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## Introduction to 3D Geological Modelling with RMS 5

Overview 5
Course Objective 5
Our geological model: 6

Overview 7
Section objectives 7
Starting a new Project 8
Define the project units 8
Exercise 1 Unit set selector 8
Define the stratigraphy 8
Exercise 3 Data types definition – Add/remove data types 10
Exercise 4 Load Horizons data 11
Exercise 5 Load well data 11
Exercise 6 Load Depth well points 13
Exercise 7 Load the isochore surfaces 14
Define the project boundary 16
Exercise 8 Import the Project boundary polygon 16
Exercise 9 Import License boundaries 16
Quality Control of Horizon data 16
Exercise 10 Horizons QC - Sort Horizons 17
Exercise 11 Horizons mapping17
Exercise 12 Data reduction – Check the AOI vs the mapped horizons 19
Exercise 13 Check Horizons depth surfaces vs well markers – Adjust Horizons to wells
20
Exercise 14 Horizons consistency 21
Exercise 15 Creating Fluid Contact Surfaces 22
Exercise 16 Create a dip map OPTIONAL 23
Exercise 17 Calculating surface statistics 23
Quality Control of Well data 24
Exercise 18 Visualize well logs25
Exercise 19 Visualise log properties OPTIONAL 29
Exercise 20 Well log editor/calculator OPTIONAL 29
Structural Modelling 30
Overview 30
Section objectives 30
The fault modelling workflow in RMS 31
Prepare and load the Fault input data 32
Exercise 21 Create the number of faults necessary in the model 32
Exercise 22 Add/Remove Fault Input data types 32
Exercise 23 Load the fault input data 33
Exercise 24 Digitize fault input data in 3D 33
Create the Fault Network 34
Exercise 25 Generate the fault network automatically 34
Exercise 26 Checking and editing of the fault network 35
Exercise 27 Defining the faults as normal, reverse or strike-slip (Fault Grouping) 36
Exercise 28 Defining FW/HW side of faults on the Network. 37
Creation of Fault surfaces and Fault Lines 37
Exercise 29 Fault surfaces and fault lines modelling 37
Exercise 30 Adjusting the horizons to the faults 39
Stratigraphic Modelling 41
Exercise 31 Stratigraphic modelling 42

## Building a Geological 3D Grid 44

Overview 44
Section objectives 44
Terminology 44
Steps for building a geological grid 45
Exercise 32 Data Analysis of Facies Thickness per subgrid interval 46
Exercise 33 Create a Zone for the volume of interest 47
Exercise 34 Create a faulted 3D grid 47
Exercise 35 Grid quality control 48
Exercise 36 Creation of simple Parameters from the Geomodel 49
Exercise 37 Creation of Region Index Parameters 49
Exercise 38 Using the Grid filter 51

## Blocked Wells and Data Analysis 52

Overview 52
Section objectives 52
Creating Blocked Wells 52
Exercise 39 Create Blocked Wells 53
Exercise 40 Visualise the Blocked Wells 54
Quality Control of Blocked Wells 54
Exercise 41 BW QC using the Blocked Wells Statistics panel 55
Exercise 42 BW QC using the Well log editor/calculator 55
Exercise 43 BW QC using histograms to analyse distributions 56

Facies Modelling 57
Overview 57
Section objectives 58
Basic object based facies modelling 58
Exercise 44 Initial Data Analysis 58
Exercise 45 Facies modelling in the upper reservoir: shallow marine carbonate
environment (FaciesComposite algorithm) 59
Exercise 46 Facies modelling in the upper reservoir, using trends 63
Basic pixel based facies modelling 65
Exercise 47 Facies modelling in the lower reservoir 65
Merging facies parameters 69
Exercise 48 Merging two facies parameters 69

## Interpolated Petrophysical Modelling 70

Overview 70
Section objectives 70
3D Interpolation 71
Exercise 49 Simple porosity interpolation 72
Exercise 50 Interpolation Conditioned to a Facies model 73

## Stochastic Petrophysical modelling 75

Overview 75
Section objectives 75
Stochastic petrophysical modelling 75
Exercise 51 Stochastic Petrophysical modelling – First test 78

## Modelling of Water Saturation 83

Overview 83
Section objectives 83
Exercise 52 Creation of a Sw parameter using the Parameter Calculator 83

Volumetrics Calculations 85
Overview 85
Section objectives 85
Volumetrics 85
Exercise 53 Define the export units for the volumetrics results 85
Exercise 54 Volumetrics calculations 86
Geometric connectivity 91
Exercise 55 Geometric connectivity calculations OPTIONAL 91
The Workflow Manager 93
Overview 93
Section objectives 93
Exercise 56 Model updating with a new well (Well H) 94
Multiple realisations 100
Exercise 57 Create multiple realisations101

INDEX 105
Introduction to 3D Geological
Modelling with RMS
Overview
The general presentation of RMS has already been detailed in the first part of the course
(RMS Orientation course). As explained before, RMS is a tool designed to support all aspects
of reservoir management, allowing combining all available data in a consistent 3D reservoir
model.

This introduction course to 3D Geological Modelling will cover the first parts of a classic
modelling.

The other parts of the modelling workflow are covered and detailed by other training courses.

## Reservoir Modelling Workflow

Structural framework

Facies
modelling

Well
design RMS
Petrophysical
modelling
Black Oil
Flow Simulation

Ranking &
model analysis
Simulation grid
design & upscaling

Course Objective
The objective of this course is to teach new users the basics of 3D geological modelling in
RMS. This will be done through a series of practical exercises resulting in a complete
geological model.

Each subsequent chapter of this introduction course represents the next stage in the RMS
modelling workflow. A complete geological model will be built up throughout the course by
progressing through the exercises at the end of each chapter.

At the beginning of each chapter there is a ‘cover page’ which gives an overview of the
chapter, outlining the main objectives. This is followed by a series of exercises covering the
workflow.

The emphasis will not only be on learning how to use the software toolbox but also on the
workflows and methods required to build a successful 3D model.

There are different workflows which the user can choose to follow in RMS, depending on the
scope of the project (time constraints and the level of heterogeneity that the user wants to
capture).

It is often good practise to build a quick-look model first in order to obtain approximate figures
for volumes before further refinement using more advanced techniques.

The manual is designed so that it can also be used as a reference guide once the student
has finished the course and is working on a real project.

## Our geological model:

You have been asked to build a geological model of a particular reservoir from scratch. You
have been provided with the following data and interpretation (conceptual model):

1. Seismic input: The geophysicist has interpreted the seismic data and has provided us
with 2 interpreted horizons (TopC and BaseA), 3 isochores (IsoA, IsoB, IsoC) and fault
information in the form of fault sticks and fault lines.

2. Well data – log curves and trajectories for 7 wells (Wells A-G). An eighth well (Well H) is
being drilled and we are awaiting the data.

3. Geological input: The geologist has already studied the regional geology, well cores and
wireline log data. He has interpreted the geology of the reservoir as follows:

## 1. A shallow marine carbonate reef environment (Subgrid 1) consisting of background, main

reef and patch reef. The reef bodies are elongate with long axis running North-South. This
conformably overlies the next unit down in the sequence:

2. A clastic system (Subgrid 2) consisting of background, clean sand and shaley sand. No
specific depositional direction is observed.

## Sketch of the geological units of the reservoir :

Overview
The first stage of the RMS modelling workflow is to import any surface, fault, thickness and
well data and then visually check and edit it as necessary.

Data can be imported/loaded into an RMS project at any stage in the modelling workflow and
can even be loaded directly from another project.

RMS has a very open import functionality (RMS accepts most data types in almost all formats
from all major applicable databases/applications)

Section objectives

## 1. Create a new RMS project and load data into it.

In order for data to be loaded/imported the user must first set up empty data containers to
‘hold’ the data once it is loaded/imported.
Data of all types (e.g. wells, horizons, faults, grids etc.) can be imported into or exported from
RMS to external applications, meaning that RMS is fully compatible within any modelling
workflow. The user just needs to choose the format of the data being imported/exported from
When a project is saved, RMS writes a text file for each piece of data in the project. These
are known as RMS ‘load/save’ files and can either be totally ASCII, or Binary with an ASCII
header, depending on the data type.

2. Perform some basic data quality checks on the loaded data and do simple
operations and edits.
Once the data is loaded/imported it should be visualised and checked for quality prior to
building a reservoir model. Manual edits can be carried out on parts of the data when it is
visualised in the Multiviewer. Alternatively, operations (edit of whole of a particular data set)
can be performed on the data icon in the project panel.
Starting a new Project

## Define the project units

When you start a new project, RMS will automatically choose a default unit set (Metric). It
may be necessary to change this unit set for your project.

## 1) Unit set selector

At the top of the Project panel from : OptionsÎMB1ÎUnit set

Check unit set for project data is set to Metric (the default)
Check unit set for export/import is set to Metric (the default)

Press Show/edit details to view the units within the Metric unit set.

Click OK.

## Define the stratigraphy

It is necessary to define the type of the various horizons. Interpreted horizons will be loaded
from seismic interpretation, calculated horizons will be created in RMS, using the available
data (thickness isochore maps, well points, fault model) during the Stratigraphic Modelling
step.

The stratigraphy of the model we are about to build is as shown in the figure below:

Empty containers need to be created to represent this stratigraphy in order to load the data.
RMS needs to be informed of the different horizons types : interpreted or calculated. This is
all defined in the Horizons administration functionality.
Horizons ¨ MB3 ¨ Horizon administration…

## Define the interpreted horizons

Toggle ON the option Add interpreted horizon
Type in the name of the first interpreted horizon : TopC
Press the Update icon to apply.
Then add below the other interpreted horizon : BaseA, press update
again.

## Define the calculated horizons

Toggle ON this time the option Add calculated horizons
As you need to add the TopB below the TopC : highlight the TopC
from the list, select the Below option, type in the name TopB and
press Update
Repeat the operation for TopA, so you have the appropriate
stratigraphy as listed below

## Insert isochores between each horizon

Toggle ON the option Auto insert, then choose Insert isochores
between horizons, press insert
Type the names of the different isochores directly in the list, as
indicated below:
Apply all these changes and close the Horizons Administration
panel by toggling OK.
1) Data types definition – Add/remove data types
From the Project data list : Horizons¨MB3¨Remove types…
Remove the following data types for the interpreted horizons (we
will not need them in this project):

Press Apply

Now switch the “Main type” to Calculated horizons and select the
Fault polygons to be removed a we will not use them in the project.

Press OK

## Then from the Project data list : Horizons¨MB3¨Add data types…

Add the data type called Contours (in Lines) for the interpreted
horizons (we will need it to load the result of the seismic
interpretation for TopC and BaseA)
Press OK

## Now, in your project, the Horizons folder should have the

FileÎSave project as… myprojectname.pro

In this project, the data for the interpreted horizons consist of
contours. They will be loaded for each interpreted horizon (TopC
and BaseA).
In the folder TopC :
Empty Contours iconÎMB3ÎImportÎASCII Irap Classic format
Select the file …/Import/ImportHorizons/TopC_asciiIrapClassic.txt.

