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**Chapter – 3 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FORMULATIONS
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3.1 Introduction Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was first developed in 1943 by R. Courant, who utilized the Ritz method of numerical analysis and minimization of variational calculus to obtain approximate solutions to vibration systems. By the early 70's, FEA was limited to expensive mainframe computers generally owned by the aeronautics, automotive, defense, and nuclear industries. Since the rapid decline in the cost of computers and the phenomenal increase in computing power, FEA has been developed to an incredible precision. Present day supercomputers are now able to produce accurate results for all kinds of parameters. A theory is a general statement of principle abstracted from observation. And a model is representation of a theory that can be used for control and prediction. For a model to be useful, it must be realistic and yet simple enough to understand and manipulate. These requirements are not easily fulfilled as realistic models are seldom simple and simple models are seldom realistic. The first formulations were developed as matrix methods for structural analysis. This lead to the idea to approximate solids and Courant introduced an assembly of triangular elements and the minimum of potential energy to torsion problems. Clough introduced the term "finite element". Thus the initial development was done by engineers and later on its mathematical foundation was laid enabling its extension to other fields. 3.2 Need for Numerical Analysis Designers of electrical equipment for power applications have to satisfy the customer on a number of points .Criteria include low first cost, low operating cost, high efficiency, high reliability, minimum weight, close tolerance in specified parameters, ability to tolerate

3. so that a near optimum may be obtained. External circuits. It will be clear that in many cases. Electromagnetic interference is of growing importance. Irregular geometric shape of components. Integration of thermal/mechanical effects. .3 Why Finite Elements? If the designer has to achieve the aims then the design tool which will take in to the account the following is needed. 5. The difficulties of factors such as complicated geometry. and some cases. The presence of solid material in which eddy currents can be induced.8 occasional sever abnormal conditions. 3. ability to operate satisfactorily from a non sinusoidal supply. Additionally new types of machines are being developed and applied in defense applications. 2. This becomes especially important for large or special purpose equipment where cut and try methods are impossible. Induced currents in non regular components. it is essential to be able to analyze any proposed design in considerable detail. Leakage fields and may also be important in traction applications where humans may be close to the drive equipment. 6. Anisotropic materials or structures. saturation effects in iron. 1. Many of the critical factors mentioned above are dependent on magnetic and electric field distributions and calculation of these quantities to the accuracy now designed cannot be carried out by analytical procedures. Non linearity of magnetic or electrical materials. 4. three dimensional effects mean that a numerical method is required.

the main numerical methods available are 1. For instance the finite difference technique is not easily applicable to modeling irregular geometries. without . Again. However. Equally the boundary element method can be modeled efficiently regions in which the material properties are linear but not efficient in handling the nonlinear elements. Finite difference method 2. However the finite element method incorporates most of the advantages of the other two techniques without incurring significant disadvantages. the finite element method is well suited to modeling of non linear materials. Finite element method 3. Boundary element method There are two other numerical methods Finite volume method and spectral method which are less useful when compared to the above methods. Nodal distribution can be very inefficient. induced currents and external circuits are also capable of inclusion in numerical treatment. which include slants and curved surfaces. Non sinusoidal time variation of currents and fields. This is not so with finite elements.9 7. so complicating choice. Thus. The above list eliminates the analytical techniques purely on grounds of their inability to treat irregular geometry and non linear materials. Anisotropic materials. Nonlinear characteristics of materials can be allowed for through iterative schemes such as the NR method and non sinusoidal time variation represented by time stepping techniques. numerical methods are capable of modeling the true geometry of the design in two and three dimensions. All have their advantages and disadvantages. Having established that numerical techniques are essential for an advanced design facility.

specific heat. Modifying an existing product or structure is utilized to qualify the product or structure for a new service condition. There are generally two types of analysis that are used in industry: 2-D modeling. displacements in case of structural and thermal . and 3-D modeling. it tends to yield less accurate results.10 considering the problems and consequences of each method in detail. the programmer can insert numerous algorithms (functions) which may make the system behave linearly or non-linearly.5 How Does Finite Element Analysis Work? FEA uses a complex system of points called nodes which make a grid called a mesh. In case of structural failure. 3. however. 3-D modeling. produces more accurate results while sacrificing the ability to run on all but the fastest computers effectively. This mesh is programmed to contain the material and structural properties which define how the structure will react to certain loading conditions. force. and existing product refinement. 3. It is used in new product design. An engineer is able to verify a proposed design and will be able to perform to the client's specifications prior to manufacturing or construction. FEA may be used to help determine the design modifications to meet the new condition. The loading conditions are like current density or electric potential in case of preference being electromagnetic and temperature.4 What is finite element analysis? FEA consists of a computer model of a material or design that is stressed and analyzed for specific results. we believe that the finite element is the best suited to the needs of designers. While 2-D modeling conserves simplicity and allows the analysis to be run on a relatively normal computer. The type of modeling carried in this project is 2-D modeling to make it easier. Within each of these modeling schemes.

