GS®rr ~n@[f


W<;iI@]n~ u~
~lIDl ~
ffi~ @ ill lD~

~[f) ~


~ ~WfJ® ~

3nc &~. 3nc ®1[ Wefa 3~. 2e§. &Wg. Convention of BIS 499 (U K):
The arrow line:
a) b) c) Shall touch the joint ihtersection. Shan not be parallel to the drawing. Shall point towards a single plate preparation.

Reference line:
a) b) Shall join the arrow line. Shailbe parallel to the bottom of the drawing.

a) b) c) Welds this side of joint, go underneath the reference line. Welds the other side of the joint, go on top of the reference line. Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the vertical line to the left side of the symbol. d) e) All cross sectional dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol. All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length of any spaces. Fillet welds a. Throat. b. Leg Example: a.7 b.10 Bevels J's Number. X Length. 10 X 50 (Space). (100)


Examples of BS 499 double sided butt weld symbols
Double bevel Double V Double J Double U





2) Supplementary & further weld symbols to BS 499:
Square butt weld




·Spotw~ Compound weld(Singlebeveland fillet)

Intermittent plug and fillet welds are shown pitched to the start of each weld as shown below: 3 No' s. ~omm length.




(50) (50)~


50 mm gap to each weld start.

3) Convention of 15025531

(Has replaced BS 499 in UK & Europe) This standard uses a different method to represent arrow side and other side of the weld joint. A broken line shall be shown above or below the reference line, except in the case of welds that are totally symmetrical about the central axis of the plate Weld symbols are basically as per BS 499 however, fillet weld leg length must always be preceded by the letter Z and nominal throat thickness by the letter a. In deep penetration fillet welds and partial penetration butt welds, the effective throat thickness must always be indicated by the letter S. Removable backing strip /_ Welding process Reference information

as En


------~~~----a. 8 s. 10 z, 10

( " ~


other side. Weld toes to be ground smoothly


4) Convention

of AWS A2.4 (USA):

This standard uses the same convention as BS499 to show this side and other side of the reference line. Some special symbols are used in this standard. __ A difference between the conventions is that in AWS A2.4 a change of direction in the arrow line is used to indicate single plate preparations.

AVVS A2.4 may also use a number of reference lines from the arrow line to indicate the sequence or procedure of welding.


Staggered arrow shows Single plate preparation , 3rd operation

~2~n_d~0.p_e~ra_ti~0_n 1~/4~~~~~<:GMAVV RT

A further difference between BS 499 and AWS standards is that the AWS A2.4 standard, dimensions the pitch of intermittent fillet welds and plug welds to the centre of each weld. (BS dimensions these to the start of each weld) Staggered intermittent fillet welds are indicated to AWS as below: .......-::Length of weld.

5/16 5/16

3 -5 3 -5
'Pitch to weld centres.


BS 499 : Part 2


Table 10.:1< Numerical indication of process
11 111 112 113 114 115 118 12 121 122 13 131 135 136 14 141 149 15 18 181 185 2 21 22 221 225 23 24 25 29 291

Arc welding Metal-arc Metal-arc welding welding without gas protection electrode electrode with covered

47 48 7 71 72 73 74 75 751 752 753 76 77 78 781 782 9 91 911 912

Gas pressure Cold welding Other welding processes welding

Gravity arc welding with covered Bare wire metal arc welding Flux cored metal-arc welding Coated wire metal-arc welding arc welding welding Firecracker Submerged

Thermit welding Electroslag welding Electrogas welding Induction welding Light radiation Laser welding welding

Submerged arc welding with wire electrode Submerged arc welding with strip electrode Gas shielded metal-arc welding MIG welding MAG welding: metal-arc welding with non-inert gas shield Flux cored metal-arc welding with non-inert gas shield Gas-shielded welding with non-consumable TIG welding Atomic-hydrogen welding Plasma arc welding Other arc welding processes Carbon Rotating arc welding arc welding electrode

Arc image welding Infrared welding Electron beam welding Percussion welding Stud welding Arc stud welding Resistance stud welding Brazing. soldering Brazing Infrared brazing Flame brazing Furnace brazing Dip brazing Salt bath brazingInduction brazing Ultrasonic brazing Resistance brazing Diffusion brazing Friction brazing Vacuum brazing Other brazing processes Soldering Infrared soh1ering Flame soldering Furnace soldering Dip sold~ring Salt bath soldering Induction soldering Ultrasonic soldering Resistance soldering Diffusion soldering Flow soldering Soldering with soldering iron Friction soldering Vacuum soldering Other soldering processes Braze w.. :.!ing Gas braze welding Arc braze welding and braze welding

Resistance welding Spot welding Seam welding Lap seam welding Seam welding with strip Projection welding Flash welding Resistance butt welding processes Other resistance welding HF resistance welding

913 914 915
916 917

918 919

924 93

3 Gas welding 31 Oxv-fuel gas welding
311 312 313 Oxy-acetylene welding Oxv-propane welding Oxy-hydrogen welding Air fuel gas welding Air-acetylene welding Air-propane welding Solid phase welding; Ultrasonic welding Friction welding Forge welding Welding Explosive Diffusion by high mechanical welding welding energy Pressure welding

941 942 943


945 946 947 948
949 951 952 953 954

4 41 42 43 44 441 45



This table complies with International Standard ISO 4063



. <.








J.\ .lYIPI.-'\ QUALITY CHECK LISTS RAD. \" .PENETR4.. . " -:: ..'IT. Urr .

. c i r-cumf'e t i a l ren I! as 2910 Rad i ogr-aph i c examination of f'us on · elded i .Kodak i n castings ~- 8S 3971 8S 2737 Radiography and as revealed 1) 2) 3) 4) Focal spot or source size and streng~h should be displayed on the apparatus. BS 3683 Pt 3 : Terms BS 2600 in NDT Radiological I ! Methods for radiographic butt joints in steel ?t 1 ?t 2 e xam i. in Modern Industry . should be used for both manual and automatic 9) 10) 11) Certificates Film test strips systems. butt joints in steel pipes Image quality indicators for radiography recommendations for their use.o/elded } . Radiation safety measures should be e~?loyed to the latest regulations.Ldefects by radiography. Film storage of competency. solutions including replenisher. Evidence of radiation monitor calibration should be i. Evidence of this to be available. Cali~ration Regular Records of densitometers to be carried using a traceable film density strip checks out on safelights.i ~ \ OUALITY CHECK LIST: Radiography used / Flaw Detection '. Radiology of Ln t er-na. to be checked exposure regularly and charts 101 charts should step wedges should be available.. to be kept of processing 5) 6) 7) 8) Lead and salt Characteristic be available.. -_ .ori t of fusion 50mm thick 200mm I! 2mm up to and including Over I 50mm up to and including thick. Metal screens curves.

check ink for evidence of in the supernatant liquid. Fluorescent . Residual magnetism technique for powders .in at least shall exceed 200~m. not more than 10% by mass of ferro- Particle size . Read off result to nearest O.use test piece Fig 3 BS 4069. Powders . apply SOOA DC through threading bar and apply dry po~der to each hole in turn commencing with the hole nearest to the surface. UsiQg 750A (RMS) at least 2 holes should give an indication. Mount test piece on insulated rod.degreaser Ammeter ammeter ammeter checks .green fluorescence observed.composition.1% 1.use test piece Fig 4 BS 4069.not less th~~ than 0.SAlillT QUALITY 8S 6072 8S 4069 BS 4489 SCHOOL CF APPLIED NOH-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING CHECK LIST: Magnetic particle Particle flaw detection inks Magnetic Magnetic flaw detection and powders (black light) used in NDT Measurement Pt 2 : Terms of UV. 4) 99% of a representative sample no particle Test for solid content and general condition of inks .S% by volume.agitate ink. Special test for Tluorescent Yello~ .inks . inks . be date stamped. Powder should be applied at a distance of 200-300mm. Magnetise test piece parallel to coil axis or use electro-magnets.use ring type test piece. Record as solid contents by volume. Non-fluorescent . discard ink. Note check shall be calibrated to a traceable standard. allo~ to settle for 60 minutes. Magnetic flow technique for inks and po~ders .2S% a~d not more than by volume and not more tha~ 0. Fig 2 BS 4069.A radiation used in NDT used as as 3683 S044 Mag:1etic particle in magnetic f'Lav detection fla~ measuring Contrast aid paints detection particle 8S 89 Spec for direct acting indicating instruments and their accessories. containers should . If S) Functioning test magnetic inks and powders . The hole Aerosol should give an indication./ c shall not exceed 10% of scale reading.not less 3. for acidity electrical 1) 2) Vapour.difference bet'''''een check ammeter and r.3% Other solids if present magnetic at least 99% of a representative sample no particle shall exceed 100~m. At least five holes should give an indication..lml. place sample of 100ml into a settlement flask. 3) Magnetic ink .

. 12. For pole spacing less than 7Smm the lifting capacity shall be not less than 0.~ dia.5kg. Tr greater than 75mm the lifting power shall be at least lBkg. o in ink sa~ple for minimum 12 hrs at 2S C should light be no evidence . 50 lux or O.check minimum of corrosion.use low carbon surface texture 3..BmW/cm 8) 9) Check level 2 or BOOuW/cm light 2 of white mini.for pole spacing lifting capacity shall be 4. Permanent Shall have magnetic maximum & DC electro-magnets.2um Ra Partially There 7) Black immerse bar steel bar 150mm long. AC electro-magnets . of 300mm or less the .um 500 lux.2 6) Corrosion test .5r. pole spaci~g of lSCmm.24kg per mm of pole spacing. i~tensity depending upon type.

BS 6443 '84 MPI RAD.STANDARD No's U/T BS 3923 . NOW BS EN 571 PEN. BS 6072 BS 2600 [GENERAL/PL Tl [ PIPE] NOW BS EN 462-1 RAD .BS 2910 IQI BS 3971 .

