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3nc &~. 3nc ®1[ Wefa 3~. 2e§. &Wg. Convention of BIS 499 (U K):
The arrow line:
a) b) c) Shall touch the joint ihtersection. Shan not be parallel to the drawing. Shall point towards a single plate preparation.

Reference line:
a) b) Shall join the arrow line. Shailbe parallel to the bottom of the drawing.

Symbols:
a) b) c) Welds this side of joint, go underneath the reference line. Welds the other side of the joint, go on top of the reference line. Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the vertical line to the left side of the symbol. d) e) All cross sectional dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol. All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length of any spaces. Fillet welds a. Throat. b. Leg Example: a.7 b.10 Bevels J's Number. X Length. 10 X 50 (Space). (100)

,.

Examples of BS 499 double sided butt weld symbols


Double bevel Double V Double J Double U

'

...

.,

2) Supplementary & further weld symbols to BS 499:


Square butt weld

/:ld~d/8

10

·Spotw~ Compound weld(Singlebeveland fillet)

Intermittent plug and fillet welds are shown pitched to the start of each weld as shown below: 3 No' s. ~omm length.

10

~3X

20

(50) (50)~

Staggered.

50 mm gap to each weld start.

3) Convention of 15025531

(Has replaced BS 499 in UK & Europe) This standard uses a different method to represent arrow side and other side of the weld joint. A broken line shall be shown above or below the reference line, except in the case of welds that are totally symmetrical about the central axis of the plate Weld symbols are basically as per BS 499 however, fillet weld leg length must always be preceded by the letter Z and nominal throat thickness by the letter a. In deep penetration fillet welds and partial penetration butt welds, the effective throat thickness must always be indicated by the letter S. Removable backing strip /_ Welding process Reference information

as En

22553:

------~~~----a. 8 s. 10 z, 10

W~
( " ~

131

0'---Brokenlineindicating
other side. Weld toes to be ground smoothly

4) Convention

of AWS A2.4 (USA):

This standard uses the same convention as BS499 to show this side and other side of the reference line. Some special symbols are used in this standard. __ A difference between the conventions is that in AWS A2.4 a change of direction in the arrow line is used to indicate single plate preparations.

AVVS A2.4 may also use a number of reference lines from the arrow line to indicate the sequence or procedure of welding.

Staggered arrow shows Single plate preparation , 3rd operation

3/8
~2~n_d~0.p_e~ra_ti~0_n 1~/4~~~~~<:GMAVV RT

A further difference between BS 499 and AWS standards is that the AWS A2.4 standard, dimensions the pitch of intermittent fillet welds and plug welds to the centre of each weld. (BS dimensions these to the start of each weld) Staggered intermittent fillet welds are indicated to AWS as below: .......-::Length of weld.

5/16 5/16

3 -5 3 -5
'Pitch to weld centres.

BS 499 : Part 2

1980

Table 10.:1< Numerical indication of process


No
11 111 112 113 114 115 118 12 121 122 13 131 135 136 14 141 149 15 18 181 185 2 21 22 221 225 23 24 25 29 291

Process
Arc welding Metal-arc Metal-arc welding welding without gas protection electrode electrode with covered

No
47 48 7 71 72 73 74 75 751 752 753 76 77 78 781 782 9 91 911 912

Process
Gas pressure Cold welding Other welding processes welding

Gravity arc welding with covered Bare wire metal arc welding Flux cored metal-arc welding Coated wire metal-arc welding arc welding welding Firecracker Submerged

Thermit welding Electroslag welding Electrogas welding Induction welding Light radiation Laser welding welding

Submerged arc welding with wire electrode Submerged arc welding with strip electrode Gas shielded metal-arc welding MIG welding MAG welding: metal-arc welding with non-inert gas shield Flux cored metal-arc welding with non-inert gas shield Gas-shielded welding with non-consumable TIG welding Atomic-hydrogen welding Plasma arc welding Other arc welding processes Carbon Rotating arc welding arc welding electrode

Arc image welding Infrared welding Electron beam welding Percussion welding Stud welding Arc stud welding Resistance stud welding Brazing. soldering Brazing Infrared brazing Flame brazing Furnace brazing Dip brazing Salt bath brazingInduction brazing Ultrasonic brazing Resistance brazing Diffusion brazing Friction brazing Vacuum brazing Other brazing processes Soldering Infrared soh1ering Flame soldering Furnace soldering Dip sold~ring Salt bath soldering Induction soldering Ultrasonic soldering Resistance soldering Diffusion soldering Flow soldering Soldering with soldering iron Friction soldering Vacuum soldering Other soldering processes Braze w.. :.!ing Gas braze welding Arc braze welding and braze welding

Resistance welding Spot welding Seam welding Lap seam welding Seam welding with strip Projection welding Flash welding Resistance butt welding processes Other resistance welding HF resistance welding

913 914 915


916 917

918 919
923

924 93
94

3 Gas welding 31 Oxv-fuel gas welding


311 312 313 Oxy-acetylene welding Oxv-propane welding Oxy-hydrogen welding Air fuel gas welding Air-acetylene welding Air-propane welding Solid phase welding; Ultrasonic welding Friction welding Forge welding Welding Explosive Diffusion by high mechanical welding welding energy Pressure welding

941 942 943


944

32
321

945 946 947 948


949 951 952 953 954

322
4 41 42 43 44 441 45
:I<

96
97

971
972

This table complies with International Standard ISO 4063

.':

. <.

TECHNICAL NOTES RAD,U/T ,MPI,PEN

PENETRANT IlVIPI
T:21VlP. PEN. 5-50 C [ABOVE 50 USE DRY PO\VDER] PEN!lvlPI 500 Lux

VIE\VING LIGHT

FLOURESCENT
USE FLOURESCENT

LAlvIP PO"\VER

INK [ NO BACKGROUND] UV A 800 l\tfICRO\VA TT/SQ. CN!


10 LUX

VIE\VING DARKl'fESS BELO\V

.....

_ _-_ _. _._-------.. .....

..

MPI

THROUGH PAINT-UP TO so ivllCRON SUB SURFACE DEFECTS-YES -OND.C ONL Y-2ivINIDEEP YOKE NO CURRENT RECORDED
BUT ~ruST SHOW LIFT POWER PRODS 7.5 Ai'tIPS/Mi."{ [OF SPACE) TYP. I.E: ZOOMM SPACE = 1500 A.I.'vfPS THEREFORE MUST RECORD SPACE + AMPS
ALL MUST RECORD 2 DIRECTIONS AT 90 DEG BURi'1AH CASTROL STRIP INDICATIONS

i\lfAX

4.5 KG

NORJvIALL Y A.C [ BUT CAl."f BE EITHER]

[3 LINESVISIBLEJ

------ -_ _--------------...•

.,

UL TRASO:l'liCS .
PROBES
o [COiVfPRESION PROBE] FOR LAlvlINA TIONS LESS THAN 10NIMt-70
10 - lSiYThtIt -------60+70 15MlVlt+------------4S+60 OVER @ sorvfi\1t---~---45 ONLY

iVIHz

'"NORtV1AL WELDS"--4-S
'WHAT CALIBRATION HOLE DIA. + DEPTH RECORD TYPE

M:Hz [HIGHER !LESS PE~l

RECORD CRYSTAL SIZE( USUALL lOM?vl1/SINGLE/TWIN? SENSITIVITY BLOCK? [SIDE DRlLLED HOLE]

COUPLANT

--- ----.-.._

~ ...

--- -~--

--

-_..----_.

'

VARIOUS TECH INFO U/T


ASlVIE v

= NDT CODE

eg ARTICLE 4 =

urr

F.S.H = FULL SCREEN HEIGHT B.\-V.E = BACK \-VALL ECHO SINGLE COtvlP. PROBES HAVE A "DEAD ZO~C"; SO DEFECTS tvlAY BE MlSSED. RECORD BATCH No's / SERIAL No's

RAD
SENS ITIVITY=
101 DIA.lV1ETEROF StvfALLEST \VIRE

THICKNESS OF i\1ET AL UNTIER \VIRE


·~--==X~10~O~%~----.. __ ~. .. .

---'>---.,

..