## Visualize the loaded horizons contours in the 3D view.

WellsÎMB3ÎImportÎImport trajectories/logs,
Select Trajectory with logs, and RMS Well format, press Next,

## Then select Wells A, B, C, D, E, F, G, from the

…/Import/ImportWells_asciiRMS directory
press Next
In the following panel, leave the default values, and just press Next.

Press Execute.

## Visualize the wells in 3D

WellsÎMB1 and press the Visualise button when prompted.
Set the well name display to be located at the start of the well
trajectory:
From any WellÎMB3ÎVisual settings…
In the Name tab, toggle on the option “All Wells”
Change the position of the name to be set “At start”

Press OK.

## Change the 3D view background colour

MultiviewerÎFormatÎMB3Î3D view
Select a grey background colour and press OK.

## 1 Load Depth well points

Well points represent the intersections between well trajectories
and horizons depth surfaces.

## The well points will be imported by horizon.

In the Folder TopC:
Empty Points iconÎMB 3Î Import ÎASCII internal points format
select …/Import/ImportWellPoints_byWell/TopCDepthPoints.xyz

Copy the point data from the points folder to the empty Depth well
points folder to identify them as well points rather than empty points.
Points iconÎMB2 drag into Well Depth Points icon.
Repeat this for all horizons and visualize the well depth points.

## 1) Load the isochore surfaces

We will be using pre-mapped isochore surfaces - they will not be
generated here.
isochore surface icon Î C ÎMB3ÎImportÎASCII IRAP Classic…
Select CIso.s from the Import Isochores folder

## These isochores will be used along with the interpreted horizons

TopC and BaseA during stratigraphic modelling to generate the
calculated horizons TopB and TopA
Visualise each imported isochore in turn in the 3D view.
Colour contour the isochore surfaces
Isochore surfaceÎMB3ÎVisual settingsÎContours fill
tabÎToggle on ContoursÎOK

## Save the project

Define the project boundary
It is not always necessary to create a 3D model covering the entire mapped horizons.
Therefore a project boundary can be used to reduce the area of interest (AOI) in the
modelling process. License boundaries can also be imported for later volumetrics
calculations.

## 1 Import the Project boundary polygon

Expand the Cultural data folder–
Project boundaryÎMB3ÎImportÎASCII Irap ClassicÎselect the
folder Import Cultural – select the file Project_boundary.xyz
Visualise the project boundary in the Multiviewer

Select the files North/South and WestBlock.xyz. Press Ok and
visualise the license boundaries in 3D.

## Quality Control of Horizon data

Prior to starting any modelling it is important that the imported data is quality controlled and
edited where appropriate.
1 Horizons QC - Sort Horizons
Check the horizons are sorted in depth
Horizons optionÎDepth option and check the Status

## Drag and drop the interactive job Horizon Administration in your

workflow.
iTask iconÎMB2Îdrag and drop in the empty workflow
Press OK to exit the Horizon Administration panel

1) Horizons mapping
In this project, we loaded horizons contours, so we need to map the
horizons to get depth surfaces.
HorizonsÎMB3ÎMappingÎHorizon mapping
In the Horizons tab, select Depth Mode, and TopC and BaseA

In the Input/output tab, select TopC and BaseA, select the input
“Contours” from the Horizons folder, and Depth Surface as output in
the Horizons folder as well.
In the Layout tab, check the gridding Xincrement and Yincrement
are set to 50 meters. Leave the rest as default. Open the “Detailed
Range Settings” panel, and drag and drop the TopC contours to get
the xy range from it. So the 2 depth surfaces will be mapped over
this area.

In the Mapping tab, select the horizons TopC and BaseA, check the
recommended algorithms for Contours input (click on Contours
icon).
Select the algorithm called Local B spline as it is a recommended
one.
Leave the rest as default.
Press Execute to create the TopC and BaseA depth surface
according to the specified settings.

## Rename the Job “TopC BaseA”

Job iconÎMB3ÎRenameÎ type in the name TopC BaseAÎOK

## And drag and drop this job in your workflow

Job iconÎMB2Îdrag and drop the icon in the workflow, below the

## 1) Data reduction – Check the AOI vs the mapped horizons

The 2 horizons depth surfaces have been just mapped according to
the maximum extension from TopC. However, if you display the
project boundary with the mapped surfaces, you will see they
extend quite far beyond the area of interest (AOI), represented by
the project boundary.
So we will perform a horizon operation to reduce the depth surfaces
to this AOI, as we do not need data beyond the AOI..
HorizonsÎMB3ÎHorizons Operations

## In the General tab, select the option “Data reduction” only.

Select the Horizon type : Horizons,
Select the Mode : Depth
Select the input and output : Depth Surface for both TopC and
BaseA
In the Data reduction tab (see snapshot), select TopC and BaseA,
Select the Boundary type : polygon, drag and drop the project
boundary icon in the drop site, and select the option eliminate
points “outside”.
Rename the Job and call it “Data reduction”
Press Execute, then drag and drop this job into your workflow.

## 1) Check Horizons depth surfaces vs well markers – Adjust

Horizons to wells
In order to check that the interpreted horizons we mapped are
consistent with the well data we will perform another Horizons
operation.
HorizonsÎMB3ÎHorizon operation
Create a new job : Job iconÎMB3ÎNew, and name it “Adjust 2
Wells”.
This time, only select the Adjust to wells option at the top of the
panel.

## In the General tab, select Depth Mode, input and output to be

DepthSurface. Select TopC and BaseA.

In the Adjust to wells tab select TopC and BaseA and Well points
and check the status of the current horizons input (click on the
Status icon). You should get the following message :

## In the Algorithm section, toggle ON the option Do exact, and the

Influence radius to be set at 200m.

Press Execute, and then check the Status again. This time the error
should be approximately 0 for all wells at TopC and BaseA.

## Drag and drop this job at the end of your workflow.

1) Horizons consistency
In order to check that horizons are consistent (base not intersecting
the top), we will perform another Horizons operation.
HorizonsÎMB3ÎHorizon operation
Create a new job : Job iconÎMB3ÎNew, and name it
“Consistency”.
This time, only select the Consistency option at the top of the panel.
In the General tab, select Depth Mode, input and output to be
DepthSurface and select TopC and BaseA.

## In the Consistency tab, select the option “Make horizons

consistent”, select the input option, select TopC and BaseA, and
check the status of the current horizons consistency (click on the
Status icon). You should have the following message :

Then press Execute. Once the job is executed, check the status
again. This time, as horizons have been made consistent, you
should have the following message :

## 1) Creating Fluid Contact Surfaces

Create a Fluid contacts folder in the Clipboard :
ClipboardÎMB3ÎCreateÎFolder and call it Fluid contacts

Drag and drop any of your Depth surface (either TopC or BaseA) in
this newly created Fluid contact folder.

## Rename the Depth surface to OWC :

Depth surface iconÎMB3ÎInformation and rename it OWC

## Then modify the z value of the OWC object, so it is at constant

depth 1705m:
OWCÎMB3ÎOperationsÎScalar
Type in the value 1705 to define the constant a, then click on the
Z=a button, and close the panel.
Change the visual settings of this OWC object, to have the
appropriate colour, and to put some transparency.
OWCÎMB3ÎVisual settings, change the colour and transparency

## Duplicate this OWC surface OWCÎMB3ÎDuplicate

Repeat the steps above to rename it GOC, and assign it a constant
depth value of 1625m this time. Change its colour accordingly.

Visualize the created fluid contacts with your TopC and BaseA horizons.

## Save the project.

Exercise 16 Create a dip map OPTIONAL
Copy any depth surface into the clipboard by drag and drop.
Rename this copy to DipMap: ClipboardÎDepth
SurfaceÎMB3ÎInformation… Rename it “DipMap” and press Ok.

## Open the Scalar operations panel:

DipMapÎMB3ÎOperationsÎScalar…
Select Dip(deg) on the toggle next to the Z=func() button (see
snapshot).

## Press the Z=func() button.

Display and colour contour fill the new surface:

## 1) Calculating surface statistics

Calculating surface statistics is very easy in RMS and can also be
used to calculate volumes between and below surfaces:

## Open the Statistics panel for the isoC isochore surface:

isoCÎMB3ÎStatistics…
Quality Control of Well data
Prior to starting any modelling it is important that the imported well data are checked for
problems and that some basic data preparation is carried out.

There are different tools in RMS to help you perform the Well QC. Combined with 2D and 3D
visualisation, tables for well trajectories and logs can also be investigated. Some of those
tools will be presented in this manual.
1) Visualize well logs
Define the log template :
WellsÎMB3ÎLog templates…

## In the Track Settings tab (see snapshot), select Discrete track,

and select ZONELOG and FACIES in the visible log curves window
(using the arrow icon to move them from the available list to the
visible list).

Change the colour code for the different facies as indicated in the
snapshot : select the Rainbow colour table for the FACIES log
curve, then click on the colour button for each facies and pick a
colour.
Press Apply

Then select Linear track (see snapshot), and move the Poro and
Perm curves from the available curves list to the visible curves list
using the arrow button.
Change the colour of the Perm curve to make it different than the
Poro curve.

Then in the Fill settings tab, for both Poro and Perm, use No Fill

In the Cylinder settings tab, set the log curve and the colour log to
use the Poro curve. Press OK.
In the Multiviewer window, visualize the wells in 3D and turn on the
Cylinder log.

Turn on the fence mode for the wells and investigate the wells in
this format.
Observe the wells,.
Save the project.
1 Visualise log properties OPTIONAL
From any well : WellsÎWell_xÎDrilled trajectoryÎMB3ÎLogs…

Investigate the panel content, the existing logs and their values.
Close the panel.

## 1) Well log editor/calculator OPTIONAL

WellsÎMB3ÎCalculatorsÎLogs editor/calculator…
Select the logs Poro (Left Background display) and FACIES (Right
background display). Observe different wells.
Close the panel.
Structural Modelling
Overview
Once any surface, fault and thickness data have been loaded and quality controlled, the next
step in the modelling workflow is to create a high quality structural framework.

Structural modelling is the process of mapping the faults and the stratigraphy of the reservoir
in 3D. Structural modelling is done to ensure correct juxtaposition between the various parts
of the reservoir on either side of each fault and to ensure accurate volumes in faulted areas.

Faults can compartmentalise the reservoir as the fault plane/zone can act as a barrier to flow.
This compartmentalisation will not come into effect in a static model but is extremely
important when the model is run through a reservoir simulator.

## Structural modelling consists of two parts:

1. Fault modelling - the process of mapping faults in 3D within the reservoir. Fault modelling
is optional and can either be done by identifying the faults directly from the fault trace on a
depth horizon or from fault information which may already have been provided by the
geophysicist e.g. fault sticks or depth midlines. RMS can model various kinds of faults :
normal, reverse, strike slip, listric, Y faults, crossing (or X) faults and K faults.