FOIWard and Reverse Scheduling.. Critical Path Analysis. Weld symbols Success" ~ NDT reports J4 e 2002 TWI Ud ".)0 A welding imperfection that falls outside of a level of acceptance in an applied standard" 1) Plan 2) Organise An agreed... with high risk of loss oflife* J1 ere: ill the COITC'Ct place a. Your plan needs to be flexible in case there are any changes to the course structure.II!I Once an inspection plan has been made the organisation must then begin" 'This may involve the following elements: 1) 2) Once a plan has been organised it is essential that control is . etc" COpyright@2002T'M Ud Using the following headings and the days on which they will be covered on the course. exercised so that the plan is successfully implemented A supervisor is essentially a manager of men which requires certain specific management skills: Each student should give an attribute/skill that they think. but small risk of loss of life" Extremely likely to cause failure. practical.of~~fects: j Minor: Major: Critical: Unlikely to cause failure of the product" Likely to cause failure.. Rad'Int . is important for "effective supervision of welding inspectors" Student names to be placed next to their choice on the white board" Do not open next slide until this task has been carried out" * Any training & certification required Staffing the plan Procurement of equiprnents Transport to/from site.I: (he cCIIT'KC rime 3) Supervise 4) Audit To instruct. Specific theory Fractures Oral Copyright -- --.. pre-determined and structured pathway. 6 . and control the work of staff in areas for which you are responsible To carry out a periodic and systematic "check" on a system/process to ensure that it has been carried out as specified" J2 COIJYI"Ight e 2002 T'M Ud Copyright e 2002 TWI Ud "The really nice thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise and is not preceded by long periods of worry and depression'> We make plans every day for the most trivial of things All delegates must have planned to come here today" Many tools are used for production planning including: Gant Charts. utilising your available free time. that meets a specific aim To make all necessary arrangements required to carry out..las &oociared with QA/QC A Defect: 10. Remember that Radiographic Interpretation (Theory. or sensitometry) is not covered on the course syllabus. and at site Accommodation and messing Any special needs (Religious etc) Leave cycles etc" Ud 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) COpyrlght@2oo2T'M Copyright «> 2002 TWI Ud J. or fulfil a plan Ensuring all thiUg:!I Gasses. make a reverse schedule plan to your exam date.

Lunch Planning.) (31_. Radlognphlc interpretation" Multi Choice Radiography Sensitometry Total 6 Time I hr )0 minutes Time 30 minutes Tlmelhr exam time: 7 hours 30 mtnutes • Cop)T1grt C 2002 TWI Ud CoPYf'ghl{)20D2 TWI ul._.:.1 Testing Welding Advanced Procedures Welding Processes Fatigue..y:5 09.""..{' 09.03 D~y2 --------=--"'~.. OrganIzing.1 1 .:.. Health & Safety. * i'ilan Management Course Oele~te E:terdse NDT Auditing of NDT Reports Part I' Copyright e 2a02 T'NI Ud Copyrtgl'il e 2001rln l!d ------- .::. . Continue Audit of NDT reports.. + Open questions) Discus~ion+ Pre course assessment Revision Supenision... Weldabillty.5pm For WIS 10 Revkw of days 1 ... End of Course Assessment 09...06 Review of day 2 + Open question. Ductile Welding Conrumables Weld Symbols' Fraemred Surface Fractul"£d Surface Revision WIS HI E End of Ceurse Assessment End of course revtew*' Copyright@2002TW1 Ud Copyright e 200ll'V'JI Ud ___ ~D~(8l~y"". Introductions & Admin :i'. '--------- D<ID.07 Specilic Tbeory/Pracdcal: 4 from 6 Weld Symbols Fractured Surfac"" NDT Reports" 3 Onl Time 1 hr 15 minutes: TImel hr :a TIDlelhr Time 1 hr TIme 15 min's Radiognphy: Holders of PCN or CSWIP Rad Inll""el2 exempt Open Qnestions Course DIsperse .2 Exam 9am ..05 D~y4 --------=-""~f.\-ledlanic..-=-------.I \VeJcome to the .y..-.4 + Open question.---Review of day J + Open questions Heat Treatments Introduction to l\t[odes orin Service & BriUle Fractures Re'Vlew Reporting Praetlce Failure 09.___ =D-. ~S For WIS 10 E CSWIP 3. Auditing.:. . Re"iew of day 1 09...--.Q...

§ &.e.:peS of Smg]e Bmt lP1qlaratDmn For U & J preparations there are other measurements that need to be known and given when machining the preparation Single bevel Single V SingleJ 09.oIDlS 09. Defumiti. and or pressure Fillet welds: Spot/Seam welds: A Joint:' A conliguration of members Plug/Slot welds: Edge welds: Copyrlghl e 2002 T'M Ud Copyright SI 20021''10'' Ud Butt joints: T joints: Lap joints: Sometime we need to prepare the joint to successfully carry out the process of welding.32 Butt welds: A Weld:" A union between materials caused by heat. i.:"·'::.40 Root radius -+III The land" Single U" 11 Copyright 0 2002 TWllId Copyrlgtd e 2002 TWI LId 11 2 . Full fusion through the faces and access for the process.T©1rm.r >~U ~:l WJ Copyrtgtd Closed comer Copyrlght <5:12002 TWI Ud e 2002 T"M Lid 10 I. The terms for V and bevel butt welds are given below i Corner joints: .

. root gap and angle of bevel values.. 13 e 2002 TV._.. or double sided preparations.-..'1 A butt welded butt joint A fillet welded T joint ~L:_. This has major effects on economics and distortion control etc The root face. ~- A~welded Lap joint A comooulldwelded Closed Corner joint" \ ~ 1_ ~ A compound welded Lap joint" Copyrlghl6) 20021\\1 LId 17 copyright \0 2002 'lV'JI Ud \J " 3 .~--". i A.." The more you take out...c.-..41 Remember....'.~. !lfil A. the purposes of a weld preparation is to allow access for the welding process..___ Copyright e 2002 TWI Ltd " Copyright e 2002 T'M Ud ."".rI ue '.-b' 'L ..t!!ktwelded Lap joint Closed Corner joint .t!!kt welded butt joint A buttwelded T joint A compound welded butt joint" A compound welded T joint" - .".----. """-----.-"~·.t!!ktwelded A..-.-.-·-_..Types ofDoub1e Butt Preparation Double bevel 1)9.. ~ A butt welded Closed Corner joint _o--. penetration and fusion through the area of the joint and its faces The basic rule is this: Double V DoubleJ -".~. then the more you must put back in. the position and accessibility of the joint" Copyrlghl ~ 2002"'JI LId DoubleU" Copyright -_.IK ..-. the choice of single.:-c".J .._.A.. are dictated only by the type of welding process. .~"-.

57 Nominal &.~.) 2OO2..An inside fillet welded Open Corner joint Weld Face An outside [dletwelded Open Corner joint =-1 "i· .~" .00 Horizontal Leg Length Copyright Cl2002 TWI Lid 21 Effective throat Deep throat fillet welds from FCAW & SAWetc* copyrlghte 2002TW1 Ud JEffect of' Poor Toe Blend Angle 10.~...Ltd 09.. Effective Throat Thickness Same leg length -- 10...'" ~:~~~"'~ Fusion Zone ac Design throat thiclat~··.05 High stress concentration 3mm* .·.~~~P.iYJl. .Un...~. ··Impro~e..02 Effect @ra Poor Toe Blend Angle 10..!~ Copyrtght 200/" .':·~ D Copyrlghl (5) 2002 TWI Ud 24 e 2002 TWI Ud 4 . I. Weld root Copyright e 2(]021'M Ud 19 Copoyright'?...dl~~j~%.. A double tilletwelded Open Corner joint" / ...

D7 10.:.HI Effect of a Poor Too Blend Angle 10.18 Weld Preparation: Types of Weld: Preparing ajoint to allow access and fusion. HAZ. Edge. angle. What must be done.~=~~~I'~~J /\ ! Copyrlg:hl·~ 2002 TV" Ud §ummazy of Basic 'feJI'mlS Weld: Joint: A Union of materials A Configuration of members 10.. code or standard cannot be. V's.(B_u_tts.. root Fusion zone & boundary. Spot Butt Seam Plug. or was not met" Certificate of Conformance: A signed certificate. l'.~~)l ~""~""-----.. Root face/gap.22 Terms Asoociated with QNQC Inspection Specification: 10. J's._y. but the toe blend is unacceptable. Butt.g::..10 It is also possible that the height of excess weld metal is within the accepted limit of an applied standard. but excess weld metal is within limits" Copyright ~ 2002 TWI Lid ~IlsOOhm!lIlm_~tnllPJUllimffimJ" -. Fillet.. E_X_oos_._w_e_l_d_m_e_hl __ D_TT_.): __ . in order achieve what is wanted" _W_e_l_d_S_iZl_·n_.15 las Asoociafred with QNQC Quality Assurance: What is wantedl!= 10.25 In process inspection: A document containing..:.. U's. Slot. required to provide adequate confidence in a product T.\ Extremely poor toe blend. Excess weld metal. that states that a clause or instruction in the contract documents. ATT.Compliance: A written report. Corner (Open Bevel's..~. Weld toes. or referring to all information required in the level of inspection for a product" Non .p_es_o_f_J_oIn_t: Types of PreparatIon: Tenns: T. declaring that a product has been produced in accordance with a specification= Concession: An agreed deviation (with the customer) from a pre-agreed path. Weld width -- Quality Control: The operational techniques and activities used to fulfil quality.. as shown below 1 3mm . Single & Double. LandlRadius Preparation Bevel/included Weldment Terms: Weld face &. Lap. or specification" Copyrlghl e 2002 TW1l1d CopyrlghI02002T'MUd 30 5 .A_TT Weld Sizing (Fillets): TWlltd 1 ) Copyrlght r OTT. & Closed) All the planned and systematic actions and activities. Leg length= 27 Copyrighl e 2002 e 2002 TWI Ud "!It{1 Tenpa Asoociared with QNQC Inspection & surveillance carried out during production= 10.