RADIOGRAPHY
XRAY

K. V AS LOW AS POSS. =BEST DEFINITION


GEN. 80 K.V LOWEST(pERHAPS OK ON ALU:v~TULvf] MINIMUM@ 140 K.V FOR STEEL

FOCAL SPOT

THE LA....~GERIT IS I LONGER FFD [ FIT..MFOCUS DIST A.J."iCEJ

GAlYliVlA
IRI1J1vl 192 UTERBImvI SCREENS

SFD
SOURSE

TYPICAL@ 500MlV{ (BUT VARIES GREATLY] stzs TYP. !.5X1.5 ;-"4\1

NOR...'-l.Q. COBALT 60 OVER @ 25~(};1 ONL Y USED ON THDl' SECTION [ BELOW 10 ~c.1] TI~lE I COST 0.1 ~t?v1FRONT A."."fD BACK TYP.; 4MINS AT 20 C GAM~l.\.. MUST HAVE X RAY OVER 12.0K.V

DEVELOP~IENT

DENSITY TYP. 2-~ [E.'<PECT READINGS ON \VELD + PLATE] SENSITIVITY TYP.:! OR LESS (LO\V"ER [S BEST]

.------------.-.--~- ---..

.. -..

----.- ...-.~--

..

--------.
'

\
.;.

\" ,

,
"

-:: .-'\

QUALITY CHECK LISTS


RAD,lYIPI,PENETR4.J.'IT, Urr

OUALITY

CHECK

LIST:

Radiography used

/ Flaw Detection ',o/elded

BS 3683 Pt 3 : Terms BS 2600

in NDT Radiological

I !

Methods for radiographic butt joints in steel ?t 1 ?t 2

e xam i.na i.ori t of fusion


50mm thick 200mm

I!

2mm up to and including


Over

50mm up to and including

thick. c i r-cumf'e t i a l ren

I!

as

2910

Rad i ogr-aph i c examination of f'us on · elded i .... butt joints in steel pipes Image quality indicators for radiography recommendations for their use. Radiology of Ln t er-na.Ldefects by radiography. in Modern Industry - Kodak i n castings ~-

8S 3971 8S 2737 Radiography

and as revealed

1) 2) 3)
4)

Focal spot or source size and streng~h should be displayed on the apparatus. Evidence of this to be available. Cali~ration Regular Records of densitometers to be carried using a traceable film density strip

checks

out on safelights. solutions including replenisher.

to be kept

of processing

5) 6) 7) 8)

Lead and salt Characteristic be available. Metal

screens curves,

to be checked exposure

regularly and

charts

101 charts

should

step wedges

should

be available.

Radiation safety measures should be e~?loyed to the latest regulations. Evidence of radiation monitor calibration should be available. Film storage of competency. should be used for both manual and automatic

9) 10) 11)

Certificates

Film test strips systems.

-_

SAlillT QUALITY 8S 6072 8S 4069 BS 4489

SCHOOL CF APPLIED

NOH-DESTRUCTIVE

TESTING

CHECK

LIST:

Magnetic particle

Particle flaw detection inks

Magnetic Magnetic

flaw detection

and powders
(black light) used in NDT

Measurement Pt 2 : Terms

of UV.A radiation used in NDT used

as as

3683 S044

Mag:1etic particle in magnetic

f'Lav detection fla~ measuring

Contrast aid paints detection

particle

8S 89

Spec for direct acting indicating instruments and their accessories. for acidity

electrical

1) 2)

Vapour;degreaser Ammeter ammeter ammeter

checks - difference bet'''''een check ammeter and r../ c shall not exceed 10% of scale reading. Note check shall be calibrated to a traceable standard.

3)

Magnetic ink - composition. Non-fluorescent - not less 3.S% by volume. Fluorescent - not less th~~

than 0.1%

1.2S%

a~d not more

than by volume

and not more

tha~ 0.3%

Other solids if present magnetic content.

not more

than 10% by mass of ferro-

Particle size - inks - in at least 99% of a representative sample no particle shall exceed 100~m. Powders - in at least shall exceed 200~m.
4)

99% of a representative

sample

no particle

Test for solid content and general condition of inks - agitate ink, place sample of 100ml into a settlement flask, allo~ to settle for 60 minutes. Read off result to nearest O.lml. Record as solid contents by volume. Special test for Tluorescent Yello~ - green fluorescence observed, discard ink. inks - check ink for evidence of in the supernatant liquid. If

S)

Functioning test magnetic inks and powders - use ring type test piece, Fig 2 BS 4069. UsiQg 750A (RMS) at least 2 holes should give an indication. Residual magnetism technique for powders - use test piece Fig 3 BS 4069. Mount test piece on insulated rod, apply SOOA DC through threading bar and apply dry po~der to each hole in turn commencing with the hole nearest to the surface. Powder should be applied at a distance of 200-300mm. At least five holes should give an indication.

Magnetic flow technique for inks and po~ders - use test piece Fig 4 BS 4069. Magnetise test piece parallel to coil axis or use electro-magnets. The hole Aerosol should give an indication. be date stamped.

containers

should

2
6) Corrosion test - use low carbon surface texture 3.2um Ra Partially There 7) Black immerse bar steel bar 150mm long, 12.5r.~ dia,
o

in ink sa~ple

for minimum

12 hrs at 2S C

should light

be no evidence - check minimum

of corrosion. i~tensity depending upon type.

50 lux or O.BmW/cm 8) 9) Check level

or BOOuW/cm light

of white

mini;;;um 500 lux.

Permanent Shall have

magnetic maximum

& DC electro-magnets.
pole spaci~g of lSCmm.

For pole spacing less than 7Smm the lifting capacity shall be not less than 0.24kg per mm of pole spacing. Tr greater than 75mm the lifting power shall be at least lBkg. AC electro-magnets - for pole spacing lifting capacity shall be 4.5kg. of 300mm or less the

STANDARD No's U/T BS 3923 . NOW BS EN 571

PEN. BS 6443 '84 MPI RAD. BS 6072

BS 2600 [GENERAL/PL Tl [ PIPE] NOW BS EN 462-1

RAD .BS 2910 IQI BS 3971

las &oociared with QA/QC


A Defect:

10.)0

A welding imperfection that falls outside of a level of acceptance in an applied standard"

1) Plan 2) Organise

An agreed, pre-determined and structured pathway, that meets a specific aim To make all necessary arrangements required to carry out, or fulfil a plan
Ensuring all
thiUg:!I

Gasses..of~~fects: j
Minor: Major: Critical: Unlikely to cause failure of the product" Likely to cause failure, but small risk of loss of life" Extremely likely to cause failure, with high risk of loss oflife*
J1

ere:

ill

the

COITC'Ct

place

a.I:

(he cCIIT'KC rime

3) Supervise 4) Audit

To instruct, and control the work of staff in areas for which you are responsible To carry out a periodic and systematic "check" on a system/process to ensure that it has been carried out as specified"
J2

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"The really nice thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise and is not preceded by long periods of worry and depression'>
We make plans every day for the most trivial of things All delegates must have planned to come here today" Many tools are used for production planning including: Gant Charts. FOIWard and Reverse Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis. etc"
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Using the following headings and the days on which they will be covered on the course, make a reverse schedule plan to your exam date, utilising your available free time. Your plan needs to be flexible in case there are any changes to the course structure. Remember that Radiographic Interpretation (Theory, practical, or sensitometry) is not covered on the course syllabus. Specific theory Fractures Oral
Copyright

--

--......

Rad'Int
.

Weld symbols

Success" ~

NDT reports
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Once an inspection plan has been made the organisation must then begin"
'This may involve the following elements:
1) 2)

Once a plan has been organised it is essential that control is . exercised so that the plan is successfully implemented A supervisor is essentially a manager of men which requires certain specific management skills: Each student should give an attribute/skill that they think. is important for "effective supervision of welding inspectors" Student names to be placed next to their choice on the white board" Do not open next slide until this task has been carried out" *

Any training & certification required Staffing the plan Procurement of equiprnents Transport to/from site, and at site Accommodation and messing Any special needs (Religious etc) Leave cycles etc"
Ud

3) 4) 5)
6) 7)
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=D-.-.;)

(31_,.y,_,li--..
Introductions & Admin

:i'.{'
09.03

D~y2 --------=--"'~.-=-------......
Re"iew of day 1

09.Q.I

\VeJcome

to the course,

+ Open

questions)

Discus~ion+ Pre course assessment


Revision Supenision. Lunch Planning. OrganIzing. Auditing.

Continue Audit of NDT reports. Weldabillty. Health & Safety. *

i'ilan Management
Course

Oele~te E:terdse

NDT Auditing of NDT Reports Part I'


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-------

.... ;:;:;:;.~~~t_ .... '---------

D<ID.y:5

09.05

D~y4 --------=-""~f..--..::.---Review of day J + Open questions


Heat Treatments Introduction to l\t[odes orin Service & BriUle Fractures Re'Vlew Reporting Praetlce Failure

09.06

Review of day 2 + Open question. ;\-ledlanic.1 Testing


Welding Advanced Procedures Welding Processes

Fatigue,

Ductile

Welding Conrumables Weld Symbols'

Fraemred Surface
Fractul"£d Surface Revision

WIS HI E End of Ceurse Assessment


End of course revtew*'

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~D~(8l~y"","", ~S
For WIS 10 E CSWIP 3.2 Exam 9am - 5pm For WIS 10
Revkw of days 1 - 4 + Open question. End of Course Assessment

09.07

Specilic Tbeory/Pracdcal: 4 from 6 Weld Symbols Fractured Surfac"" NDT Reports" 3 Onl
Time 1 hr 15 minutes:

TImel hr

:a

TIDlelhr Time 1 hr
TIme 15 min's

Radiognphy: Holders of PCN or CSWIP Rad Inll""el2 exempt Open Qnestions


Course DIsperse ...

