Subsea completion and production systems

In this article we try to discuss subsea completion and production system. There are many different types of platforms for offshore drilling activities, from shallow-water steel jackets and jackup barges , to floating Semi-submersibles and drillships able to operate in very deep waters. The shift to subsea production systems represents a significant departure from conventional operations.(3)

Subsea completions can be traced back to 1943 with the Lake Erie completion at a 35-ft water depth. The well had land-type christmas trees that required diver intervention for installation, maintenance, and flow line connections. Shell completed its first subsea well in the Gulf of Mexico in 1961.1

Well completion definition:
Completion is doing a series of process like installing different equipments such as wellhead, chrismas tree, tubing , packers, safety valves and carrying out process like fracturing, perforating and acidizing. In our definition we assume well completion as a process to make well ready for production, so it is mainly related to after drilling jobs, we don t include cementing a casing part of well completion. there would be an emphasis on different subsea production systems and specific equipments needed. Subsea oil field developments are usually split into Shallow water and Deepwater categories to distinguish between the different facilities and approaches will be applied.(1) Usualy shallow water depths wells use bottom-founded facilities like jackup drilling rigs and fixed offshore structures. Deepwater well is located in water

3 Economy and technical complexities are two important factors which makes an offshore drilling very distinct. With high performance jackup rig rates in 2010 of around $150. and similar additional spread costs. a deep water well of duration of 100 days can cost around US$100 million. Onshore wells can be considerably cheaper. against its direction of flow) ‡ Processing fluids subsea ‡ Reducing wellhead pressure to allow effective recovery (muiltphase pumping and pressure boosting) ‡ Flow assurance (ensuring successful and economical flow of hydrocarbon stream from reservoir to the point of sale) ‡ Well monitoring and intervention ‡ Integrity of subsea and pipeline system (4 and 1) Importance of economy in subsea projects: For example With deepwater drilling rig rates in 2010 of around $420.000/day.depths greater than around 600 feet and another type of offshore drilling vessels is drillship which is capable of drilling in water depthes up to 13000 ft.000. such as piping or air vents. high temperature well of duration 100 days can cost about US$30 million. particularly if the field is at a shallow depth.for example technical issues we run into are such as: ‡ Additional backpressure (resistance to a moving fluid by obstructions or tight bends in the confinement vessel along which it is moving.(1) . where costs range from less than $1 million to $15 million for deep and difficult wells. a high pressure. and similar service costs.

Any requirement to repair or intervene with installed subsea equipment is thus normally very expensive.For relatively shallow water depth we can use diving equipment while for deep water conditions we need robotic equipments.Sealing the wellhead from the environment by means of the tree connector.high pressure and high tempreture are common environmental challenges we have to deal with. Well flow control can be provided by means of tree valves and/or a tree-mounted choke.Providing access to the well bore via tree caps and/or swab valves. 4. through the tree to the production flow line. 2. 3. Subsea completion functions: 1. This type of expense can result in economic failure of the subsea development.Environmental challenges: Subsea production requires specialized equipment which must be enough safe for enviroment.Sealing the production bore and annulus from the environment.Providing a controlled flow path from the production tubing. subsea wellheads from vetcogray company: .(4) Specialized equipment: well heads: A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment .

when the well is shut in or in exceptional operations(hydraulic fracturing for example). TFL (through flow line).Well flow rate control( choking) 3.Protection against uncontrolled flowing 2. Examples of subsea include conventional.2 Christmas tree: It is common to identify the type of tree as either "subsea tree" or "surface tree". horizontal. mudline.1 . mudline horizontal. dual bore. mono bore.5 Well head functions: 1.Withstanding pressure and temperature during production.Periodic monitoring of well status and placing the well in safe condition by wireline tools run into well 4. side valve. Each of these classifications has a number or varieties within them. and TBT (through bore tree) trees.

The Dual Bore Subsea Tree was the first tree to include an annulus bore for troubleshooting. . Standard Configurable Trees (SCTs) are specifically tailored for company's various projects. Wet trees sit on the wellhead at the sea floor. A general SCT is normally used in shallower waters measuring up to 1.(in the offshore . well servicing and well conversion operations. temperatures.000 meters deep. dual bore subsea trees have been improved over the years. Although popular. pressure and expected flow. An operator works them from a production platform connected through an umbilical)2 Types of Subsea Trees There are various kinds of subsea trees. many times rated for a certain water depth. especially in the North Sea. dry trees sit on a production platform where the crew can use their hands to work them. These trees can now be specified with guideline or guideline-less position elements for production or injection well applications.