## 2. Stratigraphic modelling – The process of calculating intermediate reservoir horizons from

(a) the known (interpreted) horizon(s) (b) thickness (isochore or well point) data (c) fault
model

The structural model produced can then be used as input when building a 3D modelling grid.

Section objectives
1. Produce an appropriate fault model from the input data.
Create new (empty) fault containers
Load the input data to the appropriate faults.
Generate and edit the fault network
Generate fault surfaces and fault lines
Quality control the fault model

## 2. Create intermediate reservoir horizons by stratigraphic modelling

Using the fault model produced, well markers and thickness data (isochore surfaces)

## 3. Adjust the horizons to the faults produced

The fault modelling workflow in RMS
The fault modelling workflow is a simple five-step process which can be carried out in depth
or time.

Fault modelling in RMS may be performed using a variety of fault input data types. You will
need to create first the number of faults you will need, and group them by type (normal,
reverse…)

Once the ‘empty’ fault containers have been created, the input data can be loaded and
assigned to the fault(s) if necessary.

## 2. Generate the fault network

The network can be seen as a rough guide telling RMS the main fault
geometries and where the different faults truncate each other. In the
network the hanging wall (HW) and foot wall (FW )are defined for the faults.

(digitised).

## 3. Generate fault surfaces

The fault surfaces can be gridded using any data source that describes the
position of the fault planes in space. Some common data types used
include:
Depth Midlines, Fault sticks, Fault surfaces, Fault line and/or polygon data

## 4. Generate fault lines

The fault lines are the intersection between the fault surface and the
associated horizons. RMS automatically generates these using an
influence distance and an extrapolation distance.
Truncations and connections are created automatically, since they are
defined in the network.

## 5. Adjust horizons to the faults

The final step in the fault modelling process is to ensure that the horizons match the fault
model. This is done in the horizon administration panel and involves re-gridding an area of
the surfaces around each fault.
Prepare and load the Fault input data

## 1 Create the number of faults necessary in the model

By visualizing the interpreted horizons, it appears that we need to
model 7 faults in total. It has been decided in the project scope that
all of them need to be modelled.

## It is first necessary to create the appropriate number of faults :

FaultsÎInput DataÎMB3ÎCreate new faults
Type in 7 and press Enter, then type in the fault names in the empty

Press OK

## 1) Add/Remove Fault Input data types

In this course we have been provided with data for 6 faults only: F1,
F2, F3, F5, F6, F7, as Depth Fault Sticks. We do not have input
data for F4. So we will create the remaining fault input directly by
digitizing in 3D Depth Mid Lines for F4. Hence we only need 2 types
of input data : depth fault sticks and depth mid lines.
Remove the un-necessary input data types :
FaultsÎInput dataÎRemove typesÎselect Time surface, Depth
surface, Time fault lines, Fault lines, Time fault sticks and Cutoff
linesÎOK

## Add a new data type

FaultsÎInput dataÎAdd data typesÎin the Lines section, select
Mid lines DepthÎOK

## 1 Load the fault input data

Now all the fault modelling preparations have been completed we
can now import the data we will be using for fault modelling.

For each empty Depth Fault stick icon, load the appropriate input
data from the folder ImportFaults:
Depth fault sticksÎempty F1 iconÎimportÎAscii Irap
ClassicÎselect F1.xyz
Repeat the operation for each empty icon F2, F3, F5, F6, F7
Visualise the imported depth fault sticks, and QC they refer to the
appropriate faults.

## 1) Digitize fault input data in 3D

Display only the TopC depth surface in the 3D view, zoom in the
area where you will digitize F4.

## Switch the 3D view format to Parallel projection mode : Multiviewer

windowÎFormatÎ3D view… in the graphics tab, change the
projection mode from Perspective to Parallel.

## Digitize the depth mid line of F4 for the horizon TopC :

Empty F4 Depth mid lines iconÎMB2Îdrag and drop in the 3D
view (equivalent to MB3ÎSend to edit)
Then you should see a specific toolbar for editing the depth mid line
object. The Digitize icon should be set active automatically.

Then in the 3D view, digitize the depth mid line on the TopC depth
surface where appropriate (MB1 to add a point, MB2 to finish the
digitizing)

## Digitize the depth mid line of F4 for the horizon BaseA :

Display off the TopC depth surface, display on the BaseA depth
surface, and repeat the digitizing process.
F4 Depth mid lines iconÎMB2Îdrag and drop in the 3D view
(equivalent to MB3ÎSend to edit)
Once you have digitized the depth mid lines for fault F4, display all
the fault input data and check it is consistent with the structural
interpretation.

## 1) Generate the fault network automatically

Create a Fault Model : FaultsÎMB3ÎCreate new fault model
Choose the Depth mode option, and give it the name FaultModel

Open the FaultModel container, note that a Network icon has been
created automatically, but nothing appears yet when you display
this object, as it is not generated yet. Generate now the fault
network :
FaultModel iconÎMB3Îautogenerate network
In the panel, select all faults and all input data, choose to project the
Network on the TopC horizon. Leave the rest as default. And press
OK
Visualise the results in the 3D view together with the TopC depth
surface (semi-transparent).
You should get the network geometry as shown below:

## Observe the results, visualise the represented faults, the truncation

nodes, the position nodes and compare it with the TopC depth
surface.

## Increase the size of the network nodes :

Network iconÎMB2Îdrag and drop in the 3D view (equivalent to
Send to edit)
Then in the 3D view, select any fault of the Network by clicking with
MB1 on one of them, and then press the Shift key and the up arrow
key on the keyboard.

## 1. To extend a fault to truncate another fault or the bounding box

(to ensure that they do not die out within the area of interest)

## B Set the network in Edit mode.

B Select the fault that needs to be truncated by clicking with MB1
on its end node, closest to the truncating fault/ boundary box
B Press MB3 in the 3D View and a menu will pop up B Select the
option ‘Extend from node’.
B Move the mouse to the fault/bounding box, to where the fault
needs to be truncated B Press MB1.
Repeat this procedure for all faults that need to be truncated either
by another fault or by the bounding box

## 2. It might be necessary to add more fault nodes to the fault

network if it does not resemble the main geometry of the faults

## B Select the fault by clicking on it with MB1.

B Click the ‘Digitise fault node’ icon in the Multiviewer .
B Click on the fault network where you want a new node.
B Click again on the button to turn it off
3. To delete any nodes, just select the node and press the Delete
key on the keyboard

Edit the Network and view the results in the 3D View; it should be
similar to the figure below:

## 1) Defining the faults as normal, reverse or strike-slip (Fault

Grouping)
FaultsÎMB3ÎFault grouping
Select the tab Assign members.
Select Normal displacement group and the faults F1 – F6. Group
them by moving these faults into the member list by using the arrow
pointing to the left.
Select the Reverse group and assign F7 as a member. Press OK.

## 1) Defining FW/HW side of faults on the Network.

Send the network to Edit mode: Network iconÎMB2Îdrag and
drop in 3D view
Select a fault by clicking on it with MB1. Press MB3 in the 3D viewer
and a menu will pop up.
Select the menu option ‘Select all faults’
Turn the menu option ‘Enable Hw/Fw’ on, and see that fault
symbols will be drawn along the faults.
Check that the hanging/footwall relation is correct.
If not correct, edit it by clicking on the fault with MB1, then press
MB3 and select the ‘Swap Hw/Fw side’ option. The dip marker
should always point to the HW side, even with a reverse fault.
Once finished, your network should look like this:

## 1) Fault surfaces and fault lines modelling

Open the Fault Modelling Panel: FaultModel iconÎMB3ÎFault
Modelling…
Rename the job Job iconÎ MB3ÎRenameÎ call it “Surfaces and
lines”

## Define the General setup : in Modelling steps, toggle on ‘Fault

surfaces’ and ‘Fault lines’ and ‘Replace the existing surfaces/lines’
Once you have done this, the two tabs entitled Fault surfaces and
fault lines become active.

## In the Fault surfaces tab

For the Top and Base surfaces, choose the option “estimate from
horizon data” (see snapshot).
Select all faults, and change the following setting :
gridding increment to 100m, Extend to Top and Base toggled ON.
Then select fault F1, F2, F3, F5, F6, F7 : Input data:
DepthFaultSticks
Then select faults F4 : Input data: DepthMidLines
Leave the rest as default.
In the Fault lines tab
Select the Horizons TopC and BaseA (for which the fault lines will
be calculated).
Toggle ON “Generate extrapolation surfaces”
Select all faults and specify Extrapolation distance= 100m, press
Enter, and Influence distance=350m, press Enter.

Press Apply and drag and drop this job at the end of your workflow
Job iconÎMB2Îdrag and drop in the workflow
Press Execute, visualise and check the results in the 3D view.
Save the project.
Fault Model QC

## 1) Adjusting the horizons to the faults

First, make a copy of your Depth surfaces in the Clipboard
ClipboardÎMB3Îcreate folderÎcall it “orig surfaces”
Drag and drop the TopC and BaseA Depth surfaces in this new
folder.

## Then adjust the Depth surfaces to the faults :

HorizonsÎMB3ÎHorizons operations…
Create a new job : job iconÎMB3ÎNew and call it Adjust 2 faults
Toggle ON the operations “Adjust to fault” and “Consistency”

In the General tab, select Depth surface for Input and output.
Select TopC and BaseA horizons.

In the Adjust to faults tab (see snapshot), select again TopC and
BaseA horizons, select the fault model to which you want to adjust,
leave the influence distance at 200m and select all faults except F7
(see snapshot)

In the Consistency tab, select TopC and BaseA horizons again and
make horizons consistant.

Press Execute

Visualize the TopC and BaseA depth surfaces once they have been
adjusted to the faults. Compare with the original surfaces you have
copied in the Clipboard.
Drag and drop this job at the end of your workflow.

## Check the Faults statistics :

FaultModelÎMB3ÎFault statistics…
Save the project.
Stratigraphic Modelling
Stratigraphic modelling allows for the various elements of the structural model to be
combined to produce the intermediate reservoir layers. The stratigraphical model captures,
together with the structural model, the large-scale flow units, i.e. how and where the main
reservoir zones are thickening and thinning.

At least one Interpreted horizon must be present to perform the stratigraphic modelling. The
stratigraphic modelling process will be based on isochore and/or well points data. Different
input can be specified in the job for the thickness data (Isochore surfaces, constant thickness,
well point data), and different isochore corrections can be used.

RMS can incorporate the results of the Fault model to build the intermediate calculated
horizons and fault lines. And well points/markers can be used to ensure that the new
calculated horizons tie to the wells.

RMS will use all these constraints to create calculated (intermediate) horizons and their
associated fault lines, as a structurally consistent internal reservoir layering.

Once a Fault Model has been created based on the interpreted horizons, it is possible to
create the intermediate calculated horizons and fault lines using RMS stratigraphic modelling
functionality.
Stratigraphic modelling combines the interpreted horizons, isochore surfaces, well markers
and the fault model to build a full stratigraphic framework.