Radlognphlc interpretation" Multi Choice Radiography Sensitometry


Total

Time I hr )0 minutes Time 30 minutes Tlmelhr

exam time:

7 hours 30

mtnutes •

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T©1rm.§ &,

Defumiti.oIDlS

09.32

Butt welds:
A Weld:"

A union between materials caused by heat, and or pressure

Fillet welds: Spot/Seam welds:

A Joint:'

A conliguration

of members

Plug/Slot welds: Edge welds:

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SI 20021''10'' Ud

Butt joints: T joints: Lap joints:

Sometime we need to prepare the joint to successfully carry out the process of welding. i.e, Full fusion through the faces and access for the process. The terms for V and bevel butt welds are given below

i
Corner joints:

.:"·'::;r >~U
~:l WJ
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Closed
comer

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I;:peS of Smg]e Bmt lP1qlaratDmn


For U & J preparations there are other measurements that need to be known and given when machining the preparation Single bevel Single V SingleJ

09.40

Root radius

-+III

The land"

Single U"
11

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11

Types ofDoub1e Butt Preparation


Double bevel

1)9,41

Remember, the purposes of a weld preparation is to allow access for the welding process, penetration and fusion through the area of the joint and its faces The basic rule is this:

Double V

DoubleJ

-",-·-_,-"~·.IK ;~,c,.J
;:-c",-,,"

The more you take out, then the more you must put back in. This has major effects on economics and distortion control etc The root face, root gap and angle of bevel values, the choice of single, or double sided preparations, are dictated only by the type of welding process, the position and accessibility of the joint"
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DoubleU"
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A butt welded butt joint

A fillet welded T joint

~L:_,-b' 'L ..-........

A.t!!kt welded butt joint

A buttwelded

T joint

A compound welded butt joint"

A compound welded T joint"

._..-,.-,~.

..,

"""-----."".".___

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"

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!lfil

A.t!!ktwelded A.t!!ktwelded Lap joint

Closed Corner joint

~
A butt welded Closed Corner joint
_o--,,_, ~-

A~welded

Lap joint A comooulldwelded Closed Corner joint"

\
~

1_

A compound welded Lap joint"


Copyrlghl6) 20021\\1 LId 17 copyright \0 2002 'lV'JI Ud

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"

An inside fillet welded Open Corner joint

Weld Face

An outside [dletwelded

Open Corner joint

=-1
"i·
. .

A double tilletwelded

Open Corner joint"

,'"

~:~~~"'~
Fusion Zone
ac

Design throat thiclat~··.,·,~" .

Weld root
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09.57

Nominal &; Effective Throat Thickness


Same leg length

--

10.00

Horizontal Leg Length


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Effective throat Deep throat fillet welds from FCAW & SAWetc*
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JEffect

of' Poor Toe Blend Angle

10.02

Effect

@ra Poor Toe Blend Angle

10.05

High stress concentration

3mm* ....;,... ··Impro~e,,~.~.!~


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200/"

......

I;~.~~~P.Un.dl~~j~%;':·~
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Effect

of a Poor Too Blend Angle

10.D7

10.10

It is also possible that the height of excess weld metal is within

the accepted limit of an applied standard, but the toe blend is unacceptable, as shown below

3mm

.~.;~~)l
~""~""-----.

l',\

Extremely poor toe blend, but excess weld metal is within limits"
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~IlsOOhm!lIlm_~tnllPJUllimffimJ"

-,~=~~~I'~~J

/\

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§ummazy of Basic 'feJI'mlS


Weld: Joint: A Union of materials A Configuration of members

10.15

las Asoociafred with QNQC


Quality Assurance: What is wantedl!=

10.18

Weld Preparation:
Types of Weld:

Preparing ajoint to allow access and fusion.


Butt. Fillet. Spot Butt Seam Plug. Slot. Edge. & Closed)

All the planned and systematic actions and activities, required to provide adequate confidence in a product

T;_y.:.p_es_o_f_J_oIn_t: Types of PreparatIon: Tenns:

T. Lap. Corner (Open

Bevel's.

V's. J's. U's. Single & Double. angle. Root face/gap. LandlRadius

Preparation

Bevel/included

Weldment Terms:

Weld face &. root Fusion zone & boundary, HAZ.


Weld toes. Weld width
--

Quality Control:

The operational techniques and activities used to fulfil quality. What must be done, in order achieve what is wanted"

_W_e_l_d_S_iZl_·n_;g::....;.(B_u_tts...:.,): __ . E_X_oos_._w_e_l_d_m_e_hl __ D_TT_.A_TT Weld Sizing (Fillets):


TWlltd

1
)
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OTT. ATT. Excess weld metal. Leg length=


27

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"!It{1

Tenpa

Asoociared with QNQC


Inspection & surveillance carried out during production=

10.22

Terms Asoociated with QNQC


Inspection Specification:

10.25

In process inspection:

A document containing, or referring to all information required in the level of inspection for a product"

Non - Compliance:

A written report, that states that a clause or instruction in the contract documents, code or standard cannot be, or was not met" Certificate of Conformance: A signed certificate, declaring that a product has been produced in accordance with a specification=

Concession:

An agreed deviation (with the customer) from a pre-agreed path, or specification"

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Attribntes
-Honesty

oran Effectiye SlJP«Yiwr


•Knowledgeable ·Experienced •Leadership skills ·Communication skills -Record keeping skills -Irnpartial & fair -Problem solving skills ·Diplomatic etc. etc.>
J7

1125

__

.i!I!lA,__IDl. ....Jt'*:m._lIo:ligfiiil...._dl!lll;ll
0 ...

1128

Attributes/Skills of an effective Senior Welding Inspector"

Audit: To carry out a periodic and systematic "check" on a system/process to ensure that it has been carried out as specified"

•Planning skills -Organisationa] skills -Responsible -Delegation skills ·Motivation skills ·Decisiveness -Analytical=
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• Staff

• Equipment • QAlQClInspection • Documentation (i.e.NDT reports) - Health & Safety


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Responsibilities of, Senior ~r


For a supervisor the principles are:
Identify: Find the facts! ~

1130

We use Non Destructive Testing (NDT) when we wish to assess the integrity of a structure without destroying it The 4 of the common types ofNDT used when assessing Iweldments are:

Measure:

Assess the facts!

-$

Observe:
Copyright e 2002 TWJ lid

Implement & monitor!

t
J.

:p'elletra~i'~4 mr' ",:"m~II.~c


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. le 1:esUl).'Z' g. ~~g,l).etiC ya~\Ci \""'' ' \ Testing' ..,.... \\\C 1:estill-v," / . . -"ltad.iog,ra\l

'JIl'l

C@IDm CC((i)JIillbm$t]P\~JIil©1brnurttt
Method.J

14.07

Procedure'
First the worle must be cleaned thoroughly, then a penetrant is applied for a specified time" Once the contact time has elapsed, the penetrant is removed and a developer is then applied" Any penetrant that has been drawn into a crack by capillary action will be drawn out into the developer" Two types of penetrants 1) Colour contrast
Copyright
IS)

are: Penetrant"
41

2) Fluorescent

Apply Penetrant
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Clean tIlen apply Developer

Result'
41

2DD2 TWJ lid

"#1

Procedure

I Advantages I
11) Low operator skill level 12) All materials 13) Low cost method 14) Simple equipment

Disadvantages II) Highly clean metal 12) Surface flaws only 13) Extremely messy

First the work must be cleaned and a whitener applied for contrast. A magnetic flux is then applied by permanent magnet, electro magnet, or straight current" A magnetic ink is applied which will concentrate in areas of flux leakage, as those caused by flaws"

14) No permanent record"

The weld length must be crossed at 90 by the magnetic field"


0

The types of magnetic media used are: 1) Wet ink 2) Dry powder 3) Fluorescent ink"
CoPJflght ~ 2002

Copyright

e 20021W1

Lid

4'

1'1'.4

ue

l::tfu3\p}e1blc ]P);awtjk;lleTh§ibl[ffi~
Method

14.15

.l
I Advantages I
Disadvantages 11) Fe Magnetic metal only 12) De-magnetize afier use 13) Can cause arc strikes # 14) No permanent record· Result" 11) Low operator skill level 12) Sub surface flaws 13) Relatively cheap 14) Simple equipment

