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Qin)

1. Heat Transfer

1.1 Introduction Heat is a form of energy created by motion of atoms and molecules. Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of random motion of atoms and molecules (At equilibrium, each degree of freedom possesses 0.5kBT kinetic energy, where kB =1.38x10-23 J/K is Boltzmann constant). Heat transfers from one body/location to another due to a difference in temperature. Heat transfers from a high temperature area to a low temperature area spontaneously, but cannot transfer from a low temperature object to high temperature object without a heat pump. Heat can be transferred by three modes: Conduction, convection and thermal radiation.

1.2 Heat conduction Heat conduction is fulfilled by interaction of phonons, free electrons and molecules. Thermal conductivity is one of parameters describing the heat conduction ability of materials. Table 1 lists thermal conductivities of a few materials. The heat conduction in gas is a slow process. Table 1. Thermal conductivity Materials Diamond Copper Stainless steel Firebrick Mineral wool Water Air (1 atm) Hydrogen (1 atm) Thermal conductivity (in W/ m⋅K) 3000 390 15 1 0.048 0.06 0.026 0.18

Bridging two heat tanks with temperatures T1 and T2, respectively, by a material of thermal conductivity k and length L, as illustrated in figure 1, the rate of heat transfer is

where Q is the rate of heat transfer by conduction and A is the cross-sectional area of conducting material. as illustrated in figure 2. or heat flux. The heat resistance of composite equals a number of heat resistances in serial connection. Equation (1. S.1) can be reorganized into Q= T1 − T2 Rth (1. Figure 2.1) Figure 1.Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology. In general.2) is analogous to Ohm’s law in electric current passing a conductor. it is expressed as . Qin) Q = − kA T2 − T1 L (1.2) where Rth = L /(kA) is called thermal resistance. POSTECH Rongshan Qin (R. Heat conduction. Equation (1. Heat conduction by composite media Rth composite 1 2 N = Rth + Rth + L + Rth (1.3) q=Q/A is the rate of heat transfer per unit cross-sectional area. The similarity is useful in the calculation of heat transfer by composite media.

).5) is used frequently to the calculation of the migration rate of the solid-liquid interface. The heat can be stored in the volume as the change of temperature. Qin) r q = − k∇T (1. k S and k L are thermal conductivities of solid and liquid metals. chemical reaction. as demonstrated in figure 3. ρ S LV = k S ∇TS − k L ∇TL (1. where ρ and c are the density and specific heat of the material.4) The negative sign represents that heat flows in the direction opposite to temperature gradient.5) where L is the heat of fusion. Now we consider an infinite small volume in a thermal conductor. The instability will happen when ∇TL <0. Equation (1. solid-liquid interface must be well controlled to prevent the instability. The energy conservation defines the Fourier’s second law of heat conduction as . Equation (1. solid-liquid interface moves from solid side to liquid side with a velocity r V . S. ∇TS and ∇TL are temperature gradients in solid and liquid at the solid-liquid interface. etc.4) is called Fourier’s first law of heat conduction.5) gives the maximum growing speed of single crystal Vmax = k S ∇TS / (ρ S L ) . Figure 3. Schematic diagram of solidification Example 1: In single crystal pulling. The generated heat due to heat of fusion (latent heat) in liquid-solid phase transition is ρLV . POSTECH Rongshan Qin (R. which should be conducted away from interface to solid and liquid bulk phases. Equation (1. ρ S is the density of solid metal. which is − ρ c∂T / ∂t .Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology. respectively. The rate of heat generation inside & the volume is ε (The heat generation can be that from phase transition. the heat conduction through the surface of the volume is − ∇ ⋅ (q ) = k∆T . respectively. In solidification.

