organisation
The movement of vehicles was such that the AMIC. Peak traffic was on 24 July with responsibilities
permanently on call.
in the first few days of the Games there with 5,307 messages. The failure rate was
were almost 15,000 calls per day, with a very low, approximately 2%.
peak on August 1 with 14,982 calls. 65%
of the calls were made from COOB'92 Wavelength management
vehicles and the remainder from the
Olympic Family. A total of 237,552 calls In early 1992 the Barcelona'92 Radio
were made. The failure rate of portable Communications Advisory Commission

1 2 4

(CAR'92) was set up, with representatives body also provided mobile units with
of the DOT, Telefónica, Retevisión, equipment for measurement and control.
RTO'92 and the COOB'92 The fact that nearly 2,300 frequencies
Telecommunications and Electronics were used meant that careful planning
Divisions. Its purpose was to coordinate and rigorous inspection were necessary. A
and control the electromagnetic spectrum total of 62 units accredited 1,335 pieces of
used by the Organisation and the Olympic equipment, and 123 cases of interference
Family and to ensure quality and were detected, of which 37% were from
reliability. The programmes were the RTCA service, 28% from radio
prepared in the planning phase by a work cameras and 24% from terrestrial mobile
group, GTR'92, which coordinated the units requested by third parties. In 66
temporary assignment of frequencies, cases, equipment was confiscated.
concession procedures, acceptance,
accreditation and access control of the
apparatus at the Olympic sites, the
booking procedure via the Radio
Communications Guide and, finally, the
logistical plan for the control and
monitoring of the electromagnetic
spectrum through a plan coordinated by
the DGT, which involved staff from the
DGT itself, the Generalitat of Catalonia,
Telefónica and Retevisión.

The human resources made available by

the DGT consisted of 123 persons. This

Calls made on the closed group 165

radiotelephony system (RTGC)

Judges' position at the
Electronics the courses for the walking, Marathon or
starting line of the rowing cycle road racing events, were covered
competition in Banyoles. The electronics department of COOB'92 using mobile or portable equipment.
2 undertook to carry out three large-scale
Detail of the ceiling of the projects: sound, track instruments and The sound projects were developed using
Palau Sant Jordi. The cable television networks. Work started a methodical process of consultation and
soundproofing and lighting
at the venue were supplied on these projects in March 1988, when advice, which from the beginning involved
by rows of spotlights and work was also done on various systems for the divisions or departments concerned:
loudspeakers strategically
placed in the central the Olympic Stadium and the Palau Sant architecture, sports, ceremonies, press or
structure, which is suspended Jordi, then under construction. The suppliers. The projects followed pre-
from the dome, so that the
hall can be used for many project managers for the sound and track determined patterns in several categories,
different purposes. This instruments projects joined the according (for example) to whether the
versatility was demonstrated organisation in April 1989 and those for
during the Games, when it venue was outdoor or indoor, its seating
was the venue for three the CATV network in May 1990. Around capacity, whether music was essential to
sports on the official mid-1990, a total of eight people worked the practice of the sport concerned,
programme: the whole
gymnastics competition and in the department. In early June 1992 this whether finals were to be held there and
the handball and volleyball number had grown to nineteen, just whether medals were to be awarded. A
before the employment of the bulk of the table of parameters was established to
staff who were to be directly involved in define a set of audio characteristics for
the operation. They shared the work of each type of facility. The acoustic
the different projects in the following way: characteristics of the various buildings
six on the sound project, six on track were always taken into account. To check
instruments, three on CATV and four on each project, a computer model including
administration of the section. the proposed architectural features and
the recommended acoustic treatments was
During the Olympic Games, staff carried used.
out duties at the territorial units (twelve
persons) and the CIOT (seven). Their A standard approach was also adopted to
duties were as assistants to the head of equipment supply, and models of 167
technology, head sound technicians, head equipment were defined in a rational way
of track instruments, head of in order to facilitate ordering, the control
telecommunications and CIOT project of the installation and the allocation of
managers. The electronics section took material and human resources for
part in many activities before the Olympic corrective and preventive maintenance. In
Games were held: the opening of the addition to the audio aspects, the project
Olympic Stadium in winter 1989, devoted great attention to the aspects of
occasional events, such as the Joaquim infrastructure that affected, basically, the
Blume Memorial in 1990, and all the test control rooms. The criteria for the
events held in summer 1991 and spring standardization of the installations were
1992. compiled in a document known as "Model
Installation". The subsequent phases were
Sound those of the validation, contracting,
execution and acceptance of the project,
The public address and simultaneous and finally putting the sound installation
interpretation projects were both included into operation. The quality, maintenance
under the project known as Sound, as and training and operation plans, the risk
were others that were less "visible" but studies and other documents provided all
nonetheless of great importance for the the information needed to carry out all
smooth running of the Games, such as the the activities that had been identified in
coordination of the national anthems and the initial planing stages.
the music for sports that required musical
accompaniment. Simultaneous interpretation
The public address project had to provide Equipment for simultaneous
every venue with suitable equipment. A interpretation in the conference rooms
total of 65 facilities were so equipped, as had to be installed at all the venues where
well as two mobile units and four finals, and hence press conferences, were
transportable ones. to be held, as well as at the operational
centres where there were activities of
The installation was permanent, interest to the world press. Such was the
temporary or mixed, according to the type case at the MPC, the IOC headquarters,
of facility concerned. For example, the among others. The heads of sport and
temporary competition venues, such as press provided the data needed to initiate
the project, for example the press simultaneous interpretation, and 4 mobile 1
The announcers' room at the
conference calendars, the number of back-up units. 78 people were employed Palau Sant Jordi. In
persons at the operators' desks and the in the project. As for the other projects, addition to electroacoustics,
the sound project paid close
numbers expected to attend. On the basis there were working documents such as attention to the aspects of
of these data the conference room plan quality, maintenance and training and infrastructure which most
and calendar were prepared. These operation plans, as well as risk studies, affected the control rooms.
documents could then be used for the which ensured that everything would run 2
detailed planing of the project. smoothly in the operations phase. Public address apparatus
used for the walking race.

Several categories were established for National anthems and other recordings
conference rooms, taking into account the
expected level of interest (high, medium The national anthems were recorded on
or low), and pre-defined, standardised interactive compact discs. This method
models were assigned to each of the provided the operator with step-by-step
categories. The equipment for guidance when programming an anthem
simultaneous interpretation was for the victory ceremony.
dimensioned, by agreement with the Press
Operations Division and the Language Music for the sports that require it
Services department of COOB'92, for at (rhythmic gymnastics and synchronized
least the four official languages, and for a swimming) was also digitally recorded,
maximum of six languages at the most but on magnetic tape (DAT).
important sites. Altogether, there were 8
rooms in the high interest category and 15 Track instruments and displays
in the medium category with simultaneous
interpretation, as well as 24 in the low This heading includes the projects for
interest category, 12 of which had track instruments, scoreboards, giant

1 2
The simultaneous
screens and the television system for on the progress of the competition is
interpretation systems that competition control. displayed on scoreboards adapted to the
were to be used at the Games peculiarities of each of these sports.
had already been tried out at
the Competitions'91. According to the scoring system, the
Olympic sports can be classified in three In some sports, such as show-jumping, or
The sound tower at the main groups: in varieties of other sports, such as wild
Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron. water canoeing, a combination of time,
a) In many disciplines (races, throwing, judges' points and penalty points is used
During the Games 132 jumping) the winner is decided after to decide the winner.
simultaneous interpretation measuring the performance of an athlete
booths were in operation in
the press conference rooms at (in time or distance) in relation to that of In these three groups, it is necessary to
the venues where finals were the others and then deciding which is the measure the times and distances
held, the HQ hotels, the IBC best score. accurately, collect the points awarded by
and the MPC.
the judges or simply to show the number
b) In other sports, points are awarded by of points scored by each team on
judges after assessing the competitors' scoreboards suitable for the sport in
performance, taking into account the question.
technique, efficaciousness or elegance of
the performance (gymnastics, boxing, The measurement of time and distance,
diving, judo, wrestling). and the collection of points or penalties
awarded by the judges, is effected by
c) Finally, in team sports, the winner is the means of "track instruments", so called
team that overcomes the rival by accruing because their function is intimately
a larger number of points during the related with what happens in the
contest: this is the case with football, competition area. This term does not do
volleyball, pelota and hockey; information justice to them, however, since they are

3 4 5 169
"systems", considerably more complex provide the spectators with full 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6
The Seiko company supplied
than mere measurement sensors. Behind information about the progress of the the track instruments for
the sensors or the terminals used for the competition. These displays were also measuring time and
distances and collecting
judges' scores is a great deal of used for things other than strictly sports- scores and the sanctions
sophisticated equipment, which receives related matters. For example, during the applied by the judges and
opening and closing ceremonies, the giant referees. All the instruments
the signals from the instruments and were yellow for easy
processes it on computers running suitable screen and the dot-matrix Scoreboard in identification: the cameras
software according to the sport in the Olympic Stadium were used to used for the photo finish (I),
the measuring devices for the
question. The information is then reinforce the special effects. The throwing events (2), the
immediately transferred to the SIR and spectators were able to see the starting shot synchronizer in
the athletics events (4), the
television. performance of the athletes at close results management
quarters on the giant screens, thanks to apparatus for badminton (5)
and the chronometers at the
The idea that this is a "system" is the close-ups provided by RTO'92 Piscines Bernat Picornell (6).
reinforced by the fact that the track presenters.
instruments are normally accompanied by
scoreboards, which present the The alphanumeric scoreboards presented
information in a relatively simple form large amounts of information, whether
and are controlled by the system of letters or numbers, and the dot-matrix
instruments of which they form part. This scoreboards,graphics or simple
type of Scoreboard can be seen in sports animations. They both showed starting
such as athletics, boxing, wrestling, judo, lists, final results and messages of public
gymnastics, or water polo. In the case of interest.
athletics and some other sports, the track
scoreboards were controlled by the SIR. The television system for competition
The displays, better known as scoreboards control, equipped with autonomous video
or giant video screens, are systems that cameras, video players and TV monitors,

1 2
The alphanumeric
followed the progress of the competitions • alphanumerical and dot-matrix
scoreboards presented the closely to review incidents or distinguish scoreboards: in 25 sports
information in letters and the winner in a close finish using the • services for television: in 11 sports
figures and the matrix
scoreboards in graphics and recorded tapes. • services for high-definition television: in
simple animations. two sports
All the projects described above formed • permanent giant screens: two (Olympic
The sports organisation staff part of the requirements set by the Stadium and Palau Sant Jordi)
provided support for the International Federations, the SIR and • mobile giant screen: in one sport
referees and judges in
competition control. RTO'92. Taking into account the • temporary giant screen: in one sport
limitations imposed by the venues, the (Pavelló de 1'Espanya Industrial)
equipment available from various
suppliers and a review of existing systems, As in the sound project, here too quality,
work began on the preparation of the maintenance and training and operation
projects. The initial planning generated a plans were prepared, as well as risk
series of documents (functional studies, emergency plans, etc.
requirements, scoreboards plan,
operations plan) that made it possible to CATV
go ahead with the construction of
equipment, orders or contracts. This project had to provide the Olympic
Family with the television channels
The initial planning revealed the following stipulated in the Olympic Charter (1987
needs: version).

• time and distance measurement: in 17 The CATV project included the planning
sports and installation of the networks, with their
• judges' points: in 14 sports technological components and the supply

3 4 6 171

5 7

The giant Scoreboard at the
of terminals (TV receivers, videos, had ordered them. 53 head ends were
Olympic Stadium which multi-screens). installed, with a total of 395 modulated
provided the spectators with channels distributed. The coaxial cable
detailed information about
the progress of the To this end the elements of which the networks installed provided a signal for
competition. For the system would have to be composed were 8,000 receivers. The operation and
athletics events, the track analysed. The generation of the signals to maintenance of the networks was
scoreboards were controlled
by SIR. be distributed was the responsibility of entrusted to the suppliers, with the aid of
RTO'92; they were transmitted to the volunteers.
The starting blocks for the IBC using RTO'92 facilities. The 16
sprints and relays were international TV signals were routed to The operational phase was regulated by
connected to the electronic
time-keeping system. the IBC using a fibre optic network. At the provisions of the operations plan of
each territorial unit, the reception the CATV project, which determined
terminals for the international signals when the materials would arrive, stated
received via optical fibre fed the CATV the quantity and type of terminals to be
head ends. installed, and who would be responsible
for corrective and preventive
Together with the international signals, maintenance, and laid down the
the local signals of the RTO'92 mobile procedures to be used with the centralised
units, the video signals generated by the support centres.
SIR and the normal broadcast signals of
the public television stations were also
distributed. The distribution network, Electronic security
starting at the head end, branched out
until it reached the press desks, the COOB'92 was responsible for aspects of
commentator's positions, the press work the internal security of the Olympic sites,
rooms, the VIP rooms and the essentially for those for which
organisation offices. Apart from the accreditation would be needed during the
venues, the CATV networks covered the operational phase. Hence, it was
MPC, the residences of IOC officials, the necessary to adopt electronic security 173
Villages and the CPO. measures to achieve satisfactory operation
and organisation—while minimizing the
The project was initiated on the basis of a presence of staff and physical barriers—as
questionnaire completed by the various well as to tighten security and make the
Divisions of COOB'92—RTO'92, Press measures taken as invisible as possible.
Operations, Sports, Accommodation,
Data-processing and Systems—in order to The electronic security section, under the
assess the dimensioning of the networks Telecommunications and Electronics
and the number of terminals required. Division, consisted of six projects: design,
The survey helped to decide what service staff access control, materials access
would be required for the press positions, control, closed circuit television, intruder
the video libraries and the giant screens at detection systems and management and
the MPC, the projection rooms at the implementation.
Villages and other special services.
During early considerations of the
With these data in hand, work began on responsibilities of this section, the idea
the design and installation of the networks took shape of dividing the simply
in accordance with an initial study that technical aspects as much as possible from
determined the criteria and technical operational responsibilities. Hence,
specifications to be taken into account. relations with public and security bodies
Installation and testing was planned in on the local, autonomous community and
such a way as to avoid last-minute work state levels were conducted on a
bottlenecks. This called for close centralised basis by the Security Division;
cooperation with the Construction the approval of working systems and the
Division, which was in control of the structuring of technological matters
physical preparation of each site. proved to be the most disputed points.

Special attention was paid at the planning The planning and definition of the
stage to the delicate problem of the infrastructure of security equipment to
delivery, control, installation, tuning and meet the needs of the various buildings
subsequent collection of the 10,000 and persons involved in the Olympic
televisions and 11,200 videos that were to Games took into account the organisation
be used, not counting hired units. This was model and the risk coverage criteria that
administered directly by the Divisions that had been studied and approved in 1988.
The basic risks identified were: personal them. It should be borne in mind that
injury, interruption of operation, security needs, and hence the
economic damage, unauthorised use and implementation of security, grew apace
conservation of materials and equipment. with COOB'92 itself.
In this first phase, the preliminary projects The general organisation of the
for the facilities were drawn up; they electronic security section fell into four
covered the risks and needs that had stages: a) design of the operation, from
already been examined intently and in April 1989 to January 1991; b) territorial
great detail. Decisions about the projects, up to October 1991; c)
technological systems and the installation implementation phase, up to June 1992,
and operation plans made it possible to and d) operational phase, up to August
standardise the process and make it 1992. More technical staff were
controllable, to make accurate estimates progressively employed, and in the end
of the human resources needed and to there was a section manager, four project
make a reliable and tight financial managers, a logistics manager and an
estimate. assistant project manager, in addition to
the administrative staff.
When these data had been collected,
market studies and negotiations with Staff access control
suppliers began. The preparation of a
standard contract made it possible, in To ensure proper control of the access to
general, to facilitate the closure of the various sites of the persons involved in
agreements with the requisite speed. Now the Games, a personal accreditation was
began the phase of the development of issued, as had become customary at
the projects and the gradual application of previous Games. This accreditation, on

The television signal transmission
1 Barcelona satellite
communications centre
2 Guadalajara satellite
communications centre
3 Buitrago satellite communications
4 Montjuïc tower
5 Collserola tower

Direct fibre optic

Alternative fibre optic
Radio link network
The accreditations at the
laminated paper, bore a photograph of the The bar code reader would authorise or
access control points were holder with his or her personal details, as deny access to a site. The data
read by a total of 550 laser well as a bar code and pictograms accumulated by the reader were uploaded
scanners. During the Games
there were over 200,000 identifying the zones to which access was to a dedicated computer terminal at each
readings a day, counting all permitted. site whence they were sent via a dedicated
the venues. telephone line to the central system. Over
2 and 3 The bar code allowed the accreditation to 200,000 accreditations were read each day
The access control points be read using a laser bar code reader. This during the Games. Black-listed
were also equipped with
metal detectors to prevent provided a simple way of confirming the accreditations were to be destroyed. The
people bringing forbidden holder's rights of entry, as well as list was distributed from the central
objects into the venues.
providing statistical and security control system to all the bar code readers, so that
information. "black" accreditations were detected
immediately upon being read.
The accreditation centres were provided
with bar code readers identical to those Materials access control
used at the access controls in order to
check that all the data were correct. Electronic devices were used to filter
access to the Olympic sites of a variety of
Five hundred and fifty bar code readers materials and objects that might interfere
were used at the access controls. The with the smooth running of the sports
method, which was a complete novelty, competitions. These devices were: metal
proved a success. The self-sufficiency and detectors (2,200 in total) at the access
reliability of the system allowed the control modules for accredited staff and
volunteers in charge of it to work the public; X-ray machines for the control
comfortably and confidently. of packages and correspondence at the
materials access modules; magnetic field

1 2 3 175
detectors for checking vehicles in parking and capacity for up to 448 hours 1
The Olímpia building,
or goods delivery areas; and sniffer-type continuous recording) and transmission COOB'92 headquarters, was
devices for detecting explosives. equipment (image digitizalers with equipped with X-ray screens
to check packets and letters.
transmission using the internal telephone
Closed circuit television systems line). 2
At the entrances for the
(CCTV) accredited staff at the venues
Intruder detection systems there were metal detector
This system obtained closed circuit arches. Entrance to the
chalet at El Montanyà
television pictures of a site, whether it was The intruder detection systems worked on equestrian centre.
in use or not, for the information of those the principle of detecting variations in the
responsible for security, so that anomalies rest value of a previously determined
could then be investigated by other means physical quantity, which would set off an
and reliable data would be available to alarm. They were complementary to
monitor them, and to record the images physical security and responded
for subsequent action or investigation. immediately to any attempt at intrusion in
Another function, which was not a restricted area.
originally planned for, but which proved
very useful, was the control of the The equipment for this system fell into
spectators inside the venues. three categories: detection equipment
(alarm sensors, that sensed the position of
The equipment making up the CCTV doors, movement in a space or
systems can be grouped in four categories: interference with a perimeter fence),
capture equipment (470 cameras with central units (which provided information
auxiliary equipment) display equipment about all variations in the system using
(160 TV monitors), recording equipment printers, graphic terminals or synoptic
(65 security VCRs with slow recording displays, but without acoustic alarms) and

176 1 2
The closed circuit television
equipment to track the security patrols. operational plans in June. This was so
(CCTV) was an important This equipment was controlled, along with especially in the case of the Olympic
support for security control the CCTV, from the security centres at Village, where final preparation was not
at the Olympic sites.
each site, which were operational 24 hours completed until a few days before the
4 a day. opening.
CECOR 3 had a telephone
exchange to provide direct
communication in an At sites with perimeter detection, it was The installation of the operational
emergency. essential for it to be integrated into the systems
CCTV system to obtain effective results.
When a detection occurred, an image of All the electronic security systems were
the area in question would appear installed after the previously defined
immediately, making it possible to projects had been concluded. These
determine the real cause of the alarm and involved the selection and contracting of
to mobilise the necessary resources. the suppliers, the definition of logistical
procedures, the creation of a system of
Every day, the system data and a list of all documentation, product quality control,
operations carried out was transmitted the determination of functional
from each unit to the CIOT, where the specifications and the territorial projects
information was analysed to ensure that for each of the more than 60 sites
the systems were working correctly. involved. Once these procedures were
operational, the various systems were
Last-minute modifications to the installed.
infrastructure at some sites called for
drastic changes to the implementation of The installation phases lasted nine months
the detection systems, and this made it (from October 1991 to June 1992). May
necessary to change the various was the busiest month, with 135 people

3 4 177
involved. The total time needed for the operators, control and replace 1
Access control for spectators
installation was 72,000 man-hours, materials and to prepare and store the and members of the Olympic
involving the following activities: chronological archives. Family was the
responsibility of the
• installation of 8,500 pieces of automatic To cover these necessities two work
2 and 3
equipment (with the relevant auxiliary programmes were designed: a training All the Olympic venues, such
equipment) programme and a maintenance as the Palau d'Esports in
• installation of 360,000 m of cable programme. The training programme Badalona (2) and the
Pavelló Olímpic in
• contracting 160 telephone lines for data involved courses for 1,200 group heads Granollers (3), were
transmission and 21,000 operators. The programme was surrounded by perimeter
security fences equipped with
• installation of 180 fibre optic circuits for staffed by 115 technicians, seconded by intrusion detection systems
the transmission of video signals the suppliers and installers, and 56 connected to the CCTV.
• protection of 14,000 m of perimeter volunteers with a technical background.
fence with microphonic detection In all 16 courses were given, each lasting
• creation of a computerised database for between 6 and 64 hours.
the tracking of incidents, with 425 plans
of the various sites. The maintenance phase of the operation
involved the employment of 75
The operations phase lasted from 1 July to technicians in charge of electronic security
10 August 1992. The CCTV and intruder assigned to the various sites, supported by
detection systems were operational from 50 volunteers, as well as 36 specialist
April. technicians assigned to the CIOT.