A typical workflow for a stratigraphic modelling job consists of the following steps:

1. Ensure that all the required data is available, and that the stratigraphic framework
has been set up correctly in the Horizons list. This framework consists of interpreted
horizons, calculated horizons and isochores in stratigraphic order.
2. Select the seismic interval to model.
3. Select the type of horizon building.
4) Set isochore correction (optional).
5. Set well correction (optional).
6. Include faults (if modelled).
1) Stratigraphic modelling
Open the stratigraphic modelling panel:
HorizonsÎMB3ÎStratigraphic modelling…
Rename the job: Job iconÎMB3ÎRenameÎtype in “StratModel”
ÎOK

## Select the following options in the stratigraphic modelling panel:

Select Build from Top option.
Isochore correction : proportional.
In the Well selection, choose Well points.
In the Horizon table: Method (All intervals): select Use isochore as
thickness.
Select the fault model
Toggle on the Final well correction.

## Execute the Stratigraphic Modelling (ignore the warning message).

Notice that the depth surfaces for TopB and TopA have now been
created, as well as the fault lines of these intermediate horizons.

Check visually that the four depth surfaces do not intersect each
other by visualising them simultaneously.
You can view the faults and depth surfaces in a vertical cross
section.

## Add the StratModel job to the end of your workflow: Job

iconÎMB2ÎDrag and drop the StratModel job into the workflow.
Your workflow should now include the following jobs:

## Save the project.

Building a Geological 3D Grid
Overview
The 3D geological grid is the cellular framework in which all property modelling within RMS
will take place. Grids can be created from horizons in depth or in time, including a fault model
or not. A sound 3D geological grid is the crucial foundation that all further modelling will be
dependent on. The Grid design layout needs to be carefully defined.

Section objectives
1 Designing and building an appropriate geological 3D grid : research the geology
within your wells to design your grid cell size, define the lateral resolution of the grid
according to the conceptual geological model
2 3D grid visualization and quality checking
3 Creating simple 3D parameters from the grid

Terminology
Before building the geological modelling grid it is first necessary to define the following terms:

Zone: Volume between at least two horizons. The zone is used to define the stratigraphic
volume in which the 3D grid is to be built. Zone can be loosely thought of as reservoir volume.
If a Zone is created between more than 2 horizons, the grid created from this zone will have
several subgrids.

Subgrid: The volume between two horizons within a zone (when a Zone is created including
more than 2 horizons).

Pillar: a column of cells between the top and bottom surface of a 3D grid. A pillar may be
vertical or dipping.

Parameter: A property (e.g. porosity, fault block number) defined in each cell of a 3D grid.
Can be continuous or discrete

Simulation grid: A coarse version of the geological grid which is used in fluid flow simulators
to calculate flow paths and flow rates.

Zonelog: A discrete log which illustrates the depth at which a well passes through each new
horizon.
Steps for building a geological grid
1. Create a Zone to specify the volume which you are interested in modelling. The top and
bottom (as well as any internal structure) of your Zone is defined by horizons. The lateral
extent of the Zone will exactly match the lateral extent of those horizons.

2. Design and build the grid to define the horizontal and vertical resolution, which fault
model is used (if there is any). A variety of options are available when building a new 3D grid.
The choices made will depend on the purpose of the model and the nature of the data. In this
course, we will create a modelling grid. The create/edit simulation grid option is detailed in the
“introduction to 3D reservoir engineering” course.

## Create modelling grid Create/edit simulation grid

XY Uniform XY Non-Uniform
flow grid flow grid

Y-length
Local X- length
Y- direction Rotation
angle

Local
X- direction

Y- increment

X- increment
MinY

MinX
3. Quality control the grid visually (using the frame player to play through layers, rows and
columns) check the internal structure, and using the Grid Quality Control panel to
automatically check for various problematic cells.
1) Data Analysis of Facies Thickness per subgrid interval
In this project, it is decided to create a 3D model only for the
intervals between TopC, TopB and TopA horizons. The volume
between TopA and BaseA is not of interest for the modelling (it
could be non reservoir unit for example).

## Create a Univariate Data Analysis Object:

Data Analysis folderÎMB3ÎCreate Univariate
Drag and drop the ‘Wells’ object into the ‘Data to analyse’ drop site.
Select log to analyse as FACIES.
Select ‘Log type’ as Discrete.
Toggle ON the ‘Zone log’ and select ZONELOG
Toggle ON the Facies log and select FACIES
Investigate Interval thickness. Press OK.
Open the Data Analysis folder and see that a new Data Analysis
object called ‘Wells FACIES’ has been created. Rename this DA
object “Wells FACIES_thickness” : Wells FACIES
iconÎMB3ÎInformationÎtype in the new name…

## Create a histogram from the newly created Univariate object

Wells FACIES_thickness iconÎMB3ÎCreateÎHistogram
Visualise the histogram in a Data Analysis view.

## Use a filter on this DA object to look at each subgrid interval in turn:

Wells FACIES_thickness icon Î empty Filter icon in the data listÎ
MB3 Î Create…
Toggle on zone filter, select TopC-TopB interval (which will be our
Subgrid 1) and hit Apply.

## Note down the Mean facies thickness in the interval TopC-TopB as

shown at the bottom of the histogram in the table below, and repeat
the process for TopB-TopA (which will be our Subgrid 2).
Check the isochore surfaces statistics to investigate their average
thickness, and note them in the table below as well.

(Subgrid 1)

(Subgrid 2)

## 1) Create a Zone for the volume of interest

Create a new Zone between TopC and TopA (remember the volume between BaseA and
TopA is non-reservoir and does not therefore need to be modelled) :
Zones containerÎMB3Î Create zone…

Select reference horizons TopC, TopB and TopA and toggle ON DepthSurface option
And press OK.
A new zone will now be created in the Zones folder in the Project data list.
Rename this zone “Geomodel” : ZonesÎZone 1ÎMB3Î InformationÎ Rename it
Geomodel instead of Zone 1 Î OK

Note that an empty grid icon has been created automatically in this zone.

## 1 Create a faulted 3D grid

Geomodel Î empty grid icon Î MB3 Î Grid generation Î Create
modelling grid
Select a Corner point grid type
Change the rotation angle to 30deg (in order to orientate the rows
and columns of the grid to follow the main faults direction in this
project).

Then investigate the number of columns and rows you will create.
For an increment of 100m*100m horizontally, the number of rows
and columns would be 69 and 100.
However, this Geomodel will need to be upscaled in a Simulation
model later, during the field study. Hence, those numbers are not
suitable for an upscaling purpose. In order to have a good
compromise between the need of uniform size cells horizontally for
property modelling, but also keeping the design simple for the
reservoir simulation later on, we will use 64 columns and 96 rows
(the created cells will be ~104m*108m, which is still acceptable for
property modelling).
Investigate as well the number of layers you will need for each
subgrid. From the values reported in the table in Exercise 32, cells
should be ~ 2m thick for subgrid 1 (interval TopC-TopB) and ~ 1.5m
thick for subgrid 2 (interval (TopB-TopA). From the average
isochores thickness, that means that you will need 20 layers in each
subgrid to reach this vertical resolution.
We will use a proportional layering in both subgrids.

## Toggle on ‘Use faults’ and select ‘FaultModel’ and click on the

settings icon to open the fault settings panel

The settings panel allows for various options regarding the inclusion of the fault model.

Select the option “Regularize faulted grid” and “intermediate fault lines”.
A regularized faulted grid will help reducing the sampling errors during the upscaling process
to the simulation grid.

## Rename this job “regularized” : job iconÎMB3ÎRename…Îtype

in “Regularized” and drag and drop it in your workflow.

Execute the job and display the results (using the frame player).
Save the project.

## 1) Grid quality control

Check the total number of grid cells using the information panel
(GridÎMB3ÎInformation)

QC the grid visually in a 3D view, looking for geometrical problems, check the orthogonality of
the cells, especially at the faults (the more orthogonal the cells, the better).
In case of geometrical problems, generally the fault model needs to be checked carefully.

## There is also the possibility to perform advanced grid QC. This is

detailed in the course “Introduction to 3D reservoir engineering”.
1 Creation of simple Parameters from the Geomodel
In these exercises we will first create a couple of simple parameters
using the Parameter Calculator and then a couple of Region Index
Parameters

## Creation of a layer parameter using the parameter calculator

A ‘layer’ or ‘K’ parameter is a parameter where the value of each
cell equals the layer number in which the cell is located. It is a good
way of checking the internal layering of a 3D grid

## GeomodelÎGridÎMB3Î Parameter utilitiesÎParameter

calculator…
Enter the expression: Layer=@K in the input field and press OK.
Press Create when prompted to create the parameter.

This will create a parameter called ‘Layer’ from the system variable
@K.
Display the parameter in the 3D View. In edit mode, click on any
cell, the value (i.e. the layer number in which the cell sits) will be
displayed in the toolbar under the word Parameter:

## Creation of a depth parameter using the parameter calculator

Use the Parameter Calculator again to create a depth parameter,
where the value of each cell in the parameter will equal the depth of
the centre of the cell.
GeomodelÎGridÎMB3Î Parameter utilitiesÎParameter
calculator…
Enter the expression: Depth=@Z and press OK
Display the parameter called Depth in the Multiviewer

## Create a fault block parameter

This is a Region Index Parameter whose regions are defined by the
faults – each part of the grid completely isolated by the faults will be
classified as a separate region
Geomodel Î Grid Î MB3 Î Parameter utilitiesÎ Create region
index parameter
Rename the job “FaultBlocks” : job iconÎMB3ÎRename…
Set the output parameter name to: “FaultBlocks”.
Toggle on ‘Grid fault splits’, select all faults.
Press ‘Execute’. Drag and drop this job at the end of your workflow.

## Create a subgrid index parameter

This is a Region Index Parameter whose regions are defined by the
locations of the different subgrids

## Geomodel Î Grid Î MB3 Î Parameter utilitiesÎ Create region

index parameter
Create a new job called Subgrid.
Set the parameter name to: Subgrid. Toggle on Subgrid.
Execute, and drag and drop this job at the end of your workflow.

## Visualize the new parameter in a 3D View.

1) Using the Grid filter
Open the Filter panel: Geomodel Î Grid Î MB3 ÎFilterÎSet
filter…
Toggle on Value filter.
Set the filter for the FaultBlocks parameter to Min=3 and Max=3

Press Apply and visualise the filtered parameter – notice that only
Fault segment 3 is now displayed.
Remove the filter.
Save the project.
Blocked Wells and Data
Analysis
Overview
All the wells in the project pass down through the geological grid and therefore intersect a
number of geological grid cells. Each geological grid cell has a vertical thickness which is
likely to be in the order of metres – 10’s metres. However, the typical well log sampling
interval is 6’ (15 cm), meaning that for each geological grid cell the well passes through, there
will be multiple values for each property log.