_lIo:ligfiiil. then a penetrant is applied for a specified time" Once the contact time has elapsed.'Z' g...NDT reports) .i!I!lA..ll 0 ..M LId • Staff • Equipment • QAlQClInspection • Documentation (i...Health & Safety Copyrlght ~ 2002 TWI Ud HI Responsibilities of.~c Copyright e 2002 i'M lid ." / ...__IDl.._dl!lll.e..07 Procedure' First the worle must be cleaned thoroughly. ~~g.Jt'*:m...J 14.> J7 1125 __ .etiC ya~\Ci \""'' ' \ Testing' . \\\C 1:estill-v. . 1128 Attributes/Skills of an effective Senior Welding Inspector" Audit: To carry out a periodic and systematic "check" on a system/process to ensure that it has been carried out as specified" •Planning skills -Organisationa] skills -Responsible -Delegation skills ·Motivation skills ·Decisiveness -Analytical= Copyrlght@ 2002.Attribntes -Honesty oran Effectiye SlJP«Yiwr •Knowledgeable ·Experienced •Leadership skills ·Communication skills -Record keeping skills -Irnpartial & fair -Problem solving skills ·Diplomatic etc. -"ltad..iog.ra\l 'JIl'l C@IDm CC((i)JIillbm$t]P\~JIil©1brnurttt Method. Senior ~r For a supervisor the principles are: Identify: Find the facts! ~ 1130 We use Non Destructive Testing (NDT) when we wish to assess the integrity of a structure without destroying it The 4 of the common types ofNDT used when assessing Iweldments are: Measure: Assess the facts! -$ I Observe: Copyright e 2002 TWJ lid Implement & monitor! t J..:"m~II. the penetrant is removed and a developer is then applied" Any penetrant that has been drawn into a crack by capillary action will be drawn out into the developer" Two types of penetrants 1) Colour contrast Copyright IS) are: Penetrant" 41 2) Fluorescent Apply Penetrant Copyrtghl~2002"J"IMUd Clean tIlen apply Developer Result' 41 2DD2 TWJ lid 7 . le 1:esUl)..l). . etc.. :p'elletra~i'~4 mr' ".

l I Advantages I Disadvantages 11) Fe Magnetic metal only 12) De-magnetize afier use 13) Can cause arc strikes # 14) No permanent record· Result" 11) Low operator skill level 12) Sub surface flaws 13) Relatively cheap 14) Simple equipment Contrast paint Magnet & Ink Copyright 0 2002 "PM us .7 CopyrIghI@2002TW1Ucf -IS 8 . then a couplant is applied to increase sound transmission" A probe is then applied with the correct angle for the weld preparation and sound waves are transmitted" Any imperfections will rebound the sound waves causing a signal to occur on the cathode ray tube" &r."#1 Procedure I Advantages I 11) Low operator skill level 12) All materials 13) Low cost method 14) Simple equipment Disadvantages II) Highly clean metal 12) Surface flaws only 13) Extremely messy I J First the work must be cleaned and a whitener applied for contrast. electro magnet. as those caused by flaws" 14) No permanent record" I The weld length must be crossed at 90 by the magnetic field" 0 The types of magnetic media used are: 1) Wet ink 2) Dry powder 3) Fluorescent ink" CoPJflght ~ 2002 Copyright e 20021W1 Lid 4' 1'1'.Signal rebounded from Lack of fusion Copyright (S) 2002 "PM Ud .22 J Apply Couplant Ai Method Sound wave .. or straight current" A magnetic ink is applied which will concentrate in areas of flux leakage.:::r ~".15 .lleTh§ibl[ffi~ Method 14. # When using the straight current prod technique Copyright@l2002lW1 ue llIn1br@.J Result" First the work must be cleaned thoroughly.S(Q)Jtj1JlQ 1Cft§lbiIDl~ Procedure 14.\. A magnetic flux is then applied by permanent magnet.awtjk.4 ue l::tfu3\p}e1blc ]P).

It is then placed to the rear of the object to be radiographed A radiographic source. ::!~.:2 11) High operator skill 12) Difficult to interpret 13) Requires calibration A film is placed inside a cassette between lead screens.. A knowledge ofNDT is of course essential to carry out this task for NDT reports.•... is exposed to the work and film for a pre-calculated time" Any imperfections in line with the beam of radiation will be shown on the film after exposure and development" The 2 types of radiation used in industrial radiography: 1) 2) X rays (from Cathode Ray Tube) 14) Portablelinstant results 14) No permanent record" Gamma rays (from a Radioactive Isotope» LId Copyrlghl@2002T1MUd C0py!1ght@2OO2T'M " 'PI Method Load film Exposure to Radiation Interpret Graph 0.' ( .. rmnIcm and located.""". "Carefu1I1 "1111" Copyrlgtt ~ 2002 TWI ue Copyrlght@2002T'MUd " 9 .:r... 3 Cbedc NDTprocess 4 Cbedc 5 Chedc parameters.\~" . prior to accepting it? (10 Min's)" 2 Chedc NDT method/and technique.. The NDT procedure &. All elements relevantto NDT process/materials. and therefore also part of your 3.e 2002 TVJI Ud " Part of your duties as a Senior Welding lnspector.. aD BS nmnbers are correct 6 Cbedc All units are correct for application 7 Cbedc All imperfections identifiedlsi7ed ie..:~. Make a list of the elements that you would consider would need checking on an NDT report... is to audit (or scrutinize) reports for missing. or incorrect information. GraPh'lE:.R(g\(p1Jl(D?&S\~1blicfj T©sMI.. Procedure J I Advantages I 11) Can find lack of fusion 12) Most materials 13) No safety requirements Disadvantages H.. 9Cbedc 10 Check: EvelJlhlng again..2 final exam. 11) High operator skill 12) Difficult interpretation 13) Lack of sidewall fusion I 13) Assess root pen' in pipe ~ CopyI'istd@2002T'MUd 14) Gamma ray is portable 14) Safety requirements> image on the film COpyrtghl.Q9 Developed~..•.lJ ""'I jT. I Advantages I 11) A permanent record? \2) Most materials i Disadvantages _.) -'14i$#J' .. J".

" . Plain carbon steels contain only iron & carbon as main alloying elements.'¥!*:f. then the carbon does not have time to diffuse out of solution.I~~!!~Iaa~oYibirele'ments"-<) High-Alloy.".:---.:':~:.p ~ a Alpha iron This structure occurs below 723 °C and is body centred.·AI. e..'!'~. hence trapping the carbon in the BCC form of iron.e~~r.::"'.·~:'~. then exact reverse atomic changes take place" If a steel that contains more than 0. depending on the temperature.~r~.-.._. ~~~~'::~'-.~':~::"~J' LQlY..l9)'.:~~~~::::}.<.'.~~.~.'1 Also called Compressed representation could appear like this CopyrIghI C 2002 TWI Ud Austenite or FCC iron" 1 .. .~:-=.• > Carbonatoms* ~.. but fits between it" IAt temperatures below AcJr 1.:.". v..\£~rb~n.?~""~~~~.~~k~~...~.-.IS IAt tern peratures above the AcJr 3..."~):7?-::ry:. Steels are classified into groups as follows: * An Alloy steel is one that contains more than Iron & Carbon as a main alloying elements" '2).·~(~)::'~"!:ff"r.--.:':.06% Carbon If steel is heated and then cooled slowly in equilibrium. (LCT) iron exists like this" f'--_. is the ability of iron to dissolve carbon in solution" The carbon atom is v.. -.: ~:..'?.02% Carbon Also known as Ferrite or BCC iron* Iron is an element that can exist in 2 types of cubic structures.10 The following basic foundation information on metallurgy will not form any part of your CSWIP examination" A most important function in the metallurgy of steels.~~~f~g:fffoi. CoPYright ~ 2002 T'M Lid l~:.. It can dissolve up ..~%"'earbon~ . This is an important feature" CopyrIght@2002TW1 Ltd aI~ Compressed representation could appear like this Copyright ~ 2002 TVII Lid Il._. traces of Mn Si AI S & P may also be present" Plain Carbon Steels:* Alloy steels are divided into 2 groups:* ~·~~fP.·:. This now distorts the cube to an irregular cube.. or tetragon" This supersaturated solution is called Martensite and is the hardest structure that can be produced in steels" \ CoP)'rlghl e 2002 T'M ltd m"-------.§~e. .l !.b~~:::J 3)J!!_g!..~ ~ .§!~~!~... or BCC in structure It can only dissolve up to 0.-':'l_.. (VCT) iron exists like this" 'Y Gamma iron This structure occurs above the UCT in Plain Carbon Steels and is FCC in structure..~J '..:..j'::.::-1'.0?.-.~~~~~e.. ."..steels:>.3% Carbon is cooled quickly.~. ...~.'.1% extra alloying-elefue-iils'j ...cry much smaller than the iron atom and does not replace it in the atomic structure..::::8.:r'._.~:::7·~77..:2~~~~~"~ ~~"..::·7~!!1~(.2....-"l copyright e 2002 TVII Ud 11.?'&~?~~:'~~~~:":!::..i'g.~.-fJ Iron atoms ( L "'fjJ---_ .

Solubility of Carbon in BCC & FCC phases of steels' Martensite can be defined as: in Ferrite: a Low carbon solubilitv. VCT Temp °C 0.1 Copyrtghl ~ 2002 TWI Ud Time in seconds" Time 1 in seconds 10 100 12 11 Copyr1ght e 20021V'JI Ud 2 . We now understand the mechanism of hardening and its reliance on the rate of cooling from above the vcr of the steel" The Hardenability of a steel is affected by the influence the alloying elements in delaying the transformation temperatures of a steel '" of The Fe/C equilibriwn diagram is of little use to the engineer when it comes to practical heat treatments.1)6%' A supersaturated solution of carbon BCT iron (Body Centred Tetragonal) Austeniterv Martensite: High carbon solubilitv. Maximum It is the hardest structure in steels' we can produce The hardest phase in steels. Maximum 0.' 2. which is produced by rapid cooling from the Austenite phase It onlv occurs below 300 ·C· :I' Compressed representation could appear like this Copyright Copyrigtll ~ 2002 TWI Ud e 2002 T'M Ud This is a term used to describe the ability of a steel to harden through a cross section. as all phases are shown in equilibriwn cooling" To understand the relative phases of a steel under differing cooling conditions we need to produce a diagram that gives this information" A Time Temperature Transformation diagram shows us this information.f!!1 ':fl 1) Austenite to PearliteiFerrite transformation begin.02°/. and a different diagram is produced for anyone type of steel. The following diagrams show how the effect of carbon and alloying elements effect the hardenability and hence the depth of hardening of steels" copyright Each alloying element has a different severity on this effect and from thus was borne the following formulae Ceq = %C + Mn + Cr + Mo + V + Ni + Cu 6 5 15'" Copyrtghl «) 2002 TWlltd e 2002l'M Ud 10 .