The duties of the electronic security

section during this period were to attend
to reports of technical incidents, advise


2 3
The Olympic Stadium the
The organisation of the the heads of telecommunications, so that
day after the closing telecommunications operation information was permanently available on
ceremony. To coordinate the the state of each system and overall
operations phase and the
dismantling of the To coordinate the planning, operation and strategies could be established.
technological equipment, dismantling of the telecommunications
each venue had its own services at each territorial unit, a specific At the CIOT, the telecommunications
organisation headed by the
technology manager and organisation was set up, responsible to the section was divided into four project
directed direct from the head of technology and coordinated from areas, including the CATV projects, in
the CIOT. which, in addition to the COOB'92
project heads, there were representatives
The territorial structure revolved around of the project heads of the supplying
the head of telecommunications, who was companies. The organisation was headed
a key figure in the installation phase. by a head of telecommunications systems
Secondment agreements with suppliers, who coordinated the four project areas
engineering schools and public bodies with the aid of managers from the
made it possible to train a team of nearly Telefónica Group'92.
100 people, which was already operational Telecommunications staff at the CIOT
two or three months before the Games. amounted to almost 60. From 25 June to
10 August, the CIOT dealt with 479
The entire territorial structure was incidents (180 in the installation phase
coordinated and exhaustively tracked and 299 during the Games).
from the CIOT, with the cooperation of

4 179
The Olympic Charter states
Introduction Once the initial agreements with the
that the Organising administration and the owners of the
Committee of the Olympic In the contract signed in Lausanne on 17 various property developments had been
Games has to provide an
Olympic Village for October 1986 by the IOC, the COE and signed and in order to have the five
competitors and officials. In the Barcelona City Council, the Villages ready for their guests, activity
the case of Barcelona, given Organising Committee undertook to began on various fronts which were
the scarcity of hotel rooms in
the city for members of the provide accommodation for the Olympic common to all the residences. First,
Olympic Family, two other Family at as low a price as possible, to be agreements and contracts were drawn up
Villages were organised for
the media (Vall d'Hebron set two years before the opening of the with the promoters to settle the terms of
and Montigalà) and one for Games. The Olympic Family includes the cession of the residential complexes.
referees and judges (Parc de
Mar). In the photograph, a everyone coming to Barcelona to take Second, the space was shared out among
curious image of the rooms part in the Games, whether directly the different departments which would be
at the Vall d'Hebron (competitors, team officials, judges, working at the Village and the conversion
referees and sports management) or works which would turn empty,
indirectly (press, photographers, radio incomplete constructions into facilities
and TV broadcasters, technicians, appropriate for Olympic use and the
sponsors and guests). specific needs of the future residents were
assigned. Third, services were contracted
Moreover, the Olympic Charter makes it from specialised companies to cover
an obligation to house the competitors in cleaning and laundry and commercial,
an Olympic Village reserved exclusively recreational and cultural amenities. In
for them, though in the end, because of addition, agreements were established for
the location of the venues, three Villages the provision of religious services.
were provided by COOB'92. Moreover,
the Lausanne contract contemplated the In the case of the Olympic Villages the
possibility of providing a Media Village as Organising Committee was in direct
well and COOB'92 extended the idea to contact with the National Olympic
the judges and referees. But all that Committees (NOC) to plan the services
covered only part of the accommodation they would require and assign their places 183
requirements; the rest had to be found at of residence within each Village.
the hotels available in the city. Relations were also maintained with the
press agencies and the International
This entire operation was the Federations (IF) for the organisation of
responsibility of the two COOB'92 the other Villages. To smooth
divisions, Villages and Accommodation, communication between COOB'92 and
which worked in close, permanent the NOCs visits to the Villages were
cooperation. organised and information bulletins, such
as the Chef de Mission Dossier,
The Villages
As we have said, the Olympic Charter Agreements with the promoters
provided for an Olympic Village where
the competitors could live during the At an early stage the requirements for the
Games. In Barcelona it was built in rooms in the Villages which would be met
Poblenou, as explained in the by the promoters were defined; in short,
Candidature Dossier, as part of the they came down to avoiding bathrooms
reconstruction of a new district on the with direct entry from a bedroom (as the
reclaimed city sea front. At the same time, rooms would be shared and access to the
bearing in mind the distance between the bathroom could not be limited), installing
city and the venues for two of the sports in the telephone and cable TV network,
natural settings —wild water canoeing in making master keys and equipping the
La Seu d'Urgell and rowing in bathrooms and cupboards with the
Banyoles—, it was decided to open two necessary accessories.
more Villages in those towns.
The precise conditions in which the
After the experience of Seoul and in view apartments and premises would be ceded
of the lack of hotel rooms in Barcelona, to COOB'92 and returned afterwards
there was a plan to organise two Villages were negotiated with the promoters; the
for the media —in Vall d'Hebron and cost of possible repairs was assessed, the
Montigalà— and one for the judges and handover dates and, in some cases, the
referees —the Parc de Mar Village— payments were fixed.
beside the Olympic Village.
This process, which began in 1989, came began to draft the basic projects indicating 1
View of part of the Olympic
to a conclusion in 1991 with the signing of the furnishings, lighting, air-conditioning Village in Barcelona,
the agreements with the following and the electricity, water, telephone, showing the different
architectural styles of the
promoters: at the Olympic Village, with computer signal and cable TV networks buildings. Between 1989 and
VOSA-Vila Olímpica SA, NISA-Nova for each place. 1991 COOB'92 signed
Icària SA, OMSA-Olympic Moll SA, agreements with the
administrations and the
Eurocity SA, Mapfre, Generalitat of Coordination meetings attended by owners of the property
Catalonia-Catalan Institute of Health and representatives of all the departments developments setting the
terms and conditions for the
Archbishopric of Barcelona; at Montigalà, involved in a project (security, technology, cession of apartments and
with Montigalà SA and Levitt Bosch- accreditations, transport, medical care and premises to the Olympic
Aymerich SA, at Vall d'Hebron, with sports, among others) were held to give
UTE Coisa-Conycon; at Parc de Mar with the green light. The next step was to draft 2
The Team'92 restaurant area
Mediterrània de Promotions SA; at the executive projects with the help of an at the Barcelona Olympic
Banyoles, with Consorci de la Vila outside engineering company. Contracts Village. In 1989, the
Olímpica de Banyoles SA, and at La Seu for the conversion works were signed with Villages Division drafted the
basic space distribution and
d'Urgell, with La Instruction Popular SA. the most suitable firms. conversion projects for the
Villages, which gradually
took shape until the
From January 1992, as soon as each executive projects were
Space distribution and adaptation Village had a technical team in charge, the produced.
works works were supervised and managed
directly from the departments responsible
At the outset the Villages Division made a for each aspect.
list of requirements for the different
services (security, transport, catering and As the works were finished, the
accommodation, among others) and maintenance teams went into action.

1 2
3 and 4
The Villages operations
Given the extremely tight time limits in each group and the numbers of staff
plan, presented in July 1991, which the works on the Villages had to be required were established in November of
described the criteria and completed, adaptation and maintenance that year. The Operations Plan, presented
general procedures and
calculated the human and overlapped. The maintenance service in July 1991, described the general
technological resources functioned 24 hours a day during the 33 organisation, criteria and procedures and
necessary for it to run operational days of the Barcelona calculated the human and technological
smoothly. From that plan,
each Village, including Vall Olympic Village and performed over resources.
d'Hebron (3) and Montigalà 6,300 operations, from opening locks for
(4), drafted its own
territorial operations plan residents who had mislaid their keys to On 30 September 1991 the Villages
and the calendar for its repairing leaks and rescuing people Division moved into the Eurocity building
trapped in lifts. The last phase consisted in the Olympic Village. The
of the dismantling of the furnishings and implementation plan was presented at the
the installations in order to return the same time; it described step by step the
buildings to their owners in the condition actions that would have to be taken to
agreed. convert and furnish the premises, to bring
in the staff and set the technological
equipment in motion. Then, the goods
The planning and organisation model and services supply contracts for all the
for the Villages Villages were finalised.

From the preliminary project drafted in Next the services were contracted:
July 1989 and the organisation projects cleaning (from a temporary consortium of
and the first organisation charts of July companies) and laundry, domestic
1990, the organisation structure, the furnishings (rented), launderette,
division into departments, the functions of household electrical equipment (among

3 4 185
others, from Philips), beds (from Flex) period the Division's responsibilities
and office furniture (also rented). covered all the Villages. From 1991 more
staff were taken on and the responsibility
Each Village developed its own was concentrated in the Barcelona
operations and implementation plans and Olympic Village. At the end of 1991,
acquired greater autonomy as its 27 people had been hired; the number
particular needs emerged. From then on rose to 39 in January 1992, 64 in
new staff went directly to work at each February, 102 in March, 122 in April,
Village and took on increasingly specific 245 in May, 482 in June and 680 in July.
responsibilities until the managements
teams for each unit were appointed and The table shows the figures for human
confirmed in November 1991. In the same resources at the Barcelona Olympic
month direct contacts with the volunteers Village by departments.
began; they were assigned to Villages,
where they did general training courses
before being allocated to their particular The Barcelona Olympic Village
departments, where each person in charge
took over the special training. The Olympic Village was divided into two
zones: the residential zone, where the
apartments, offices and NOC medical
Human resources premises were located; and the
international zone, which included the
The hiring of staff for the Villages shopping centre, the beaches, the marine
Division began in 1987 and by 1990 parade, the Olympic Harbour jetty and
20 people were working in it. Over that most of the common services.

Perm. staff Temp. staff Volunteers External staff Total Human resources at the Olympic
Management 17 8 4 30
Protocol 2 2 21 3 28
Security and protection 592 592
Internal security 1 4 635 48 688
Training centres 50 27 77
Press centre 2 20 22
Concessions 1 9 15 350 375
RTV centre 19 4 1 24
Staff 1 13 34 48
Administration 1 8 9
Information 2 5 82 28 117
Accommodation 2 138 406 863 1,409
Religious services 1 1 40 42
Culture and recreation 4 31 241 119 395
Catering 7 29 79 2,125 2,240
Adaptation and maintenance 6 1 174 181
Materials management 3 98 16 117
Computers 69 24 93
Telecommunications 2 21 32 55
Ceremonies and public relations 4 25 7 36
Reception 9 13 28 50
NOC Services Centre 3 23 47 73
Accreditations 4 18 182 2 206
Transport 1 85 755 124 965
Medical services 1 2 414 8 425
Sports Information Centre 12 59 198 4 273
Pass management and left luggage 5 126 131
Hosts 3 3 482 488
Total 83 580 3,978 4,548 9,189
1, 3 and 4
The apartments at the
Apart from the fact that for the first time The cultural and recreational activities
Barcelona Olympic Village in the history of the Games the had the support of the Cultural Olympiad
housed between two and competitors were offered free and the sponsorship of some companies,
twelve people, though most
of them were occupied by six accommodation for eighteen days, one of such as the ones providing the video
or eight residents. the most innovatory aspects was the games and bowling alleys.
installation at all the Villages of residents'
The shopping centre at the centres, where all the domestic services Accommodation
Barcelona Olympic Village —maintenance, laundry, etc.— were
was run by El Corte Inglés.
concentrated. Besides their efficiency in The apartments at the Olympic
solving most everyday problems, the Village held between two and twelve
centres became meeting points where people; most were occupied by six or
residents lived and breathed the Olympic eight. The bedrooms were usually twin.
atmosphere from day to day. The beds measured 190 x 90 cm and
could be extended by 20 or 40 cm.
The commercial services available were a Beside each bed there was a table
shopping centre (El Corte Inglés), and a lamp. The wardrobes had ten
photographic material (Kodak), hangers for each resident and there
hairdresser's, opticians (Bausch and was at least one bathroom for
Lomb), sports footwear repairs (Asics), four people.
licensed material (Promovip),
flowers, couriers, sales of The kitchen and washing areas were not
commemorative stamps (the post office), accessible, as the residents had a free
news kiosk, travel agency, restaurant service 24 hours a day and
telephone booths (Telefónica) and common launderette areas.
banks (Banesto).

1 2 4 187


Olympic Village
General plan
1 Entrances
2 Reception centre
3 Ceremonies Square
4 Jetty restaurant
5 Shopping centre and main
6 Organisation building
7 Polyclinic
8 Security and technology centre
and meeting rooms
9 Sports facilities
10 Staff changing room
11 Abraham religious centre
12 Bus pool
13 Organisation restaurant
14 Goods transfer area
15 Athletics track
16 Disco
17 Parc de les Dunes
18 Beaches
19 Sponsors' areas

Residents centre
1 Zone manager and assistant's
2 Washing and drying area
3 Lounge and waiting room
4 Administration
5 Public telephones
6 Drinks dispenser
7 Store
8 CA TV rooms
The room also contained a dining table There were 21 residents' centres around
and chairs and easy chairs for all the the Olympic Village with a free
occupants. There was a TV table with launderette, drier and iron, lounge with
socket; the television sets and videos television, public coin or card
could be rented on request through the telephone boxes, indoor games, soft
chef de mission. drinks and an Olympic Family
information terminal. Each centre
The rooms for the chefs de mission of the provided for 680 residents.
smaller delegations —the ones with a
maximum of 25 competitors— had a safe, Besides these centres there was an
television, fridge, desk and lamp, information desk manned by volunteers
armchair, intercom telephone with an connected to the maintenance and towel
optional outside line, flag stand, changing services. Ten of the centres were
typewriter, waste paper basket and filing open 24 hours a day and the others from
cabinet. 6.00 to 22.00.

The rooms were cleaned every day In the catering area, the competitors and
between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. The bed linen team officials staying at the Olympic
was changed every four days and the Village had a wide choice of food
towels —one bath and one hand towel per supplied by the main restaurant and the
person— every two days; in any case, the ones along the Olympic Harbour jetty, in
residents could change them at any time addition to a packed lunch service for the
at the residents' centre. Altogether competition venues. The supply
225,000 kilograms of clothes, 137,000 included breakfast, lunch and dinner and
items of bed linen and 310,000 towels a limited service with a narrower range
were washed. of dishes 24 hours a day. The restaurants

Surface areas and other data for the 189

Surface area Units
Olympic Village adaptation
Total surface area of the precinct 720,000 m2 Trees 2,800
Residential area 280,000 m2 Pass controls 26
Public parks 182,000m2 Bay controls 11
Roads and pavements 155,000m2 Gates 13
Beaches and jetties 86,000 m2 5 x 5 m tents 23
Interior gardens 60,000 m2 3 x 3 m tents 22
Flower beds 15,200 m2
Commercial area 53,200 m2
Offices 27,700 m2
Car pool 23,000 m2
Bus pool 11 ,900 m2
Goods transfer area 7,700 m2
Outdoor disco 6,000 m2
Sports facilities 4,723 m2
Polyclinic 3,300 m2
Abraham religious centre 2,285 m2
Canteen and service lines (3,500 places) 8,500 m2
Restaurant (store area) 20,000 m2
Restaurant (cooking and washing area) 4,000 m2
Restaurant (staff canteen) 400 m2
Staff changing rooms 750 m2
Olympic Village
Residential area
1 Pass control from international
zone to residential zone
2 Residents' centres
3 Common medical services
4 NOC headquarters
5 Television rooms
6 Video games rooms
7 Viewing room
8 Hairdressers
9 Library and magazine library
10 Music library
11 COOB'92 licensed material
12 Shoe repairs
13 Minicircuit room
14 Games room
15 Bank
16 Cinema
17 Volunteer services centre
18 Music bar
19 Billiards and bowling
20 Exhibition hall and video
21 Paralympics information
22 Foundation for Hospital Arts
painting exhibition
23 AMIC terminals
24 Information
25 Welcome ceremonies
26 Permanent exhibition
27 Cash point
28 Flower shop

Main centre
29 Telephone kiosks
30 Press and publications
31 Information and lost property
32 Meeting point
33 Competitors commission
34 IOC office 191
35 Olympic Museum stand
36 Post and telegraph office
37 Travel agency
38 Courier service
39 Bank
40 Photographic exhibition
41 Photographic material sales
42 AMIC terminals
43 Complaints office
44 Eye testing centre
45 Left luggage
46 Shops
47 Sports Information Centre
48 Computer maintenance
49 Reprographics centre
50 NOC Services Centre
51 Entrance to canteen
52 Meeting rooms
53 Radio hams room

Main restaurant
54 Kitchen
55 Day store
56 Washing areas
57 Service lines
58 Competitors' canteen
59 Catering staff canteen

Reception centre
60 Vehicle requests
61 Car pool exit
62 Pass management
63 Reception
64 Accreditations management
65 Accreditations room
66 Accreditations waiting room
67 Guests' pass management
68 Olympic Radio and Television
69 Press centre
70 Car pool
71 Protocol room
72 Press room
73 Reception room
on the jetty served paella, pizza, tapas and Communication) terminals, 1
There were telephone offices
and fruit. information points and a telephone at each Village for domestic
information service. and international calls and
for sending telegrams, telex
The catering services are explained in and fax.
detail in Chapter 8 of this volume. The telephone boxes at the Olympic
2, 3 and 4
Village had lines for local, domestic and The Villages had AMIC
Transport international calls and facilities for terminals (3), information
sending telegrams, telex and fax. There points (2 and 4) and a
telephone information
Transport to the venues was covered by a were 70 boxes in the streets of the Village service. The switchboard
shuttle service from the Olympic Village and 80 inside the buildings. operators at the Barcelona
Olympic Village handled
scheduled according to the competition 130,000 calls.
timetables. Teams were provided with a The operators at the Olympic Village
bus service. The training facilities were exchange, which covered the whole Parc
served by a similar arrangement. All the de Mar Area, handled a total of 129,923
services stopped at different points calls.
around the Village.
The AMIC was one of the systems by
Inside the Village there were two lines: which the residents could obtain up to
one around the international zone and the date information about the Games. The
other around the residential zone. larger delegations, 50 and above, had their
own offices with one or two terminals
Communication and information according to the number of members.

The Village had telephone services, Four information kiosks were installed:
AMIC (Multiple Access to Information two were devoted exclusively to

1 2 3
5 and 6
The religious services centre
tourist information and the other two ophthalmology, ear, nose and throat,
at the Barcelona Olympic were general; at one of them the lost dentistry, chiropody, optimetry and
Village, the Abraham property service was centralised. rehabilitation. The other specialities were
Centre, was a large church
which could be used by The languages used were Catalan, attended at the Olympic Hospital
followers of Buddhism, Spanish, French, English, German and (Hospital del Mar) just 300 metres from
Catholicism, Islam, Judaism Italian. the main gate of the Village.
and Protestantism. In
addition, each religion had
its own special area. Access to the telephone information
service could be made from any of the
intercom phones around the Village or by
dialling the service number from the
outside line phones. The service
functioned round the clock in Catalan,
Spanish, French, English and German and
from 7.00 to 23.00 also in Korean,
Cantonese, Mandarin, Japanese,
Portuguese and Russian.