Figure 4 is a simplified model of casting in sand mold that illustrated in figure 5. POSTECH Rongshan Qin (R. Its solution under boundary conditions in figure 4 is x T = (TM − T0 )erfc 2 αt + T0 (1.3 Example 2: In one dimensional steady state conduction.Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology. describe the heat conduction in san mold castings. Qin) & k∆T + ε − ρ c∂T / ∂t = 0 (1.6) or & ∆T + ε / k = α∂T / ∂t (1.5 0.7) is the ∂x 2 ∂y ∂z governing equation for calculating temperature distribution during heat conduction.8) Figure 4. equation (1. therefore. S. Equation (1. where a and b can be determined by the boundary condition. equation (1. ∆ is Laplace vector ∆ = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 + 2 in Cartesian coordinate. Equation (1.7) where α=ρc/k is the thermal diffusivity. Boundary conditions for one dimensional unsteady heat conduction.7) reduces into d 2T / dx 2 = 0 .7) reduces into α∂T / ∂t = ∆T . Thermal diffusivity Material Cu Lead Steel Brick Water Air α m2/s×106 at 300K 114 25 12 0.13 0. Table 2 lists thermal diffusivity of a few materials. Example 3: In one dimensional unsteady heat conduction. Table 2. .8) can. Its general solution is T=ax+b.

Forced convection produces higher heat transfer rate than free convection.tw) In casting processes.3 Heat transfers by convection Heat convection is a mixture of conduction and bulk movement of fluid. Heat convection possesses much larger heat transfer rate than heat conduction.casting. POSTECH Rongshan Qin (R. such as using fan to blow the air in oven. .org. There are two types of convection: Free convection and forced convection. Convection can be caused by: a). liquid metal is poured into a mold for solidification. as demonstrated in figure 6.Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology. Free convection is normally due to the temperature-density relationship. Qin) Liquid metal TM Sands T0 0 Figure 5. S. Pouring molten metal into mold. (Courtesy to www. Residual flow due to filling of the mold. Figure 6. Forced convection is accelerated by external forces. Heat conduction in sand mold 1.

External forces such as imposed pressure gradients. which is used for flow in porous media like rock or soil. Rayleigh-Benard instability (Courtesy to online pictures) Heat transfer from an object to the surround fluid by convection is described by Newton’s law of cooling. f) Dragging force due to solid motion. c). liquid convection exists between arms of dendrites (mesoscale) as well as in whole liquid space (macroscale). d). Q = −hA(T∞ − TW ) (1. A is the object’s exposed area. Liquid convection among dendritic arms can seriously affect segregation and void formation. Because of the nature of fragmentation.10) ηf L . Equation (1. For examples. Convections in solidifying alloys exist in multiple scales. The driving force for convection is the volume shrink or density inhomogeneous. liquid can flow through dendritic arms before trapped. T∞ and TW are the fluid free-stream temperature and object temperature. Qin) b). h is the convection heat transfer coefficient. e). Figure 7 illustrates the buoyancy driven macroscopic convection. S. liquid flow in dendritic arms is usually described by the Darcy law. k v=− ∇ (P + ρ L g ) (1.Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology. In mesoscale. Surface tension gradients. mechanical stirring or magnetic forces.9) where Q is the rate of heat transfer by convection to the surrounding fluid. POSTECH Rongshan Qin (R. Density changes due to solidification as well as due to temperature and chemical compositional changes. Liquid flow has the most important impact on the convection heat transfer coefficient. Macroscopic flow can be determined by fluid dynamic theory. Figure 7.9) is a phenomenological format of heat transfer. Buoyancy driven flow. respectively.

ρL is the liquid density and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Laboratory black bodies.67 × 10 −8 W ⋅ m −2 ⋅ K −4 . η here is the kinematic viscosity. roughened Aperture Metal enclosure Figure 8. The thermal radiation power of black body is eb = σ ⋅ A ⋅ T 4 (1. For surface which is not black body. the thermal radiation power is e = εe b (1.Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology. The reason for thermal radiation is its temperature. Thermal insulation Heater Wall of cavity. A laboratory black body is demonstrated in figure 8. There is no medium needed for thermal radiation. S. Qin) where v is the flow velocity. 1. POSTECH Rongshan Qin (R.11) where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant and has σ = 5. P is pressure. .12) where ε is emissivity of the material. k is the permeability which depends on distance between dendritic arms and volume fraction. although the electromagnetic waves can be transferred through gases.4 Thermal radiation The thermal radiation is by electromagnetic wave propagation. The rate of energy emission depends on the surface temperature and surface condition.

. M. Cambridge. POSTECH Rongshan Qin (R. 46 (1993) 1-27. Kumar. 3. Solidification processing. 2. C.V. Rev. Beckermann and R. Mech. 1974. Heat and mass transfer.Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology. R. Flemings. S.C. Qin) REFERENCES 1.. Viskanta. Appl.

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