4 Ceq 0. it can be determined that the only difference between these two specimens is their composition" By substituting the values in the Ceq formulae we can see that the hardenability of specimens as follows: A as % '-'i<c' .(1 To summarize the effect of increasing the baroness of steels by thermal treatment..~ Bj Completely h~d'~OB Bas % C+ 0.' • .UCT Temp Hardenability bas a major effect on the weldability of steels" Consider 2 round bars of the same cross sectional area: Plain Carbon 0. It is also very dependant on section thickness" This foundation in metallurgy is for information only and will not form any part of your CSWIP examination" Copyr1gtFl C 2002 TW'I Ud 17 Copyt1ght@2oo2 TW1 Ud # Studied at 3.26+ 0.1 Copyright@20021"/J1Ud I 10 Time in seconds 100 13 After heating above the ucr and quench cooling. they are sectioned and hardness tested across the area" Copyright ~ 2002 TW1 Ltd l4 PTI 350~VP A .. It can be determined from this experiment that both. high carbon steels and alloy steels. it can be said that the formation of Martensite is caused by the entrapment of carbon in solution....25%Cr 0.6%Mn 2.45 + 0.4% Carbon Low Alloy Steel 0.1 % Carbon 1. B On analysing this experiment. In low alloy steels however.5%Mo °c 0. the alloying elements playa significant part in the thermal hardening of steels" In medium.76" ~-" . C= Ceq 0.1 level 18 3 . the formation of Martensite is very dependant on chemical composition and the cooling rate. produced by rapid cooling from temperatures above the Upper Critical" In plain carbon steels there must be sufficient carbon to trap.~¢-o ~ (> Hardness readings A) Unhardened area . chemical composition and material thickness have a major effect on the hardenability of steels" copyright ~ 2002 TW'I Lid " Copyrlght@2002TW1 Lid is :1...05= through the CSA.. (> (> ..~9 "'" / ~. fij~OOVPN ¢-¢..

but will also increase greatly the formation of martensite in the weld. Quench & Tempered steels Martensite" is above 15 mUlOO gm weld metal is above 350 VPN is greater than 0. HAZ (Longitudinal) b. It would be impossible to match this micro alloying in the electrode due to the effect of losses across an electric arc" It is however important to match the strength of the weld to the strength of the plate. This may now produce H. Cracks across weld" Longitudinal contractional Copyrlghl strain cOP'1righl 4) 2002 TWI Ud e 2002 TV'JI us 4 . or paint on plate ~ I Hydrogen absorbed in a long. Weld metal (Transverse) a. and so a simple way of matching weld strength must be found and utilised" To find a simple method we would need to look at the effect of increasing carbon content on the properties of iron" / Hydrogen crack Copyrtght ~ 2002 T'M Lid 11 Copyrtgtrt C 2002 T'NI Ud 02 Increasing the carbon content will increase the strength.5 of the yield stress is below 300 DC' Ud " Copytigtd e 2002 TV'JI Cellulosic electrodes produce hydrogen as a shielding gas Hydrogen produced from \ oil. or unstable arc HSLA or Micro-Alloyed Steels are high strength steels that derive their high strength from finite alloying" Typically the level of alloying is in the region of 0. HSLA steels c. All harden able steels including: b.05% and elements such as vanadium molybdenum and titanium. are used.Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when: Hydrogen Hardness Stress Temperature Copyright ~ 2002 TWI Lid W HAZ & weld metal cracking a.

78 " Manganese Molybdenum in order that these steels can harden throughout + Aluminium (As a grain refiner) + Titaniwn. These steels are then fully tempered structure. High contractional strains are present High dilution processes are being used. oil or moisture from the plate or pipe" as soon as possible> weld metal" 3) I 14) Remove 15) Carry out any specified PWHT 16) Avoid any restraint.8% composition steels to produce a Quench & Tempered. and use high ductility 17) For Qrr Copyright (S) Steels minimize II. There is a high carbon content in the weld metal" Copyrtghl e 2002 11M Ud m 5 . This is to increase e 2002 the "Hardenability" or ruling section" is extremely low. to remove the Martensite which is of high strength and retain the fine grain and toughness" their thickness. insert the ''Hot pass" as soon as possible. Careful consideration any stress concentration at weld toes weld as low as possible" Copyright TWl Ud 1) Maintain calculated preheats. or Qrr steels are steels that are produced specifically with high hardenability to produce a fme martensitic grain structure during manufacture. and ~ allow the interpass temperature to go below the pre-heat value" 2) Use Low Hydrogen processes with short arcs & ensure consumables are correctly baked & stored as required" Ifusing a cellulosic E 6010 for the root run. content in the C~pynghl ~ 2002 11M Ud The carbon equivalent will need to increase as the thickness of the steel increases. to increase the hardenability of the steel" The resultant weldability taken to avoid I¥ cracks must be given to keeping and the tl. (Before HAZ < 300°C)" any paint.. to allow for the slower cooling.3% Ceq> 0. of this tvpe of steel is: 1. and great care must be in Weld & HAZ.4%§1 Quench and tempered steels are highly alloyed Martensitic structure on cooling (> 90%) " A tvpical Carbon Chromium chemical 0. or mass effect. their chemical composition changes as the plate thickness increases. films Solidification crack Occurs when: Liquid iron sulphides are formed around solidifying grains. This is to maintain the ruling section of the plate.0% 0. and Stress concentrations" Copyright 2002 TWI Ud e 2002 11M Ud Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Solidification cracking Weld centre (longitudinal) High sulphur & phosphorus Columnar grains in direction of solidification" Iron Sulphide steels. or in other words.

high sulphur content steels. Opposing strains in the weld and HAZ may result in a crack in the HAZ. This low melting point liquid FefS will form around the grain boundaries in the HAZ. Carbon content % should be a minimised by careful control in electrode and dilution" 5) Limit the heat input.10 I Add Manganese 1~§~~E~rfonn to weld metal SphericalivIn Sulphide balls between solidified grains Cohesion and strength between grains remains ~ C~m1Dl~fS~lIi~fi~OlIilCmdkiIDlll4. as it is a high stress concentration. hence low contraction. It may also progress to the surface during/after the solidification process to appear like a solidification crack" Copyright Controlling occurrence of shrinkage cavities: Keep d:w < 2: 1" Copyright ~ 2002 TW'I Ud J4 e 2QD2 TW'I Ud 33 .:fl Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when: Liquation cracking HAZ (longitudinal) High sulphur & phosphorus steels. This resultant tear has sharp edges and may cause failure of the weld during service.14. Areas containing high S content" When welding low quality.12 11) The first step in eliminating this problem would be to choose a low dilution process. & minimise restraint" I I I Copyright E) 2Q02 TW'I Ud Jl Copyright ~ 2002 -rM Ud " Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when: Shrinkage cavity Weld centre (Sub Surface) Ferritic Steels. it is possible that areas containing FefS in the HAZ will liquify. and change the joint design" i I I i 12) Grind and seal in any lamination and avoid further dilution" : \3) Add Manganese to the electrode to form spherical MnlS which form between the grain and maintain grain cohesion" I 4) As carbon increases the MnlS ratio required increases exponentially and is a major factor. caused by the high contractional strain in these areas " Copyrlgtd C 2002 TW'Ilid Opposing contraction in HAZ & Weld metal " Copyright e 2002 -rM Ud as 6 . Columnar grains" High contractional strains are present in welds having a d:w > 2: 1 The solidifying weld metal cannot support this high level of strain and a plastic tear results just below the weld surface on the centreline.

There is low through thickness ductility in the base metal.12002 TVoII Ud 37 copyright (g) 2002 l'WI Ud J8 Crack: type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when: Lamellar tearing Below weld HAZ High sulphur & phosphorous steels Lamination & Segregation" r·I-~~-. Q 2002 l'M ltd il.uzu High contractional strains are through the short transverse direction.. If Lamellar tearing was present it would fail at 'a low value" Cop)'rlshl e 2002 TVoII Ud 41 CopyrtghlC2002l'MUd 7 .l High contractional strains Copyrlgtd... e 2002 TWJ Ud .11) Use higher quality. There is a high sulfur content in the base metal. \<. There is high restraint on the work" Copyrigtd.·J /( I o.'l Plate to be Full fusion compound cruciform joint" The test piece is machined from the cruciform joint and placed under tension. refined steels" 12) Minimise heat input" 13) Use pre-heat to control contraction rate" 14) Minimise restraint" copyrlgtd.

and modify the joint design' 2) As delta ferrite has a mush smaller grain size it is often used to increase the grain boundary area during the welding of austenitic stainless steel.30 \1) Select a low dilution process. This area is in the form of a line running parallel to and on both sides of the weld. hence low contraction. &. (longitudinal) Stainless steels Sensitised grain boundaries' Occurs when: An area in the HAZ has been sensitised by the formation of chromium carbides. or no ferrite content in the weld metal" CoP'111gtd@:l2Q02 T\VI Ud Copyright e 2002 T'M Ud lS. High contractional strains are present High dilution processes are being used. Ifleft untreated corrosion and failure will be rapid' Copyrtghl e 2002 TlNl Ud 47 copyrfgtt e 2002 TWI Ud 8 .15%' 3) Limit the heat input. in amounts of between 5 . There is a low. minimise restraint= Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Inter-granular corrosion Weld HAZ. Columnar grains In direction of solidification" Low melting point impurities form around the large solidifying austenitic grain structure on the weld centreline. This depletion of chromium will leave the effected grains low in chromium oxide which is what produces the corrosion resisting effect of stainless steels.Methods of avoiding Lamellar Tearing:" Assessment of susceptibility to Lamellar Tearing: Carry out through thickness tensile test Carry out Ultra-sonic testing Carry out penetrant testing of plate edges Carry out full chemical analysis (S < 0.05%)' \1) Avoid restraint" Use controlled low sulfur plate' Grind out surface and butter' Change joint design' \5) Use a forged T piece (Critical Applications)' Copyrlghl e 2002 TWI Ud Copyright ~ 2002 TWI Lid Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when: Solidification cracking Weld centre (longitudinal) Austenitic Stainless Steels.