Before well data can be used for modelling (since each geological grid cell can only have one
value for each property) the raw well data must be scaled up (“blocked”) to the resolution of
the 3D geological grid to produce one averaged value for each cell. This process is known as
‘blocking’ of the raw well values.

Once blocked wells have been generated, it is necessary to check that the statistics of the
raw well values have been preserved by the blocking process.

Section objectives
1 To create blocked well data for all the wells within the project
2 Visualise and QC the blocked well data, compare them to the original well data.
3 Calculate summary statistics for the blocked well data.
4 Carry out simple data analysis for the blocked wells versus the raw well data.

## Creating Blocked Wells

The cells intersected by the well trajectory are identified automatically
by RMS. The geometry of the blocked well will depend on that of the
3D grid and the trajectory of the well to be blocked.

0 Porosity 0.25
0.10
0.13

0.20
0.15

0.09
0.15

0.18

Then each cell in this new blocked well is assigned values based on
the log data that has been selected to average, according to the
chosen averaging method. Different averaging methods are available
in RMS.

## 1 Scale up of discrete logs

The scale up of discrete logs will not be the result of an
averaging method. The values assigned to the cell are based
on the value that is dominant. A geometrical weighting is used
and a user defined weighting can also be applied.
Zonelogs (discrete log) can be scaled up with different options (Normal scale up,
Scale up biased to subgrids, Shift and scale logs to match subgrids). The option
chosen will depend on any/if any discrepancy exists between the position of raw logs
and their position relative to the subgrid.

## 1 Scale up of continuous logs

The scale up of continuous log data is based on a choice of averaging methods:
Arithmetic, Geometric, Harmonic, Power, Weighted arithmetic
Continuous logs can be scaled up biased to the result of the scale up of discrete logs
e.g. facies

Multiple blocked well objects can be created for a zone to try out different options.
1 Create Blocked Wells
Scale-up the well data to the grid geometry of the zone 3DGeoGrid:
ZonesÎGeomodelÎGridÎMB3ÎBlock wells…
The blocked wells panel will pop-up, rename the current job to “with
facies bias” : job iconÎMB3ÎRename...
In the Data selection tab:
Toggle on All wells.
Select ZONELOG from the available logs list, and move it into the
zone log area by pressing the upper right arrow.
Select all the other logs (FACIES ASSOC, FACIES, BODY, Poro,
Perm and Sw, except FACIES_oldinterp) and move them across to
the ‘Scale up logs’ list.

## In the Parameters tab:

Select ZONELOG. In the ‘Subgrid mapping’ section select ‘Shift and
scale logs to match subgrids’.
Select the Poro, and select FACIES from the Bias log selector. Do
the same for Perm and Sw logs.

## Execute the job. A blocked wells object called BW will be placed in

the Geomodel folder in the data list.

Drag and drop this job at the end of your workflow and save the
project.

## 1 Visualise the Blocked Wells

Visualise the BW object in a 3D view. Display each log in turn to
visualise them in 3D : ZonesÎGeomodelÎBWÎMB3Îvisual

## Quality Control of Blocked Wells

It is very important that the statistics of the blocked data match as closely as possible the
statistics of the raw data. There are 3 methods to compare the raw log values versus the
blocked values to check whether the blocking of the wells has retained the original data
correctly:

## 1. Using the Statistics panel for the Blocked Wells

Compare the statistics for the Blocked versus the Raw values.

## 2. Using the Blocked Wells Well Log editor/calculator

Compare the blocked log value for each cell against the raw values for that cell.

## 3. Creating histograms of the Raw versus Blocked properties

Check that the distribution of values for each property have not changed dramatically
during the blocking of the wells
1 BW QC using the Blocked Wells Statistics panel
Open up the Statistics panel for the blocked wells
GeomodelÎBWÎMB3ÎStatistics
Compare the original and blocked log statistics for Poro, Perm and
Sw logs.

## 1) BW QC using the Well log editor/calculator

View the log data in the Blocked Wells Well log editor/calculator
panel :
BWÎMB3ÎWell log editor/calculator…
In the Display/edit folder, select curve Poro.
Toggle on the ‘Show raw log’ to show the original Poro log data.
Compare blocked versus Raw logs. Repeat this for Perm, Sw, and

Press the ‘Show values in cell…’ button and click on cells in the leftmost well column.
Compare the blocked value with the original values from the raw log.

Notice that values from facies in minority in that cell were not considered for the averaging, as
the log average was biased with the facies log.
1 BW QC using histograms to analyse distributions
Create 2 histograms of the porosity distributions – one from the
original well data, another of the blocked wells.
Data analysis containerÎMB3ÎCreate Univariate…
B Drag and drop the Wells object into the drop site with MB2.
B Select ‘Poro’ from the ‘Select log’ list.
B Toggle ON ‘Zone log’ and select the ZONELOG from the log list.
B Toggle ON ‘Facies log’ and select ‘FACIES’ from the log list and
B Press Apply

B Now drag and drop the BW object into the drop site with MB2.
B Select ‘Poro’ from the ‘Select log’ list
B Toggle on ‘Enable Subgrid index’
B Toggle on ‘Facies log/data’ and select FACIES from the list.
B Investigate scaled up data (for blocked wells)
B Press OK

## Create a histogram for each analysis object:

Data AnalysisÎWell Poro object / BW object
ÎMB3ÎCreateÎHistogram
Display the 2 histograms in Data Analysis views, colour code by
facies and compare them.

Compare the Wells data and the BW data on the same interval:
Analysis objectÎempty filter iconÎMB3ÎCreate…
Use the Zone filter for the Wells and BW appropriately: TopC-TopB
corresponds to subgrid1, and TopB-TopA to subgrid2.

## Save the project.

Facies Modelling
Overview
Facies modelling is the process of creating a discrete 3D parameter of facies distribution
within the geological grid. This facies parameter should honour the well data (+ seismic data
if applicable) and should also honour all geological interpretations of the reservoir including
body shapes, body sizes and spatial trends.

In RMS Facies modelling can be done using either object- or grid-based techniques:
(a) Object-based facies modelling techniques – objects with the same shape and size
range as those interpreted from the cores are inserted into the grid using an iterative method
until a specified volume fraction is reached.
Well data, spatial relationships and size ranges of the various facies are honoured.
Proportion trends can be used as additional input to drive the placement of objects into the
grid.

(b) Grid-based facies modelling techniques – in this method geological objects do not
have pre-defined shapes and size ranges, but are built up when neighbouring cells are
allocated the same facies code after user specified variograms are used to assign grid cells
facies values.

Depending on the scope of the project, there are different reasons on why it may be
necessary to perform facies modelling:

Input to drive petrophysical modelling. The distribution of different facies types is the
driver for the large-scale distribution of petrophysical rock properties. In order to generate a
realistic model of the petrophysical properties, the large scale heterogeneity of the reservoir
should first be captured by the facies model and then the petrophysics conditioned to it.

Uncertainty analysis. Since facies modelling is done using stochastic techniques, a number
of equiprobable facies distributions can be generated. If a petrophysical model is then
generated for a number of facies distributions and the results ranked according to a specific
criteria (e.g. volume), the uncertainty in that criteria caused by facies distribution can be
quantified.
Sensitivity studies. If small changes are made to the input to facies modelling (e.g. changing
the body shapes) the effect of these changes can be seen when comparing the resulting
facies parameters (and indeed the petrophysical parameters and volumes based on them)

## Reservoir communication. Since facies distribution often drives petrophysical properties

such as permeability, conditioning a permeability model to a facies model will produce far
more realistic results for fluid flow than if conditioning permeability to wells alone.

Section objectives
1. Use an object based facies modelling technique in the upper part of the reservoir
2. Use a pixel based facies modelling technique in the lower part of the reservoir.
3. Combine the results to create a unique facies parameter

## Basic object based facies modelling

1 Initial Data Analysis
Examine facies proportions and thickness in Subgrid 1 using the
Blocked Wells Statistics panel
Use the Blocked Wells statistics panel to find the volume fraction,
mean, extremes and standard deviation of the different facies
thickness in both subgrids.

ZonesÎGeomodelÎBWÎMB3ÎStatistics
Examine the Blocked data statistics for Facies in all wells, in sg1
and sg2 in turn.

## Note them in the table below (to 1 decimal place):

Subgrid Facies Proportion Min Mean m Max m Std dev
thickness
%
m
m Std dev
td dev m
dev S t d
reef
f h r e
e e f

r
e
ef background
clean_sand
_sand
Shaly_sand Facies modelling in
· the upper reservoir: shallow marine carbonate e
· n
· vironment (FaciesComposite algorithm)Open the Fa
c

ie
s
:Composite panel :GeomodelÎGridÎMB3ÎFacies modellingÎFac
patch reef facies in Subgrid 1:

## Main reef Patch reef

Mean Variability Min Max Mean Variability Min Max
Relative volume 46.9 0.03 N/A N/A 11.1 0.03 N/A N/A
(Tolerance) (Tolerance)
Length 1800 100 1200 2400 1100 100 600 1600
Width 600 100 400 800 550 100 300 800
Height (thickness) 10.7 9.2 1.8 28.7 5.2 5.1 1.8 14.7
Orientation 00 0.1 N/A N/A 00 0.1 N/A N/A
(clockwise from North)

## Note: Figures in bold-italics were found from the Blocked Wells

statistics panel/Histograms. The remaining figures have been given
based on the conceptual model/regional analogues.
In the Volume fraction tab select the main reef, and specify :
Volume fraction : 0.46 (as observed in your BW statistics),
Tolerance : 0.03.

## Then select the patch reef facies and specify :

Volume fraction : 0.11(as observed in your BW statistics),
Tolerance : 0.03.
In the Geometry tab for main reef, enter the settings as shown
For patch reef, in the Geometry tab, use the following settings:

## Press Execute. The simulation will only take a couple of minutes to

run
Ignore the Warning message, and press OK when prompted:
View the resulting parameter:
Drag the resulting parameter (SG1Reef) into edit and view it using
the frame player. Notice only Subgrid 1 (the first 20 layers) is
populated with reef facies- Subgrid 2 is filled with background by
default.

## 1) Facies modelling in the upper reservoir, using trends

In the previous facies modelling the facies were conditioned to the
wells but no large-scale lateral trends were captured in the
modelling. In this exercise we identify lateral trends, include them
as additional conditioning data in the form of 2D relative intensity
maps and re-execute the facies modelling jobs.

## Preparation : Look for horizontal intensity trends of main reef and

patch reef in subgrid1

Find the proportion of main reef and patch reef at each well by
looking at the statistics for the blocked well data.
GeomodelÎGridÎBWÎMB3ÎStatistics
Select FACIES, Subgrid1 and each well in turn.
Note the percentage of main reef and patch reef in this Well and
mark on the map below. Repeat for all Wells.
Import the two pre-prepared intensity maps into the Trends
container
Trends containerÎSurfacesÎMB3ÎImportÎASCII Irap Classic
formatÎMain_reef.s – import as ‘main_reef_trend’

Then repeat the same procedure for Patch Reef with import as
‘patch_reef_trend’

Visualise the two trend surfaces, show the contours and examine
the relative intensity as shown by the colour scale. Check that the
intensity corresponds with what you found in your investigation.