Contrast paint

Magnet & Ink

Copyright 0 2002 "PM

us

.,

# When using the straight current prod technique


Copyright@l2002lW1

ue

llIn1br@.S(Q)Jtj1JlQ 1Cft§lbiIDl~
Procedure

14.22

J
Apply Couplant

Ai

Method Sound wave

.J
Result"

First the work must be cleaned thoroughly, then a couplant is applied to increase sound transmission" A probe is then applied with the correct angle for the weld preparation and sound waves are transmitted" Any imperfections will rebound the sound waves causing a signal to occur on the cathode ray tube"

&r.:::r
~",\.Signal rebounded from Lack of fusion

Copyright

(S)

2002 "PM Ud

.7

CopyrIghI@2002TW1Ucf

-IS

R(g\(p1Jl(D?&S\~1blicfj T©sMI.. Procedure J


I Advantages I
11) Can find lack of fusion
12) Most materials 13) No safety requirements Disadvantages

H.:2

11) High operator skill


12) Difficult to interpret 13) Requires calibration

A film is placed inside a cassette between lead screens. It is then placed to the rear of the object to be radiographed A radiographic source, is exposed to the work and film for a pre-calculated time" Any imperfections in line with the beam of radiation will be shown on the film after exposure and development" The 2 types of radiation used in industrial radiography:
1) 2) X rays (from Cathode Ray Tube)

14) Portablelinstant

results

14) No permanent record"

Gamma rays (from a Radioactive Isotope»


LId

Copyrlghl@2002T1MUd

C0py!1ght@2OO2T'M

"

'PI

Method Load film Exposure to Radiation Interpret Graph


0.' ( .•..•.

I Advantages I
11) A permanent record?
\2) Most materials
i

Disadvantages

_..Q9

Developed~. GraPh'lE:.lJ
""'I
jT;:~,

J"..,.......\~" ..""",,)

-'14i$#J'
.. ::!~,.:r.

11) High operator skill


12) Difficult interpretation 13) Lack of sidewall fusion

13) Assess root pen' in pipe

~
CopyI'istd@2002T'MUd

14) Gamma ray is portable

14) Safety requirements>

image on the film


COpyrtghl.e 2002 TVJI Ud

"

Part of your duties as a Senior Welding lnspector, and therefore also part of your 3.2 final exam, is to audit (or scrutinize) reports for missing, or incorrect information. A knowledge ofNDT is of course essential to carry out this task for NDT reports. Make a list of the elements that you would consider would need checking on an NDT report, prior to accepting it? (10 Min's)"

2 Chedc

NDT method/and

technique.

3 Cbedc NDTprocess 4 Cbedc


5 Chedc

parameters,

All elements relevantto NDT process/materials.


The NDT procedure &.

aD BS nmnbers

are correct

6 Cbedc All units are correct for application 7 Cbedc All imperfections identifiedlsi7ed

ie. rmnIcm

and located.

9Cbedc 10 Check: EvelJlhlng again, "Carefu1I1 "1111" Copyrlgtt ~ 2002 TWI ue

Copyrlght@2002T'MUd

"

..

Steels are classified into groups as follows:

An Alloy steel is one that contains more than Iron & Carbon as a main alloying elements"

'2);;~~~f~g:fffoi;~J
';.~:-=.~~k~~.2...;;:r';";;::"'.·:;'¥!*:f.;fk ..
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l~:;;~~~~~e;b~~:::J
3)J!!_g!.\£~rb~n,.§~e,:~~~~::::}.~%"'earbon~ ..
Plain carbon steels contain only iron & carbon as main alloying elements, traces of Mn Si AI S & P may also be present"

Plain Carbon Steels:*

Alloy steels are divided into 2 groups:*


~·~~fP,-;::·7~!!1~(;?~""~~~~;j'::.'?;~~.:':;'!'~;?'&~?~~:'~~~~:":!::;:':~:,,~, ..... ;

v.~.e~~r.'.~.~r~.-':'l_.",<,~ ~ ," ..

e;~;~':~::"~J'

LQlY..·AI..l9)',§!~~!~,I~~!!~Iaa~oYibirele'ments"-<) High-Alloy,steels:>.:.1% extra alloying-elefue-iils'j ....


.'.:

~:;;·~:'~.::-1';i'g;·~(~)::'~"!:ff"r;";_;~.~:::7·~77."~):7?-::ry:;;0?;:2~~~~~"~
~~",_._.;-.-,.:.:---.... -.

~~~~'::~'-;-"l

copyright e 2002 TVII Ud

11.10

The following basic foundation information on metallurgy will not form any part of your CSWIP examination" A most important function in the metallurgy of steels, is the ability of iron to dissolve carbon in solution" The carbon atom is v.cry much smaller than the iron atom and does not replace it in the atomic structure, but fits between it"

IAt temperatures

below AcJr 1, (LCT) iron exists like this"

f'--_.-fJ
Iron atoms (

"'fjJ---_ ..•

>

Carbonatoms*

~.--.l !;.::::8.,p
~

Alpha iron

This structure occurs below 723 °C and is body centred, or BCC in structure It can only dissolve up to 0.02% Carbon Also known as Ferrite

or BCC iron*

Iron is an element that can exist in 2 types of cubic structures, depending on the temperature. This is an important feature"
CopyrIght@2002TW1 Ltd

aI~

Compressed representation could appear like this

Copyright ~ 2002 TVII Lid

Il.IS

IAt tern peratures

above the AcJr 3, (VCT) iron exists like this"

'Y Gamma iron


This structure occurs above the UCT in Plain Carbon Steels and is FCC in structure. It can dissolve up 2.06% Carbon

If steel is heated and then cooled slowly in equilibrium, then exact reverse atomic changes take place" If a steel that contains more than 0.3% Carbon is cooled quickly, then the carbon does not have time to diffuse out of solution, hence trapping the carbon in the BCC form of iron. This now distorts the cube to an irregular cube, or tetragon" This supersaturated solution is called Martensite and is the hardest structure that can be produced in steels" \
CoP)'rlghl e 2002 T'M ltd

m"-------. - '1
Also called Compressed representation could appear like this
CopyrIghI C 2002 TWI Ud

Austenite or FCC iron"

Solubility

of Carbon

in BCC & FCC phases

of steels'

Martensite

can be defined

as: in

Ferrite:

Low carbon

solubilitv.

Maximum

0.02°/.' 2.1)6%'

A supersaturated solution of carbon BCT iron (Body Centred Tetragonal)

Austeniterv
Martensite:

High carbon

solubilitv.

Maximum

It is the hardest structure


in steels'

we can produce The hardest phase in steels, which is produced by rapid cooling from the Austenite phase It onlv occurs below 300 ·C·

:I'

Compressed

representation

could appear like this


Copyright

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e 2002

T'M Ud

This is a term used to describe the ability of a steel to harden through a cross section. We now understand the mechanism of hardening and its reliance on the rate of cooling from above the vcr of the steel" The Hardenability of a steel is affected by the influence the alloying elements in delaying the transformation temperatures of a steel '" of

The Fe/C equilibriwn diagram is of little use to the engineer when it comes to practical heat treatments, as all phases are shown in equilibriwn cooling" To understand the relative phases of a steel under differing cooling conditions we need to produce a diagram that gives this information" A Time Temperature Transformation diagram shows us this information, and a different diagram is produced for anyone type of steel. The following diagrams show how the effect of carbon and alloying elements effect the hardenability and hence the depth of hardening of steels"
copyright

Each alloying element has a different severity on this effect and from thus was borne the following formulae Ceq = %C

+ Mn + Cr + Mo + V + Ni + Cu
6 5 15'"

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2002 TWlltd

e 2002l'M

Ud

10

.f!!1

':fl

1) Austenite

to PearliteiFerrite

transformation

begin.

VCT Temp

°C

0.1
Copyrtghl ~ 2002 TWI Ud

Time

in seconds"

Time

in seconds

10

100
12

11

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e 20021V'JI

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UCT Temp

Hardenability bas a major effect on the weldability of steels" Consider 2 round bars of the same cross sectional area: Plain Carbon 0.4% Carbon Low Alloy Steel 0,1 % Carbon 1.6%Mn 2,25%Cr 0,5%Mo

°c

0.1
Copyright@20021"/J1Ud

I 10 Time in seconds

100
13

After heating above the ucr and quench cooling, they are sectioned and hardness tested across the area"
Copyright ~ 2002 TW1 Ltd l4

PTI

350~VP
A .'
• ..

fij~OOVPN
¢-¢;

On analysing this experiment, it can be determined that the only difference between these two specimens is their composition" By substituting the values in the Ceq formulae we can see that the hardenability of specimens as follows: A as
%

'-'i<c'

.........~¢-o ~ (>

Hardness readings A) Unhardened area .

(>

(>

..

C=

Ceq 0.4 Ceq 0,76"

~-"

,~9
"'" /
~;~

Bj Completely h~d'~OB

Bas % C+ 0.26+ 0.45 + 0.05=

through the CSA.

It can be determined from this experiment that both; chemical composition and material thickness have a major effect on the hardenability of steels"

copyright ~ 2002 TW'I Lid

"

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is

:1;(1

To summarize the effect of increasing the baroness of steels by thermal treatment, it can be said that the formation of Martensite is caused by the entrapment of carbon in solution, produced by rapid cooling from temperatures above the Upper Critical" In plain carbon steels there must be sufficient carbon to trap. In low alloy steels however, the alloying elements playa significant part in the thermal hardening of steels" In medium, high carbon steels and alloy steels, the formation of Martensite is very dependant on chemical composition and the cooling rate, It is also very dependant on section thickness" This foundation in metallurgy is for information only and will not form any part of your CSWIP examination"
Copyr1gtFl C 2002 TW'I Ud 17 Copyt1ght@2oo2 TW1 Ud

# Studied at 3.1 level

18

Crack type: Location: Steel types:

Microstructure: Occurs when: Hydrogen Hardness Stress Temperature


Copyright ~ 2002 TWI Lid

W HAZ & weld metal cracking a. HAZ (Longitudinal) b. Weld metal (Transverse) a. All harden able steels including: b. HSLA steels c. Quench & Tempered steels Martensite"

is above 15 mUlOO gm weld metal is above 350 VPN is greater than 0.5 of the yield stress is below 300 DC'
Ud

"

Copytigtd

e 2002 TV'JI

Cellulosic electrodes produce hydrogen as a shielding gas Hydrogen produced from \ oil, or paint on plate ~

Hydrogen absorbed in a long, or unstable arc

HSLA or Micro-Alloyed Steels are high strength steels that derive their high strength from finite alloying" Typically the level of alloying is in the region of 0.05% and elements such as vanadium molybdenum and titanium. are used. It would be impossible to match this micro alloying in the electrode due to the effect of losses across an electric arc" It is however important to match the strength of the weld to the strength of the plate, and so a simple way of matching weld strength must be found and utilised" To find a simple method we would need to look at the effect of increasing carbon content on the properties of iron"

Hydrogen crack

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11

Copyrtgtrt C 2002 T'NI Ud

02

Increasing the carbon content will increase the strength, but will also increase greatly the formation of martensite in the weld. This may now produce H, Cracks across weld"

Longitudinal contractional
Copyrlghl

strain

cOP'1righl

4)

2002 TWI Ud

e 2002

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il§1

Quench and tempered steels are highly alloyed Martensitic structure on cooling (> 90%) " A tvpical Carbon Chromium chemical 0.4% 0.8% composition

steels to produce

Quench & Tempered, or Qrr steels are steels that are produced specifically with high hardenability to produce a fme martensitic grain structure during manufacture. These steels are then fully tempered structure, to remove the Martensite which is of high strength and retain the fine grain and toughness" their thickness,

of this tvpe of steel is: 1.0% 0.3% Ceq> 0.78 "

Manganese Molybdenum

in order that these steels can harden throughout

+ Aluminium

(As a grain refiner) + Titaniwn.

their chemical composition changes as the plate thickness increases. This is to maintain the ruling section of the plate, or in other words, to increase the hardenability of the steel" The resultant weldability taken to avoid I¥ cracks must be given to keeping and the tl;. content in the
C~pynghl ~ 2002 11M Ud

The carbon equivalent will need to increase as the thickness of the steel increases, to allow for the slower cooling, or mass effect. This is to increase e 2002 the "Hardenability" or ruling section"

is extremely low, and great care must be in Weld & HAZ. Careful consideration any stress concentration at weld toes weld as low as possible"

Copyright

TWl Ud

1) Maintain calculated preheats, and ~ allow the interpass temperature to go below the pre-heat value" 2) Use Low Hydrogen processes with short arcs & ensure consumables are correctly baked & stored as required" Ifusing a cellulosic E 6010 for the root run, insert the ''Hot pass" as soon as possible. (Before HAZ < 300°C)" any paint, oil or moisture from the plate or pipe" as soon as possible> weld metal"

3)

14) Remove

15) Carry out any specified PWHT

16) Avoid any restraint, and use high ductility


17) For Qrr
Copyright
(S)

Steels minimize

II, and

Stress concentrations"
Copyright

2002 TWI Ud

e 2002

11M Ud

Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure:

Solidification cracking Weld centre (longitudinal) High sulphur & phosphorus Columnar grains in direction of solidification"

Iron Sulphide steels.

films

Solidification

crack

Occurs

when:

Liquid iron sulphides are formed around solidifying grains. High contractional strains are present High dilution processes are being used. There is a high carbon content in the weld metal"
Copyrtghl

e 2002

11M Ud

14.10
I Add Manganese
1~§~~E~rfonn to weld metal SphericalivIn Sulphide balls between solidified grains Cohesion and strength between grains remains

C~m1Dl~fS~lIi~fi~OlIilCmdkiIDlll4.12