00 Fabrication goes forPWHT Re-heat Cracking duringPWHI I I I Creep. such as the weld toes Copyright e 2002 TlNI Lid " Copyrlgtd..It Ud C~ghlg. This usually occurs in areas of high stress concentration.. This depletes this grain of the corrosion resisting chrome oxide "Sensitised" or has become Stainless Stainless Steel may be de-sensitised by heating it to above 1100 °C where the Chrome carbide will be dissolved. Steel Low alloy creep resistant steel Embrittled coarse grains. forming a crack. Resisting Steel 14) The use of weld metal with high ductility will also reduce the risk of re-heat cracking' Copyright e 2002 'f1I..04%)' 2) Use Low Carbon 3) A sensitised During the welding of stainless steels. Copyright e 20021W'1 LId '0 Crack type: Location: types: Microstructure: Occurs when: Re-heat cracking.35 15. a small grain area in the HAZ. As a result.. The steel is normally quenched from this temperature to stop re-association' We say that the steel has become sensitive to corrosion" copyrlgtd 6:) 2002 TlNI Ltd . the slip occurs in concentrated areas of low strength during stress relieving at temperatures between 450 -550 ·C.15. During Stress relief. As the alloy has been strengthened against plastic slip.40 1) Use Stabilised Stainless Steels' Steels ( Below . all the plastic strain is occuring in a concentrated area & the UTS of the steel is easily reached. and the use ofPWHI during the stages of welding large fabrications. to reduce the risks of re-heat cracking during final stress relieving' 3) Dressing of fillet weld toes and nozzle attachments welds. 2) Using a higher preheat temperature. ~ 2002 TWl Ud II ~ C~IDl1tJrQlQf R~JBIe~~ Cmckfum~ 11) Heat quickly through the susceptible temperature range . on completion of the weld before it cools to reduce stress concentrations ' 16. parallel to the weld will fonn chromium carbide at the grain boundaries.2002'f1h1tUd " 9 . Coarse grained HAZ & weld.

and control distortion. or effects of high contractional strains" The 3 mechanisms. the yield point is suppressedlredueed residual stresses as plastic strain at a much lower level copyrlgl"d of stress- Ud e 2002 T\NI Lid . Quenched in water.1 b _ l! Produces a coarse grain structure & Jpw toughness· steels. Pre-Heating: ~.-~~~~=:~jl Time ! I . ./ . but the steel is removed in from the \ Produces a line grain structure with good toughness" Copyrlghl E) 2002 T'M L.723 ·C The cooling part of fue cycle should not be too rapid. or critical temperature. oil. e 2002 TINI _I I The temperature range is from 220 .4 JHI~~it1r[~S11briJJlceilll..~ Strain relieving Ya It Copyright .50 Used after welding to release residual stresses.~!. \ caused by welding operations" Force/Stress required induce plastic strain" to tel Tempering: ~ .e. which are invariably stress concentrations" Copyrigl"d 2002 TVVIlid e :2002 T1NI Ud 1 . ~~VLAfLJ . but sometimes air* \I ! i~ 09.:·_. Normalising: I! Used to make steels toush I It~ i V\ '"furnace after soaking to cool still air IIl . Brittle Fracture· Ductile Fracture. It is important to note that all failures require an initiation point.30 All heat treatments applied to mebls are cycles of 3 elements 11) 12) 3) Temp 1 Heating Soaking Cooling 1 I 1 t~rr---: . J .3% The cycle is the same as previously but the cooling is rapid i./") <:r<. Plain carbon > 0. but over heating will over temper the steel' By heating the st ee l..1 Stress The effect of heat i Used after hardening to balance the properties of Toughness & Hardness on the position of the yield point* l/. alloy§ PWlIT: I Hardening- II Used to make some steels harder I Used to increase the hardness of some plain carbon &. r.' . -. Typically < 350 ·C Is also used to produce a more uniform rate of cooling. soaked for 1 hour/25mm of thickness and left in the furnaoe to cool As for annealing. 09. - Annealing: ir---------------------------.. or modes that cause in service failures that will be covered on this course are as follows:" Fatigue Fracture . I r<'C'i'r" :. the component is heated above its CopyrighlO 2002 1'1/1 Ltd ~ 09. r>. i upper V. copyrlghllg) Used mainly on steels to retard the cooling rate of a hardenable steel and reduce the hardening effect (Martensite formation) Is also used to help diffusion of Hydrogen from the HAZ of harden able steels to avoid hydrogen cracking.f. i.:i\.20 09. il Used to make metals soft and ductile IiI For '----_".

t. graphs have been produced for welded joints to give factors to apply with certain joint designs.eSA such as the toes of welds or an arc strike' Fatigue failures occur due to cyclic loading and at stress levels well below the materials U'I'S" So that weld designers can have safe limits to work within.~fthegraPh line__ I SIN Curves for a Non Ferrous Alloy Fractures will occur this side of the graph line" I <0. We call these areas Stress Concentrations and they occur at points where there is an abrupt change in. but it is very often the first" IS) -_. where applied stresses must be below the fatigue limit. In welded fabrications factors are further applied for specific joint designs" When a welded member is exposed to fatigue and also a corrosive condition.i'. The epicentre of the radii always points to the crack start" Lines of major plastic slip (Beach marks) Fractured Copyright Iii) I) 2) 3) 4) Fatigue failures are always initiated from stress concentrations" The [mal fractured surface is characterised by areas of plastic slip. Other graphs have been produced for most metals giving safe limits of stress for materials under cyclic loadingCcpy!1gh1 Designers use curves called SIN curves to produce structures. then corrosion fatigue will occur and the fatigue limit will be further reduced" The graph shown on the next slide is for a typical Ferritic steel. which can be observed on the final fracture surface. these are known as beach marks" The epicentre of the radii is the initiation point of the fracture" The fracture generally continue to move until insufficient CSAis available to carry the increased level of stress • Fatigue will not be the final mode of fracture. A graph for Non Ferrous alloys is shown on the following slide+ COpyrlght@2002TW1 Ud e 2002 T'M Ud SIN Curves for a Ferritic Steel St 1':..5 of Yo Flltigusmt ::-::_:-:_~_=_-::_====::-:_=-_=_-::_c::_=_=Cycles of stress Limit of Endurance Copyright ~ 2002lV'JI Ud Number of cycles of stress COpyrlghll6l2002 TWI Ud 1.@ ~Stress concentration 5) rotating shaft___'l1 copyrlgtd 2002 TWI Ud 2OD2 TWI Ud 12 2 .~~:ures will occur this ress 1". from areas where the stresses are higher than other areas. Fatigue fractures are initiated from stress concentrations and then progress slowly through the section in ductile materials until there is insufficient eSA to support the applied load? Areas of sudden plastic slip are characterised by beach marks.?1 Fatigue fractures are initiated like all fractures.

3 . 10.5..S I) Brittle fracturesoccur from areas of stress concentration= They may also be the final mode of fracture in a fatigue fracture? Brittle fractures always occur at 9(10 Fracture Face Imperfection 2) 3) 4) 5) to the applied load" Brittle fractured surfaces are crystalline. or the final mode of failure associated with another form of fracture" The fractured surface is characterised by its flat and featureless appearance that is always at 9(10 to the plain of the stress* The surface is marked with chevrons (»>#«<<) in the direction of the fracture initiation point* Copyright ~ '2002 TWI Ud which point Imperfection " Copyright ~2002 TVJ'I Ud . flat & featureless+ Areas indicating brittle fracture may be observed in otherwise ductile specimens caused by the plain strain effect" Ductile ferritic steels tend to become brittle when exposed to sub zero temperatures (Acute Ductile/Brittle Transition)* e 2002 TVJI Ud is Chevrons point to the fracture initiation point e 2002 6) COpyr1ght TWllId " Copyrlgtrt Ductile fractures are generally a final mode of fracture and are more often associated with final failure of fatigue cracks" The final fracture is characterised by a distinct failure at 45° to the line of applied stress TIlls is often accompanied by shear lips on the fracture face" Ductile tears are often identified in fabrications well before final fracture and are regularly monitored by NDT* Ductile tears can often arrest themselves in a metal structures" Side View Front View Final ductile fracture / Weld face Copyrighl If) 2002 TWI Ud 17 Copyrtghl e 2002 T\\Il Ud .Brittle fractures are rapid failures of metallic structures that occur when a metal has become brittle and in the presence of some kind of stress and on most occasions a low temperature" TIlls stress can be static or dynamic stress..

.. or undercut. plaID (3~D) lack of root fusion in .traln effect. and often show shear lips* It is possible to find areas of all 3 modes mentioned in this presentation on a single fractured surface" Factors to be considered when investigating Brittle Fractures" Brittle fractures are likely to occur in steels that exhibit good toughness at normal room temperatures after they have been exposed to sub zero temperatures for any length of time. which may be as simple as a degree of'vibration" Analysis of the fracture surface and identification of epicentres of the plastic slip will lead to the discovery of the fracture initiation point" Copyright C 2002 TW1 Ud 21 Factors to be considered when investigating Ductile Fractures" Ductile fractures are initiated from areas of high stress concentrations" When analysing the failure pattern of ductile failures. or areas of plastic movement" Ductile materials may very often show indications associated with brittle fracture..(30%) i'!lW dlKlIIe area ._. and the surface and may be accompanied by shear lips..YI Ud Copyrighl e 2002 TWI Ud 19 Factors to be considered when investigating Fatigue Fractures" Fatigue fractures are initiated from areas of high stress concentration such as a sharp toe blend. the propagation rate of the crack may have been extremely slow.:~:::Q50 9oe::r PlainStrain" 22 Copyright C 2002 TWt Lid 12. • Copyrlgh!.·. They are initiated by the action of cyclic stresses at much lower stress levels that the UTS* In analysing fatigue failures. which have been caused by the plain strain effect" ~~.bowing . (At temperatures below the transition range)" The presence of sudden impact will cause the steel to undergo brittle fracture with characteristic sudden failure.10 TWI Video Presentation on Example Fracture Report Specimen number 001 Double V butt weld Sideview I Fatigue Fracture I Brittle Fracture 15mins* 15mins* [J ~ Plan view a)O Initi3ion points. such as the carrying of cryogenic liquid gases under pressure" Copyright ~ 2002 T'. This is most often accompanied by a sharp and loud noise" Factors to be ascertained would include eyewitness accounts of these elements and further investigative work to establish other possible contributory factors.:/ftmty oyioyio. but final fracture will be rapid if the component is loaded" Analysis of the fracture surface will initially show that the fracture occurred at 45° to the load.~ ~e:!e it.. Fatigue area 1" mode of fracture Brittle area .fffl I) 2) 3) 4) 5) Ductile fractures occur from areas of stress concentration" They may also be the final mode of fracture in a fatigue fracture" Ductile fractures always occur at 45° to the applied load" Ductile fractured surfaces are rough.rr. It would therefore play an important part of the investigation to establish the nature of such a loading. Fatigue . €:I 2002 \WI Ud 4 . or convex fillet weld toes. weld root due to 2 positions.00 13. (3S%) >hear Ups. the presence of cyclic stress is a prime requirement in the initiation and further propagation of fatigue cracks.