Selection of the interpolation functions . the solution is approximated by a finite number of unknown coefficients. This web of vectors is what carries the material properties to the object. Discretization or subdivision of the domain 2. The principle of the method. creating many elements. and high stress areas. fillets. Regions which will receive large amounts of stress usually have a higher node density than those which experience little or no stress. of degrees of freedom. complex detail. corners. Nodes are assigned at a certain density throughout the material depending on the anticipated stress levels of a particular area. a finite element analysis of a boundary-value problem should include the following basic steps: 1.11 conditions. The mesh acts like a spider web in that from each node. Points of interest may consist of: fracture point of previously tested material. As already stated the finite element method is a numerical procedure for obtaining solutions to boundary value problems. Therefore. Then a set of algebraic equations or a system of equations is obtained by applying the ritz or galerkins procedure and finally a solution of boundary value problem is solving the system of equations.6 Basic steps of the Finite Element Method After having an introduction of FEM in previous sections its now defined the method in a more abstract form and then describes the basic steps of the method. or in other words. Thus the original boundary value problem with an infinite number of degrees of freedom is converted into a problem with a finite no. there extends a mesh element to each of the adjacent nodes. 3. as already said is to replace an entire continuous domain by a number of sub domains in which the unknown function is represented by a simple interpolation functions with unknown coefficients.

Galerkin's method also uses the same function as weight and trial function. 3. . Identify the system (governing) equation. essential boundary conditions must be fulfilled. FEM belongs to a family of Weighted Residual Methods and the subset called Galerkin methods.8 General procedure for FEM The basic and general procedure involved in fem is as follows. This is shown in WRM to Ritz example.12 3. 3. This gives an error in the governing equations and boundary conditions. Then a weighted average over the interior and boundary is set to zero. 1. FEM formulations use some further steps. Furthermore. Formulation of the systems of equations 4.7 Important points to be noted in the Analysis The main facts behind the analysis are as follows 1. Solution of the system of equations 3. 2. Introduce an integral form equation. Partial integration of the integrals in WRM is used to create a formulation with the same degree of the derivatives on the weight as well as the trial functions. 4. (Usually DE) L (φ) = 0 2. The basic idea of WRM is to use a trial function with a number of unknown parameters to approximate the solution.

Discretize the domain of interest into elements.13 Method of Weighted Residual Approach 3. Figure 3. Assemble the global matrix equation. Evaluate the integral form over each element. Solve the matrix equation to get the unknowns .1 Discretization into elements of an irregular area 4. 6. Introduce an approximation of the field variable over an element. 5. 7.

even in two dimensions. A common procedure is to neglect coupling between phases and to predict flux linkages with an excited phase as a function of angle and current.9 FE Analysis of THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR The performance of Three Phase Induction motor depends on the variation of winding inductance with the angle between stator and rotor poles. in addition to obtaining . which will generally include an allowance of for three-dimensional effects. This usually gives satisfactory prediction of performance though the results will obviously depend on the quality of flux linkagecurrent-angle data. Finite element simulation is an accurate and relatively a simple way of obtaining data for the two-dimensional case. Calculate the values of interest from the approximate solution.14 8. The torque produced can be derived from the change of co-energy. Again. The FEA can give the torque contributions of a phase for a particular angle and current by the application of either the Maxwell stress or Coulomb virtual work method. 3. and because of saturation. It will be apparent that there are several ways in which the finite element method can be used as an aid to IM design. with current. Analytical calculation of flux linkage-current-angle data obviously involves simplification of geometry and saturation. The consequences of extra flux linkages at the ends can be of significance in IM’sand whilst the FEM can be used to estimate end fluxes by taking a model which is created using standard dimensions (given in chapter7) gives more accurate results.

the Coulomb virtual work method is easier to apply. at least in two-dimensions. local density waves can be derived to allow iron losses to be estimated and local surface intensities and force waves can be deduced as an aid in avoiding vibration and noise problems. Time stepping calculation is also possible. But the scope of this project is limited in finding out the inductances.15 inductance data. This has the advantage that coupling between the phases can be allowed for. forces can be calculated: in this case. . This is not included in the project but included in the future scope.

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