11) The first step in eliminating this problem would be to choose a low dilution process, and change the joint design"

I
I
i

12) Grind and seal in any lamination and avoid further dilution" : \3) Add Manganese to the electrode to form spherical MnlS which form between the grain and maintain grain cohesion"

I 4) As carbon increases the MnlS ratio required

increases exponentially and is a major factor. Carbon content % should be a minimised by careful control in electrode and dilution" 5) Limit the heat input, hence low contraction, & minimise restraint"

I
I

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E)

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"

Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when:

Shrinkage cavity Weld centre (Sub Surface) Ferritic Steels. Columnar grains"

High contractional strains are present in welds having a d:w > 2: 1 The solidifying weld metal cannot support this high level of strain and a plastic tear results just below the weld surface on the centreline. This resultant tear has sharp edges and may cause failure of the weld during service, as it is a high stress concentration. It may also progress to the surface during/after the solidification process to appear like a solidification crack"
Copyright

Controlling occurrence of shrinkage cavities: Keep d:w < 2: 1"


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e 2QD2

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33

.:fl

Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when:

Liquation cracking HAZ (longitudinal) High sulphur & phosphorus steels. Areas containing high S content"

When welding low quality, high sulphur content steels, it is possible that areas containing FefS in the HAZ will liquify. This low melting point liquid FefS will form around the grain boundaries in the HAZ. Opposing strains in the weld and HAZ may result in a crack in the HAZ, caused by the high contractional strain in these areas "
Copyrlgtd C 2002 TW'Ilid

Opposing contraction in HAZ & Weld metal

"

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e 2002

-rM Ud

as

11) Use higher quality, refined steels" 12) Minimise heat input" 13) Use pre-heat to control contraction rate"

14) Minimise restraint"

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(g)

2002 l'WI Ud

J8

Crack: type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when:

Lamellar tearing Below weld HAZ High sulphur & phosphorous steels Lamination & Segregation"

r·I-~~-,,·J
/( I

o;;uzu

High contractional strains are through the short transverse direction. There is a high sulfur content in the base metal. There is low through thickness ductility in the base metal. There is high restraint on the work"
Copyrigtd. e 2002 TWJ Ud

..l
High contractional strains
Copyrlgtd.
Q

2002 l'M ltd

il.'l

Plate to be

Full fusion compound cruciform joint"

The test piece is machined from the cruciform joint and placed under tension. If Lamellar tearing was present it would fail at 'a low value"
Cop)'rlshl

e 2002

TVoII Ud

41

CopyrtghlC2002l'MUd

Methods of avoiding Lamellar Tearing:" Assessment of susceptibility to Lamellar Tearing: Carry out through thickness tensile test Carry out Ultra-sonic testing Carry out penetrant testing of plate edges Carry out full chemical analysis (S < 0.05%)' \1) Avoid restraint" Use controlled low sulfur plate' Grind out surface and butter' Change joint design'

\5)

Use a forged T piece (Critical Applications)'

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e 2002

TWI Ud

Copyright

~ 2002 TWI Lid

Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when:

Solidification cracking Weld centre (longitudinal) Austenitic Stainless Steels. Columnar grains In direction of solidification"

Low melting point impurities form around the large solidifying austenitic grain structure on the weld centreline. High contractional strains are present High dilution processes are being used. There is a low, or no ferrite content in the weld metal"
CoP'111gtd@:l2Q02 T\VI Ud Copyright

e 2002

T'M Ud

lS.30

\1) Select a low dilution process, and modify the joint design' 2) As delta ferrite has a mush smaller grain size it is often used to increase the grain boundary area during the welding of austenitic stainless steel. in amounts of between 5 - 15%' 3) Limit the heat input, hence low contraction, &. minimise restraint=

Crack type: Location: Steel types:


Microstructure:

Inter-granular corrosion Weld HAZ. (longitudinal) Stainless steels Sensitised grain boundaries'

Occurs when: An area in the HAZ has been sensitised by the formation of chromium carbides. This area is in the form of a line running parallel to and on both sides of the weld. This depletion of chromium will leave the effected grains low in chromium oxide which is what produces the corrosion resisting effect of stainless steels. Ifleft untreated corrosion and failure will be rapid'

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e 2002

TlNl Ud

47

copyrfgtt

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15.35

15.40

1) Use Stabilised

Stainless

Steels' Steels ( Below .04%)'

2) Use Low Carbon 3) A sensitised


During the welding of stainless steels, a small grain area in the HAZ, parallel to the weld will fonn chromium carbide at the grain boundaries. This depletes this grain of the corrosion resisting chrome oxide "Sensitised" or has become

Stainless

Stainless Steel may be de-sensitised by heating it to above 1100 °C where the Chrome carbide will be dissolved. The steel is normally quenched from this temperature to stop re-association'

We say that the steel has become

sensitive to corrosion"
copyrlgtd
6:)

2002 TlNI Ltd

..

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Crack type: Location: types: Microstructure: Occurs when:

Re-heat cracking. Coarse grained HAZ & weld. Steel Low alloy creep resistant steel Embrittled coarse grains.

During Stress relief. As the alloy has been strengthened against plastic slip, the slip occurs in concentrated areas of low strength during stress relieving at temperatures between 450 -550 ·C. As a result, all the plastic strain is occuring in a concentrated area & the UTS of the steel is easily reached, forming a crack. This usually occurs in areas of high stress concentration, such as the weld toes
Copyright

e 2002

TlNI

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II

C~IDl1tJrQlQf R~JBIe~~ Cmckfum~


11) Heat quickly through the susceptible temperature range ... 2) Using a higher preheat temperature, and the use ofPWHI during the stages of welding large fabrications, to reduce the risks of re-heat cracking during final stress relieving' 3) Dressing of fillet weld toes and nozzle attachments welds, on completion of the weld before it cools to reduce stress concentrations '

16.00

Fabrication goes forPWHT

Re-heat Cracking duringPWHI

I
I

Creep, Resisting

Steel

14) The

use of weld metal with high ductility will also reduce

the risk of re-heat cracking'

Copyright

e 2002

'f1I..It Ud

C~ghlg,2002'f1h1tUd

"

/")

<:r<, ~~VLAfLJ
. r./

.' ,

r>. I

r<'C'i'r" :;

i.

J
.f.

09.20

09.30

All heat treatments applied to mebls are cycles of 3 elements 11) 12) 3) Temp 1 Heating Soaking Cooling
1

I
1

t~rr---:
.
.. -

Annealing:

ir---------------------------, il Used to make metals soft and ductile


IiI For

'----_".~!,

i upper

V,:·_;:i\,.
-.-~~~~=:~jl

Time

I . Normalising: I! Used to make steels toush I It~ i V\ '"furnace after soaking to cool still air IIl
.1 b _

l! Produces a coarse grain structure & Jpw toughness·

steels, the component is heated above its ucr, or critical temperature, soaked for 1 hour/25mm of thickness and left in the furnaoe to cool

As for annealing,

but the steel is removed in

from the

\ Produces a line grain structure with good toughness"

Copyrlghl

E)

2002

T'M L.td

CopyrighlO

2002

1'1/1 Ltd

~
09.4

JHI~~it1r[~S11briJJlceilll.lt§
PWlIT:

I Hardening-

II Used to make some steels harder


I
Used to increase the hardness of some plain carbon &. alloy steels. Plain carbon > 0.3% The cycle is the same as previously but the cooling is rapid i.e, Quenched in water, oil, but sometimes air*

\I !
i~

09.50

Used after welding to release residual stresses, \ caused by welding operations"


Force/Stress required induce plastic strain" to

tel Tempering:

.1 Stress
The effect of heat

Used after hardening to balance the properties of Toughness & Hardness

on the position of
the yield point*

l/.~
Strain
relieving

Ya

It
Copyright

,
e 2002
TINI

_I

The temperature range is from 220 - 723 ·C The cooling part of fue cycle should not be too rapid, but over heating will over temper the steel'

By heating the st ee l, the yield point is suppressedlredueed residual stresses as plastic strain at a much lower level
copyrlgl"d

of stress-

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e 2002

T\NI

Lid

Pre-Heating:

~.
copyrlghllg)

Used mainly on steels to retard the cooling rate of a hardenable steel and reduce the hardening effect (Martensite formation) Is also used to help diffusion of Hydrogen from the HAZ of harden able steels to avoid hydrogen cracking. Typically < 350 ·C Is also used to produce a more uniform rate of cooling, and control distortion, or effects of high contractional strains"

The 3 mechanisms, or modes that cause in service failures that will be covered on this course are as follows:"

Fatigue Fracture .. Brittle Fracture· Ductile Fracture.


It is important to note that all failures require an initiation point, which are invariably stress concentrations"
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e :2002

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i'.?1

Fatigue fractures are initiated like all fractures, from areas where the stresses are higher than other areas. We call these areas Stress Concentrations and they occur at points where there is an abrupt change in.eSA such as the toes of welds or an arc strike' Fatigue failures occur due to cyclic loading and at stress levels well below the materials U'I'S" So that weld designers can have safe limits to work within, graphs have been produced for welded joints to give factors to apply with certain joint designs. Other graphs have been produced for most metals giving safe limits of stress for materials under cyclic loadingCcpy!1gh1