Bake consumable Control cr concnt Hot pass ASAP Low H" Process y SIS Weld metal Use low H" Cons' Solidification cracking in C/Mn steels.The Weldability of Steels Copyright © 2002 TWI Ltd.~ Summary of WeldabUity of Steels: H2 induced HAZ or weld metal cracks. films Prevention: High manganese % Control heat input Fe/Sulphides Contraction forces Keywords: Weld centreline Loss of cohesion Contraction Hot shortness Use low restraint Control sulphur % Use low dilution Seal laminations Keywords: Lamellar tearing in C/Mn steels. Cause: Poor ductili Contraction Prevention: NDT for laminations Plastic strain Short transverse Sulphur Stepped crack Laminations Segregation Through t tensile Forged T piece Contraction gap Control heat input Senior Welding Inspection . Low m. Rust. Diffusion Hardness> 350VPN HSLA weld cracks Weld contraction Process Solubility Transformation Hydrogen >15ml High strength metal Transverse crack _ THE WELDING INSTITUTE Keywords: Consumables c concentrations Martensite c > 0.5 Re (YS) High carbon weld Micro alloy Nb TV Paint. Cause: H" HAZ cracks Delayed inspection.1 TWI VOI. Grease HAZ Critical factors = Temp> 300°C Low ductility Longitudinal c High hardenability High risk cracking " orr Steels ~ or Weld metal Thickness Martensite c concentrations Low ductility Prevention' (00 Steels in bold) Pre-heat Control of H2 Minimise restraint Remove coatings Arc energy Use low Ceq plate . 1:1 Rev 09-09· . Cause: Sulphur.p.

Cause: Precipitation Loss of ductility Molybdenum Carbides Con' plastic strain Vanadium Keywords: Grain strengthen Stress relieve PWHT 45().B00°C .crystalline corrosion in stainless steels. Cause: Chromium depletion Parallel to weld Temp gradient Cr Carbide Loss of resistance Keywords: InHAZ Sensitisation Stress CC Prevention: I Low I Carbon .. Temper embrittle Boron Creep resistance Prevention: Control PWHT High ductility weld Minimal restraint StagePWHT V below 0. Solidification Cause: Austenite grains Contractional force Weld centreline Coarse structure Co-ef conduction Plastic strain Boundary area Co-ef contraction Hot shortness THE WELDING INSTITUTE cracks in 'Y stainless steels.1% Reduce (J areas Higher Pre heat Use clean plate Tony Whitaker Manager lWl Middle East Training and Examination Services. Keywords: Low m.. Dated 25-10-02 Senior Welding Inspection .04% Tantalum I Stabilising elements I Niobium I Titaniumfor plate I Solution anneal Molybdenum Rapid cooling I I Re-heat cracking in alloy steels.TWI VOI.p Sulphur Last solidification Prevention: I I Ferrite content Reduce restraint Iinc boundary area I Duplex SIS Minimise dilution Contraction rate 10-15% Ferrite Consumables I I Inter .The Weldability of Steels Copyright © 2002 TWI Ltd.. 1:2 Rev 09-09- .

or diamond depend ing on the scale' Copyrlghl e 2002 T\\II Ud Copyrtghl e 2002 TV. Duclillty:' Tensile test Copyright I Start! Stop Macro/Hardness test Copyright e 2002 TWI Ud e 2002 TVJI Lid The specimen may then be hard ness tested <> = Hard ness Survey 3) Lack of Root Fusion 4) Slag inclusion & Lack. Ud 1 .cLUI .~. "J . of inter-run fusion Copptgh!@2002TW1 Ud Further hardness surveys may be taken as the thickness of the specimen increases ~ COpyright e 20D2 TW1 LId Generally we use a diamond or steel ball to form an indentation 1) Vickers Diamond Pyramid: Always uses a diamond BS 427 Vickers Hardness Testing' 2) Brinell hardness test: Always uses a steel ball- 3) We measure the width of the indentation to gauge the hardness" Rockwell hardness test: Uses a ball. These Indude the properties of: The ability of a material to resist indentation The ability of a material to absorb impact energy The ability to resist the action ofa pulling force The ability to deform plastically under tension= The test weld is usually cut into sections as follows: The location of specimens will depend upon the standard Properties:' Hardnessr" Toughne ss:· Tensile >"trength:.I A }< a.[_iil i\oIechankal:* Describes the actions of "!on:e & modon" Something that makes one material different from another...

50 CharpyV. Ud Course grains Brittle Fracturei -40 -30 -20 -10 o +10 +20 +30 Testino temperature Copyrlght 6} 2002 TWI Uci 10 CTOD 1re§1titmt~ 09...... but specimen is held vertically" Specimen size and shape of actual component" CTOD.09. (Crack tip opening di5~al:c:mcnt) Graduated scale of absorbed energy in Joules= Location of specimen Copyrlght e 2002 TWI Lid COpyr1glll e 2002 TWlltd 1\I1n 1.~~ . lOx 10 mm specimen BS En 10045· 10 X 10 mm specimen Same as Charpy V.6 % increases < Joules absorbed Ductile Fracture 47 Joules Three specimens are normally tested at each temperature.55 .52 CTOD 1resitin~ The fractured surface and stress conditions are analysed and a very accurate assessment can be given of material behaviour 09.~ Former Very Accurate Results 11 copyrighl: Displacement values are converted to crack tip values. BS 131 Charpy V Testing. Izod.CCllil@JtPY V Testing. Copyrlghl (5) 2002 'PM lid e 2OQ2 TWI Uci 12 2 .. 28 Joules Transition Temperature Range +40 A refined and clean grain structure gives much improved toughness as more energy is absorbed by the specimen!! Copyrlghl (gI2002 TV .

:"y Lack of root fusion shown here" Jf!!J A Guided root bend test" r:"~'. t During the test.. ( o. _.~ . The units are usually in N/mm' Direction of applied stress BS 7091 BS En 10002 All Weld Metal Tensile Testing Test piece tested in this direction" 10. side bend test may be used" Copyright ~ 20021W1 Ud 16 A new measurement of 7Smm will indicate Elongation ESO 0/0" Copyright " 'E/" +++ 3 1 2 3 2 Any strait line indicates a "Lack of root fusion"> Copyright e 2002 TWllId 17 Copyright e 20021W1 Ud ra ..ujj.~-"'!'" '0 .00 Transverse Copyright reduced test piece" 13 Copyright ~ 2002 TIIII Ud e 2002 TWI Ud Tensile test piece cut along weld specimen.c~'" '~..: ~§=:J e 2002 T'M Ud '_. side and longitudinal bend tests" For material over 12 mm thickness..... Yield point & Tensile strength are measured The specimen is put together and the marks are re-measured =>:::r:::::::tn: .. .·'.-.§Wd~..' _ _ • .:~Former Test Piece· Force Further tests include face. 14 Bend tests are used to establish fusion in the area under test Firstly..: . . d . 50mm t..~-z~.... before the tensile test 2 marks are made 50mm apart _.S4.) ..... a.. . .. or machined out ~ the test piece and tested in tension to failure.All Weld MeW TeJITlSileTest A Section of weld is cut.


~ §mmnmy QfMecboo]call IW~ methods: 10. d) e) Joint design? 60° Single V Butt welded butt joint Heat treatments? Pre heat 250° C + PWlIT Stress Relieve 4500C 21 Copyrigl"'l\@l002l'Mlid 1:1. @ 125 amps . '/-"1 'PI a) Materials types and form to be welded? Low Alloy Steel Pipe . Examples of "Extents of Approval" include:" a) Diameter of pipe. a "Welding procedure" is* (VPN & BHN) Strength (N/mm2 & PSI) Toughness (Joules & ft. and soundness of the welded joint We divide tests into Qualitative & Quantitative A definition of the term "Procedure"= A systematic method of producing an aim" Quantitative: Hardness (Have units) Qualitative: Bends (Have no units) Therefore. TI.e.15 We test welds to establish minimum levels of mechanical properties.. 3.e use of a process or consumable for a special application" 2J Capyrtgtd@20021"N1 Ud 24 e '2002 TWI Ud 4 . amperage range...25 Baked 350 0 • Planning the tasks • Collecting the data • Writing a procedure for use or for trial • Making test welds • Evaluating the results of the tests • Approving the procedure of the relevant code • Preparing the documentation" b) c) C. Welding Position? Fixed Vertical Pipe horizontaVweld vertical • Welding Process & Consumables + heat input? MMA ES018 G.lbs) Copyrlgtrt ~ 2002lW1l1d Fractures (Butt & Fillet) Macros= A systematic method of producing a sound weld" . or thickness of plate b) Welding position. or number of runs c) Process (On multi process procedures only) d) Certain material groups e) Change of consumable to one of the same classification Only if the class is given in the original procedure f) Heat input range (kJ/rnm)" Copyright A Welding Procedure is a recipe of variable parameters. Copyright@2oo2T\\!1l1d 2. which will produce the same results of certain quality & properties if carried out in the same way each time" To evaluate a Welding Procedure we need to check if all the parameters set will work together to produce the desired results" Welding Procedures tests are often carried out to satisfy the feasibility of a set of unusual parameters i..