Medical services
The Olympic Village was equipped with a
polyclinic, open from 11 July to 12
August, with a 24 hour a day emergency
and pharmacy service. It provided internal
medicine, sports medicine, traumatology,

4 5 193

Religious services Commercial services 1 and 2
All the Villages had leisure
areas and cultural and
The planning of the religious services was There was a branch of the Banco Español recreational services for the
residents. In the
based on an observation of the Seoul de Crédito (Banesto) in the Village which photographs, a terrace and
Games by the Archbishopric of provided the usual banking services: the billiards room at the
Parc de Mar Village.
Barcelona. That initiative prompted the foreign exchange, opening accounts,
constitution of the Religious Services cashing and depositing cheques and 3
Advisory Council with representatives transfers. At the Barcelona Olympic
Village there were eight
from each major religion. games rooms with video
The post office provided the following games, billiards, table
tennis, pinball machines,
The Archbishopric of Barcelona took services, among others: sales of stamps, table football, bowling,
charge of the construction of the express parcel service, post and telegraph darts and board games.
Abraham Centre, which contained a large giro, collection and delivery of post at the 4
church for the celebration of services Village and the sale of commemorative On 8 July, when a group of
which could be used by followers of medals. reporters visited the
Barcelona Olympic Village,
Buddhism, Catholicism, Islam, Judaism there were various
and Protestantism. Each religion also had The Village shopping centre had a travel performances of street
its own space. agency selling tours and tickets. There
were also clothes shops, shoe shops,
The three main activities of the Abraham perfumery, small household electrical
Centre were the services, the pastoral care goods, sports material, stationery,
and the complementary and parallel books, sweets and chocolate,
activities, such as discussion groups, Barcelona'92 licensed articles, dry-
exhibitions and lectures. cleaning and pressing, international news
kiosk, flower shop, photographic

1 2 4

equipment, hairdresser's, optician's, performances. Only non-alcoholic drinks
sports footwear and tickets for the were served. It also had a games room.
competitions. The music bar, which held 150, also had
live groups.
Cultural and recreational services
Around the Village there were eight
The Olympic Village had a library with games rooms with video games, billiards,
books and magazines in various languages table tennis, pinball machines, miniature
which held 130 people. It also had soft football, bowling alleys, darts and board
drinks dispensers. games.
There were four cinemas showing films in The Village was also equipped with a
the official languages of the Games. There sports centre and an athletics track.
was also a video library with twelve rooms
for recording and watching the sports Services for the National Olympic
events, viewing rooms for four people and Committees
a few more with a large screen which held
twenty or thirty. The services which would be provided for
the NOCs were decided at the beginning:
The residents also had a record library office space and equipment according to
where they could listen to music or watch the number of members of each
musical videos. delegation, spaces for each committee's
medical services, stores, vehicles and hosts
The outdoor disco held over 1,500 people assigned to each delegation.
and was the setting for several live

NOC headquarters 195

General services
1 Chef de mission
2 Assistant chef de mission
3 Work room
4 Multipurpose room
5 Hosts

Medical services
6 Surgery
7 Consulting room
8 Examination cubicle
9 Massage room
Administrative services also had to be One of the Olympic Village buildings had 1
The Olympic Villages had
provided and the procedures prior to the meeting rooms for the delegations. There self-service launderettes for
arrival of the delegations established. The were 7 rooms for 12 people, 3 for 16, 3 for the residents. In the
photograph, the launderette
NOCs had to be kept constantly informed 36 and 1 for 80. at the Olympic Village in
and the apartments and premises for each Banyoles.
delegation set aside. Among the apparatus and equipment for 2
hire were televisions, videos, fax The 70 public telephones in
In April 1992 the number of machines, photocopiers, typewriters, the streets of the Barcelona
Olympic Village were for the
participants had to be negotiated with the fridges, coffee machines, walkie-talkies, use of the residents and staff.
NOCs in an attempt to reduce the total fans, tables, chairs, filing cabinets and There were a further 80
boxes at the sites.
from the over 19,000 entered to 15,000 safes.
(the number on which the planning had
been based). The NOCs could reserve tickets up to 15
June 1991; during the Games they were
The NOC Services Centre handled allocated a special quota.
meeting room bookings, provided office
services (photocopies, typing and To admit guests the chefs de mission had
translation) and equipment hire, received to present a list for the day in advance at
correspondence, sold tickets for the the Services Centre. The maximum daily
competitions, dealt with requests for number was set according to the number
passes for guests and checked the state of of members of the NOC at a ratio of 2 for
the committees' accounts. The office each 25 competitors.
services, hire of apparatus and
equipment, meal vouchers and tickets The delegations had their own offices
had to be paid for. according to the number of members: the

196 1 2
3 and 4
The Olympic Village in
chefs de mission of the delegations with Village, coordination of the sports
Banyoles, where the fewer than 25 had items of office (venues and competition and training
competitors and officials of equipment in the lounge of their times), general information, cultural
the rowing competition
stayed, had reception, apartments, as explained in detail above. programmes and miscellaneous
accreditation, catering and The offices of each NOC were on the procedures; in short, their function was to
recreational services similar ground floor of the blocks of apartments act as liaison between the members of the
to those at the Barcelona
Olympic Village and regular which had been assigned to them or in delegations and COOB'92.
transport to and from adjacent buildings.
Space was reserved for each NOC to store
There were five medical centres around equipment in the basements of the
the Olympic Village with surgeries, buildings occupied by the delegation or
examination cubicles and massage rooms. nearby.
Each one was shared by different NOCs
according to a preset timetable. The Each NOC had a vehicle for the use of the
delegations with more than twenty-five president and the secretary general, as
members had medical premises beside well as cars and minibuses according to
their offices. the number of competitors.

In addition to the hosts at the Olympic There was a restaurant service for the
Village, who were there to provide delegations which wanted to lay on a
assistance for the residents, each reception or cocktail party; it included the
delegation had a number assigned to take room, the waiters and canapes or food
charge of accreditation and registration and drinks. The expenses were paid by
formalities, transport procedures, each committee.
information about the functioning of the

3 4 197
The Sports Information Centre (CIE) The capacity of the Banyoles Village was 1 and 2
The Banyoles Olympic
provided the team leaders with various 1,012 places for the competitors and Village was near the lake
services, among them information about officials of the rowing events. The where the rowing
competitions were held,
training and competition timetables, lists residential zone was next to the swimming beside the swimming club.
of participants and printouts of the club where the boats were kept. The
competition results. Village was open from 11 July to 5 La Seu d'Urgell Village, 178
August. km from Barcelona, was
The Centre also managed bookings for home to the competitors and
officials in the wild water
training times and transport to the There was a transport service on arrival canoeing events.
competition venues and training facilities. and departure between Barcelona and
It also dealt with complaints about Girona airports and Banyoles. A bus
sporting matters. service linked the Village with the
finishing area at the competition venue.
There were two departures to Barcelona
The Olympic Villages in Banyoles each morning and two returns in the
and La Seu d'Urgell afternoon.

The Banyoles Olympic Village was beside Registration, accommodation,

the lake where the rowing competitions accreditation and the services provided
were held, 130 kilometres from Barcelona. —including food— were similar to the
As with La Seu d'Urgell —178 kilometres Barcelona Olympic Village, with the
from Barcelona— where the wild water natural differences arising from the
canoeing competitions were held, the smaller number of residents. That was
distance justified having independent also the case with the Village in La Seu
Villages to avoid long journeys to and d'Urgell.
from the venues.

1 2

4 and 5
The Parc de Mar Village,
With a capacity for 300 residents, La Seu and 26 premises. There were a maximum
where the referees and judges d'Urgell Village was home to the of five apartments in each block.
lived, occupied two blocks competitors in the wild water canoeing
next to the Barcelona
Olympic Village. The green events and the team officials. It was open The services provided were similar to the
zones were the scene for the from 11 July to 6 August. Olympic Village and the apartments were
leisure activities and the equipped to the same standards of quality.
commercial zones and
common services were on On both arrival and departure there was a
the ground floor of the transport service from Barcelona airport;
there was also a heliport. A bus services The Vall d'Hebron Village
connected the Village with the
competition canal and the training The Vall d'Hebron Media Village
facilities. As with Banyoles, there was a operated like a large hotel, with a capacity
daily bus service to Barcelona. for 2,200 residents in 489 apartments,
339 of which were equipped with
air-conditioning. The apartments were a
The Parc de Mar Village new promotion. The promoter leased the
installations (apartments, premises and
The Parc de Mar Village, for the judges basements) to COOB'92 from 1 April to
and referees, occupied two blocks next to 31 October; they were adapted for
the Olympic Village, with green zones in Olympic use over that period.
the middle. With the commercial area on The total built surface area was
the ground floor, they were the scene for 95,420 m2 (of which 58,375 m2 were
the recreational activities and the apartments).
different Village services. Block 1
consisted of 21 apartments and 18 The apartments were functionally but
premises and Block 2 of 184 apartments comfortably furnished. In the living room

4 5 199
there was a fridge, a coffee machine and a and 1,738 double) in 842 apartments and
television with seven regular and sixteen 56 houses.
cable channels.
The Village was divided into two zones.
Like the Olympic Villages, the Vall The first was formed of six blocks
d'Hebron Village provided residents with enclosed by five-storey buildings with
a series of services, from reception and interior gardens, with four nine-storey
information to a press centre, not buildings at the ends. The second was a
forgetting laundry and cleaning, catering, larger block with a big interior garden
transport, medical and commercial consisting of blocks of six-storey buildings
services. beyond which there were two rows with
56 houses with outside terrace and garden.
These two built-up areas were separated
The Montigalà Village by a central passage which was used for
common activities and where the music
The Montigalà Village, also designed for bar was installed.
the media, was situated in the Batllòria-
Montigalà estate between Badalona and To make travelling easier for the
the Marina hills on 200 ha of land. residents, a small train which held 60
On 1 January 1992 the promoters ceded passengers ran around the Village. There
the apartments and commercial premises were also 500 trolleys for carrying luggage
to COOB'92 so that they could be and technical equipment. The 2.5
adapted for the Olympics. The Village kilometre perimeter of the Village was
had a capacity for 5,366 residents controlled by a double sensitized fence
distributed in 3,628 rooms (1,890 single with closed circuit television.

200 Occupation of the Olympic Village

The Montigalà Village,
Occupation of the Villages one time. Lastly, at the Vall d'Hebron
assigned to the media, had Village, which had space for 2,200,
two residential zones The Barcelona Olympic Village, with a there were 1,912 journalists; the
separated by a central
passage with the common maximum capacity of 14,000 residents, maximum number at the same time
activities and the music bar. received a total of 14,406 at various times. was 1,748.
The maximum number at any one time
The Vall d'Hebron Village was 13,394. The table on page 200 shows a summary
was a group of new of the day to day occupation at the
buildings with large gardens.
At the Parc de Mar Village, with a Barcelona Olympic Village.
capacity of 1,600, the total was 1,510
and the maximum at any one time As explained in more detail in Volume IV
was 1,425. of this Report, the functioning of the
Villages and the degree of satisfaction of
At the Village in La Seu d'Urgell, which the occupants were very positive. The
had been designed for 300, there were proximity to the sea in the case of the
eventually 187 residents, with a maximum Barcelona Village and the privileged
at any one time of 178, and in Banyoles, location of the others, near to the
with a capacity of 1,012, the total was 879 competition venues with excellent
(with a maximum of 863 at the same transport connections, and the high
time). standards of quality of the services
provided by the members of the
The Montigalà Village had a capacity organisation for the residents were
for 5,366; in the end the total came to decisive in achieving such a favourable
4,462, with a maximum of 3,902 at any result.

1 2 201
One of the outstanding
Hotels and ships undertook the operation with no intention
novelties of Barcelona'92, as of making a profit and had to concentrate
far as accommodation was perforce on the groups which were its
concerned, were the floating
hotels in the port of Planning responsibility by definition; second, the
Barcelona. country's long experience of tourism was
The first task of the Accommodation a guarantee that the visitors would be well
Division to ensure that it was on the right treated without the need for any special
track was to make an estimate of the intervention by the organisers.
demand for places which would be
received by COOB'92, a study of the Increasing the available resources
hotel rooms available in Barcelona
(which had been seen to be inadequate The number of rooms available in hotels
since the Candidature phase) and a in Barcelona was far lower than the
proposal for possible solutions to increase demand for places during the Games.
supply. Even if the existing infrastructure could
be considered deficient, the Olympic
Estimating demand period could not be considered as a
reflection of the permanent needs of the
For the purposes of access to the city either; it was therefore necessary to
accommodation reservation system the think about increasing the number of
Olympic Family could be divided into ten hotel rooms, but also about adapting
groups: competitors and team officials; other forms of accommodation specially
NOC, IF and IOC management; judges for the occasion.
and referees; COOB'92 and contracted
company staff; radio and television with The judges and referees and media
rights; press and photographers; guests of Villages
associate companies; guests of institutions;
security staff; and observers. The first of As explained earlier in this chapter, three
these groups would be housed in the Villages were built in addition to the 203
Olympic Villages and did not therefore Olympic Villages for competitors and
pose any problems; for each of the others, team officials: the Parc de Mar for judges
however, their particular characteristics and referees and Montigalà and Vall
had to be considered in terms of the d'Hebron for the press and broadcasters.
number and category of places required.
The hotels
The first calculations made it clear that
there were over 45,000 people to be In 1989 there were just over 10,000 rooms
accommodated; that there would be a in three, four or five star hotels in
need for four and five star hotels and for Barcelona in operation, under
efficient, cheap and comfortable construction or at the planning stage.
accommodation. Moreover The prospect of the Games led the City
accommodation had to be organised in Council to approve a Hotels Plan
the subsites which were farthest away. according to which eight new hotels
The next step was to make contact with would be built, providing an additional
each group and the IOC Press Office, 2,635 rooms.
which made it possible to define specific
requirements. The global figures which To ensure that the necessary number of
had been considered at the beginning places would be available for the Olympic
were not varied until later on when, with Family, COOB'92 reached an agreement
the Games just around the corner, the with the Barcelona Hotels Association to
provisions for each group could be made reserve 80% of the available rooms, to
exact and some bookings were corrected unify prices by category, to define
—usually downwards—, which in the end minimum and complementary standards
made it easier to meet the needs. of service and to set a fixed booking
period (the Olympic period) with
In terms of the services to be provided, it preliminary reservations for the nights
was decided from the very beginning that before the opening of the Games to
COOB'92's involvement in the booking encourage the staggering of arrivals.
process would be restricted to the
Olympic Family, for two main reasons: For the hotel-keepers the agreement
first (partly because it is an obligation meant guaranteed bookings, from the
imposed by the Olympic Charter, but also moment of signing, pre-payment and
for financial reasons), COOB'92 interesting rates. The later development
of prices on the market and the rise in the group of the Olympic Family was
value of the peseta led to final costs that accommodated without taking up hotel
were considered excessive, which meant resources.
that in November 1991 the prices were
renegotiated with the Association, which The Olympic host
agreed on a 15% reduction in the cost of
single rooms. Another unique proposal which was
brought into operation in the end was to
At the same time the Olympic accommodate part of the Olympic Family
organisation contracted the services of in private houses. The project was
one and two star hotels in Barcelona, on managed through an agreement with the
the Maresme coast and in Salou, Barcelona'92 Hotel Union, a company set
in addition to student residences and up by the Hotels Association. As
similar. COOB'92 was providing other services for
the Olympic Family (transport,
The ships information, medical care, etc.) as well as
accommodation, the grouping of the
As a totally innovatory measure, private residences around hotels made it
COOB'92 also used luxury cruise liners possible to overcome the logistical
anchored in the Port of Barcelona as problems arising from the dispersion of
floating hotels. Because of the location, lodgings.
the number of places available and the
standards of service, the ships were most The booking process
suitable for the guests of the associate
companies of the Games. In this way, as Once the objectives and the groups which
we shall explain in detail below, another had to be provided with services and

Double Single Rooms available for the Olympic
rooms rooms Total Family (except Olympic Villages)
5* hotel de luxe 292 12 304
HQ hotel 863 123 986
5* hotel 818 79 897
4* hotel 3,004 409 3,413
3* hotel 1,816 293 2,109
2* and 1* hotel 601 164 765
Residences 257 592 849
"Olympic host" 603 603
Ships 2,628 2,628

Montigalà 1,738 1,890 3,628
Vall d'Hebron 574 1,038 1,612
Parc de Mar 485 630 1,115

Salou and surroundings

Hotels 1,077 75 1,152

Hotels 1,348 352 1,700

Total 21,761
For the first time in the
guaranteed accommodation had been unsatisfied requests and new
history of the Games, the identified, a long process began to ensure availabilities had to be spotted; and, most
Olympic host project lodged that each person taking part in the of all, there had to be an undertaking to
members of the Olympic
Family in private houses. Olympic Games would have a reservation deal with all matters arising. So the
The response from the people made before arrival. number of rooms, the category of the
of the city was splendid and hotel and even the allocation of one
the guests were delighted
with the arrangement. The first allocation was made by grouping particular hotel or another were
2, 3 and 4
the accommodation according to the type negotiated with each institution,
The "HQ hotels", where the of guest, the number of people per room, organisation, company or group. Setting
members of the IOC stayed, the services required and the logistical this process in motion well ahead of time
were all in the Diagonal
Area: the Hilton (2), the problems. Thus it was decided that the made it possible to deal with most
Melià Barcelona (3) and the members of the IOC would stay at three requests and readjustments, although over
Princesa Sofia (4). hotels in Barcelona (the so-called half the reservations underwent a change
"headquarters hotels": Princesa Sofia, of some kind.
Hilton and Melià); the IF directors in four
star hotels; the press, photographers and Last came the process of obtaining details
broadcasters in three and four star hotels; person by person and room by room: the
and the guests of the sponsors on board name of everyone to be accommodated,
the ships or in five star and luxury hotels. the arrival and departure dates and the
room they would be occupying had to be
This allocation set in motion a process of confirmed so that registration could be
confirmation and adjustment which made firm to reduce the number of
remained valid until the end of the changes to a minimum. Thus in May, June
Games. All details of accommodation had and July 1992 there were about 300
to be agreed with as many organisation as communications a day to make bookings
possible; changes in requirements, and adjustments.