## Facies modelling conditioned to a trend surface

Open again the job sg1 reefs, rename the output parameter to
sg1Reef_trend in the General tab.
Duplicate the job (discard the changes when prompted) and
rename it to sg1_trend.

## In the Volume Frac tab, select Surface as the Relative Intensity

value and then drag and drop the main_reef_trend and
patch_reef_trend surfaces into the drop sites.
Execute the job and visualize the results along with the relative
intensity trends to see how the distribution of the two types of reef
bodies have been constrained by the two trends

Drag and drop this sg1_trend job at the end of your workflow and
save the project.

## Basic pixel based facies modelling

The Facies:Indicators method that will be used in the exercises is a flexible pixel-based
stochastic modelling technique that samples the local conditional probability distribution for
each grid cell.
It allows the generation of very flexible facies patterns, for any number of facies. It also allows
you to condition the results to well data and can incorporate any type of trend or can condition
on a 3D seismic attribute.
The method provides fast results, irrespective of the number of wells. It is therefore especially
suited to modelling mature fields with a large number of wells.

## 1 Facies modelling in the lower reservoir

Preparation : it is first necessary to examine the different volume
fractions of each facies in subgrid 2. Open the BW statistics, and
select subgrid 2.

## The volume fractions will be used in the facies modelling job.

Now open the facies modelling job :
GeomodelÎGridÎMB3ÎFacies modellingÎFacies:Indicators
Rename the job to sg2_clastic: job iconÎMB3ÎRename…

## Set up the General tab as follow :

Only 3 facies (background, clean_sand and shaly_sand) are
observed in the subgrid 2. So only these will be modelled.

In the Trends tab (see snapshot), define the volume fraction for
each facies in turn (taken from the BW statistics) :

Background : 0.147
Clean_sand : 0.722
Shaly_sand : 0.131

Check the report consistency to make sure the sum of the volume
fractions equals to 1.
In the Variograms tab, estimate the variance for each facies in turn
(click on the estimate button). Leave the other settings as default.

Execute the job and drag and drop it at the end of your workflow.
Visualise the results using the grid frame player.

## The first layers of the grid (belonging to subgrid 1 – not modelled in

this job) will be assigned only the background parameter. Use the
grid filter if you want to make sure you are only visualizing subgrid
2.

## Save the project.

Merging facies parameters
Different facies modelling techniques can be used for each subgrid in a model. In the
previous exercises, an object based modelling technique (Facies:Composite) was used to
model facies in subgrid1, and a pixel based technique (Facies:Indicators) was used to model
facies in subgrid2. This created 2 facies parameters output. It is necessary to gather those
results in a single facies parameter.

## 1 Merging two facies parameters

The sg1Reef_trend parameter contains reef facies in Subgrid 1
(and background in Subgrid 2) whereas the sg2Clastic parameter
contains clastic facies in Subgrid 2 (and background in Subgrid 1).
The two parameters need to be merged to create a full facies
model:

## GridÎMB3ÎParameter utilitiesÎMerge Parameters

Rename the job Merge, and name the output parameter Facies.

parameter 2.

## Select background for parameter 1 (sg1Reef_trend) ‘to be eroded

by’ (i.e. to be replaced by in the merged parameter) clean_sand and
shaly_sand of parameter 2 (sg2Clastic)

Press Execute.

Visualise the Facies parameter using the frame player. Check that
both subgrids contain facies.

Drag and drop the job ‘Merge’ into the end of your workflow

Interpolated Petrophysical
Modelling
Overview
Petrophysical modelling is the process of assigning each cell in the inter-well volume with a
value for porosity, permeability and water saturation based on the values that occur in the
blocked wells.

## Each well can be thought of as a ‘sample’ of the reservoir; therefore in petrophysical

modelling the modeller should try to end up with the same distribution of values in his final
parameters as that seen in the original blocked wells.

## (a) Most volumetrics requires the use of a porosity parameter.

(b) Flow analysis of the model in a simulator will require both porosity (from which the
simulator calculates pore volumes) and permeability (from which the simulator calculates
transmissibilities)

Here we will use the simple (interpolation) method to generate a porosity parameter.

Section objectives
Perform 3D interpolation of porosity conditioned to wells only, then to wells and a facies
parameter.
3D Interpolation
3D interpolation is used to assign cells not penetrated by well data with a property value. The
interpolation is performed using an algorithm called the Interpolator (or interpolation function).

## The interpolation technique used in RMS is based on an anisotropic weighted average

calculation and shows similarity to the interpolation technique called Moving Average.

## Various options are available when performing a 3D interpolation:

2 The radii of the interpolation ellipsoid can be specified for X, Y and Z. The axis can
also be rotated.
3 A discrete background parameter (e.g. facies) can be specified to condition the
interpolation.
4 The interpolation can be performed separately by subgrid, by facies.
5 A trend parameter can be used to describe spatial trends that have been observed in
the data.

## 1 Simple porosity interpolation

Open the Interpolation panel : GeomodelÎGridÎMB3ÎParameter
utilitiesÎParameter interpolation.
Rename the job to interp_poro. : Job iconÎMB3ÎRename…

## Under the Framework tab:

Select the Poro log to interpolate.
Select ‘Separate interpolation in each subgrid’ and select all
subgrids.

## Under the Algorithms tab:

Specify the output parameter name: interp_Poro
And specify for each subgrid in turn the following information for the
influence radius and orientation (leave the other input as default).
X Y Z Orientation
Subgrid 1 4000 m 2200 m 20 m 90o (Long axis of reef bodies aligned 900
anticlockwise from east)
Subgrid 2 2500 m 2500 m 20 m 0o (no information from the conceptual model
to define a preferential direction)
Press Execute and visualize the results using the frame player.

Drag and drop the job at the end of your workflow and save the
project.

## 1) Interpolation Conditioned to a Facies model

The main heterogeneity generated in the facies model will now be
used to generate an interpolated distribution of the petrophysical
properties. This may be appropriate if the variability of the fluid flow
properties within each particular facies is low.

## Open the Interpolation panel again for the zone 3DGeoGrid:

GeomodelÎGridÎMB3ÎParameter utilitiesÎParameter
Interpolation
Create a new job and name it interp_poro_facies
In the Framework tab, select the porosity log.
Toggle on separate the interpolation in each. Select the appropriate
facies parameter in the pull down list and select and all facies.
In the Algorithms tab:
Set the name for the output parameter to ‘interp_Poro_facies’.
Specify the influence radius for each facies in turn:

X Y Z Orientation
(anticlockwise from East)
background 4000 4000 20 0
clean_sand 4000 4000 20 0
shaly_sand 4000 4000 20 0
main_reef 4000 2200 20 90
patch_reef 4000 2200 20 90

Execute and visualize the results in 3D, compare them with the
results of the simple interpolation.
Drag and drop this job at the end of your workflow and save your
project.
Stochastic Petrophysical
modelling
Overview
Stochastic petrophysical modelling is an advanced method which uses statistics to reproduce
the value distribution and aerial distribution of values seen in the wells to the result
parameter.

Result captures extremes in the data and how quickly values change over space. Realistic
distribution leads to a realistic simulation run and therefore shows more valid history match.
This modelling method can condition to more data types e.g. wells, facies, seismic, spatial
trends, and can simulate porosity and permeability at the same time to preserve any
correlation between them.
Stochastic simulation can produce a variety of equiprobable results per scenario and so,
allows better understanding of the spectrum of uncertainty.

Section objectives
Produce a simulated porosity parameter and a simulated permeability parameter which show
a correlation between them as seen in the blocked wells.

## Stochastic petrophysical modelling

The model used for petrophysical modelling in Irap RMS is based on two observed
characteristics of petrophysical parameters:

## 1) Samples from petrophysical parameters approximate to a Gaussian (normal)

distribution, after known geological trends and variability have been taken into
account (e.g after the application of certain statistical and geological transformations).

2) Petrophysical parameters also have a spatial correlation (in common with other
spatial data). The similarity between two observations depends on the distance
between them: that is, the variance increases with increasing separation distance
between two observations.

Statistically, the distribution of your actual data observations (blocked well logs) can be
considered to consist of two components:

## 1 The Trend component: which represents the geological variability of the

petrophysical variable. It is known as the Expectation. To obtain the best results from
Petrophysical modelling, the trend component should be identified as completely as
possible when analyzing the data. This ensures that trends observed in wells, or
known from geological experience are carried through to simulation at non-well
locations.
The Trend component is modelled using a set of transformations, typically consisting
of a Mean (constant or "shift") component and one or more spatial trends.

## 2 The Residual component (sometimes referred to as "noise"), which cannot be

explained by geological features. It approximates to a normal (bell curve or
Gaussian) distribution, with a mean of zero.
The Residual component is modelled as a Gaussian 3D field (normal distribution),
fully specified by a mean of zero and a variogram model, which quantifies the spatial
continuity (or variability) of a geological variable.

## 1. Select and prepare the input data.

2) Identify geological trends and define a transformation sequence of the petrophysical
values. Verify that the transformed (residual) blocked well data possess a normal
distribution. (When the modelling is complete, the reverse transformation is
automatically applied to the result.)
3) Optionally, specify correlations between the residual fields of different petrophysical
parameters, and/or seismic cosimulation parameters.
4) Define the variogram of the residual data, based on geological knowledge and/or
data analysis.
5. Execute and check the job. QC the results visually in the Multiviewer and using the
Data analysis tools.

RMS offers 3 different user modes for the stochastic petrophysical modelling : First Pass,
Standard and Advanced. The modelling procedure gradually allows more options with the
different user modes, see the table below.

## User mode Allows you to specify: Used when:

Compactional, Depositional, and/or Lateral trend • you have extensive well data, standard
types. trends or no trends or in the reservoir, and
you want to model residuals similar to the
First pass The actual trend function is calculated well data (using Normal score
automatically from the well data. transformation), and/or
• you want to perform initial modelling with
automatically estimated settings.
Skewness, which can be Symmetric, Lognormal, • you have some knowledge of the skewness
or Normal score. and geological trend values in the well data
Compactional, Depositional, and/or Lateral trend and/or in the reservoir
Standard types. • you want to check input values, and edit the
The Transformation sequence can be displayed, input data
details viewed and edited, and transformations
can be estimated.
A wide range of transformations, including You have analyzed the well data using the
1 Stochastic Petrophysical modelling – First test
Open the Petrophysical modelling panel :
GeomodelÎGridÎMB3ÎPetrophysical modelling.
Rename the job to “FirstPass” : job iconÎMB3ÎRename…

## In the General tab, input the following settings :

In the Distribution tab (see snapshot), keep the user mode as First
Pass.
Select the Compactional Trend for both main_reef and patch_reef
facies in subgrid 1 for the Poro parameter only.
Indeed, it can be observed from the BW data that the porosity
shows a compactional trend for main_reef and patch_reef facies.
But no trends are observed for the other facies.