Designers use curves called SIN curves to produce structures, where applied stresses must be below the fatigue limit.

In welded fabrications factors are further applied for specific joint


designs" When a welded member is exposed to fatigue and also a corrosive condition, then corrosion fatigue will occur and the fatigue limit will be further reduced" The graph shown on the next slide is for a typical Ferritic steel. A graph for Non Ferrous alloys is shown on the following slide+
COpyrlght@2002TW1 Ud

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SIN Curves for a Ferritic Steel


St 1':;~~:ures will occur this ress 1",.t;~fthegraPh line__

SIN Curves for a Non Ferrous Alloy


Fractures will occur this side of the graph line"

<0.5 of Yo Flltigusmt

::-::_:-:_~_=_-::_====::-:_=-_=_-::_c::_=_=Cycles of stress Limit of Endurance


Copyright ~ 2002lV'JI Ud

Number of cycles of stress

COpyrlghll6l2002 TWI Ud

1.

Fatigue fractures are initiated from stress concentrations and then progress slowly through the section in ductile materials until there is insufficient eSA to support the applied load? Areas of sudden plastic slip are characterised by beach marks, which can be observed on the final fracture surface. The epicentre of the radii always points to the crack start" Lines of major plastic slip (Beach marks) Fractured
Copyright
Iii)

I) 2) 3) 4)

Fatigue failures are always initiated from stress concentrations" The [mal fractured surface is characterised by areas of plastic slip, these are known as beach marks" The epicentre of the radii is the initiation point of the fracture" The fracture generally continue to move until insufficient CSAis available to carry the increased level of stress • Fatigue will not be the final mode of fracture, but it is very often the first"
IS)

-_;@
~Stress

concentration 5)

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2OD2 TWI Ud

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Brittle fractures are rapid failures of metallic structures that occur when a metal has become brittle and in the presence of some kind of stress and on most occasions a low temperature" TIlls stress can be static or dynamic stress, or the final mode of failure associated with another form of fracture" The fractured surface is characterised by its flat and featureless appearance that is always at 9(10 to the plain of the stress* The surface is marked with chevrons (»>#«<<) in the direction of the fracture initiation point*
Copyright ~ '2002 TWI Ud

which point

Imperfection

"

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~2002 TVJ'I Ud

,.

10.5.S

I)

Brittle fracturesoccur from areas of stress concentration= They may also be the final mode of fracture in a fatigue fracture? Brittle fractures always occur at
9(10

Fracture Face
Imperfection

2) 3) 4) 5)

to the applied load"

Brittle fractured surfaces are crystalline, flat & featureless+ Areas indicating brittle fracture may be observed in otherwise ductile specimens caused by the plain strain effect" Ductile ferritic steels tend to become brittle when exposed to sub zero temperatures (Acute Ductile/Brittle Transition)*
e 2002
TVJI Ud is

Chevrons point to the fracture initiation point


e 2002

6)

COpyr1ght

TWllId

"

Copyrlgtrt

Ductile fractures are generally a final mode of fracture and are more often associated with final failure of fatigue cracks" The final fracture is characterised by a distinct failure at 45° to the line of applied stress TIlls is often accompanied by shear lips on the fracture face" Ductile tears are often identified in fabrications well before final fracture and are regularly monitored by NDT* Ductile tears can often arrest themselves in a metal structures"

Side View

Front View
Final ductile fracture

Weld face

Copyrighl

If)

2002 TWI Ud

17

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e 2002

T\\Il Ud

,.

.fffl

I) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Ductile fractures occur from areas of stress concentration" They may also be the final mode of fracture in a fatigue fracture" Ductile fractures always occur at 45° to the applied load" Ductile fractured surfaces are rough, and often show shear lips* It is possible to find areas of all 3 modes mentioned in this presentation on a single fractured surface"

Factors to be considered when investigating Brittle Fractures" Brittle fractures are likely to occur in steels that exhibit good toughness at normal room temperatures after they have been exposed to sub zero temperatures for any length of time. (At temperatures below the transition range)" The presence of sudden impact will cause the steel to undergo brittle fracture with characteristic sudden failure. This is most often accompanied by a sharp and loud noise" Factors to be ascertained would include eyewitness accounts of these elements and further investigative work to establish other possible contributory factors, such as the carrying of cryogenic liquid gases under pressure"
Copyright ~ 2002 T'.YI Ud

Copyrighl e 2002 TWI Ud

19

Factors to be considered when investigating Fatigue Fractures" Fatigue fractures are initiated from areas of high stress concentration such as a sharp toe blend, or undercut, or convex fillet weld toes. They are initiated by the action of cyclic stresses at much lower stress levels that the UTS* In analysing fatigue failures, the presence of cyclic stress is a prime requirement in the initiation and further propagation of fatigue cracks. It would therefore play an important part of the investigation to establish the nature of such a loading, which may be as simple as a degree of'vibration" Analysis of the fracture surface and identification of epicentres of the plastic slip will lead to the discovery of the fracture initiation point"
Copyright C 2002 TW1 Ud 21

Factors to be considered when investigating Ductile Fractures" Ductile fractures are initiated from areas of high stress concentrations" When analysing the failure pattern of ductile failures, the propagation rate of the crack may have been extremely slow, but final fracture will be rapid if the component is loaded" Analysis of the fracture surface will initially show that the fracture occurred at 45° to the load, and the surface and may be accompanied by shear lips, or areas of plastic movement" Ductile materials may very often show indications associated with brittle fracture, which have been caused by the plain strain effect" ~~;~ ~e:!e

it;;·;:~:::Q50

9oe::r

PlainStrain"
22

Copyright C 2002 TWt Lid

12.00

13.10

TWI Video Presentation on

Example Fracture Report Specimen number 001 Double V butt weld Sideview

I Fatigue Fracture I Brittle Fracture

15mins*

15mins*

[J
~

Plan view

a)O Initi3ion points. Fatigue .. weld root due to 2 positions. Fatigue area 1" mode of fracture Brittle area ,_, plaID (3~D)

lack of root fusion in

,traln effect. (3S%)


>hear Ups..(30%)

i'!lW dlKlIIe area ,bowing

;rr;:/ftmty oyioyio.. •

Copyrlgh!.

€:I 2002 \WI Ud

TWI

VOI.~
Summary of WeldabUity of Steels:
H2 induced HAZ or weld metal cracks.
Cause: H" HAZ cracks Delayed inspection. Diffusion Hardness> 350VPN HSLA weld cracks Weld contraction Process Solubility Transformation Hydrogen >15ml High strength metal Transverse crack

THE WELDING INSTITUTE

Keywords:

Consumables c concentrations Martensite c > 0.5 Re (YS) High carbon weld Micro alloy Nb TV

Paint, Rust, Grease HAZ Critical factors = Temp> 300°C Low ductility Longitudinal c High hardenability High risk cracking

"

orr Steels
~ or Weld metal

Thickness Martensite

c concentrations
Low ductility

Prevention' (00 Steels in bold) Pre-heat Control of H2 Minimise restraint Remove coatings Arc energy Use low Ceq plate

Bake consumable Control cr concnt Hot pass ASAP

Low H" Process y SIS Weld metal Use low H" Cons'

Solidification cracking in C/Mn steels.


Cause: Sulphur. Low m.p. films Prevention: High manganese % Control heat input Fe/Sulphides Contraction forces

Keywords:

Weld centreline Loss of cohesion

Contraction Hot shortness

Use low restraint Control sulphur %

Use low dilution Seal laminations Keywords:

Lamellar tearing in C/Mn steels.


Cause: Poor ductili Contraction Prevention: NDT for laminations Plastic strain Short transverse Sulphur Stepped crack

Laminations Segregation

Through t tensile Forged T piece

Contraction gap Control heat input

Senior Welding Inspection - The Weldability of Steels Copyright © 2002 TWI Ltd.

1:1

Rev 09-09·

TWI

VOI.
Solidification
Cause:
Austenite grains Contractional force Weld centreline Coarse structure Co-ef conduction Plastic strain Boundary area Co-ef contraction Hot shortness

THE WELDING INSTITUTE

cracks in 'Y stainless steels.

Keywords:

Low m.p Sulphur Last solidification

Prevention:

I Ferrite

content Reduce restraint

Iinc boundary area I Duplex SIS

Minimise dilution Contraction rate

10-15% Ferrite Consumables

I I

Inter - crystalline corrosion in stainless steels.


Cause:
Chromium depletion Parallel to weld Temp gradient Cr Carbide Loss of resistance

Keywords:

InHAZ

Sensitisation Stress CC

Prevention:

I Low
I

Carbon .04% Tantalum

I Stabilising elements I Niobium I Titaniumfor plate I Solution

anneal

Molybdenum Rapid cooling

I I

Re-heat cracking in alloy steels.


Cause:
Precipitation Loss of ductility Molybdenum Carbides Con' plastic strain Vanadium

Keywords:
Grain strengthen Stress relieve PWHT 45()....B00°C . Temper embrittle Boron Creep resistance

Prevention:
Control PWHT High ductility weld Minimal restraint StagePWHT V below 0.1% Reduce (J areas Higher Pre heat Use clean plate

Tony Whitaker
Manager lWl Middle East Training and Examination Services. Dated 25-10-02

Senior Welding Inspection - The Weldability of Steels Copyright © 2002 TWI Ltd.

1:2

Rev 09-09-

~,I

}< a.,cLUI

. "J

.[_iil

i\oIechankal:*