1 2 3 205

Economic management The keys to the good results of the 1
One of the first formalities
economic management were basically to be completed by the
The objective here was to prevent the cost these. First, the invoicing began as soon as members of the Olympic
Family on arrival in
of the operation from exceeding the possible (the first bills were issued in Barcelona was checking into
budget; there was only a small reserve to February 1991 and all debts fell due their accommodation. The
cover non-payment and unoccupied before 30 April 1992). Second, there was smooth, comfortable way in
which this process was
rooms. permanent, uninterrupted contact with carried out was a decisive
the representatives of the customers to element in establishing a
good image of Barcelona
Payments made to third parties ensure that the reservations corresponded and the Games organisation.
before the event amounted to to the updated requests, so that there
6,885 million pesetas (for hotels, would be no problems when it came to The hotels paid special
residences and Olympic friends); there paying. Last, a strict cancellations and attention to all their guests.
was also 2,215 million to be found for the payment on arrival policy was established.
sale of promotions in the Villages As the groups which had outstanding
(Montigalà, Parc de Mar and Vall payments when they arrived in Barcelona
d'Hebron); moreover, 1,436.6 million had were asked to pay off the debt before
been invested in accommodation expenses being accredited and taken to their
for COOB'92 itself, most of which had accommodation, 1,402.7 million pesetas
gone to groups with the right to free was collected during the arrivals at the
accommodation (IF technical delegates, Games. It should be said that these
etc.) or at very low cost (presidents and measures could be applied because the
secretaries general of the IFs and the number of debts was small by the time the
NOCs, etc.). It was therefore Olympic Family arrived.
fundamental to establish a strict
policy for planning and receiving In short, the success of the economic
payments. management was based on an implicit

206 1 2
The hotels became centres
agreement with the customers: they were First, the Organising Committee had to
for channelling information offered a commitment that all problems solve the customer's problems right where
and services for the Olympic would be solved and maximum comfort they arose and prevent procedures and
guaranteed provided they kept in touch information from being centralised at a
4 with COOB'92 and observed the payment single point; the accommodation staff had
90% of the 700 people who dates; otherwise, their case would not be to be at the airport, the Villages and the
worked on accommodation
during the Games were given maximum priority. This meant that hotels and to count on a good
volunteers. at the end of the Games the outstanding communications structure with a high
debt was only 100 million pesetas. degree of independence. Secondly, there
had to be specialised staff capable of
solving problems in a decentralised
The operation system, which made it necessary for the
team to start work some months before
Objectives the Games. Lastly, predictable incidents
had to be reduced to a minimum.
The operations phase consisted of
providing access to the accommodation These objectives were set out in the
reserved for the customers and solving Territorial Operations Accommodation
any problems arising from bookings. Plan which had to define the procedures
This phase was part of the Games arrivals and resources to be used to meet all
and was considered critical, as the needs. The Plan insisted on the fact that
Olympic Family's first impression of the customers had to receive permanent
Barcelona and the organisation would attention at the hotels themselves; in this
depend on how it functioned. For this way, they became centres for channelling
reason certain strategic options were information and services for the Olympic
adopted. Family. Moreover, it proposed the

3 4 207
coordination of the various great value to their studies, besides giving 1 and 2
The information desks at
accommodation centres through the them an opportunity to work on the each hotel dealt with
figure of the "person in charge of the Barcelona'92 organisation. incidents on the spot as they
group", which meant that the same people
who had dealt with each customer became
a second level for handling any incidents Functioning during the Games
which might arise. Lastly, the Plan defined
a last level of coordination located at the The efforts made to keep in constant
reservation exchange management which touch with all the sectors involved in
was structured by areas of responsibility. accommodation meant that the vast
majority of reservations could be made
Human resources before the arrival of the guests and for the
number of incidents was far smaller than
To make sure that the system functioned expected. The cases in which the
properly a large number of staff were accommodation was rejected were few
required. Of the total of 700 people who and far between.
worked on accommodation tasks during
the Games, 90% were volunteers. To The activity of the accommodation staff
guarantee the optimum training of this was intense during the days when the
branch of the staff, a programme was Olympic Family arrived in large numbers,
designed to recruit people from the especially concerning occupation control
schools of tourism in Barcelona. The and payment of outstanding debts.
students who joined the programme Throughout the operation, activity was
followed a special training course and did centred at the hotels which provided the
complementary practice which was of services for the Olympic Family.

1 2
3 The ships The preparation phase
The Olympic Family had
access from the hotels to the
services of the AMIC and The project to use a number of ships as In 1991 the details of the project were
DOCUMENT systems.
floating hotels over a period of eighteen filled in, both for the construction and
4 and 5 days, which had already been mentioned conversion works in the port and the
At the hotel Princesa Sofía, in the Candidature Dossier, had no strategies which were to be followed. For
the IOC had meeting rooms
(4) and offices, like this one precedent on a similar scale anywhere in this purpose three sectors were
for the president, Juan the world. distinguished: the residents (the guests of
Antonio Samaranch (5).
the associate companies who would spend
6 The operation provided for sixteen ships, a minimum of one night aboard ship, not
One of the Olympic Family
services to be centralised at which would be home to the guests of counting the crew), the guests (including
the hotels was transport. COOB'92 and the sponsor companies of everyone who went aboard without
the Games. However, the increase in the spending the night) and the operators
supply of hotel accommodation made it (the crews, the consignees, the suppliers,
possible to reduce the scope of the the COOB'92 and port security staff, etc.).
operation to ten and the customers, in the
end, were only the guests of the sponsors. For the residents and guests COOB'92
dealt exclusively with the people in charge
In March 1990 the two agreements of the hospitality programme of each
making the project viable were signed: the sponsor. For the operators the
one between COOB'92 and the Port of fundamental figure was the consignee,
Barcelona, which reserved the quays who took direct charge of the
where the ships would moor, and the one requirements of the ships (supplies,
with the Customs Authority which routine port services, etc.). The reduction
allowed the ships to be temporarily in the number of intermediaries was
imported free of tax. central to the success of the planning and

3 4 5 209


Port of Barcelona
Access to the precinct
1 Pedestrians
2 Vehicles
3 Vehicles

4 Berlin
5 Golden Odyssey
6 Chrystal Harmony
7 Royal Viking Sun
8 Daphne
9 Sea Godness II
10 Vistafjord
11 Seabourn Spirit
12 Cunard Princess
13 Club Med 1

14 Rank Xerox
15 Seat
16 Coca-Cola
17 Mars
18 NBC
19 IBM
20 Channel 7
21 Time
22 3M
23 Kodak
24 Campofrío
25 Alcatel
26 Official French delegation
Parking spaces the operation, which was carried on in carried out in the first four months of
27 Rank Xerox
28 Seat
coordination with the Barcelona Port 1992.
29 Coca-Cola Authority through a liaison committee.
30 Mars
31 NBC
The operations phase
32 IBM Requirements and services
33 Channel 7
34 Time
To carry out the operation a team of
35 3M The permanent contact with the 280 people was required, 250 of whom
36 Kodak representatives of the different groups were volunteers. Their job consisted of
37 Campofrío
38 Alcatel and a study commissioned in ensuring that everything went off without
39 Official French delegation October 1990 made it possible to incidents.
Organisation determine precise requirements and the
40 CO OB '92 services centre services that had to be provided. The Each sponsor's hospitality teams took
41 Operations centre requirements were extensive and were charge of organising the receptions and
grouped in five projects: infrastructures parties on board ship and coordinated the
(which would take care of the comings and goings of the guests who, in
establishment of the COOB'92 general, changed every four or five days.
port area, the preparation of the quays The shipping company consignees, for
and the marquees for the receptions their part, guaranteed the supplies and the
given by each sponsor —a key point—, port services. Thus the task of the people
lighting and waste water disposal), in charge of the unit centred on
telecommunications, security (on land, at organisational coordination and general
sea and at the access points), image and services.
Among the outstanding aspects of the
Construction work on the elements operation were the personal and vehicle
provided for by the different projects was pass controls (public or private transport

Ships moored in the Port of Ship Shipping company Number of cabins User Period of operation 211
Barcelona Cunard From 23-7 to 10-8 1992
1 Vistafjord 387 Time
2 Cunard Princess Cunard 399 Kodak, Campofrío, Alcatel From 23-7 to 10-8 1992
3 Sea Goddess II Cunard 59 Channel 7 From 23-7 to 10-8 1992
4 Royal Viking Sun Royal Viking Line 370 NBC From 23-7 to 10-8 1992
5 Golden Odyssey Royal Cruise Line 223 SEAT From 24-7 to 11-8 1992
6 Seabourn Spirit Seabourn Cruises 102 3M From 25-7 to 10-8 1992
7 Daphne Costa Crociere 205 IBM From 21 -7 to 10-8 1992
8 Chrystal Harmony Chrystal Cruises 480 Coca-Cola, Mars From 23-7 to 10-8 1992
9 Berlin Peter Deilmann 210 Rank Xerox From 21 -7 to 13-8 1992
10 ClubMed1 Club France 193 Delegación oficial francesa From 24-7 to 9-8 1992
Total 2,628
without a pass was not allowed into the Summary 1 and 2
The COOB'92 area at the
port area reserved for COOB'92); the Port of Barcelona provided
number of vehicle passes was restricted to The final balance for accommodation in common services for the
guests staying aboard the
500 to guarantee traffic flow and access hotels and on board ships as well as in ships moored in the harbour.
control. private houses (the "Olympic host") was
positive. In this field the experience of the 3
Each sponsor had a pavilion
The permanent security and maintenance Competitions'91 was crucial, as it made it for organising activities.
of the installations were two of the keys to possible to introduce significant
the smooth running of the floating hotels. modifications to the previous planning; so
But most of all the decisive factors were was the observation of the Winter
having done the planning well in advance Olympic Games in Albertville. Thanks to
and the constant coordination with the that, most of the efforts could be
sponsors, as well as the decision to concentrated on three aspects which, in
centralise accreditation control and to the end, were fundamental: the
establish a general operational importance of solving problems on the
framework, leaving the management of spot, coordination of the hotels through
the quay for its ship to each sponsor people in charge of groups (who were the
company. users' permanent intermediaries) and
payment of debts before the arrival of the

The innovations introduced for the

Barcelona'92 accommodation model also
scored a remarkable success. The Olympic
host programme was very well received by
the people of the city and the service was

1 2

4 and 5
The use of floating hotels as
to the satisfaction of the users (the and visiting the site of the Olympic
accommodation centres was "Olympic friends"). The use of floating Games) became a bonus added to the
highly appreciated by the hotels in the port, in turn, was highly quality of the service provided and the
associate companies, both in
terms of the optimal appreciated by the sponsors; if at first optimal location of the port, next to the
location of the port and the there was a certain reticence, in the end historic centre of Barcelona and the
quality of the services
provided by the liners. the festive side of the operation (after all, Olympic Ring.
the guests were living aboard a cruise ship

4 5 213
The International Youth
The International Youth Camp The location
Camp (IYC) was set up at
the College of Sant Ignasi The Barcelona'92 International Youth During the Candidature phase, when it
belonging to the Jesuits of
Sarrià. Camp was the eleventh in Olympic was proposed to organise an International
history. It offered the greatest diversity in Youth Camp during the Games, the
the number of NOCs represented (67), Barcelona City Council intended to
but also had the smallest number of located it at the Liars Mundet, to be
participants (497, between 18 and prepared as a huge youth hostel which
22 years old). If the participation of so could also be used after the Games. The
many NOCs was the fruit of the efforts project, however, turned out to be
of the organisers and the strict unviable, and the next suggestion was to
implementation of the process of use the former Hospital de Sant Llàtzer
allocation of places by quotas, the limit to (the property of the Hospital de la Santa
the number of visitors was largely a Creu i de Sant Pau). Then there was the
consequence of the problems of finding a idea of tents on the campus of the
location for the Camp. Autonomous University of Barcelona in
Bellaterra in order to take advantage of
The organisation and functioning of the the student canteens and some of the
Camp is described in Volume IV. The services and sports facilities, but that
explanation here is centred on the option involved security problems and the
accommodation aspects: the choice, location was far from Barcelona.
adaptation and resources of the place
where the young people stayed. Given that it was impossible to build a
new facility and there was no site in the
city large enough for the purpose which
could be adequately prepared for the

International Youth Camps and City Year NOCs Participants Age 215
participants Stockholm 1912 5 1,200 12-18
Berlin 1936 23 700 15-18
Helsinki 1952 17 3,000 16-22
Rome 1960 5 1,250 14-18
Tokyo 1964 23 1,018 15-25
Mexico City 1968 19 819 15-25
Munich* 1972 45 1,514 17-20
Montreal 1976 44 907 17-20
Moscow 1980 54 1,085 18-22
Seoul 1988 43 882 18-22
Barcelona 1992 67 497 18-22
*ln addition to the IYC, Munich organised an International Student Camp in which 418 young people aged between 20 and
25 took part, and a Young Sailors' Camp (with the HQ in Kiel, where the yachting events of those Games were held), in
which 264 yachtsmen and women took part.
occasion, COOB'92 had to opt for an responsibility of the Villages Division,
project which was ambitious in terms of within which the IYC Department
quality and services and diverse in terms operated. The differences with the other
of participation, although of necessity Villages, however, meant that the IYC
small in terms of the number of people. It team managed the contracts and
was then that the idea of using the supervised the adaptation works directly.
buildings of the Sant Ignasi Jesuit College
in Sarrià was mooted; they were suitable, Once the basic adaptation project and the
accessible and ideal for the kind of camp apartment implementation plan (which
that COOB'92 wanted to organise. detailed the furnishings, decoration and
equipment for the accommodation areas
On 25 April 1991 an agreement was in the IYC) had been approved, work
signed with the Company of Jesus ceding began on the organisation of the camp. As
the college buildings and facilities to it was special, the IYC team had to take
COOB'92 in return for no consideration charge of the preparation of the computer
other than a few improvements to the programmes which were to manage the
sports grounds. The adaptation of the accommodation and activities, the
college for the Camp was undertaken by telephone project and the design and
COOB'92. execution of the look and signposting.

The loan of the facilities by the Jesuits

The adaptation could not become effective until the end
of the academic year, 25 June 1992, but it
COOB'92 considered the Camp as one was possible to start on some of the
more Village and therefore the adaptation adaptation works beforehand. Precise
project and its implementation were the programming and coordination of the

NOC Participants NOC Participants Participants in the International
Youth Camp
AND Andorra 2 35 ISR Israel 4
2 ANT Antigua 6 36 ISV Virgin Islands 4
3 ASA American Samoa 2 37 ITA Italy 20
4 AUS Australia 8 38 JAM Jamaica 2
5 AUT Austria 8 39 JPN Japan 20
6 BEL Belgium 8 40 KOR Korea 17
7 BER Bermuda 2 41 KSA Saudi Arabia 4
8 BIZ Belize 2 42 LIE Liechtenstein 2
9 BRN Bahrain 2 43 LUX Luxembourg 4
10 BUL Bulgaria 6 44 MEX Mexico 19
11 CAN Canada 12 45 MLT Malta 2
12 CAF Central Africa 4 46 MOZ Mozambique 4
13 CAY Cayman Islands 2 47 NED Netherlands 6
14 CHI Chile 2 48 NGR Nigeria 9
15 CHN People's Republic of China 4 49 NOR Norway 7
16 CRO Croatia 2 50 NZL New Zealand 8
17 CUB Cuba 2 51 OMA Oman 4
18 CYP Cyprus 2 52 PER Peru 4
19 DEN Denmark 8 53 PHI Philippines 9
20 ECU Ecuador 1 54 POL Poland 4
21 EGY Arab Republic of Egypt 5 55 POR Portugal 12
22 ESA El Salvador 1 56 QAT Qatar 2
23 ESP Spain 44 57 ROM Romania 5
24 EST Estonia 2 58 SLO Slovenia 2
25 EUN Unified Team 2 59 SUD Sudan 5
26 FIN Finland 8 60 SUI Switzerland 8
27 FRA France 22 61 SUR Surinam 1
28 GBR Great Britain 20 62 SWE Sweden 8
29 GER Alemania 45 63 TCH Czech and Slovak Fed. Rep. 8
30 GRE Germany 7 64 TPE Chinese Taipei 4
31 GUM Guam 2 65 TUR Turkey 7
32 HKG Hong Kong 4 66 UAE United Arab Emirates 4
33 HUN Hungary 8 67 USA United States of America 19
34 IRL Ireland 4 Total 497
1, 2 and 3
The number of young people
operation, together with the fact that all condition of the facilities (meeting rooms,
taking part in the the suppliers observed the established sports fields, kitchens, libraries) not only
Barcelona'92 Youth Camp deadlines to the letter, meant that the made for an excellent standard of service
was smaller than on earlier
occasions, but the number of adaptation was completed in just three but also reduced expenses, which went
NOCs represented was larger weeks. mostly on accommodation, i.e., on the
than ever. conversion of the classrooms into
4 dormitories.
The fine amenities of the
College of Sant Ignasi
The resources
reduced conversion expenses The team in charge of the operation of the
to a minimum, as many of The material resources available to the Camp was made up of 562 people. Of
the school services could be
easily adapted for their IYC came from the college itself or from these, 58 were from COOB'92, 18 from
temporary use. public or private entities (which ceded the services contracted by COOB'92 and
them free of charge), plus the equipment 252 from companies contracted directly by
and goods acquired or rented by the IYC; the remaining 234 were
COOB'92. Economically the choice of the volunteers.
college was decisive, as the excellent

1 2 3 217


1 and 2
The accreditation was the
Accreditations the organisations and installing the
document that identified the accreditation centres.
members of the Olympic At an event on the scale of the Olympic
Family and the organisation
during the Games. The Main Games, with sportsmen and women, The third stage, from July to August 1992,
Accreditations Centre (1) reporters, large numbers of visitors and was the operations phase and it began
was in the Plaça d'Espanya, VIPs, in addition to the organisation staff, with the arrival of the Olympic Family in
next to the Communications
Media Centre. the Organising Committee must have the Barcelona.
means of identifying the participants and
controlling their privileges. This
guarantees proper administration and Basic criteria
security at the accesses without
interfering with the smooth running of Four criteria were adopted for the
the event. operation strategy:

According to the 1987 Olympic The first was the idea that accreditation
Charter and the criteria of COOB'92, the was a tool at the service of the
users of accreditations were the people organisation and not a status symbol.
who needed access to the Olympic
facilities, excluding the spectators. The second took account of the fact that
For the control of horses, vehicles, arms, definition, administration and decision-
boats, radios and technological making about the allocation of
equipment other special procedures accreditations and privileges had to be
were applied. centralised, even though the production
services had to be distributed at different
units (during the Games, both the people
The phases of the project responsible for groups and the directors of
the accreditation centres had decision-
The first stage of the accreditations making capacity, but they all depended
project was preparation and design. Later, functionally on the Accreditations 221
in order to put the decisions that had been Centre).
taken into practice, the project was
applied to different events in which The third criterion was related to the need
COOB'92 was involved: the Association to identify the organisations which were
of National Olympic Committees to receive the accreditation documents
(ACNO), the Association of Summer and establish contact with them in order
Olympic International Olympic to agree on the participation quotas.
Committee Federations (ASOIF) and the
Competitions'91. The fourth and last established that, for
the smooth running of the operation, the
The second stage, which lasted from production time for an accreditation had
September 1991 to June 1992, marked the to be under 10 minutes at all the official
beginning of the pre-arrivals operation centres, which were located at the places
(registration period). Registration, where the largest number of people would
understood as the reservation of an arrive, as it was often the visitors' first
accreditation within a quota assigned to contact with the organisation.
each sector, consisted of the formalities
involved in the preparation of the
documents (forms to be filled in and the The project: scope, elements and
explanatory manuals that went with technology
them), which varied from one sector and
category to another, and the receipt and The Accreditations Department took over
confirmation of the numbers to be the following functions: defining and
accredited. During that period there was managing the data base and the computer
permanent contact with the different system required for registration and
organisations which had to send accreditation; taking part in the
representatives to Barcelona to ensure the negotiation of participation quotas;
flexibility and fluidity of the final deciding and assigning the privileges
operation. There is no doubt that that was appropriate to each type of accreditation;
the most critical and decisive phase: it was deciding the criteria and structure of the
the moment for equipping the department pass system at the facilities; and dealing
with resources, training the volunteers, with all applications and registrations
closing the participation quotas with all before accreditation.
Category Description 1st estimate Accreditations People accredited by categories
Olympic Family
COI Members of the IOC 230 242
Fl Presidents and secretaries general of the IFs 110 101
CNO Presidents and secretaries general of the NOCs 620 520
B IOC, IF and NOC staff. Members of commissions, technicians, chefs de mission, etc. 1,141 1,293
C IF and NOC guests (transferable). IF photographers 1,022 1,309
D Judges and referees 2,375 2,387
E Press and photographers 4,000 4,880
E Writers 2,825
EP Photographers 778
ES Specialised writers for a sport 309
EPs Specialised photographers for a sport 100
ETE Technicians. Laboratory staff 290
ENR Radio and television without broadcasting rights 221
PC Auxiliary press staff (couriers, interpreters, etc.) 357
F Sports delegations 15,378 17,064
F Competitors 10,253
Fo Delegation official 4,845
Fx Extra-officials: accompanying persons or extra technical staff 1,966
G Guests 8,739 2,340
G/Gv Guests, in two categories according to rank 2,182
Gs Retinue of certain dignitaries 158
J International Youth Camp 1,000 497
O Observers. Organising Committees of other Games 500 496
P Associate companies 1,369 382
Pa/Pb Senior executives
RT Radio and television 6,000 7,951
RTA Television network management 177
RTB Commentators, producers and technicians 5,725
RTC Support staff with limited access to IBC 1,803
RTL Similar to RTC, but without accommodation rights 246

Subtotal Olympic Family 42,484 39,462

Operations staff
COOB COOB'92 staff 33,202 41,650
RTO RTO'92 staff 3,000 3,483
SC Service and support company staff 35,000 23,474
X Security staff 15,000 21,116