the incorrect settings of the equipment.07 11) 13) Amperage Polarity Electrode type & 0 Electrode condition Insulation! extraction 112) 114) 116) 118) 1110) Arc Voltage Speed of Travel Duty Cycles Connections Electrode treatments" 1) 2) Slag inclusions Arc strikes IS) 17) 19) Copyright 3) 4) Porosity Undercut Most welding imperfections in lvll'vfA are caused by a lack of welder skill. x ray. bends. or the incorrect use. 5 . then Radiography or Ultrasonic testing is usually applied· Finally. and most importantly. and the procedure then becomes qualified" CoP'ft1ght Q Once the procedure has been approved it is then important to test each welder. then a procedure qualification record (WPQR) is completed with all the test results.11. although bend tests are often used to ensure good side wall fusion Normally visual. fractures and macro's are used in welder approval tests" Copyright 0 2002 TWI lid 2002 TWI Ud As a revision exercise of the common welding processes there will now follow a summary list of the requirements advantages and disadvantages of the common welding processes 1) A TransformerlRectifier (Constant current type) A power and power return cable 13) 14) 5) Electrode holder Electrode (To correct specification) Correct visor & glass. as laid down in the application standard= There is no need to carry out the mechanical tests of the procedure. and treatment of electrodes" CopynghI ~ 200'2 T"M Ud e 2002 TWI Ud 3. to ensure that he has the skill to reach the minimum level of quality in the weld. all safety clothing and extraction Copyrlgtd (0 2002 TWI ue Copyrlgtd e 2002 T'NI Ud ififl ··.00 Once the weld has been completed it is usually visually inspected.1 11. Mechanically tested to ensure that the desired level of mechanical properties have been met" If all the desired properties have been met.

gas flow rate. or root by poor gas cover Lo.e.r ___ CO2 High level of fume Hydrogen control Cellulosic: E 6010 Hydrogen . 35 thls ls a cheap method of mauutecture and the steel will be rcnncd durto: the process of welding by the reftning agents and elements contataed In the flux coaUQg" 31 Copyright j~ e 2002 TWI Lid 2002 T'M Ud J2 ~ .t. or wrong vertex angle) 2) 3) 4) (Loss of gas shield mainly on site) i.. an: process 14) 15) Light slag removal 15) Copyright TWI Ud " Copyrtghl~2002TWUd 36 6 . 15) Copyrlgtd I Pipe root runs* 15) The core wire ror most M1'vlAelectrodes is of a low quality sted. all safety clothing and good extraction I I I I I I I Arc Voltage Speed of Travel Duty Cycles Connections Insulation AC or DC + Polarity Tungsten Tungsten type & 0 vertex angle h 19) filler rod. Method Correct Optional e 2002 T'M Ltd of arc ignition (High frequency h 18) Copyright visor. ceramics or lift arc) TIG torch head with ground tungsten.. flow-meter... of gas shield/site Complex equipment High ozonelevets" Most welding imperfections with TIG are caused by a lack of welder skill. etc" 1 4) H. or incorrect setting of the equipment. & gas regulator collets. oIr.1 Classification: Advantages: Disadvantages: Main Constituent : Titania Ti02 Shielding gas: CO2 General Uses: General Purpose High quality work Rutile: E6013 11) 12) 13) 14) Field or shop use Range of consumable< All positional Very portable Simple equipment 11) 12) 13) 14) High skiD factor Slag Inclusions Low operating factor Basic: E7018 Calcium compounds Cellulose C . (Argon or Helium) Gas hose. R~ijlill]mm~IDlJ.tS f ~ 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) A TransfonnerlRectifier (Constant A power and power return cable An Inert shielding no ·"1 11.e.. e 2002 welding speed. torch manipulation.'J'. Slope out) 11) 12) 13) High quallty Good controJ All positional Lowest 11) Very high sIdU factor Range of consumable Crater pipes (Bad weld finish technique Oxidation 12) 13) of SIS weld bead.25 Pammetem 11) 13) 15) Amperage &: InspectiQn 12) 14) 16) 18) 110) JPrnnm 11. to correct specification" 33 I Ill) Copyright ~ Gas type & flow rate Ceramic condition I extraction 1 112) Gas lens fitted" 2002 TWI Ud i'ffl 1L30 Advantages & Disadvmtages Advantages: Disadvantages: 1L32 I) Tungsten Surface inclusions porosity (Low skill.fl 11. i. Current..27 current type) gas..

We often mix these gases to get both benefits" We sometimes use additions stainless steels.40 112) 114) 16) 18) 110) 112) OCV & Arc Voltage Gas type & flow rate Roller size & pressure Inductance Connections Angles & travel speed" settings Liner size Insulation/extraction Duty cycle I") Co~ghl I I I I I I 1) 2) 3) Silica inclusions (poor inter-run cleaning) with dip transfer) Lack of side wall fusion (Primarily Porosity (From loss of gas shield on site etc)" in lVITGItVIAG are caused by lack settings of the equipment Most welding imperfections of welder skill. Range of consumables Loss I I I CO2: Very good penetration. shield/site Complex equipment We mix both gases in mixture of between argon to get the benefits of both gases" 5-20% COlin IS) CopyrJghI Continuous eledrode liS) High ozone levels· For T stainless steel.GMes Gases used for TIG: Argon Helium or Helium rot DO or a mixture WelhdlJbrng -'HI 11. ~IlG torch & gas regulator with hose. all safety clothing J7 ~ JP>mmetem &: InspectiQij Po»nm 11) 13) 15) 17) 19) WFS/Amperage Wire type &0 Contact tip/condition lL38 11. contact tip & nozzle with correct drive rolls (Push or Pull) and diameter and good extraction' 38 Wire feed unit Electrode wire to correct specification of nitrogen when welding some Correct visor & glass. liner. or transfer Bad power connections Copyright 0 2002 TWI Uti will cause a loss of voltage in the arc" 40 e 21]02: TWZ lid 3. or copper" Copyright e 2002 TWI Lid I~) Gas hose. flffl Gases fQrl&G & MAG WelWng Gases used for lVIIG: Argon Advantages: Disadvantages: Gases used for MAG: fusion 11. We would need 2-3 times the flow rate of helium to get the same coverage as helium is less dense than air. with low spatter or ga. this gives more fluidity to the weld and an improved toe blend" e 2002 TWI Ud 4' Copyrigti e 2002 T'M Ud 7 . flow-meter. Very stable arc. In the overhead position the reverse is true. or incorrect The use oflow quality wires will cause wire feed problems Worn contact tips will cause poor power pick up. whilst argon is denser than air and gives good coverage of the weld area in the down hand position. diffuser.44 or Helium of CO2 and Argon" spray transfer CO2 or mixtures 11) 12) 13) 14) Lower sldU required Ill) 112) 113) 11 4) Lack of sidewall EasU)' automated All postuonal Thlcklthln (DIp/Pulse) material. active. or mixed shielding gas has higher ionization gas (Argon or CO') deeper penetration. cannot support produces an unstable arc. we use argon with a 2% oxygen.34 II) of these gases" potential than argon and gives A Transformer/Rectifier (Constant voltage type) A power and power retnrn cable An Inert. with lots of spatter Argon: Shallow penetration.

~ ![1J§ fQI MIGIMAG & m:iCil_l1.6 . & Precision layer wound Wires diameters: 0. and triple de-oxidised wires' 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) \6) 7) A TransformerlRectifier (Constant voltage type) A power and power return cable A torch head assembly A granulated flux A flux delivery system A flux recovery system Electrode wire to correct specification and diameter Correct safety clothing and good extraction' e 2002 T"M Ltd Quality of winding: Random wound. 8 .52 11) 13) 15) 1) WFS/Amperage Flux type & mesh size Wire '" & condition Flux delivery/recovery Insulation/duty cycle Tip size & condition Lack: of fusion (Caused by high levels of arc blow) Solidification cracks (From S pick up from high dilution) Shrinkage cavities (From high depth:width ratio) Porosity (Using damp fluxes.. or un-cleaned plates)' 112) 114) 116) 118) 1110) 1112) OCV & Arc Voltage 2) Flux condition Wire Specification Electrode stick-out Connections Speed of travel= 3) 4) h Ill) 19) Most welding imperfections in SAW are caused by incorrect setting of the equipment. Electrode wires for MIG are the same as rods for TIG" The quality of temper and copper coating is also very important. Fluxes are varied and are classified by their method of manufacture and composition' Copyrlghll!:l2002 1\\1 Lid 47 Copyr1ghll!:l2D02 TWI Lid .:>2. Layer wound. Minor changes in the welding parameters of SAW can have a major effect on weld composition and weld quality> Copyrighl ~ 2002 TWI Lid CoP'jT1ghl e 2002 TWI Lid ~ JK~ i JElYl~ fQ[ SA ~~lmDg11. or welding plates that have not been properly cleaned.56 Consumables for Submerged Arc Welding consist of a wire and a l1ux' The wire is similar to that of solid wire MIGIMAG and is chosen from a table of chemical compositions' Advantages: Disadvantages: 11) 11. using incorrect or wrongly dried consumables.46 Wires must be drawn as deposited and are therefore of very high quality. The copper coating on ~lIG wires maximises the current pick up" Specifications for wires are as per their chemical compositions" II Grades: Composition + Single."'" 1 11.]'..) 13) 14) RestrictedIn position Arc bIowwl1h DC Shrinkage cavities Penetration control IS) IS) Variablecomposition. double.) 13) 14) Low weld metal costs EasUymedJanized Low Ozoneproduction Rapid weld completion Novisiblearc light 11) 11.4 mm 0 supplied on 1 kg (fine wire) & 15 kg spools' Copyrigtd@2002 TWI Lid 4J 18) Copyright .