(1) Access to subsea equipments: Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) are robotic pieces of equipment operated from afar to perform tasks on the sea floor. Riser: drilling riser is a conduit that provides a temporary extension of a subsea oil well to a surface drilling facility. ROVs are available in a wide variety of function capabilities and complexities from simple "eyeball" camera devices.500 psi and temperatures ranging from -33 C to 175 C.clustered to a manifold and transferring to a fixed or floating facility FPSO Transferring: .(4) Subsea production system: Subsea production system can range in complexity from: 1. and tie-back drilling risers used with a surface BOP and generally deployed from fixed platforms or very stable floating platforms like a spar or tension leg platform (TLP). to multi-appendage machines that require multiple operators to operate or "fly" the equipment.High Pressure High Temperature Trees (HPHT) are able to survive in rough environments. HPHT trees are designed for pressures up to 16.a single satellite well with a flow linked to a fixed platform or FPSO onshore installation to several wells 3. Drilling risers are categorised into two types: marine drilling risers used with subsea blowout preventer (BOP) and generally used by floating drilling vessels. such as the North Sea.

1 Subsea Manifold: ‡ This is typically a tubular steel structure (similar to a template). especially for small fields which pipeline is not cost effective at all. ‡ It is host to a series of remotely operated valves and chokes responsible for interconnecting the drainage/flow of several wells to the production unit . FPSO is able to process and store the received hydrocarbon and then transfer it to onshore. This vessel can store huge amount of oil and gas until we get to onshore and needed to be offloaded.In order to transfer hydrocarbons from subsea wells to onshore facilities we use FPSO which is a giant unit vessel that can receive the hydrocarbons from several wells. consisting of valves and monitoring instruments. This massive vehicle works like a oil tanker and is suitable for frontier lands so we don t have provide pipeline transportation so it decreases cost and save money because installing seabed pipeline is very expensive than onshore pipelines. FPSO is also movable to any rig which we need so after well is depleted we relocate it to a new rig.

. ‡ Extend field life of older platforms. This method has advantages and disadvantages. . (7) Subsea advantages: ‡ Produce from satellite wells.‡ (4) Transferring methodes: Another system used to transfer hydrocarbons is pipeline system. because it can be buried under seabed to avoid massive waves . commercial fishing activities and it helps during hurricanes we don t run into problems. It is suitable in small field and unstable sea floor condition. But if pipeline was still uneconomical we can consider tankers for transportation purposes. For example as mentioned before seabed pipeline is costly and difficult to be done but its suitable for large fields included several wells and close enough to onshore.

solenoid valve ‡ Indirect F ailures: Dropped object. joint failure.‡ Faster development time ‡ Scaleable developments Economic viability ‡ Water depth ‡ Resource density Subsea Challenges: Operability and Integrity Operability and integrity impact opex and downtime Flow assurance challenges Integrity of subsea and pipeline systems Subsea valve integrity Controls and distribution integrity Aging equipment Direct Failures: Corrosion. sensor failure. umbilical dragged by anchor chain or trawl board. splice failure. wax or hydrate blocking sensor port (4) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Subsea completion sequences according to schlumberger guidline (20 steps): . the production flow base 5. run BOP test tool BOP stack onto horizontal the tree . test seals and function valves with ROV 7.retrieve drilling riser and BOP pack 3. lock connectors. remove wearbushing from tree . run subsea horizontal tree 6. retrieve suspention packer .retrieve drilling guidebase with ROV assistance 4.completing drilling and install packers 2.

correlate and perforate wells internal tree cap 16.9.ROV closes tree valves . make up tubing hanger 10. acid stimulation and multirate test guns .unlatch running tools.rig up production test package( electric wireline and lubricator) 12.rig down production test and packages hanger in production tree and and test seals completion string.carry out production test.

Wikipedia (well completion. subsea and all definitions ) 2.install debris cap. Well completion and serving : oil and gas development techniques (Denis Perinn. Applied drilling engineering (Adam T.tie into pipeline for production References: 1. Michel Caron.Jaroop) 5. retrieve guidewires 18.retrieve BOP stack. Transportation of oil and gas in Alaska (Shell Company ) .Bourgoyne) 4.suspend well 20. Vetcogray oil and gas business catalog 6. Subsea completion and production systems (steffan K. deploy telescopic legs 19. Schlumberger subsea solutions brochure 7. Goerge Gaillot) 3.17.

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