Subtotal operations staff 86,202 89,723

Total 128,686 129,185

1 and 2
The most visible element of
Numbers and categories of analysis by categories shows significant
the accreditation, apart from accreditation changes which occurred as a result of
the photograph, was the code external events, mainly the increase in the
for the category to which the
holder belonged. The For a large part of the organisation, the numbers of journalists and broadcasters,
members of team'92, calculation of the number of and internal ones, such as the restrictions
whatever their status accreditations was a basic item of on the number of guests.
(COOB'92 staff, volunteers,
associate companies) were information in the planning of the
grouped under the "COOB" services. The accreditations team drafted Each accreditation category carried
heading (1).
a periodic document called certain access privileges and services,
3 and 5 "Accreditation forecasts" as the results of provided by the organisation, which could
The category "F" identified
the competitors. the different agreements gradually took be varied individually. The category code,
shape. The first figures were calculated which figured prominently on the
The staff working on the according to the requirements of the accreditation, helped to identify clearly
production of the Olympic Charter (1987 edition), the and efficiently the group of the Olympic
international television undertakings of the Candidature and the Family to which the holder belonged.
signal bore the letters
"RTO" on their figures for previous Games, though
accreditation. modified by the increase in the number of One novelty introduced at Barcelona'92
sports and venues over Seoul. in this area was the distinction of guests in
two groups: the G/Gv categories for
The categories which were established commitments to the institutions, and the
appear in the table, which includes the Ps/Pb categories for commitments to the
first estimate and the total number of associate companies. Another category
people actually accredited per category. created was RTL (support staff with
restricted access to the International
Although the total forecast was more or Broadcast Centre without accommodation
less the same as the final result, an rights), which made it possible to extend

1 2 4 223

3 5
Service Obverse
All competition
Photograph of holder
All residences

Category of holder of

Universal access Surname and first name

Olympic Village Olympic function

Media Village Organisation

Judges and Access code to venue by

Referees Village sport

International Youth
Venue code

Country code

Perimeter zones
Access zone code

Main Press Centre

Bar code

224 Broadcast Centre

pictograms Reverse

Zones Electronic mail access code

0 All zones (sports


1 Competition zone
Accreditation no. and date
2 Competitors zone

3 Training zone

4 Organisation zone

5 Media zone Other functions

Olympic Family
6 services zone
Explanation of pictograms
8 Public zone on obverse

I International zone of
the Olympic Village

R Residential zone of
the Olympic Village
Other access rights

Other rights
T-0 Own accredited
Exclusive use /
T-1 assigned to persons

T-2 Exclusive use /

assigned to groups

T-3 Group pool

T-4 General pool

Collective (on
T-5 request, scheduled,
1 and 2 the accreditation quotas for the TV Two types of privilege were established:
Access to the venues was
represented by pictograms. networks without having to take access privileges, represented on the
The bar code controlled the additional commitments for accreditation by a pictogram, which
access of accredited staff by
means of a portable reader. accommodation, access, etc. conferred the right of entry to one or
more units, and interior movement or
Another case was the creation of the SC zone privileges, coded from 0 to 9, which
accreditation for the staff of the service permitted entry to particular zones of the
companies, which consisted of two units.
different elements: the operations pass, a
document without a holder's name which
was the same size as an accreditation and The design of the accreditation card
contained the function and access details
(pictograms and zones), and the company When choosing the model for the
card, with a photograph and the holder's accreditation card the ones which had
details, which was in a similar format to a been used at other Olympic Games were
credit card. Those two documents were taken into consideration. The photograph
only valid if they were presented together. and the name combined had to be the
identifying element of the bearer. The
card also had to show the function and the
The privileges organisation to which he or she belonged.
The privileges, whether for access or
Within the Olympic Movement and in the services, had to appear for the guidance of
context of accreditations the access rights the control staff. The accreditation had to
to the Olympic sites of each member of be thick, but also comfortable to carry, for
the Olympic Family are known as example, in a shirt pocket. Lastly, it had to
privileges. be equipped with safety devices to

1 2 225
prevent forgery or other kinds of Nowadays, the function of the Olympic 1,2, 3 and 4
As well as the
manipulation. In comparison with other Identity Card (OIC), originally accreditations, COOB'92
Games, Barcelona had the added contemplated in the Olympic Charter as prepared other identifying
elements to meet occasional
complication of having to prepare the an accreditation, has been reduced needs during the Games,
accreditation in different languages, to that of a visa for entry into the host such as the passes for the
opening ceremony for
chosen from the four official ones country —which is why it is known as the members of the organisation
according to the group. "Olympic passport"—, although it is not (1) and for the competitors
valid unless accompanied by an official parade (2 and 4), or the day
passes which allowed the
passport. This document was approved by holder access to a particular
Other elements of identification the foreign and interior ministries and site (3).
manufactured by the Fábrica Nacional de
The accreditation was not the only Moneda y Timbre (the Mint). We might
document which was valid for access to mention that it is the first official
the Olympic sites. Alternative identifying document recognised by both ministries
elements were also prepared to cover where the texts are also in Catalan.
identification and access requirements
which did not come under the heading of Besides these accreditation elements,
accreditation. there were other special ones for certain
activities: the ceremonies pass
The day pass was a document devised for complemented the accreditation of the
exceptional, occasional situations. Given operations staff for the opening and
the short period of validity of this closing ceremonies; the ceremonies
document, it did not have a photograph bracelet identified the artists performing
and could only be used at the facility in them, which avoided having to accredit
where it was issued. Each unit had a day about 8,000 people for a single event; the
pass management office. torch bearers' bracelet identified the

226 1 3

2 4
The television cameras, as
runners and cyclists and entitled them to Technology
well as the members of the use the transport services to the starting
photographers pool who point of their relay; the doping control Technology played a major role in the
could go to the competition
area, had an easily pass was used by the people with access accreditation process. It was necessary to
identifiable coloured bib —including the competitors who had to have an information system about the
with a number. pass the test— to the special medical zone people providing services for the
6 and was administered by the doping organisation and the production elements
Technology was control officer at the venue. had to be highly efficient.
fundamental to the process
of obtaining an
accreditation. At the Journalists who wished to visit the The idea of obtaining a document
Barcelona Games image
digitalization techniques Olympic Village had to exchange their integrating data (provided by the IBM
and printing with automatic accreditation for a special press pass system) and image (taken with Kodak
colour selection were chosen. which gave them the right to enter the equipment) was discarded from the very
international zone only. Similarly, each start for various reasons: the newness and
NOC was entitled to a number of daily difficulty of the technique could
visitors' passes for its members. To jeopardize the service; the flexibility
distinguish them from the day passes they needed in production made it advisable to
were a different colour and entitled the keep the handling of image and data
holder to entry to the residential zone of separate, especially for privileges,
the Village. The photographer's and TV function and category. In the end, the
cameraman's bib, familiar at all organisation opted for techniques
competitions, made it possible to using digitalized image and printing
distinguish the reporters who were of the category with automatic colour
entitled to be in the competition area at a selection.

5 6 227
The elements which composed the The computer system was also designed
accreditation made it practically with an emergency mechanism which
impossible to forge, given the short made it possible to continue with
duration of the operation. The support registration and accreditation in the event
was banknote paper, supplied by the of being cut off from the central
Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre, computer. This feature was particularly
with a protective watermark. There was a useful on the days when groups were
bar code, easy to print and legible by arriving outside the established service
portable readers, which made access hours.
control far more fluid. The photograph
was taken with cameras which are hard to
find on the market and the laminated The pre-arrival operation
cover bore a hologram which would
have made it extremely difficult to This was the stage of selecting and
substitute. training the staff, obtaining the material
resources, setting up the centres and so
The information collected about people in on, but the most important aspect was
the accreditation system also served to obtaining information about the people
feed the computer systems of the Multiple who were to be accredited.
Access to Information and
Communication (AMIC), results To identify the accreditation holders, they
management, accommodation, etc. This were grouped according to function
involved the creation of a data base which (press, television, competitors, VIPs,
was shared with other systems and service companies, operations staff). An
provided a guarantee of coherence and internal COOB'92 liaison officer was then
unity for the information. chosen for each group, a list was made of

Sector Sent Received Registration period for the Olympic
Accreditation application
Family: documents and dates
Personal details and function (for all sectors) Press 30/5/91 30/9/91
Other OF 30/1/92 15/5/92

Estimate by number
Estimated participation by sport and event Competitors 31/1/92 25/3/92

Entry by name for competitions

Specification of events in which each person will compete Competitors 15/4/92 10/7/92
The estimates by number and entries by name for the competitions were done by each NOC.
the organisations connected with the monitoring to complete the information.
Games and each one was asked also to Thanks to this plan, by 15 May, the final
produce a single liaison officer. The next date for registration, 75% of the
step was to agree on the participation information was available and a month
quotas by organisation and the contacts later 90%. As an example of the success
with each one according to a pre- of these measures, eight months before
established calendar. the Games 70% of the requests from the
press had been collected.

The Olympic Family registration By March 1992 it was known that the first
process estimate for participation in the Games
for competitors and officials had been set
Application for registration at the Games at 19,000 people, although COOB'92
was made on forms which COOB'92 had could only cope with 15,000. That was the
supplied to each organisation according to beginning of a long process of negotiation
the established quotas. Those numbered with the NOCs which had gone over the
registration forms made it possible to numbers. The deviations were caused by
control replies. the lack of limits on participation for some
sports (athletics, swimming, yachting,
To solve the traditional problem of replies among others) and the increase in the
not arriving within the time limits set by number of NOCs due to political changes
the organisation and the large number of in the former Soviet Union and
last-minute changes, a plan was drafted Yugoslavia.
based on three points: staff specialising in
a particular group, regular contact with
the organisations and continuous

Olympic Family accreditation

The registration of operations staff to be decided. The creation of the special 1
The staff of the service
(COOB, RTO, SC and X) SC accreditations helped to palliate the companies (cleaning,
delay in obtaining information about this catering, sales of drinks and
other products), came under
The registration of operations staff group. the "SC" category. Those
—Team'92, security staff and contracted accreditations consisted of
companies— followed other circuits. The accreditation process for members of two elements: a document
with the data of the
Information about organisation staff the security staff —category X— was company and the access
—volunteers, COOB'92 staff and staff complicated by the fact that they had to privileges and a card in the
name of the holder with a
seconded by the associate companies, all start to operate before the others and had photograph and personal
with the COOB category— was collected to be accredited before their destinations details. The two documents
were only valid when
by the Planning and Control Division. The were known. The initial information presented together.
details had to include the job and the about this group was not available until
facility where they were to work. All the early July 1992. Signposting at an access
information was placed at the disposal of control for accreditation
Accreditations so that they could process The accreditation system was designed to holders.
it, assign the pictograms, the privileges provide for both the Olympic Family and
and the functions and prepare the Team'92, but the results show that they
accreditations. should have been accredited by two
separate paths. The difficulty in
The details for the service companies staff accrediting the Olympic Family lay in
—category SC— were provided by the finding out who would come, but once
companies when the allocation to facilities that knowledge was available their
was decided. It was very difficult to take accreditations could be prepared
this step as early as was desirable, whether (assignment of category, function and
because the company had not yet hired privileges was practically automatic). In
the staff or because the allocation had still the case of Team'92, it was usually known

1 2
who the people would be, but not their highly pressured conditions that were
function or place of work. common currency on the busiest days.

Training the volunteers Accreditation centres

The volunteers at the accreditation After studying various possibilities, it was
centres had to work as a team. They had decided to set up various accreditation
to be able to handle cameras and centres at key points where the different
computers which many of them had never groups would be gathering: the airport,
used before and in many cases they would the three Olympic villages for the sports
be the first members of the organisation delegations, the Princesa Sofia hotel for
to meet the Olympic Family. For these the VIPs and Montjuïc for the operations
reasons a pilot centre was set up to give staff and dealing with incidents that could
the volunteers intensive practice and not be resolved at other centres.
select the group leaders. Difficult
situations involving a variety of incidents
were simulated and they were taught the The operation
special vocabulary for their task in the
four official languages of the Games. For the Olympic Family the operational
phase began on 11 July 1992 when the
This experience before the event first accreditations were issued at the
produced results, not only in the shape of centres.
the best possible treatment of the users of
the service, but also in the volunteers' For the operations staff —a considerable
considerable capacity of reaction in the number of people and subject to constant

Accreditation centres calendar Airport Montjuïc 231

Dates Times Lines Dates Times Lines
1 st period from 1/7/92 to 8/7/92 from 8.00 to 22.00 4 1st period from 24/6/92 to 8/7/92 from 8.00 to 24.00 4
2nd period from 9/7/92 to 25/7/92 from 8.00 to 24.00 12 2nd period from 9/7/92 to 31/7/92 from 8.00 to 24.00 8
3rd period from 26/7/92 to 31/7/92 from 9.00 to 18.00 4 3rd period from 1/8/92 to 9/8/92 from 9.00 to 18.00 2

Princesa Sofia Olympic Village

Dates Times Lines Dates Times Lines
1st period from 11/7/92 to 25/7/92 from 9.00 to 22.00 4 1st period from 1/7/92 to 8/7/92 from 8.00 to 22.00 4
2nd period from 26/7/92 to 9/8/92 from 9.00 to 20.00 2 2nd period from 9/7/92 to 25/7/92 from 8.00 to 24.00 10
3rd period from 26/7/92 to 9/8/92 from 9.00 to 18.00 4

Banyoles La Seu d'Urgell

Dates Times Lines Dates Times Lines
1 st period from 1/7/92 to 24/7/92 from 9.00 to 22.00 2 1 st period from 1/7/92 to 24/7/92 from 9.00 to 22.00 2
2nd period from 26/7/92 to 3/8/92 from 9.00 to 18.00 2 2nd period from 26/7/92 to 3/8/92 from 9.00 to 18.00 2

The lines indicate the capacity for simultaneous issue of accreditation cards.
Airport Montjuïc Princesa Sofia Olympic Village Banyoles La Seu d'Urgell Accreditations by dates and centres
July 1 105 386 400 121 47
2 43 641 475 224 114
3 44 800 570 236 67
4 92 362 530 196 58
5 98 200 540 110 22
6 156 1,058 300 101 104
7 147 1,060 425 236 103
8 97 1,101 250 71 150
9 129 1,173 450 31 55
10 136 1,106 250 64 77
11 272 800 15 558 122 134
12 210 300 4 275 48 59
13 295 2,019 72 476 59 66
14 216 1,700 100 285 64 57
15 343 1,588 148 367 55 59
16 460 1,449 181 300 76 26
17 431 2,300 203 450 98 19
18 927 1,000 70 1,100 50 25
19 758 452 79 1,000 67 13
20 2,043 2,159 162 1,200 32 29
21 1,290 1,730 148 1,700 100 18
22 2,160 1,950 202 2,672 277 16
23 1,428 1,699 212 2,456 274 41
24 1,594 1,197 400 1,430 171 45
25 370 819 280 630 163 18
26 251 311 79 280 53 24
27 150 660 77 310 16 39
232 28 288 461 82 670 30 105
29 123 429 45 513 40 40
30 105 473 88 261 25 25
31 118 280 90 130 10 30
August 1 550 150 350 80 15
2 180 112 123 20 5
3 277 118 40 8
4 239 111 80
5 145 101 42
6 39 89 20
7 26 127 22
8 26 68 6
9 33 3 2
Total 14,879 33,178 3,616 21,938 3,320 1,713
Cobi pointed the way to the
changes due to the adjustments made Most of the people who arrived at the
accreditation centres. Their when the plans for each unit were airport were accredited there, irrespective
opening times —they came implemented—, the accreditation process of their category, especially in the case of
into operation on 1 July
1992— were adjusted to was put forward in order to reduce the group arrivals. The sports delegations
estimates for arrivals work load expected on the last days were an exception to the rule; they were
provided by the people in before the Games. It was decided to take accredited at the Olympic villages. Most
charge of the Olympic
Family reception project. the photographs of the COOB'92 staff of the press and broadcasters were
well in advance of the issue of the another (especially the radio and
Reception and information accreditation. A space was set up in television staff); they preferred to go to
point at the Main L'Espanya Industrial, where the Montjuïc.
Accreditations Centre in
Montjuïc. accreditations staff worked from 24
February to the beginning of July, when The accreditation centre at the Barcelona
the accreditations were issued in large Olympic Village dealt with almost all the
numbers and the photographs which had sports delegations and a large number of
been taken long before were added. local personalities. At the centres at the
Princesa Sofia hotel, Banyoles and La Seu
d'Urgell the estimates were proved
The functioning of the centres correct, as they had not been conceived as
large production centres but as specialised
The dates, the opening times and the attention points. The Montjuïc centre
number of points at the accreditation recorded a higher volume of accreditation
centres were adjusted according to the holders than expected and additional
expected number of arrivals of the teams had to be sent there on the first
Olympic Family in Barcelona, using the days of operation. This was caused by the
information provided by the reception delay in the accreditation of the
project. operations staff (especially security and

1 2
the service companies), the loss of The accreditations came into force 1
The Accreditations Centre at
photographs, the high number of last- gradually, according to the needs of the the Barcelona Olympic
minute changes in the COOB'92 staff units (the Villages and the MPC were Village was used by the
sports delegations and a
(between 1 and 20 July about 5,000 among the first; the Montigalà Village large number of local VIPs.
accreditations had to be redone) and the came into operation on 24 June and the To avoid queues when the
large numbers of television workers other Villages and the MPC on 11 July). delegations arrived at the
Village, the chefs de mission
(category RT). Furthermore, the technical staff for the prepared everything required
period before the opening of the units for the accreditation process
with the people in charge
During the production period the (assembly, supplies, etc.) needed a well in advance.
permanent contact with the other different identification to enter their work
departments of the organisation was places.
fundamental to the decision making
process. The External Relations The 1987 edition of the Olympic Charter
Department, the Main Press Centre and establishes an accreditations quota which
the Olympic Village (management, the Organising Committee has to assign to
relations with the NOCs and reception) the NOCs and the IFs for their guests.
cooperated assiduously to resolve the These accreditations, which were not
incidents which arose among the VIPs, assigned to a single holder but could be
press and competitors, respectively. used by different people during the
Games, were known as transferable
Since the NOC delegations arrived in accreditations. Because of their special
large numbers, the chefs de mission characteristics, they were issued at only
prepared the whole accreditation process one accreditations centre to guarantee
with the management of the Village in that when a new accreditation was issued
order to avoid queues. an old one would be cancelled.

2 and 3
The organisation staff could
Other uses of accreditation paid to the photograph and some people
use the canteens in the Palau used an accreditation which was not
de Victòria Eugènia, in the The Olympic accreditation was used to theirs.
Montjuïc Area, at certain set
times. identify the people connected with the
Games in whatever capacity and include
The entrance to the them in a sector; as well as providing
Accreditations Centre at the access to the Olympic sites, it entitled the
Barcelona Olympic Village. users to other services.
The NOCs and IFs were
assigned a transferable
accreditations quota for For example, it could be used on public
their guests. The concession
of these accreditations was transport in Barcelona and in the canteen
made from a single centre to at the Barcelona Olympic Village or the
guarantee that the issue of a Palau de Victòria Eugènia. Bearing in
new accreditation
automatically cancelled the mind that it often acted a filter at events
old one. restricted to a particular group or
category, it was vital to place each person
in the correct one.

The system was highly efficient,

particularly owing to the bar code readers,
which brought all incidents, such as the
cancellation or duplication of an
accreditation (with the consequent
withdrawal of the original) to light
immediately. However, this did also mean
that on occasions due attention was not

2 3 235


1 and 2
Most of the Olympic Family
Reception did cooperate on the activities which the
arrived in Barcelona at the companies laid on.
airport (1), but the The reception project was responsible for
COOB'92 reception team
was also present at other the detailed preparation of the operation It must be borne in mind that this whole
points, such as the Estació which would monitor the arrival and operation took place in a period of
de França (2). departure of the Olympic Family in summer which is normally highly
Barcelona. The main arrival point was to problematic because of the number of
be Barcelona airport, though a large tourists who arrive by plane in Barcelona;
number of people were also expected at moreover, many COOB'92 departments
the Girona-Costa Brava airport, Madrid worked on the accommodation,
airport and the main railway stations in accreditations, Villages, transport,
Barcelona and so COOB'92 reception logistics and protocol projects. This called
teams were set up at all of them. for a strict arrivals plan and constant
direct contact with each group in order to
have all the necessary information.
The services
To make the reception and departure The Olympic area at Barcelona
operation effective, an Olympic Family airport
reception plan was drafted. It placed
special emphasis on the first contact In May 1991, COOB'92 and Barcelona
between visitors and the Olympic airport reached an agreement by which a
organisation and the city and it was clearly number of spaces were temporarily leased
crucial that that first impression should be to the Olympic organisation: what was
favourable. known as the Olympic area.