OPTIONAL
To investigate the existence of trends at the wells, create
scatterplots in the BW Poro Data Analysis object :
Data AnalysisÎBW PoroÎCreate scatterplot

## Create one scatterplot of each kind and

rename them accordingly.
Then display the various plots in Data
Analysis views and use the filter to select
each facies in turn.

## Visualize the Compactional

scatterplot for both the main_reef
and patch_reef facies.
Observe the existence of trends.

## RMS can automatically calculate regression line from a scatterplot :

In the Data Analysis view, switch on the Select mode. A new set of
icons should appear in the upper part of the Multiviewer window.
Toggle on the black arrow icon and the Regression Line icon, as
shown :

When the Regression Line icon is on, it appears with its equation in
the Data analysis view.
In the Correlation tab, select each facies in turn, and estimate the
correlations between Poro and Perm by pressing the estimate
button

In the Variogram tab, the following settings will be used for each
facies, for both porosity and permeability :

## Variogram Parallel to Normal to

Subgrid Facies Azimuth Vertical
model azimuth azimuth
n turn, and
ch facies i estimate th e cor relat ion

and Perm b
ween Poro pressing the esti mate bu

Variogram
￼ In the tab, the f oll owing sett ing

or each fac
l be used f ies, for b ot h por osity an

Subgrid
meability : Facies Va
ri ogram mode l A

to azimuth
h Parallel az imuth Vert ica
Normal to
The interactive variogram plot/previewer can be used to get an idea
of how the variogram settings will affect the parameter distribution.
Execute the job and view the results. Compare the results with the
facies distribution in both subgrids. Check the results distribution
and values.

Drag and drop the job in the workflow and save the project.
Modelling of Water Saturation
Overview
Water saturation can be modelled in a variety of ways in RMS. In this chapter we will create a
Sw parameter simply from a ‘height_above_owc’ parameter and a function.

A more advanced approach would be to also take into account relative permeabilities for
each facies/porosity class/rock type and the height above OWC (a ‘J’ function).

Section objectives
1. Model water saturation using a function in the Parameter Calculator
2. To give the student experience in using the Parameter Calculator

## 1) Creation of a Sw parameter using the Parameter

Calculator
Create a ‘height_above_OWC’ parameter :
GridÎMB3ÎParameter utilitiesÎParameter calculator

## In the Expression line of the Parameter Calculator, type these two

statements (can be on the same line):

height_owc = 1705 - @Z
(a new parameter called height_owc will be created. For every cell
in the new parameter, the value will be 1705 minus the depth value
at the centre of that cell)

## IF height_owc < 0 THEN height_owc = 0 ENDIF

(if this value is negative as it will be below the owc, make the value
at that cell = 0)

Press Apply.

## Display the height_owc parameter you have just created together

with the OWC in the Multiviewer (see snapshot).

Notice all cells whose centre point lies above the OWC will have a
value, and those below will be equal to zero. This is particularily
obvious if you have a look at the columns or rows in the
frameplayer (without grid lines).
Then create an Sw parameter from the height_owc parameter and
the function (relationship) between the two :

Expression box:

ENDIF

## Visualise the parameter in 3D and with the frame player. Click on

different cells to display the Sw value for those particular cells.

Volumetrics Calculations
Overview
Volumetrics is the calculation of volumes from the model according to various user-defined
constraints.
RMS has several flexible approaches to calculating volumetrics of the model.
Full field volumetrics can be quickly calculated using the 3D model data. Drainable volumes
can also be calculated to get a better understanding of connectivity in the reservoir.

Any type of volume can be calculated, as long as the user specifies enough constraints.
Volumes can be calculated either in report or in parameter format.

Section objectives
In this chapter, static volumes will be calculated from our geological model. The objective is to
generate volume parameters and reports from the geological model based on simple
constraints such as subgrids or fault blocks.
Drainable volume may be calculated as well (optional).

Volumetrics
Various constraints can be set to generate volumes based on zone, fault block, facies- or
Formation properties and fluid properties can be set as average values or more commonly as
a 3D parameter.

## 1 Define the export units for the volumetrics results

At the top of the project window : OptionsÎMB3ÎUnit set…
Use the current metric unit set to define a new one : Select Metric,
click on Show/edit details and then press the icon Copy to new.

## Select this “volume” new unit set,

Then go in the Volume section and change the reservoir volume
and surface oil volume to million barrels and million st. barrels.

## Then select this new unit set for the export/import.

1 Volumetrics calculations
Open the Volumetrics Modelling Panel :
GeomodelÎGridÎMB3ÎVolumetrics
Rename the job to “Volumes_1stpass” : job iconÎMB3ÎRename...

General tab : select all subgrids, select Faultblocks for the region
index parameter, and select all license boundaries. Leave the rest
as default.
Calculations tab : enter the following settings:
Toggle on the Oil/condensate option as main type.
Toggle on : Bulk, Net, Pore, HCPV, and for each of them, create
parameter and create map.
Toggle on the option to create a discrete fluid parameter, and
specify the map output to be located in the clipboard.
Variables tab : specify the various variables in turn :
1. highlight the oil variables first, highlight the oil/water contact, and
type in the values of the OWC depth 1705m in the text box.
2. Select the water saturation, toggle ON the option to use a
parameter, then drag and drop with MB2 the Sw parameter
previously created in the Geomodel grid.

## 3. Select the Formation variables, and highlight the porosity. Toggle

on the option to use a parameter then drag and drop with MB2 the
Stoch_1stpass_Poro parameter created previously in the Geomodel
grid. Leave the Net/Gross at value 1.

Report file tab : toggle ON the option Report file (see snapshot
below).
Select the report layout to be tabular, and the file type to be
Microsoft Excel.
Specify a path where you want to store this report file.

Then, for the report output choose the order you want for the
classification of the results : use the arrow icon to move the different
limits in the right window. The order can be :
1. Realisations
3. Region index (which is defined as the Faultblocks)
4. subgrid

Toggle on the option to create a report table, and name the report
table “Volumetrics_1stpass”.
Execute the job and drag and drop it at the end of your workflow.

## Check in the Data tab of the Project manager window, to investigate

the various outputs this Volumetrics job has created :
- in the Geomodel, 5 new parameters have been created :
Oil_bulk, Oil_net, Oil_pore, Oil_HCPV and Dicrete_Fluid
- in the Tables container, a table object called Volumetrics_
1stpass
- in the Clipboard, a folder called Volumetrics_volumes_
1stpass

## Visualize the different parameters in a 3D view, together with the

OWC surface (located in the Clipboard container). See screenshot.
The parameter will show the value of each cell above the OWC.
The value of a particular cell can be obtained simply by clicking on
that cell within the 3D viewer when in Select/Deselect mode.
These volumes can also be seen as total sums under the
information panel of a particular volumetrics parameter.

## Visualize the different maps created in the Clipboard

Visualize the volumetrics report table in Excel.

UNITS:
Input unit (XY): meter
Input unit (Z): meter
Output unit, reservoirmillion barrel
Output unit, surface omillion st. barrel

## Real License boundaRegion index Subgrid Bulk Net Pore Hcpv

1 WestBlock Segment 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 1 2 0 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 2 1 852.2653248 852.265325 90.49466483 25.37412397
1 WestBlock Segment 2 2 264.7398973 264.7398972 45.91760397 10.86066685
1 WestBlock Segment 3 1 0 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 3 2 0 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 4 1 0 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 4 2 0 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 5 1 0 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 5 2 0 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 1 2 0 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 2 1 153.4186727 153.4186728 37.21473961 4.793538193
1 NorthBlock Segment 2 2 28.71176416 28.7117642 5.098856622 0.024210461
1 NorthBlock Segment 3 1 644.1067744 644.106774 183.5342898 67.22416367
1 NorthBlock Segment 3 2 452.965211 452.9652108 83.97704147 13.0814962
1 NorthBlock Segment 4 1 0 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 4 2 0 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 5 1 235.8975316 235.8975316 32.28866126 0.892227625
1 NorthBlock Segment 5 2 0 0 0 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 1 2 0 0 0 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 2 1 1364.681692 1364.681692 303.2116067 45.74576434
1 SouthBlock Segment 2 2 239.5264432 239.5264432 44.89791983 0.230826203
1 SouthBlock Segment 3 1 618.156329 618.1563286 138.1489535 78.56516542
1 SouthBlock Segment 3 2 634.4806463 634.480646 112.9750354 32.18319764
1 SouthBlock Segment 4 1 180.9006829 180.900683 50.8172637 20.78209017
1 SouthBlock Segment 4 2 153.7871769 153.7871768 32.52331675 3.374896551
1 SouthBlock Segment 5 1 29.78623287 29.78623287 1.264329995 0.015794227
1 SouthBlock Segment 5 2 0 0 0 0
Totals 5853.424379 5853.424377 1162.364283 303.1481615
Geometric connectivity
Geometric connectivity can be
calculated for any discrete
parameter (normally facies). This is
an extremely useful method of
analysing connectivity in the model.
Simple static drainable volumes can
be calculated based on the net rock
connected to a particular well or
group of wells.

## A single well or group of wells can

be selected, and the volumes
connected to them will be
calculated.

## Various constraints can be

specified: fluid contact(s),
parameter code(s)- usually facies,
discrete log- e.g. perforation log,
drainage ellipsoid.

## 1 Geometric connectivity calculations OPTIONAL

Open the drainable volumes panel for the facies parameter.
GeomodelÎFaciesÎMB3ÎGeometric connectivity…

## Select well C and the following constraints:

Calculate for clean_sand facies only (Parameter code – 1
clean_sand).
Calculate above the OWC only (Contact surfaces: Lower contact =
1705m)
Only perforate subgrid 2 (Well logs; Log: ZONELOG; Code: 2)
Calculate a parameter (name: connected_clean_sand).
Execute and visualise the result parameter in a 3D view.

## Notice the colour legend indicates this discrete parameter has 2

values : a not drainable (pink) and a connected volume (green).

## Filter the grid on the connected_clean_sand parameter to visualize

only the connected volume from the well C :
GeomodelÎGridÎFilterÎSet Filter
Use a Value filter and set it to visualise only the
connected_clean_sand :

## Save the project.

The Workflow Manager
Overview

## The RMS Workflow Manager is a very powerful

functionality allowing you to :
3 Create multiple realisations
4 Create multiple scenarios
6 Audit trail
7 Facilitate technology transfer

You have already been introduced to the concept of workflows and the Workflow Manager
(WFM), as well as continually documenting your work by dragging and dropping your jobs
into the WFM.

In this chapter we will use the WFM to illustrate the benefit of model updating. This could be
necessary with improved seismic data, after an interpretation change or, in this case, with
new well data.

This section will also illustrate another main benefit of the WFM: running multiple
realisations from a single scenario. By doing this, we can get an understanding of the
uncertainty involved in a reservoir model.