8 .20 Shan touch the arrow line Shan be parallel to the bottom of the drawing" ------. n IV or . (Higher strength & toughness in the weld metal) though the more difficult it becomes to use (Less tolerant of poor preparation etc.1.~ Copyrfght gI 20021WI LId e 2002 TW1 Lid " " We1I&Symbo]s on Draw]ngs 2) Convention of The reference line: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A 2.1.4 & BS En 22553" Copyright c) Shall point towards a single plate preparation> . the more basic is the flux. We obviously need some sort of code which would be understood by everyone" Most countries have their own standards for symbols.5 BI number" The higher the bascicity index number. AWS A2.) Copyright@~rMlld e 2002 1'NI Lid so ~~::::e:::ld:::§~ym~oo:::Jls:::o=n::::Dra::::::::wm. Some of them are BS 499 Part 2.9 .2 . (Higher quality)" Copyrlghl Acidic Neutral Semi Basic Basic < 0.2 BI number 1.171 In BS 4165 fluxes may be classified into: Basicity Index* Fluxes are grouped in BS 4165 by the amount of acid or basic elements they contain by a method called the Basicity Index This is calculated by dividing the Basic elements by the Acid elements as follows:" Basic Index number.4 (US) a) b) .9 BI number 0.10 1) Convention of the arrow line: BS. BI Number* Acidic Elements % The higher the index.15 Weld Symbols on Dmwin~ 3) Convention of The reference line: BS En 22553 or ISO 2553 a) b) c) Shall touch the arrow line ShaD be parallel to the bottom of the drawing There shaU be a further broken line above or beneath the reference line (Except where the weld is symmetrical» 13.5 BI number Highly Basic 2._ " ~ The above information does not tell us much about the wishes of the designer.05 Welding Symbols A method of transferring information from the design office to the workshop jZ'(..3.2. Basic Elements % .ffl 13.5 .. BSEn & AWS b) Shall not be parallel to the drawing n I Wd4 ..a"" Weld a) SymJboJis Shall touch the joint intersection on Drawmgs 13. then the higher the weld quality.-- Copyrfghl e 20021'N1 Ud copyrigtf 1\:1 2002 TWI Ud " 9 .=· ~gS~13.8 BI number 1.

go on the ~ Welds the other side of the joint.· I I n/-~~.Sb8l'\ ~ I-i-. z 13. length ofany (spaces)" os are shown to the left of the symbol I II \ a) b) Welds this ~de of joint. I3.25 Wcld SymOO]SOJDl DmwUng& reference line line 13. or NDT may be placed in the fish tail" Copyright €)2002 TWlltd Copyrlght €I 2002 TWI Ud 60 10 .e. length of welds. length of welds. Number of welds.35 We1ld §yw1OO]s OD DmwUIDlgs Z8~ or .~. V· H Copyright ~ 2002 TV'" Ud sa Supplementary Site Weld Weld Symbols Representation of welds done from both sides of the joint intersection. length ofany spaces I) All leg lengths shall be preceded by Z and throat by a or S" IOV 4x50(50. go on top of the reference line be drawn with the Symbols with • vertlc.. touched by the arrow head Ground flush Fillet weld Double bevel Double J" Welding process.4 OD D1mw1i1l1lW. (ISO 2553) the reference line the joint. go on the brokon reference Symbols with a vertical hne component must vertical line to the left side of the symbol All CSA dimensions e) d) e) be drawn with the are shown to the left of the symbol All linear dimensions are shown on the !ii!!! of the symbol i.40 Weld Symbols on Drawings ~ ~ Copyrtght@ 2002 TWI Ud n/ n/ I I Weld Symbols on Drawings BS En 22553 (ISO 2553) 8V I .lline component must vertical line to the left side of the symbol All CSA dimensions d) e) Alllln .Wcld Symbols on JD2Jmw]XDW' Symbols: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A2. go Wldemeath Welds the other side of 13. r dimensions are shown on the r!l:!!! of the symbol i. such as WPS number.e. Numerical BS En & BS Further supplementary information.V-:. Number of welds.O(5~):I Copyrlgh\ ~ 2002 TWlltd Wcld §ymOO]s BS 499 &AWS A2.30 Symbols: BSEn 22553.4 (US) a) b) c) Welds this side of joint.

J. procedures. an d finally.. testing. TI1. These procedures should include approved cuttinzand welding procedures weld repair a nc I u 1 proceoures. repair rate during production and safety standards on site. 2. These questions could include the completeness of the job.' 1 J. A list of rhc inspection team and the team leader will ensure that those involved with the fabrication and inspection of the product are on hand to answer pertinent questions..g. Prior to the site visit it is important to spend some time planning the visit. Process control procedures should be reviewed for adequacy.L. BS:5500) will tabulate a list of the required documentation which may be required to be included In the final data book package.. I.. etc. final approval.. 1.. he L. A review of the quality plan and inspection completed &. mill test reports and material traceability records are documented and accepted.L'1d signed off. coating .N'SV)-. -SENiOR vVELDING LN"SPECTOR QUESTION: /IR OJJJ~ ~J- \r) > You are required to visit a 'site on which your inspectors have been involved.{ Nn. Some standards (e. if used on the job. check lists to ensure all stases c- are 2. NDT and Inspection personnel approvals and all should be up to date and current in the particular discipline of expertise. 05. This may include consumable certification. c.. Certain documents can greatly assist the overall audit pian such as quality plans and inspection check lists. and the service conditions of the final product will be beneficial in esscssiiig the fitness of the product for service..estandard of access and scaffolding can have a direct bearing on the quality levels attained as safe confident workers are much more likely to produce quality fit ups and welds.. housekeeping. accuracy and approval.. thea the foHo··. in order that a logical approach be made and that vital details are not overlooked..:v-ing documents should be reviewed as a minimum prior to sizninz off and issuing 2. Certificate of Cornoliance." required... Personnel qualification review should include welder qualifications. Th~ work involves the inspection of a welded structure to an application standard and is now ready for . What questions do you ask? What documents do you review or require before SUbmitting an inspection report to the authorities concerned? TYPICAL A. __ .. '-' _ .ER: . 1 . -1- . A knowledge of the standard that was used for fabrication. 4. __at treatment ~"f". If not specified by code or client specifications. Material certificates...

and control the work of staff in areas for which you are responsible To carry out a periodic and systematic Extremely likely to cause failure. practical. NDT reports Copyright Ud ..l:Ji8tr:l.. or Fractures Oral e 2002 TWI - -----.. utilising your available free time.I.. 6 . that meets a specific aim To make all necessary arrangements required to carry out. pre-determined and structured pathway.. Your plan needs to be flexible in case there are any changes to the course structure. JPIoIo. Critical Path Analysis. make a reverse schedule plan to your exam date.00 "The really nice thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise and is not preceded by long periods of worry and depression'> We make plans every day for the most trivial of things All delegates must have planned to come here today' Many tools are used for production planning including: Gant Charts..ofd~fects: Minor: Major: Critical: Unlikely to cause failure J 2) Organise in Ibe con-eel place allhe correct lime of the product" 3) Supervise Likely to cause failure.1Q)&WIIol]. JlIolr.lfffl Once an inspection plan has been made the organisation must then begin" 'This may involve the following 1) 2) Any training Procurement Transport Accommodation Any special Leave cycles etc' elements: required Once a plan has been organised it is essential that control exercised so that the plan is successfully implemented A supervisor is essentially a manager requires certain specific management of men which skills: is & certification of equipments Staffing the plan to/from site.. ... Rad'Int ... or fulfil a plan Ensuring all things IIJ'e 10. Forward and Reverse Scheduling...30 D1llltiesof i Senior InspecWr 1) Plan An agreed.Tews Associated with QAlQC A Defect: A welding imperfection that falls outside of a level of acceptance in an applied standard" 10...!..!.!:JriJJ]I..55 aass~.§~~ 11. Remember that Radiographic sensitometry) is not covered Specific theory Interpretation (Theory. on the course syllabus. etc" Copyrlght@2oo2TW1Ud J3 Using the following headings and the days on which they will be covered on the course. and at site and messing etc) Each student should give an attribute/skill that they think is important for "effective supervision of welding inspectors" Student board" names to be placed next to their choice on the white 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Copyrfghl (0 needs (Religious Do not open next slide until this task has been carried out"" 2002 TWI Lid " Copyright e 2002 TWI Ud 3.1Pl!. loss of life" TWI Ud "check" on a system/process to ensure that it has been carried out as specified" Copyrlght@ 2002 TWI Ud J2 Copyright e 2002 Jl ___ . but small risk of loss of life" with high risk of 4) Audit To!:!a. Weld symbols Success" --..

8 3.P.T procedure lHyd.-.ifi.0 Certificate of Completion 1. ~.D.6 2.4 3.""icates FOLDPR2 4.cate !List GfN.7 2.0 INDT Procedures I---.3 3.1 3.2 3. o-n--:"&-E--x-.5 3. Cer. Operators & Cert1.5 2. Procedure jLiquid Penetrant Inspection Procedure !Equipment Calibration.I.ecu-'-ti-on-.-':Pr-oc-v-ed-:-ur-re-----.DOCUMENTAT!ON FOLDER I 1.6 IRadiography Test Pro~e lmtrasonic lestProcedure IM.I"Otest Procedure !Load out Procedure !Painting Procedu.4 ] 2.0 IProcedures 2.) IWeld Visual Inspection Procedure Control Procedure (PoW.1 Inspection & Release Note (LRS) 1.-~~~~~--------~ t 3.VPS + PQR) (as oer index) ·uIList I of Welders & Certificates (Certificates as per list) Page I of3 .2 IInspection and Test Plan 2.H. IConsumable IDimensional Control Procedure -.T. 7~ .0 Welding Procedures (\.2 0 USER GUIDE I ~ IrF-a-b~ri-ca--tJ.1 2.

..10 Site Query Reports / Non-conformance Reoorts 5. I r!Painting Control Reports 5..1 IAs-built Weld Maps user guide..ster) 6.s ! 5.13! Concrete Test Certificates FOLDER 4 6.5 Visual Inspection Report.glHardness Rep(Jrt Test Report 5. 121Paint Warranty 5.:cls/..7lHydrGtest reports with ICalibration Certificates 5.DOCUMENTATION USER GUIDF 5.8!P..R Page 3 ofl . f-----l RT Reports UT Reports '-------l>~ ~IT Reports .W.0 As-built Drawings ( as r as-built drawinz re .T....H.. 5. ~ 5..+INDT Repcns f---:----.f.

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