COOB'92 provided the following services The surface area was 6,000 m2 and it was
for the arrival of the Olympic Family: located in the old Barcelona-Madrid
reception, hosting, information and shuttle building between terminals B and
advice; the accreditation of some groups A as they now are. As the space was not 237
in the Olympic area at Barcelona airport; really an airport terminal, the travellers
confirmation of accommodation bookings, were not attended by the COOB'92 team
making changes to bookings and until after they had gone through customs
payments due, and transport of passenger and completed all the formalities at the
and luggage to their accommodation terminals proper.
In the technological equipment chapter,
Each sector of the Olympic Family apart for the basic elements (telephones,
received a particular kind of service. fax, computers, AMIC terminals), the
Olympic directors and VIPs were staff who worked in the Olympic area had
attended in a reserved room which had a computer system which supplied
direct access from the international information in real time about the arrival
terminal at the airport (Olympic Protocol and departure of planes and their
Lounge), where they could be accredited. expected movements.
From there they were driven to their
accommodation in the vehicles assigned,
accompanied by hosts (volunteers with a Human resources
good knowledge of languages). The sports
delegations, for their part, were taken The operational period of the Olympic
direct to the buses and accredited at the area at the airport began on 1 July and
Olympic Village. Most of the rest of the ended on 14 August. It had to be open
Olympic Family were accredited at the 24 hours a day, which meant that the staff,
Olympic area at the airport, from where who were totally dedicated, had to work
they were driven in buses or minibuses to in shifts. 632 people worked there, 130 of
their accommodation. whom were on contracts and 502
volunteers. We should also mention the
As well as the members of the Olympic cooperation of the airport operators,
Family, all the associate companies had without whom the Olympic Family
their own guests. Altogether they invited reception service would not have been
about 30,000 people to Barcelona; most of viable.
them stayed on ships anchored in the port.
The Olympic organisation was not The volunteers in charge of welcoming
responsible for looking after them, but it and accompanying the members of the
Barcelona Airport
Location plan
1 International Terminal
2 Domestic Terminal
3 Barcelona-Madrid shuttle
4 Olympic Terminal
5 Olympic fleet parking area
6 OF bay
7 VIP bay

Olympic Terminal
8 Access for the organisation, press,
competitors and judges
9 Information
10 Souvenir shops, bookshops and
vehicle rental
11 Toilets
12 Left luggage
13 Public telephones

Reception and waiting room

14 Rest area
15 Chef de missions' rooms
16 NBC room
17 Banesto branch

Accreditations room
18 Accreditations
19 Incidents room
20 Internal security room
VIP area
21 Entrance
22 Reception desk
23 Rest area
24 Accreditations area
25 Toilets
26 Exit to the bay
Organisation area
27 Management office
28 Work room
29 Transport
30 Security control room
31 Meeting room
32 Accreditations
33 Accommodation
34 Computer room
35 Rest area
36 Store
37 Radio control room
38 Air-conditioning equipment
Arrival was also the first
Olympic Family were selected well Association of National Olympic
contact of the Olympic beforehand and special emphasis was Committees (ACNO); in July 1990, the
Family with the city and the placed on their language skills. They were Coca-Cola Athletics Meeting, and in April
Games organisation.
given training courses in behaviour and 1991, the 43rd Joint Meeting of the IOC
2 how to deal with people in the four official Executive Board and the ASOIF.
The hosts (volunteers with languages of the Barcelona Games.
languages) were in charge of
receiving, accompanying and The arrivals monitoring service came into
providing information and operation in January 1992, with the
advice for the visitors at the
airport. The evolution of the project sending of the first form to the NOCs and
the media, the initial step in the drafting of
The preliminary project for the operation the arrivals plan, which asked all the
was presented at the end of 1989, but it organisations to prepare their journey well
had to be amended after the decision was in advance and make sure they had tickets
taken to install an accreditation centre at booked. By April about 250 organisations,
Barcelona airport. The final project was or 43% of the participants in the Games,
drafted in September 1990 and definitively had already replied, a sufficient figure to
approved in March 1991. Some final make provisions, and in May the definitive
touches were added in January 1992, after form was dispatched. The Olympic
the experience of the Competitions'91, organisation made it quite clear that it
which provided the final test. would provide assistance for all the
groups, but had to have information about
Previously, however, COOB'92 had taken the arrival date and any possible last-
responsibility for some small reception minute changes. Under the same cover a
operations at the airport: in September booklet was sent explaining the steps to be
1989, the World Athletics Cup; in June taken and formalities to be completed for
1990, the VII General Assembly of the entry into Spain and describing the arrival

1 2 239
Olympic Dir. Delegations Referees Press Radio and TV VIPs Others Total Olympic Family arrivals by date and
1 July 3 5 52 1 61
2 July 2 27 29
3 July 1 38 39
4 July 1 1 9 77 88
5 July 8 71 79
6 July 2 7 2 9 107 1 128
7 July 1 1 3 77 82
8 July 4 3 22 35 10 74
9 July 13 19 5 80 2 119
10 July 6 41 1 19 105 25 197
11 July 12 209 12 95 114 442
12 July 23 142 6 53 256 22 14 516
13 July 23 203 38 44 167 475
14 July 60 105 13 40 171 10 12 411
15 July 79 205 38 82 322 1 17 744
16 July 63 82 20 57 200 12 78 512
17 July 74 504 68 188 290 5 22 1,151
18 July 153 844 83 262 500 37 30 1,909
19 July 189 839 120 281 273 57 24 1,783
20 July 178 944 146 439 935 27 48 2,717
21 July 102 1,623 303 441 706 10 40 3,225
22 July 186 2,256 304 670 694 32 45 4,187
23 July 245 2,462 383 597 363 59 92 4,201
24 July 215 1,342 258 373 153 267 261 2,869
25 July 30 337 69 69 63 53 63 684
26 July 8 360 27 18 61 4 101 579
27 July 26 201 6 19 39 6 8 305

240 28 July 11 544 22 27 63 12 10 689

29 July 4 292 21 3 38 20 66 444
30 July 6 150 11 2 44 30 44 287
31 July 4 107 2 7 40 130 290
1 August 14 202 3 3 9 25 20 276
2 August 13 31 2 1 5 28 71 151
3 August 60 11 1 5 17 19 113
4 August 12 28 5 11 132 188
5 August 18 1 2 5 36 86 148
6 August 8 2 9 62 81
7 August 10 11 21
8 August 31 31
9 August 1 1
Total 1,760 14,178 1,968 3,844 6,159 841 1,576 30,326

The COOB'92 Olympic
process. Luggage labels were also • March 1991: Reception and departure
area at Barcelona airport, enclosed, indicating the destination plan and computer back-up system
in the old Madrid shuttle (Villages, hotels, etc.). There was a high approved.
building, had a surface area
of 6,000 m2. response rate from all groups (80%), and • July 1991: Participation in
later on COOB'92 reminded all those who Competitions'91. Validation of the
2 and 3
The recent modernisation had still not answered that they had to approved projects.
and extension of the airport provide the information. • September 1991: Project for the
(2) and the signposting in conversion of the Olympic area at
different languages (3)
simplified the work of The estimates and monitoring of the Barcelona airport approved.
installing the Olympic signs arrivals were controlled by a computer • January 1992: Projects modified
and look.
system which took account of the situation according to the experience of the
of each person or group concerning summer of 1991.
accreditation, accommodation, etc. • March 1992: Barcelona airport hands
over the space for the Olympic area:
The Olympic area adaptation project was conversion work begins.
approved in September 1991, Barcelona • May 1992: The computer system comes
airport handed over the facilities to into operation.
COOB'92 in March 1992 and the works • June 1992: Staff move to Olympic area.
began immediately according to the plans. Conversion works completed.
• July 1992: The Olympic area opens on 1
Summary of the stages of the project July and operates until 14 August.

The calendar for the preparation of the

project may be divided into the following

2 3 241
The operations phase Civil was in charge of protecting the
Olympic area and the National Police
The Olympic area was one of the first supervised immigration control, a process
operational units to start to function and it which had been greatly simplified by the
was therefore vital to make a great effort fact that the Olympic Family carried the
to have all the signposting and Olympic Olympic identity card.
image elements installed there before
other places. Furthermore, the spaces had To coordinate the arrivals operation, the
to be made ready, the infrastructures Olympic area at the airport kept in close
(computers, telecommunications, etc.) touch with the Olympic Village, the Main
mounted and the volunteers trained Accreditations Centre, the Booking
sooner than elsewhere. Exchange and the Transport Operations

The arrival Altogether, over 15,000 people were

accredited and over 25,000 taken to 129
On the first days of the operation, which different destinations.
began on 1 July, there were very few
arrivals, which made it easier to break in The 22 and 23 of July were the climax of
the facility and the staff and the technical the operation. All the services in the
hitches of those first days were rapidly Olympic area were functioning flat out
corrected. and in spite of the huge concentrations of
people in the facilities, the longest waiting
The same period saw the start of the times for all the formalities were never
activity of the security forces: the Guardia more than one hour.

Olympic Family arrivals at
Barcelona airport
1 and 2
The critical point of the
Departure On 10 August there were 571 take-offs
reception operation came on and landings, a record for Barcelona
22 and 23 July, with the During the Games, the Olympic airport; only 18 flights were subject to
arrival en masse of members
of the Olympic Family. organisation at the airport began to major delays, between two and two and a
prepare for the departure operation. Days half hours.
of maximum activity and large
concentrations of travellers were expected
and the experience of previous Games
suggested that delays could reach four to
eight hours. And so COOB'92 established
a special plan of action for the departure
of the Olympic Family with the airlines,
the security forces and the airport

The greatest concentration of departures

was on 10 and 11 August, but thanks to
the measures taken the spectacular
increase in passenger and air traffic was
handled smoothly. A vital factor in coping
with the volume of passengers was that
the delegations' luggage (a quarter of the
total for the whole Olympic Family) was
checked in at the Olympic Village.

1 2 243
The Games were a meeting
Protocol The protocol project was shaped with the
point for VIPs from all over cooperation of the State protocol services,
the world. From the From the moment it was created, the the Prime Minister's Office, the Ministry
signposting of the accesses
ana reserved zones to the COOB'92 External Relations Division of Foreign Affairs and the IOC.
location of the grandstand guided the activities connected with
for the ceremonies, organising and managing the programmes According to the organisational criteria
transport, accommodation
or security, everything was of services for the members of the fixed by COOB'92, a decentralised
designed to provide personal Olympic Family who would be visiting structure was chosen with protocol
Barcelona during the period leading departments integrated into the
up to the Games and, in particular, organisation chart of each unit.
personal attention to the members of the
IOC, VIPs and Spanish and foreign
dignitaries. The division was also Structure of the External Relations
responsible for drafting the protocol Division and human resources
project for the Barcelona'92 Olympic
Games. The External Relations Division was
divided into three broad departments:
The characteristics of the Barcelona protocol, institutional relations and
Games and the special circumstances services for foreign dignitaries and VIPs
surrounding them —among which we and visits by official delegations and
should mention both the fact that they services for members of the IOC.
coincided with other events held in Spain, They covered their specific spheres of
such as the second summit of Latin action within the protocol project,
American heads of state, the year of relations with the various institutions
Madrid as cultural capital of Europe and connected with the Games and services
Expo'92 in Sevilla and the easing of for the visitors.
tension on the international political
scene, which manifested itself in an A cabinet, created in January 1992,
unprecedented number of countries and assisted the director of the division with
sportsmen and women taking part— the planning of different aspects
meant that Barcelona became a meeting contemplated by the general protocol
point for dignitaries and VIPs from all project. From this cabinet, and in contact
over the world. with the three broad departments
which made up the division, human
To coordinate the relations of the resources were assigned to the different
members of the IOC, the Olympic Family units.
and the official delegations, the post of
director of the External Relations During the Games, the External Relations
Division was given to a career diplomat Division was restructured with the
with the rank of Spanish ambassador. The creation of the protocol departments
functions of the division from the outset assigned to the territorial units. At each
were based on the work that had been one there was a protocol team consisting
done by the International Relations of a director, one or more assistant
Committee, which was responsible for this directors and protocol hosts; at the units
aspect of the Barcelona Candidature. which required it, there was also
secretarial and administrative staff.

The protocol project The Protocol Support Unit, which

depended on the Main Operations Centre
In mid-1990, a plan of services for the (CPO), guaranteed the smooth running of
VIPs and dignitaries from political, the different protocol departments at the
economic, cultural and sporting life who territorial units and provided assistance
would be attending the Games was for the CPO on strictly protocol matters.
unveiled. The project brought innovations Furthermore, coordination with the
in regard to earlier Games and was based protocol departments of the different
on a series of points: the importance of institutions (the Royal Household, State
bilateral relations, the Olympic past of Protocol, Generalitat of Catalonia,
each country, the number of competitors; Government Delegation, Barcelona City
also, special attention was paid to the Council, Parliament of Catalonia,
indications received through diplomatic Barcelona Provincial Council, IOC and
channels about the presence of dignitaries COE) was guaranteed, mainly in
from some of those countries at the connection with the presence of Spanish
Games. and foreign dignitaries and VIPs.
The Foreign Ministry provided support were illustrated with audio-visual 1 and 3
Mikhail Gorbachev (1) and
for the project and seconded a large projections and also contained elements Queen Elizabeth II of
number of diplomats to work with of theory. England were among the
many personalities that
COOB'92 as directors and assistant visited the Montjuïc
directors of protocol at the units during The External Relations Division worked Olympic Ring to see the
the Games. Further cooperation came for on the drafting of the HQ Hotels Services preparations for the Games.
the IOC, the COE, the local institutions Guide and produced a VIP Services 2
which were part of the COOB Guide, as well as special protocol Ambassador Ignasi
Masferrer directed the
consortium, the Centre of International instructions for the Games and the Protocol Division until his
Studies in Barcelona and the Protocol Manual, which contained various death in 1991.
Diplomatic School in Madrid, as well as items of useful information. Double page overleaf.
the Schools of Public Relations in At the opening ceremony, the
royal box with the King and
Barcelona and Girona. Queen of Spain and, on their
Visits and other official functions right, H.E. Juan Antonio
From then on, all efforts were Samaranch, President of the
IOC, and his wife, and H.E.
concentrated on training the staff by Since September 1987, the Department of Pasqual Maragall, Mayor of
means of seminars on protocol with a Visits by Official Delegations and Services Barcelona and President of
COOB'92, and his wife; on
basically practical orientation, in which for Members of the IOC, which was in their left, H.E. Felipe
certain matters were heavily stressed, such charge of this sector, coordinated and González, Prime Minister of
Spain, and his wife, and the
as the functioning of the units, the organised —with the Chief Executive Rt. Hon. Jordi Pujol,
accreditations, the victory ceremonies or Officer's Cabinet, the Barcelona City President of the Generalitat
an exhaustive study of all aspects of the Council, the Government Delegation and of Catalonia, and his wife.
In front of the King and
Olympic Charter related to protocol. the various companies and entities Queen were the heads of
The trainees also practised accompanying responsible for the Barcelona'92 state, among them the
Presidents of Guatemala,
and seating people on the grandstands facilities— a large number of visits by France, El Salvador, Cuba,
and VIP services in general. The sessions Spanish and foreign VIPs, official Costa Rica, Bolivia,

1 2
Germany, Argentina, Brazil, delegations, members of the IOC, The protocol working party
Chile, Ecuador, Estonia,
Hungary, Uruguay, Panama, ambassadors and consuls.
Nicaragua, Honduras, In view of the need to combine the rules
Mexico and Paraguay. At the 99th Session of the IOC, which was laid down in the Olympic Charter and the
Among the other VIPs were
the President of the Italian held in Barcelona on 22 and 23 July 1992, General Ordinance for Precedence in
Senate, the Co-prince and the department also organised, jointly Spain (Royal Decree 2099/1983), a
the Prime Minister of
Andorra, the King of with the IOC Secretariat General, an protocol working party was set up. It was
Malaysia, the Grand Duke extensive programme of cultural visits for made up of the people in charge of
and Duchess of Luxembourg,
the President of the the people accompanying the members of protocol at the Government Delegation in
European Parliament, the the IOC. Catalonia, the Generalitat of Catalonia,
Vice-president of the Islamic the Barcelona City Council, the Barcelona
Republic of Iran, the Vice-
president of the Czech and In the period leading up to the Games, the Provincial Council and the Parliament of
Slovak Federated Republic, External Relations Division, often Catalonia and was coordinated by the
the President of the
European Commission, working with the Image and director of External Relations at
Prince Guillaume of Communication Division, provided COOB'92. The working party met
Luxembourg, the Princesses
Elena and Cristina, the support for activities such as the regularly from May 1991, to set down the
Crown Prince of Thailand, presentation of the official coins for the bases for reconciling fundamental criteria
the Crown Prince of Japan, Games, the constitution of the subsite
Prince Philippe of Belgium among the protocol services directly or
and the Prime Minister of committees, the handing over of the indirectly involved at the Barcelona units,
Slovenia. Olympic flags to the city councils, the the subsites and, naturally, the Games
Barcelona'92 travelling exhibition, the themselves and in particular the opening
Assembly of the Association of National and closing ceremonies. This measure
Olympic Committees (ACNO'90) and the proved to be correct, given the juridical
Assemblies of the International complexity of the operation and the lack
Federations (ASOIF'89 and ASOIF'91), of precedents at earlier Games, which
among others. meant that there were no unified Olympic

3 247
protocol regulations which could be The grandstand at the ceremonies
The opening ceremony was attended by
The working party was later extended eighteen Latin American heads of state,
when it was joined by representatives of who were taking part in the summit,
the State Centre for the Coordination of sixteen foreign ministers and forty
Protocol (CECOPE), the Higher Sports observers and members of the retinue
Council and the COE. From October which made up that important meeting.
1991, the meetings were definitively Beside them on the grandstand were the
institutionalized and all kinds of matters Presidents of Estonia, France, Germany
were dealt with at them, including the and Hungary, the Grand Duke and
number of accreditations which had to be Duchess of Luxembourg and the King and Barcelona Olympic Games opening
granted to each institution, tickets, places Queen of Malaysia. The Prime Minister of ceremony. Seating on the grandstand
on the stands at the opening and closing Spain and the President of the Generalitat
ceremonies, transport, accommodation of Catalonia sat with the King and Queen
and security. The climate of dialogue of Spain and the Princesses Elena and
which prevailed at all times at these Cristina and the President of the IOC in
meetings was conducive to the orderly the president's box. In the royal box,
manner in which the events during the alongside the members of the IOC, were
Games attended by members of the the leading dignitaries of the central,
Olympic Family, VIPs and distinguished autonomous and local administrations. To
visitors took place within the established the right and left of the box, in accordance
framework. with the Olympic Charter, were the
presidents and secretaries general of the
international federations and the
presidents and secretaries general of the