Section objectives
8 Perform a model update using new well data

## 9 Set up and execute multiple realisations from a single scenario

As mentioned previously, an important benefit of using the Workflow manager is to facilitate
model updating. The example illustrated here will show how a new well affects the modelling
results, and especially the volumetrics calculations.

For this purpose, the new well data will be imported, parts of the same workflow will be re-
run, this time with the additional well included. Then the updated Volumetric results will be
checked and compared to the original ones.
1 Model updating with a new well (Well H)

Check that the workflow you have been building consists of the
following jobs:

Import your new well (Well H) into the project as you previously
“back” in the import wizard to specify the new wellname).
Check the Blocked Wells job now includes Well_H
Within the workflow, double-click on the blocked wells job to display
the job.

Note: Since you toggled on ‘All’ wells when you first created the job
and have just imported another well, this new well is now
automatically included in the list.

## QC the new BW Statistics. In order to see if some of the jobs need

to be modified, control the new BW facies statistics for each subgrid
in turn.
Note that the different facies volume fractions have changed with
the new well imported in the project. This has to be taken into
account in the facies modelling jobs. The min, max and average
thicknesses for each facies may also need to be updated.
Update the FaciesComposite modelling job.
Change the facies Volume fractions in the FaciesComposite job
(sg1_trend), to model main_reef and patch_reef in subgrid1 :
From the new BW statistics, main_reef facies volume franction
should now be 0.41, and patch_reef volume fraction should now be
0.18.

## Remaining in the FaciesComposite job, update the geometry

settings patch_reef facies : in the Geometry tab, the mean,
standard deviation, min, and max of the facies height needs to be
changed (according to your grid geometry, those values should be
around mean:6.3, std dev:7.3, min:1, max:25).

## Press OK to save the modifications of the job, without executing it.

Update the input for the Facies:Indicators modelling job.
Open the Facies:Indicators modelling job and modify the volume
fractions in the Trends tab. Select each facies in turn and type in
the updated volume fraction.

From the new BW statistics, the volume fraction of each facies for
subgrid 2 should be now :
background 0.24
clean_sand 0.64
shaly_sand 0.12

Click on the report consistency button to check the sum of the new
volume fractions is equal to 1.
In the variograms tab, estimate the variance again for each facies in
turn

Press OK then to save the new settings and close the job.
Change the output name for the Volumetrics job, so it is
possible to compare the results :
Open up the Volumetrics job. In the General tab, type the prefix of
output parameters and maps : “updated”

In the Report file tab, add the suffix _updated at the end of the
output names:

Then press OK to save the new settings of this job and close it.

## Set workflow Start and End points

There is no need to perform the structural modelling or region index
parameter jobs again now (the new well data will not affect them),
so set the workflow Start points at the Facies:Composite job and
End point at the Volumetrics job (see snapshot below).

## On execution of the workflow, the facies parameters, the

interpolated porosity, the stochastic petrophysical parameters, will
be overwritten, taking account of the additional well data.
Execute the workflow
Press the Execute button at the base of the WFM

## Visualise the results

Visualise the newly created parameters
Compare the report files
Compare the original volumetric results obtained to that calculated
Input unit (XY): meter
Input unit (Z): meter
Output unit, reservoir: million barrel
Output unit, surface oil: million st. barrel

## Real License boundarie Region index Subgrid Bulk Net Pore Hc

1 WestBlock Segment 1 1 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 1 2 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 2 1 852.2653248 852.265325 142.8983816 3
1 WestBlock Segment 2 2 264.7398973 264.7398972 45.01312605 1
1 WestBlock Segment 3 1 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 3 2 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 4 1 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 4 2 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 5 1 0 0 0
1 WestBlock Segment 5 2 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 1 1 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 1 2 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 2 1 153.4186727 153.4186728 33.54666426
1 NorthBlock Segment 2 2 28.71176416 28.7117642 4.737208591 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 3 1 644.1067744 644.106774 183.5588042 6
1 NorthBlock Segment 3 2 452.965211 452.9652108 79.76668262 1
1 NorthBlock Segment 4 1 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 4 2 0 0 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 5 1 235.8975316 235.8975316 23.79715061 0
1 NorthBlock Segment 5 2 0 0 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 1 1 0 0 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 1 2 0 0 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 2 1 1364.681692 1364.681692 298.0550948
1 SouthBlock Segment 2 2 239.5264432 239.5264432 41.67136827 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 3 1 618.156329 618.1563286 126.6523932 7
1 SouthBlock Segment 3 2 634.4806463 634.480646 101.6672595 3
1 SouthBlock Segment 4 1 180.9006829 180.900683 48.64788713 2
1 SouthBlock Segment 4 2 153.7871769 153.7871768 32.17302802 3
1 SouthBlock Segment 5 1 29.78623287 29.78623287 1.166294512 0
1 SouthBlock Segment 5 2 0 0 0
Totals: 5853.424379 5853.424377 1163.351343 3

## Save the project

Multiple realisations
You can run as many realisations as you like (depending on time constraints) from as many
different scenarios to quantify the uncertainty involved in the model.

You could have very different reasons in a project to perform multiple realisations. Common
reasons are :
1 Different conceptual models for the same field
2 Uncertainty in the facies proportions
3 Uncertainty in the distribution of petrophysical properties
4 Uncertainty in the structure

In this section, we will perform multiple realisations of parts of the workflow to access model
uncertainties inherent in the spatial petrophysical distribution only.

## 1 Create multiple realisations

Create ten extra realisations
Open the Project realisations panel: ProjectÎMB3ÎProject
realisations
Enter 11 in the text box (remember we have been working within
the first realisation)

## Make some data objects unique

Set all data objects to shared except the Stochastic petrophysical
parameters and the volumetric parameters. Only these will be
unique, and will be created new when the workflow is run.

Press OK
Notice that in the parameters list under your Geomodel, the shared,
and non shared parameters are now differentiated.

## Toggle through the realisations

Toggle up through the realisations, in the upper right corner of the
project panel, and see that each realisation of shared parameters
looks exactly the same, and that only realisation 1 exists for the
non-shared parameters.

## The other realisations of the non-shared parameters are empty for

the moment as we only have executed the workflow on realisation
1.

## Set the workflow

Set the Start and End points of the workflow to only include the last
two jobs: Petrophysics and Volumetrics.

Set the project realisations loop to 2-11. This means that this
workflow will run ten times and will populate realisations 2 through
11 with a data object for petrophysics and the volumetrics
parameters

## Press the Execute button at the base of the workflow

The Workflow will take a few minutes to run. Whilst the workflow is
running you can see the realisation number that the WFM is looping
through at that time and the job which is currently being performed.
Toggle up through the realisations
Once the workflow has finished executing, toggle through
realisations 2-11. Check that they have been populated with a data
object for the stochastic porosity and for the various volumetrics
parameters. Compare the realisations. All of them are conditioned
to the well data (you can check that by visualising the parameters
simultaneously with the BW).

## Compare the volumetrics reports

Compare the volumetric reports in excel for some of the eleven
realisations. The slight difference between the volumetric reports
displays the uncertainty in the model caused by the stochastic
porosity distribution. Remember all eleven realisations are equally
probable. As many realisations should be produced to quantify the
uncertainty, depending on time constraints.

## Visualize the Volumetrics results in the table object

Open the Table editor :
Tables containerÎVolumetrics_1stpass_updatedÎMB3ÎEditor

## In the Data selection tab, choose the HCPVOil as the variable to

display in the histogram across the realisations, and colour the
histogram by subgrid.
Observe the spread of the results in the Histogram tab

In the Statistics tab, observe the results, check which are the
closest realisations to P10, P50, P90…
The Raw Data tab shows all results in a table that can be exported
in Excel or a text editor (just by clicking with MB3 on the upper left
corner of the table)
INDEX

A
Add/Remove Fault Input data types 32
Adjust the horizons to the faults 30
AOI 16, 19
area of interest 16, 19, 35

B
background colour 13
blocked wells 52
Blocked Wells Statistics 58
Bulk 87
BW Statistics 55

C
calculated horizons 8
compactional trend 78
Corner point grid 47
correlations 76
Create histogram 46
create the appropriate number of faults 32
Creating Blocked Wells 52

D
Data reduction 19, 20
Define FW/HW 37
delete nodes 36
Design and build the grid 45
Digitize fault input data in 3D 33
dip map 23

E
Enable Hw/Fw 37
extrapolation surfaces 38

F
Facies modelling 57
Facies Thickness 46
Facies:Indicators 65
FaciesComposite 59
fault block parameter 49
Fault Grouping 36
Fault lines 33, 37, 38
Fault Model QC 39
Fault modelling 30, 31
Fault Modelling 37
fault network 30, 31, 34, 35
Fault surfaces 31, 37
Fault surfaces and fault lines modelling 37
Faults statististics 40
Fluid Contact 22

G
Gaussian distribution 75
Generate fault surfaces and fault lines 30
Geometric connectivity 91
grid design 44
Grid filter 51
Grid quality control 48
Grid-based facies modelling techniques 57

H
HCPV 87
Horizons consistency 21
Horizons mapping 17

I
Increase the size of the network nodes 35
Insert isochores 9
internal reservoir layering 41
interpolation 70, 71
Interpolation conditioned to facies 73
Interpreted horizons 8
isochore 8, 14, 15, 30, 41, 46

L
logs 11

M
Make horizons consistent 21
Merging facies parameters 69
model updating 93
multiple realisations 93
Multiple realisations 100

N
Net 87
non-shared parameters 102
normal distribution 76
number of columns and rows 47
number of layers 48

O
object based facies modelling 58
Object-based facies modelling techniques 57

P
P10, P50, P90 104
Parameter 44
parameter calculator 49
Parameter Calculator 83
Petrophysical modelling 70
Pillar 44
pixel based facies modelling 65
Pore 87
project boundary 16
project realisations loop 102

Q
Quality Control of Blocked Wells 54
Quality Control of Horizon data 16
Quality Control of Well data 24
Quality control the grid 45

R
Region Index Parameters 49
Reservoir communication 57
rotation angle 47

S
Scalar operations 23
Sensitivity studies 57
shared parameters 102
Shift and scale logs to match subgrids 53
Simulation grid 44
Stochastic petrophysical modelling 75
Stratigraphic modelling 30, 41, 42
Structural modelling 30
Subgrid 6, 44, 46, 50, 69
subgrid index parameter 50
surface statistics 23
Swap Hw/Fw side’ 37

T
transformation sequence 76
transparency 22
trends 63
truncate fault 35

U
Uncertainty analysis 57
Unit set selector 8
units 8
user modes stochastic petrophysical modelling 77

V
variance 76
variogram 76
Variogram 80
variogram model 76
variogram plot/previewer 81
Variograms 67
visual settings 22
Visualize well logs 25
Volumetrics 85
volumetrics report table 90
Volumetrics table results 103

W
Water saturation 83
Well log editor/calculator 29, 55
Workflow Manager 93
workflows 6, 93

Z
Zone 44, 45, 46, 47
Zonelog 44