Royal box Foreign ministers attending the Members of the Spanish government and the
Spanish sports VIPs, The Royal Household, II Summit of Latin American autonomous and local authorities
members of the IOC and the COE Heads of State Presidents and secretaries general of the IFs
Heads of state, heads of government and royal families Entourages of heads of state and other VIPs Presidents and secretaries general of the NOCs
VIP guests Members of the IOC Councillors of the Barcelona City Council
The GV accreditations were
NOCs. A special stand was set up and four G (Guest)— for each country,
reserved for VIPs with the for the foreign delegations and the with the possibility of increasing the
rank of minister or above. diplomatic and consular corps. Never in number.
The category GV Hors
Classe, for heads of state the history of the Games had such a
and members of royal number of dignitaries and VIPs been The Gv accreditations were reserved for
families. assembled. people with the rank of minister or above
2 and a special category, Gv hors classe, was
Francois Mitterrand, Nor were there any precedents for the created for heads of state, prime ministers,
President of France, was one
of the guests at the opening closing ceremony. The King and Queen of crown princes and other members of royal
ceremony. Sweden, the Grand Duke and Duchess of families. The heads of state, foreign
3 and 4 Luxembourg, the Presidents of Croatia ministers and observers at the summit of
From their arrival at the and Lithuania, the Prime Ministers of Latin American heads of state also
airport, the VIPs were Andorra, Bulgaria and Latvia and received special treatment. The presence
accompanied by "liaison
officers", who provided them ministers from Austria, Eire, Finland, of these top level VIPs was coordinated at
with information and France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, all times by the CECOPE and the
channelled their requests to
ensure that they had a Luxembourg, Madagascar, Monaco and COOB'92 External Relations Division did
suitable reception. Norway honoured with their presence the the support work.
event which brought the Games of the
XXV Olympiad to a close. Accommodation was covered by
preferential booking at four Barcelona
hotels (Ritz, Avenida Palace, Hesperia
VIP services and Master), with a package of tickets for
the opening and closing ceremonies and
For the accreditation of the people in this the sports competitions. There was a
group, it was decided to establish an protocol team at the hotels made up of
identical number —two Gv (Guest VIP) diplomatic staff, who coordinated with the

1 2 3 251

COOB'92 services. The CECOPE The group transport operation for the 1
The Hotel Princesa Sofía
carried out a special operation at the VIPs from each country from the airport was the home of the
Hotel Juan Carlos I, where most of the to the hotels and from there to the venues members of the IOC during
the Games.
heads of state attending the Games where the ceremonies were held was
stayed. exceptional and was also based on the 2
Personalities, such as
model for the Madrid peace conference. Arnold Schwarzenegger,
Following the model of the Madrid peace representing the president of
conference, the figure of the "liaison the United States, visited
Barcelona during the
officer" was included. These were people Summary of the Games operation Games.
with proper training, initiative, mastery of 3, 4, 5 and 6
English and French and a good During the operational phase of the The protocol departments at
knowledge of the project. Diplomats from Games, one of the main tasks of the the sites dealt with the VIPs
attending the competitions,
the Barcelona Centre of International Protocol Support Unit was to make daily the grandstands and the
Studies, diplomats on the international contact with the protocol directors at all victory ceremonies.
studies course at the Barcelona Diplomats the competition units, the airport and the
School and public relations technicians Olympic Village to make sure that
worked on this project. Their functions everything was functioning smoothly, to
were to accompany the VIPs, provide analyse possible incidents and by doing so
general information, channel requests in to reinforce the services at the units which
order to ensure the best possible required it.
reception. These liaison officers, who
were in contact with the consulates, The most complex task was to satisfy all
played an important part in the complex the distinguished visitors to the Games in
arrivals operation at the airport on 23, 24 the same way, given the diversity of
and 25 July and the departure operation protocol treatment that the organisation
on 10 and 11 August. had to take into account (members of the

1 3 5

2 4
The King and Queen of
IOC, official delegations, local dinner at the Reials Drassanes for
Spain and the Princesses delegations, etc.) and the concentration of sponsors, members of the IOC and
Elena and Cristina, the VIPs at certain sports events, which meant representatives of COOB'92.
President of the Generalitat
of Catalonia, the President that even the most generous provisions of
of the IOC and the Mayor of seats on the grandstand were insufficient, The protocol elements of the Games were
Barcelona and President of as in the case of the Piscines Bernat guaranteed at all times by the function of
COOB'92 with their wives
on the day of the opening of Picornell during the first week of the the protocol working party and the
the Games in the VIP lounge Games. agreements made beforehand about
of the Olympic Stadium.
general aspects and in particular the
Every day, the Protocol Support Unit also placing of the VIPs and members of the
provided the competition unit protocol Olympic Family on the grandstands for
departments with the medals schedule, the opening and closing ceremonies.
which contained the times and allocation
of the members of the IOC responsible
for giving the medals. In some cases, the
unit designed special events in Barcelona
during the Games and in others provided
support. Among these, we should mention
the 99th Session of the IOC, the opening
of the Olympic Village and the Parc de
Mar Village, the opening of the oval room
at the Palau Nacional and the reception
which the King and Queen gave
afterwards for the Olympic Family in the
Palauet Albéniz, the medals awards to the
competitors in the yachting events and the

6 7 253
In spite of its scale Transport The services
(40,000 people a day), the
transport operation closed The COOB'92 Transport Department was Each sector of the Olympic Family
with a very positive balance,
even taking into account the responsible for all the journeys connected needed particular kinds of vehicles and
days of maximum traffic at with the Games (training, competition, transport services, according to the
the same place, such as the
access to Montjuïc on the official events, arrival and departures characteristics of the journey and the
day of the opening from Barcelona) which had to be made by accreditation category.
ceremony. the members of the Olympic Family. In
order to guarantee that during the The competitors
operational period —when the traffic
situation was expected to be difficult— all The competitors and team officials
the services would function in optimum (coaches, doctors, technical auxiliaries)
conditions of comfort, safety and speed were almost all staying at the Olympic
and to see that the needs of people of the Villages in Barcelona, Banyoles and La
city and visitors to the Games would also Seu d'Urgell. From there they were taken
be satisfied, three years before the to the competition venues and training
opening COOB'92 set up a system of facilities in buses according to a schedule
coordination with the city traffic which responded to the needs of the day.
authorities. The timetables for these services could be
consulted through the Multiple Access to
The complexity of the transport operation Information and Communication
can be appreciated if we bear in mind the (AMIC) system terminals and the
number of people to be moved (about booklets for each sport. The transport
40,000 a day) and the variety of reasons was almost always for the exclusive use of
for their journeys (with tremendous that group and direct from a particular
variation in the timetables and routes and Village to a particular unit. Transport
considerable dispersion of the starting was also provided for competitors
points and destinations). To all that we travelling to the units as spectators. For
should add that it was essential for the the team sports the players travelled to 255
services to function properly so as not to the competition venues and training
throw out the timetables of the sports facilities in team buses, not necessarily in
events and that it was not possible to carry the same vehicle every day. Altogether,
out a test before the operational phase. 100 competitors' bus lines were
Moreover, the work of the Transport scheduled and 23,930 services provided,
Department covered a wide range, in which meant that a total of almost
addition to managing its own fleet of 350,000 people travelled by this means.
vehicles: free passes for public transport, Except in the case of some sports with a
managing parking spaces and controlling particularly large number of participants,
and monitoring the transport for the such as athletics and swimming, the
sponsors' guests. In the end, however, the supply was sufficient, and it was even
service met the travel needs of all the excessive in the case of some training
different groups and the few incidents that sessions in the first week that the
arose were concentrated on the first few Olympic Village was open.
The National Olympic Committees
The planning of the operation, which got
under way at the end of 1989, consisted of Each National Olympic Committee
four fundamental phases: the first was to (NOC) was provided with a certain
establish the resources required and number of vehicles from the Olympic fleet
estimate the cost, from which an (cars and minibuses) for its own
operational model was proposed and occasional use. They were driven by
developed on a computer; the second was volunteers. The base (car pool) was in an
to obtain and distribute the material underground car park beside the Olympic
resources, according to a detailed definition Village with a rest area for the almost 800
of the operational procedures for each volunteer drivers who took part in the
service, function and work place; the third operation. The cycling teams had a
was the phase of Competitions'91; and the supplementary car for following the races
fourth and final phase was the starting up of and assisting the riders. Altogether, there
the definitive operation which, in the case were 472 vehicles based at the Olympic
of transport, began on 24 June with the Village.
beginning of the arrivals operation and
ended on 13 August with the departures.
Referees and judges 287,100 passengers. In the case of La Seu
d'Urgell, Banyoles, Zaragoza and
The referees and judges also had official Valencia, there was a direct service
transport, which was scheduled according between the hotels and the unit. The
to the competition timetable. The starting services were scheduled and the timetables
points were the Parc de Mar Village and appeared in the Media Transport Guide.
the hotels where they were staying. The
schedules for the services, which covered The media also had access to a shuttle
competitions and technical sessions, also service between the Montigalà Village
appeared on the AMIC and in a series of and El Fondo subway station in Badalona,
booklets which were given out to them. from where they could take Line 1 direct
For this group 71 bus lines were laid on, to the Plaça d'Espanya, where the
making 3,120 services transporting 39,050 Communications Media Centre (CMC)
people. was located.

The media There was also a shuttle service

(originally, exclusive to the media but
In the design of the transport for the later extended to Team'92), which
media, the elements to be borne in mind covered the route between the CMC and
were the diversity of residences and units, the competition venues in the Olympic
the length of their schedules (particularly Ring (INEFC, Palau Sant Jordi, Olympic
in the case of broadcasts to countries with Stadium, Piscines Bernat Picornell and
a big time difference) and the large Piscina de Montjuïc). There was a vehicle
number of people who made up this every five minutes and, at night, after the
sector. The total number of lines provided subway had closed down, the route
for them was 89: 21,570 services carrying continued as far as Plaça Catalunya.

Media transport services
Each NOC had vehicles
In addition to these services for the press, permits so that they could use their own
from the Olympic fleet, COOB'92 took charge of the transport for vehicles to compensate for any deficit.
driven by volunteers. most of the broadcasters of RTO'92 from
2 and 3 their residences to the units where they COOB'92 also had a helicopter for VIPs,
The competitors were taken would be working. Altogether, this sector another for the official film and five more
by bus from the Olympic had 20 bus lines. for medical care and television broadcasts.
Villages to the venues and
training facilities. There were seventeen helistops at the
VIPs units, which were also used by the
Like the Olympic Family, helicopters of the Spanish Royal
the members of Team'92 had The sports VIPs connected with the Household, the state security forces and
free public transport.
Games (the highest ranking members of some television networks.
the IOC, the international federations and
the NOCs) and the guests of COOB'92 Arrival and departure
(sponsors, official delegations) were
provided with individual transport. There The arrivals operation in Barcelona began
were two kinds: 522 vehicles for the on 1 July, reached maximum
exclusive use of one person or more, concentration between 21 and 24 July and
which were on call 14 hours a day, and continued, though less intensely, until 8
vehicles on request, which functioned August. 75% of the members of the
rather like radio taxis, which could be Olympic Family arrived at Barcelona
ordered by people who wanted to travel airport, from where they were taken to
to a particular Olympic venue. For this their residences in different kinds of
second mode, 502 vehicles were supplied. vehicles (cars, minibuses, buses). From
As it was feared in the planning phase the estimates for arrivals, a daily schedule
that the number would not be enough, the for the vehicles required was drafted, plus
users were given access and parking a reserve for unexpected demands.

1 2 3 257

Outside the Olympic area at the airport a ceremony called for 305 buses from 60 Location of the transport
space was reserved for parking and pick- territorial units
different starting points (villages, hotels,
up for eight cars, two buses and six subsites), with a total of 83 convoys; in 1 Transport Operations Centre
luggage vans, and there was a 5,000 m2 car 2 Bus pool Zona Franca
addition, a further 245 buses were 3 Car pool Princesa Sofia
park. At rush hours there was also a organised and made ready. At the end of 4 Car pool Sumasa
shuttle to the Olympic Village and the the ceremony, the members of the IOC 5 Car pool Ensanche
6 Car pool Rius i Taulet
media Villages and vehicles on request to were back at the Princesa Sofia hotel 7 Car pool SEAT and rental
the 120 other destinations. within 30 minutes and in 50 minutes all the vehicles centre
8 Olympic Village car pool
residents at the official hotels had also 9 Car pool Lepanto
For departure, which was concentrated returned, whilst the first convoy of 10 Car pool Escola Industrial
11 Olympic Village bus pool
between 10 and 12 August, the luggage competitors arrived at the Olympic Village
was checked in at the Olympic Village to 75 minutes after the end of the event.
avoid jams at the entrances.
At the closing ceremony, there were fewer
The opening and closing ceremonies people in each group and the planning of
the operation was less complex.
At the opening and closing ceremonies
there was a maximum concentration of The official events
members of the Olympic Family at a
single point —the Olympic Stadium— At certain official events, the transport of
with little parking space. For that reason, VIPs was expected to be done mainly by
access for cars was restricted and almost bus to avoid traffic jams at entrances and
all the transport was by bus. in car parks. These were the opening of
the 99th Session of the IOC at the Palau
The transport of the 21,600 members of de la Música Catalana (20 July), the
the Olympic Family to the opening Olympic Gala at the Liceu (23 July), the

1 and 2 royal reception at the Palau National (27 made by members of the IOC Medical
At some sites, such as the
Olympic Canal in July) and the reception at the Palau de Commission, transport of the doping
Castelldefels (1) or the Pedralbes (30 July). control samples and the competitors who
Olympic Village (2), the
competitors were provided had to be taken to the Olympic Village
with "unusual" means of Other special services polyclinic.
3 A circle line (L 501/502), open to all COOB'92 took direct charge of the
The cars and buses of the fleet holders of accreditations, connected the transport of the volunteers when they had
took the members of the
Olympic Family to the venues. four Barcelona Olympic areas (Montjuïc, to cover the circuit events or were
Parc de Mar, Vall d'Hebron and assigned to units which could not be
Diagonal). It ran in both directions and reached by public transport. For other
stopped at Sants railway station and the people connected with the Games, such as
Port of Barcelona. It functioned every day the participants in the International
from 8.00 to midnight at 15 minute Youth Camp, over 200 bus or
intervals. supplementary minibus services were
Because of their size, some units had an
internal transport service. They included In addition, a sponsorship agreement was
the Olympic Village, the Olympic signed with RENFE, which included the
Harbour, the Mollet shooting range, El Olympic train between Barcelona and
Montanyà equestrian centre, Banyoles, Reus, used by the members of the
the Port of Barcelona and the Montigalà Olympic Family staying at hotels in the
Village. Salou and Cambrils area, from where they
were taken by bus to Reus station. From
A pool of 30 vehicles was available at the 23 July to 10 August, four journeys a day
Coordinating Medical Centre for journeys each way were made between that city

1 3 259

and Barcelona and over 20,000 people The management of parking spaces
travelled. at the units
In order to fulfil the undertaking in the The Transport Department was also in
Barcelona Candidature, which was similar charge of managing the parking spaces at
to those made at other Games, the units. For security reasons and
agreements were signed with public because of the limited amount of space
transport management to provide a free available, it was necessary to establish
service for the Olympic Family and restrictions on the indiscriminate access of
Team'92 during the operational period of vehicles and adopt a pass system. These
the Games. 94,500 public transport passes passes distinguished the parking areas
were distributed to the Olympic Family; available (beside the unit —ACI—,
they entitled the holders to use all the city Olympic fleet car parks and spaces for
and inter-city bus lines in Barcelona and vehicles with pass) and two kinds of
the 17 towns of the metropolitan area, the privilege: access (only for loading and
subway lines and the city lines of the unloading) or parking. They were also
Generalitat railways (FGC). The only subject to certain limits in time (from one
condition was that the passes had to be day to the whole period of the Games)
shown with the holder's accreditation. and space (one unit or more). This meant
The accreditation also provided access to a total of 230 models of pass.
the inter-city lines of the FGC, and
Team'92 could also use the local RENFE The criteria for restricting the allocation
lines. Free transport for Team'92 was also of access and parking passes helped to
available on some public transport lines in ensure a congestion free transport
the surrounding area. operation. The total number of spaces
available was 16,750 (at 53 car parks) and

Final organisation chart
of the Transport Division
As joint partner of the
the Transport Operations Centre The fleet of buses was the most expensive
Games, SEAT supplied the distributed 4,375 Olympic fleet passes, part of the transport operation. In order
cars and vans of the fleet. 4,175 single unit passes, 190 ACI passes, to cut down the cost, the services were
The company also had a
ship in the port for its guests. 370 for the circuit events and 2,100 for the adjusted to the demand for journeys by
ceremonies; and at the units themselves, a the different groups estimated with a
The Olympic fleet, when not further 25,700. Although the wide variety computer module linking the scheduled
in service, was parked in the of passes created certain difficulties of service journeys, which varied
car pools. interpretation at the vehicle access considerably over the operational period.
control, the restrictive measures proved In this way, the established transport
effective and occupation of the car parks criteria were varied according to the
was very low. characteristics of each day. As shown in
the diagram the period of maximum
activity was between 25 July and 3
Resources August. The inclusion of a guide on each
bus and the increased Olympic
The vehicles of the Olympic fleet were signposting were decisive factors in
supplied by SEAT, joint partner of the ensuring that the constant changes to the
Games (the company's contribution is set routes were not a problem for the
out in the table below), and Yamaha professional drivers, even when they had
which, as official supplier of the Games, no previous knowledge of the Olympic
provided COOB'92 with 198 scooters, itineraries because they came from other
33 motor cycles and 8 special vehicles. parts of Spain.
During the Games, both companies
took charge of the maintenance and Most of the scheduled journeys were
repairs to the vehicles, and SEAT paid for made with the contracted fleet of buses,
the fuel. located in the bus pool in the Zona

Distribution of vehicles ceded by Assigned On request Assigned NOC Scheduled Organisation Reserve and special Total 261
SEAT by type and services
Toledo 270 527 126 95 22 1,040
Ibiza 70 30 100
Terra 5 10 15
100 30 2 32
80 20 1 21
Passat 202 173 7 382
Caravelle / Kombi 16 173 47 160 27 423
Transporter / LT 87 87
Total 522 543 472 47 417 99 2,100

1 2
Franca, which serviced the venues and on 24 June, the organisation and
residences in Barcelona and the subsites management of all journeys was
in the metropolitan area. At the subsites concentrated at the Transport Operations
which were far from Barcelona local Centre, which supplied the services,
operators were contracted to cover the managed the fleet of vehicles, controlled
scheduled journeys around the towns. their operation and monitored the state of
the traffic. Moreover, each unit had a
The Olympic Family transport required transport department which controlled
over 6,800 people working over the 44 days the provision of services and managed the
of the operation. During this phase almost parking spaces, the staff and the
500 people were contracted, among them resources.
instructors from Catalan driving schools
and over 4,300 volunteers, of whom many
were members of the Reial Automòbil Traffic and transport regulations
Club de Catalunya. The interest of the staff during the Games
and their enthusiasm at doing such an
exceptional job made it possible to organise COOB'92 expected the Olympic Family
a highly motivated and, overall, transport and the overall increase in
well-integrated team. traffic (confirmed by a study which it
commissioned jointly with the Barcelona
Tourist Board) to generate serious
Organisation during the operational problems of mobility in the city. And so,
phase in April 1989 a working party (called
Transgrup'92) was set up. It was formed
During the operational period, which by COOB'92 and the Barcelona City
began, as far as transport was concerned, Council, and was later joined by

262 Buses in service during the Games

1 and 2
During the operations phase,
Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona subway and railway network. COOB'92
4,300 volunteers took part (TMB), Entitat Metropolitana del and the City Council defined the
in the management of the Transport (EMT), Generalitat railways restrictions to be imposed on the
fleet, driving the vehicles
and registering the entries (FGC), RENFE and the Traffic circulation of vehicles, the loading and
and exits from sites such as Authority. Starting from the requirements unloading of goods and parking in the city
the Olympic Village (1) or of COOB'92, each institution or entity centre, which were later published in the
running car pools like the
one on Montjuïc (2). formulated a plan of action involving form of a mayoral decree. The year before
closing areas of the city to traffic, the the Games, the company Empresa de
Before the Games, all the occupying circuits and estimating traffic Mobilitat Olímpica'92 (EMO'92) was
volunteer drivers took flow. constituted. It was formed by the Societal
training courses.
Municipal d'Aparcaments i Serveis and
In the case of the highways between cities, the public transport bodies. It was
the matter was in the hands of the Traffic responsible for putting the strategy for
Authority. Meetings were held at each of discouraging the use of private
the subsites to define the itineraries which transport defined by the City Council into
would have to be used, the traffic practice.
restrictions and the specific measures
which would have to be taken. The guidelines for providing increased
mobility for visitors and the Olympic
In its turn, in June 1991 the Barcelona Family and avoiding saturation of the
City Council proposed a strategic plan for routes into Barcelona took three main
mobility during the Games, which set as aspects into account: decongestion of the
its goal encouraging the use of public road network, public transport and
transport by means of a series of parking Olympic Family transport.
restrictions, closing problem areas and
setting up parking spaces connected to the

1 2 263

Decongestion of the road network (which provided parking spaces for buses 1
The Montjuïc funicular,
connected to subway stations) and Park reopened shortly before the
The first point to be made here is that Centre'92 (which reserved parking spaces Games, was one of the
means of public transport
when several strategic sections of the road for cars, combined with an Olympic ticket, used to reach the Olympic
network came into operation and in particular areas of the city and for a Ring.
improvement works were completed specified time). Fewer people than 2, 3 and 4
shortly before the Games, there was a expected took advantage of these three The special Olympic
notable increase in the ease with which possibilities, but even so they had a signposting (2 and 4)
smoothed the journeys to
the traffic flowed around the city: this was significant influence in dissuading people and from the venues. The
the case with the Ronda Litoral (coastal from using private cars to drive into the transport information was
also most useful (3).
ring-road) and the Ronda de Dalt (upper city centre.
ring-road), the Vallvidrera tunnels, the
section of the second ring-road as far as Lastly, the City Council reduced the
Badalona, the slipways of the A-19 loading and unloading times for goods,
motorway through Badalona, the Garraf restricted heavy goods vehicles on the ring
and Rubí-Terrassa motorways and the roads and the motorways into the city at
conversion of the N-152 to Vic and the rush hours and reserved parking space for
C-150 from Girona to Banyoles to dual duly accredited residents' vehicles, while
carriageway. eliminating 2,741 parking spaces in the
blue zone and strictly controlling illegal
Secondly, we should consider a series of parking.
special offers by EMO'92 which
encouraged people to use public transport Public transport
to come into Barcelona: Park Tren'92
(which provided new car parks connected The bus and subway, both dependent on
with Barcelona by train), Park Bus'92 the TMB, extended their usual running

1 2 4

The Olympic ticket gave the
times —23.00 to 1.00—, and ran as used, especially the Olympic ticket (the
holder the right to unlimited frequently as on working days in winter; outcome of an agreement between TMB,
use of the bus, the subway moreover, special bus lines were laid on in EMT and FGC).
and the Generalitat
railways. the Montjuïc and Vall d'Hebron Areas
and the modernised Montjuïc funicular Olympic Family transport
The Olympic signposting, was brought back into operation. The
which gave priority to public Entitat Metropolitana del Transport In order to guarantee greater safety and
transport, was also designed scheduled shuttle buses between mobility for the Olympic Family transport,
to smooth the flow of private
vehicles. Castelldefels station and the Olympic a series of Olympic sites were closed to
rowing canal, Viladecans station and the general traffic and reserved for vehicles of
baseball stadium and Badalona station the Olympic fleet and those with a pass:
and the boxing and basketball venues. Montjuïc, Vall d'Hebron, Parc de Mar,
The night bus service laid on special Diagonal, the Estació del Nord and
services to Badalona and between Plaça Frontó Colom (Rambla). Local residents
d'Espanya and Plaça Catalunya in were provided with a pass for their
Barcelona. RENFE and FGC also put on vehicles.
more local trains.
An especially notable feature of the
Along with this increase in supply went a operation was the reservation of 66
series of special Olympic signs for all the kilometres of lanes for the exclusive use of
lines, stations and bus stops on the public the Olympic fleet and vehicles with
transport system; special transport guides passes, which were also allowed to use the
were published and information about 40 kilometres of bus lanes.
transport in general was made more
readily available. We should point out
that the combined tickets were widely

Passengers per day on public 1991 1992 Increase in passengers Increase in supply 265
transport (25 July to 9 August)
RENFE 188,398 303,402 61 % 39 %
FGC 60,944 100,410 65 % 32 %
Subway 551,485 845,019 53 % 60 %
TMB busses 292,902 357,037 22 % 50 %
Night bus 3,546 6,443 82 % 0%
TMB shuttles 52,651
EMT shuttles - Night bus - COOB'92 1,515
Montjuìc Funicular 28,794
Total 1,097,275 1,695,271 54%

5 6
Traffic during the Games We should say that the most significant 1
Near the zones which were
actions by these bodies were along the closed to traffic there
The cooperation among all the institutions route of the Olympic torch, on the 100 km were car parks, such as this
one for scooters in the Plaça
involved made it possible to have time trial cycling event (Meridiana, d'Espanya, at the foot of the
immediate information about the traffic Circuit de Montmeló by the A-17) and the Olympic Ring.
situation and to coordinate the measures men's and women's Marathons (1 and 9 2
that needed to be taken. Forecasts were August respectively) between Mataró and The vehicles of the fleet
prepared about problematic times and the Olympic Stadium: in all these cases could use the Olympic lanes,
prepared to avoid possible
stretches of road, which enabled the the roads affected had to be closed. Both delays in the journeys of the
people in charge at the subsites, the city forces (the Barcelona city police and the Olympic Family.
police and the Traffic Authority to take Guardia Civil) also had to act at the 3 and 5
the necessary steps to deal with each accesses to the Olympic Stadium on the The Transports
Metropolitans de Barcelona
situation. All this was possible thanks to days of the opening and closing (TMB) subway lines had
up-to-date information about traffic along ceremonies, at the accesses to the airport information points inside the
the thoroughfares which were relevant to at periods of maximum concentration and stations (3) and in the
surroundings (5).
the Games, both in Barcelona and the also at some of the subsites.
whole of Catalonia.

During the Games, 252 bulletins about 12 Summary

key points on the roads in Catalonia and 10
in Barcelona were drafted from the data The state of traffic within the city of
sent in; this information was sent by fax to Barcelona, along the ways in and at the
the managers of the fleet and the Olympic Olympic subsites was exceptionally good,
Family transport services. For their part, with no important jams, thanks to the the
the city police and the Guardia Civil were measures we have described and the
ready to take action if necessary. promotion campaigns (including the

1 2 4

4 publication of the leaflet "How to get the city. In fact, traffic in the city dropped
Taxis were also used to
discourage the use of private around Barcelona during the Olympic by between 15 and 20%, thanks to the
vehicles and boost public Games" and the Olympic Transport widespread use of public transport.
Guide, and by means of advertisements).
6 We should also mention the reduction
RENFE laid on free The large number of visitors who were —in terms of both number and
transport for members of the
Olympic Family and special staying some way outside the city also had seriousness— of traffic accidents during
services for people staying at a fundamental influence on the RENFE the Olympic period. On the roads of
hotels in Salou.
and FGC local lines (where extra services Catalonia there were only 32 deaths, as
were laid on), but not on the roads into opposed to 55 for the same period in 1991.

5 6 267
Besides providing free
Health care services the Department of Health and Social
medical care for the Security of the Generalitat of Catalonia,
Olympic Family and The medical and public health services at the Public Health Department of the
carrying out the controls
required by the IOC, the the Olympic Games, as at any other large Barcelona City Council, the Health Care
COOB'92 services included scale international event, are a proof of Planning Department of the Ministry of
first aid for spectators and the capacity of the city and the host Health and Consumer Affairs and the
competitors at the
competition venues. country in the field. This idea was a Spanish Olympic Committee (COE)
constant encouragement to COOB'92 in Medical Commission. Also involved as
preparing to provide the Olympic Family associate institutions were the Red Cross,
with top quality medical care. the Military Health Services, local,
regional and national professional
It should also be borne in mind that the associations and organisations connected
honing of sporting abilities is increasingly with sports medicine. Technical
linked with maximum development of the committees were also set up; they were
competitors' physical and psychological groups of experts, whose conclusions were
resources and therefore the role of sports taken into account in the drafting of
medicine and its associated disciplines, is PASO'92.
fundamental. This was why every possible
support was given for a sports medicine As a consequence, it was possible to
symposium and congress and, on the establish with some accuracy what the
initiative of the IOC, a film about responsibilities of COOB'92 were:
biomechanics. to provide free medical care for the
Olympic Family at the residences,
The health care services at the Barcelona competition venues and training facilities;
Olympic Games included medical care for to provide medical care and first aid for
the Olympic Family, first aid for operations staff on duty and spectators at
spectators and visitors and the venues or inside the Olympic sites; to
implementation of the medical controls provide the doctors and other medical
required by the International Olympic staff accredited by the National 269
Committee. Olympic Committees (NOC) with the
necessary facilities and resources; to
supply physiotherapy and massage
Planning the health care services services for the competitors; to
implement public health prevention and
The first phase of the COOB'92 control measures; to supervise catering
organisation strategy was the planning, hygiene and the quality and nutritional
which concluded with the publication of value of the food; to supervise the
the Olympic Health Care Plan environmental quality of the units; to
(PASÓ'92), a detailed analysis of the level carry out the necessary drug tests and
and quality of services which had to be analyses according to the rules of the
provided and the resources required. International Olympic Committee; to
carry out the gender verification test for
The first step was to study the obligations female competitors; to propose and
arising from sports regulations and supervise studies in physiology,
Olympic rules. The main sources biomechanics and related disciplines
consulted were: The Olympic Charter, during the Games; to coordinate and
Rule 48; the Medical Guide, drafted in guarantee the best possible relations with
1984 by the IOC Medical Commission the IOC-MC and the medical teams of
(IOC-MC); the obligations imposed by the NOCs; to provide individual and
the IOC-MC; and the document statistical medical information about the
"Requirements for Medical Facilities at health care services at the Games; and to
the Olympic Village", which sets out provide information about procedures
guidelines for the minimum services and activities in the field of health care
to be supplied by the Organising for everyone taking part.
To fulfil these obligations and be faithful
Another aim in the planning phase was to to the criteria established by the IOC-MC,
involve health care organisations and a series of health care programmes were
specialists to ensure that the study would designed to decide the level of service,
be both scientific and detailed and the quality standards, equipment and human
operation efficient and flexible. For this resources required for each one, with the
purpose, an advisory committee was aim of providing the finest medical care
constituted, made up of representatives of available in Barcelona, which is equal to
the most demanding international medical staff had undergone special
standards. training in emergency medical care and
sports medicine.

Human and material resources First-aid treatment was provided by

qualified paramedical staff, capable of
Almost all the medical staff were performing a cardiac massage if required,
volunteers with accredited experience in assisted by volunteers. Advanced
the field, particularly in hospital work or cardiopulmonary reanimation and life
sports medicine. They were required to support devices were provided at the
behave professionally according to the venues and other high risk points. There
strictest criteria of the spirit of the were intensive care units, emergency
Olympic Movement and to respect surgery and blood banks at the official
internationally established medical codes. Olympic hospital (Hospital del Mar) and
all the associated hospitals. There were
In the period leading up to the Games, hospitals no more than 15 minutes from
there was special training for medical every venue.
staff. For doctors, nurses and everyone
from the field of health care in general, There was at least one ambulance
there were training sessions for specific available at each competition venue and
tasks and motivation over a two-year one 5 minutes from each training facility.
period. The Red Cross staff had a special There was a medical ambulance (mobile
training plan, designed and carried out in ICU) in all the Olympic areas.
close cooperation with the training staff of
the organisation itself. At the sports The first-aid treatment was completed by
venues and other critical points, the a twenty-four hour emergency home visit

Sports venues Other sites Total Human resources for health care
Management 36 36
Medical directors 46 2 48
Doctors 385 226 611
Nursing staff 274 81 355
Physiotherapists 40 82 122
Masseurs 158 74 232
Auxiliaries 40 76 116
Administrative staff 64 64 128
Language hosts 24 24
Encoders 12 12
Data recorders 14 14
Doping control officers 33 33
Doping control technicians 55 2 57
Escorts 188 24 212
Transport coordinators 6 6
First-aid workers 1,159 157 1,316
Emergency service crews 99 512 611
Total 2,541 1,392 3,933
All the first aid workers were
service with ambulance on call from any her legal representative, was required in
volunteers and were trained telephone number on the Olympic cases which might involve risk, the person
before the Games. Like the network. Round-the-clock medical administering the treatment bore sole
other members of Team'92,
they had a free restaurant services were also available at the VIP responsibility.
service at the sites where they hotels, press centres and Olympic Village
worked (in this case, the polyclinic. We should also mention that the
Hockey Stadium in
Terrassa). physiotherapy services at some of the
Information was provided for spectators competition venues and training facilities
All the medical technicians and competitors about the location of and were substantial and provided with the
—like the ones at the access to the medical services, easily latest equipment and that a group
Olympic Stadium— had
worked in hospitals or the identifiable by the international Red insurance was taken out for any
field of sports medicine. This Cross symbol, and the procedures to be contingencies or situations not covered by
guaranteed that all the tasks followed. The medical staff attending the the established medical services.
would be covered by
experienced professionals. competitors and other members of the
Olympic Family spoke at least one foreign
language. The operational plans
The IOC-MC was in permanent contact The Coordinating Medical Centre
with the NOC medical delegations to (CMC)
keep them briefed on regulations and
techniques. Whenever they asked, the The organisation structure of the CMC
delegations were informed of the for the operational phase of the Games
diagnosis and treatment applied to consisted of a directorate and five basic
patients and they were allowed to attend management units or deputy directorates:
surgical operations as observers. Although health care, emergency and transport,
the authorisation of the patient, or his or general services, medical controls and

1 2 271
public health and the Olympic edition, concerning doping sets out the 1
The Coordinating Medical
laboratories. sanctions to be applied if an athlete Centre supervised the
refuses to submit to the doping control or activity of the services
supplied at the sites and
Through the operations coordinator, the comes up positive on it. It also specifies centralised the management
CMC directorate supervised the activities the procedures for selecting the athletes of medical transport.
of the medical services at all the and taking samples. Along broad lines, 2
competition and residential territorial the controls are applied to the first four All the competition venues
units and, in exceptional cases, dealt with classified in each event or sport and a had a medical ambulance
(mobile ICU).
problems which were too complex to be quota of other competitors chosen at
solved at the unit itself. The CMC was random. 3
The Department of
also the centralised management of the Toxicology and
medical transport. The Barcelona doping control laboratory Pharmacology of the
Hospital del Mar was the
was at the Municipal Institute for Medical Official Medical Laboratory
During the Games, the CMC handled Research (IMIM) Department of for the gender tests and
about 2,700 telephone calls. From 2 July Toxicology, officially recognised by the doping controls required by
the IOC.
to 10 August 1992 a total of 498 patients IOC in 1985.
were carried, of whom only 119 (24%)
required a medical ambulance. The operations phase of the doping
control began on the morning of 26 July
Medical controls with the samples taken in the road cycling
event and ended on 9 August with the
The Barcelona'92 medical controls were men's Marathon. The samples were
carried out according to the established collected at 36 doping stations at the
rules. The IOC-MC forbids the use of competition venues and the sealed
certain pharmacological substances and containers were transported by the
Rule 48 of the Olympic Charter, 1991 members of the IOC-MC in charge of

1 2
There was a polyclinic at
supervising the process in a fleet of mesocard and norephedrine— and two
each Olympic Village vehicles laid on specially for this purpose. beta-agonists —clenbuterol in both
(Barcelona, Banyoles and cases—), which shows that the use of
La Seu d'Urgell).
The relaxed atmosphere and the drugs is in decline, as had already been
5 comfortable conditions at the doping observed at major competitions.
During the Games, 1,870 control stations helped to achieve good
urine samples were analysed
by 18 different analytical relations with the athletes. The relations The IOC-MC has set the basic criteria for
methods to determine the between the station officers and the the gender tests: respect for the athlete,
presence of any of the
substances prohibited by the members of the IOC-MC were also reliability of the method and total secrecy
IOC Medical Commission. excellent; the technicians did their job for the results. The sample taking and
6 efficiently and no appeals against the biological analysis of gender were carried
Some items of medical procedure were registered. out using a new method based on nuclear
material used for the Games,
such as the containers and biochemistry, officially approved by the
forms for the doping control, Altogether, 1,870 urine samples were IOC Executive Board on 20 September
were designed for the analysed; 1,316 (70%) from men and 1991.
Barcelona Olympic Games.
554 (30%) from women. To identify all
possible banned substances, 18 different Holders of the gender certificate endorsed
analytical methods were applied to by the IOC-MC and the International
each sample, giving a total of 33,600 Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF)
analyses. were exempted from the test. The other
sportswomen gave a sample of their
As the results had to be available the buccal mucous so that gender could be
same day, the work was organised in shifts determined by chromatin. In borderline
around the clock. After the analyses had cases, when required by the IOC-MC, a
been carried out, there were only five clinical examination was carried out, with
positives (three stimulants —strychnine, a study of the secondary sexual

3 4 6 273

characteristics, the morphology of the management of subsite competition 1 and 2
The Barcelona Olympic
subject and the psychological behaviour. venues. The Olympic subsite hospitals Village polyclinic provided
were: the Badalona Municipal Hospital, treatment in basic
specialities —such as
The gender tests were carried out the Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Taulí in traumatology, chiropody,
between 10 July and 4 August at the three Sabadell, the Hospital de la Creu Roja in dentistry, ear, nose and
Olympic Villages. A total of 2,406 samples L'Hospitalet, the Hospital de Sant Joan in throat and ophthalmology
(1)— and electrotherapy and
were collected: 2,207 at the Barcelona Reus, the Fundació Sant Hospital in La physiotherapy services (2).
polyclinic, 172 in Banyoles and 27 in La Seu d'Urgell, the Mútua de Terrassa, the 3
Seu d'Urgell. Hospital de Badalona Germans Trias i The Barcelona'92 mascot,
Pujol, the Hospital de Viladecans, the Cobi, also put on his
doctor's gown.
Hospitals Hospital de Granollers and the Consorci
Hospitalari de Terrassa.
The Hospital del Mar dealt with special
cases which could not be covered at the The polyclinics
Barcelona Olympic Village polyclinic. It
was also the hospital to which members of Polyclinics were set up at the three
the Olympic Family and other groups, Olympic Villages according to the
including spectators, were normally estimated needs. In Barcelona there was a
admitted. four-storey block built by the Catalan
Health Service, which was to be used as a
The associate hospitals acted as referral primary care centre after the Games; in
centres for admission and emergency Banyoles business premises were
treatment, especially for spectators and temporarily converted and in La Seu
accredited persons apart from the d'Urgell part of the hospital itself was
competitors; they also took charge of the adapted for the purpose.


2 3
At the sick bay at the venues,
The Barcelona polyclinic (and the other clinic doctor, the spectators' clinic doctor,
such as the Olympic two to a lesser degree) had every auxiliary the doping control officer and the medical
Stadium, medical care was resource for diagnosis and treatment and emergency staff.
provided for the competitors.
a round-the-clock emergency service with
5 basic specialities (traumatology, Services for the delegations
The Hospital del Mar, chiropody, dentistry, ear, nose and throat
300 m from the Barcelona
Olympic Village, was the and ophthalmology) and full-scale According to the guidelines of the IOC-
official Olympic hospital physiotherapy and electrotherapy MC, the PASO'92 included a programme
during the Games.
support. for cooperation with the NOC medical
delegations. It stipulated that premises
The Barcelona polyclinic management would be provided during the Games for
provided contact with the NOC medical consultancies and physiotherapy and
delegations and back-up for preventive rehabilitation areas. They were set up as
and curative treatment at the Olympic close as possible to the athletes'
Village. residences and the size and equipment
provided the delegation doctors and other
The competition venues medical staff with the best possible
working conditions. At the Olympic
The competition venues had separate Village, for example, there were 17 ice
medical care systems for competitors and machines with a production capacity of
spectators. The person in charge of the 3,300 kilograms a day; at the other
medical care structure at each venue was Villages there were similar ones.
the medical director, who depended on
the venue director, and at his orders were All NOC doctors were provided with an
the head of the Red Cross, the athletes' accreditation signed by the Council of

4 5 275
Institutes of Doctors of Catalonia and all Public health 1, 2 and 3
At the competition venues,
the documents they needed to work. The medical care covered
total number of medical staff with FO COOB'92 organised a public health spectators (1) and
participants (2 and 3), but
accreditation (access to the Olympic programme for the Olympic Village with separate services.
Village) was 394 doctors, 109 paramedics and helped set up the means for
(physiotherapists, nurses, etc.) and coordinating with the public health At the Olympic Village
324 masseurs; the staff with FX authorities. polyclinic there was also a
accreditation (restricted to certain pharmacy service.
venues) was 69 doctors, 26 paramedics Under the epidemiological surveillance
and 85 masseurs. programme, 1,138 cases of declarable
diseases were monitored between 11 July
and 12 August. They break down as
follows: acute respiratory infections