Describes the actions of "!on:e & modon" Something that makes one material different from another. These Indude the properties of: The ability of a material to resist indentation The ability of a material to absorb impact energy The ability to resist the action ofa pulling force The ability to deform plastically under tension=

The test weld is usually cut into sections as follows: The location of specimens will depend upon the standard

Properties:'

Hardnessr" Toughne ss:· Tensile >"trength:.


Duclillty:'

Tensile test
Copyright

Start! Stop

Macro/Hardness test

Copyright e 2002 TWI Ud

e 2002

TVJI Lid

The specimen may then be hard ness tested

<> = Hard

ness Survey

3) Lack of Root Fusion 4) Slag inclusion & Lack. of inter-run fusion


Copptgh!@2002TW1 Ud

Further hardness surveys may be taken as the thickness of the specimen increases ~

COpyright

e 20D2

TW1 LId

Generally we use a diamond or steel ball to form an indentation

1)

Vickers Diamond Pyramid:

Always uses a diamond

BS 427 Vickers Hardness Testing' 2) Brinell hardness test: Always uses a steel ball-

3) We measure the width of the indentation to gauge the hardness"

Rockwell hardness test:

Uses a ball, or diamond depend ing on the scale'

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e 2002

T\\II Ud

Copyrtghl

e 2002

TV., Ud

CCllil@JtPY V Testing,09.50
CharpyV. BS 131 Charpy V Testing. Izod, lOx 10 mm specimen BS En 10045· 10 X 10 mm specimen Same as Charpy V, but specimen is held vertically" Specimen size and shape of actual component"

CTOD.
(Crack tip opening di5~al:c:mcnt)

Graduated scale of absorbed energy in Joules= Location of specimen

Copyrlght

e 2002

TWI

Lid

COpyr1glll

e 2002

TWlltd

1\I1n 1.6 % increases <

Joules absorbed Ductile Fracture

47 Joules

Three specimens are normally tested at each temperature. 28 Joules Transition Temperature Range +40 A refined and clean grain structure gives much improved toughness as more energy is absorbed by the specimen!!
Copyrlghl (gI2002 TV ... Ud

Course grains

Brittle Fracturei -40 -30 -20 -10 o +10 +20 +30 Testino temperature
Copyrlght 6} 2002 TWI Uci

10

CTOD 1re§1titmt~ 09.52

CTOD 1resitin~
The fractured surface and stress conditions are analysed and a very accurate assessment can be given of material behaviour

09.55

;~~ .....~

Former Very Accurate Results


11 copyrighl:

Displacement values are converted to crack tip values.


Copyrlghl (5) 2002 'PM lid

e 2OQ2

TWI Uci

12

All Weld MeW TeJITlSileTest


A Section of weld is cut, or machined out ~ the test piece and tested in tension to failure. The units are usually in N/mm' Direction of applied stress BS 7091 BS En 10002 All Weld Metal Tensile Testing Test piece tested in this direction"

10.00

Transverse
Copyright

reduced test piece"


13 Copyright ~ 2002 TIIII Ud

e 2002

TWI Ud

Tensile test piece cut along weld specimen.

14

Bend tests are used to establish fusion in the area under test Firstly, before the tensile test 2 marks are made 50mm apart
_,c~'"

'~.:
.~

..

o.

. _, a.
50mm

t.ujj;S4.~-"'!'"

'0

.......' _
_ • .-.;

During the test, Yield point & Tensile strength are measured The specimen is put together and the marks are re-measured

=>:::r:::::::tn: .: ~§=:J
e 2002
T'M Ud

'_..~-z~,
.. d

...,.;.;§Wd~;·';:"y Lack of root fusion shown here"


Jf!!J

A Guided root bend test"

r:"~'.:~Former Test Piece· Force Further tests include face, side and longitudinal bend tests" For material over 12 mm thickness, side bend test may be used"
Copyright ~ 20021W1 Ud 16

A new measurement of 7Smm will indicate Elongation ESO 0/0"


Copyright

"

'E/"

+++
3

2 Any strait line indicates a "Lack of root fusion">


Copyright

e 2002

TWllId

17

Copyright

e 20021W1

Ud

ra

....

.)

§mmnmy QfMecboo]call

IW~
methods:

10.15

We test welds to establish minimum levels of mechanical properties, and soundness of the welded joint We divide tests into Qualitative & Quantitative

A definition of the term "Procedure"=


A systematic method of producing an aim"

Quantitative: Hardness

(Have units)

Qualitative: Bends

(Have no units)

Therefore, a "Welding procedure"

is*

(VPN & BHN)

Strength (N/mm2 & PSI) Toughness (Joules & ft.lbs)


Copyrlgtrt ~ 2002lW1l1d

Fractures (Butt & Fillet) Macros=

A systematic method of producing a sound weld"

,.

Copyright@2oo2T\\!1l1d

2.

'/-"1

'PI

a)

Materials types and form to be welded? Low Alloy Steel Pipe ... Welding Position? Fixed Vertical Pipe horizontaVweld vertical • Welding Process & Consumables + heat input? MMA ES018 G. 3.25 Baked 350
0

• Planning the tasks • Collecting the data • Writing a procedure for use or for trial • Making test welds • Evaluating the results of the tests • Approving the procedure of the relevant code • Preparing the documentation"
b)

c)

C. @ 125 amps ..

d)
e)

Joint design? 60° Single V Butt welded butt joint Heat treatments? Pre heat 250° C + PWlIT Stress Relieve 4500C

21

Copyrigl"'l\@l002l'Mlid

1:1.

Examples of "Extents of Approval" include:" a) Diameter of pipe, or thickness of plate b) Welding position, amperage range, or number of runs c) Process (On multi process procedures only) d) Certain material groups e) Change of consumable to one of the same classification Only if the class is given in the original procedure f) Heat input range (kJ/rnm)"
Copyright

A Welding Procedure is a recipe of variable parameters, which will produce the same results of certain quality & properties if carried out in the same way each time" To evaluate a Welding Procedure we need to check if all the parameters set will work together to produce the desired results" Welding Procedures tests are often carried out to satisfy the feasibility of a set of unusual parameters i.e. TI,e use of a process or consumable for a special application"
2J Capyrtgtd@20021"N1 Ud 24

e '2002

TWI Ud

11.00

Once the weld has been completed it is usually visually inspected, then Radiography or Ultrasonic testing is usually applied· Finally, and most importantly, Mechanically tested to ensure that the desired level of mechanical properties have been met" If all the desired properties have been met, then a procedure qualification record (WPQR) is completed with all the test results, and the procedure then becomes qualified"
CoP'ft1ght
Q

Once the procedure has been approved it is then important to test each welder, to ensure that he has the skill to reach the minimum level of quality in the weld, as laid down in the application standard= There is no need to carry out the mechanical tests of the procedure, although bend tests are often used to ensure good side wall fusion Normally visual, x ray, bends, fractures and macro's are used in welder approval tests"
Copyright 0 2002 TWI lid

2002 TWI Ud

As a revision exercise of the common welding processes there will now follow a summary list of the requirements advantages and disadvantages of the common welding processes

1)

A TransformerlRectifier (Constant current type) A power and power return cable

13)
14)
5)

Electrode holder Electrode (To correct specification) Correct visor & glass, all safety clothing and extraction

Copyrlgtd

(0

2002 TWI

ue

Copyrlgtd

e 2002

T'NI Ud

ififl

··;1
11.07

11) 13)

Amperage Polarity Electrode type & 0 Electrode condition Insulation! extraction

112) 114) 116) 118) 1110)

Arc Voltage Speed of Travel Duty Cycles Connections Electrode treatments"

1) 2)

Slag inclusions
Arc strikes

IS)
17) 19)
Copyright

3) 4)

Porosity Undercut

Most welding imperfections in lvll'vfA are caused by a lack of welder skill, the incorrect settings of the equipment, or the incorrect use, and treatment of electrodes"
CopynghI ~ 200'2 T"M Ud

e 2002

TWI Ud

3.

'J'.fl
11.1

Classification:

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Main Constituent : Titania Ti02

Shielding gas: CO2

General Uses: General Purpose High quality work

Rutile:

E6013

11) 12) 13) 14)

Field or shop use Range of consumable< All positional Very portable Simple equipment

11) 12) 13) 14)

High skiD factor


Slag Inclusions Low operating factor

Basic:

E7018

Calcium compounds Cellulose


C ..... oIr.r ___

CO2

High level of fume


Hydrogen control

Cellulosic:

E 6010

Hydrogen
.t...

15)
Copyrlgtd

Pipe root runs*

15)

The core wire ror most M1'vlAelectrodes is of a low quality sted, 35 thls ls a cheap method of mauutecture and the steel will be rcnncd durto: the process of welding by the reftning agents and elements contataed In the flux coaUQg"
31 Copyright
j~

e 2002

TWI Lid

2002 T'M Ud

J2

R~ijlill]mm~IDlJ.tS f ~
11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16)
A TransfonnerlRectifier (Constant A power and power return cable An Inert shielding

no

·"1
11.25

Pammetem
11)
13) 15)
Amperage

&: InspectiQn
12) 14) 16) 18)
110)

JPrnnm

11.27

current type)

gas. (Argon or Helium)

Gas hose, flow-meter,

& gas regulator


collets, ceramics or lift arc)

TIG torch head with ground tungsten, Method Correct Optional e 2002
T'M
Ltd

of arc ignition

(High frequency

h
18)
Copyright

visor, all safety clothing

and good extraction

I I I I I I I

Arc Voltage Speed of Travel Duty Cycles Connections Insulation

AC or DC + Polarity Tungsten Tungsten

type & 0
vertex angle

h
19)

filler rod, to correct specification"


33

Ill)
Copyright ~

Gas type & flow rate Ceramic condition

I extraction

112)

Gas lens fitted"

2002

TWI

Ud

i'ffl
1L30

Advantages & Disadvmtages


Advantages: Disadvantages:

1L32

I)

Tungsten Surface

inclusions porosity

(Low skill, or wrong vertex angle)

2)
3) 4)

(Loss of gas shield mainly on site) i.e. Slope out)

11) 12)
13)

High quallty Good controJ All positional


Lowest

11)

Very high sIdU factor


Range of consumable

Crater pipes (Bad weld finish technique Oxidation

12)
13)

of SIS weld bead, or root by poor gas cover

Lo.. of gas shield/site Complex equipment High ozonelevets"

Most welding imperfections with TIG are caused by a lack of welder skill, or incorrect setting of the equipment. i.e. Current, torch manipulation, e 2002 welding speed, gas flow rate, etc"

4)

H, an: process

14)

15)

Light slag removal

15)

Copyright

TWI Ud

"

Copyrtghl~2002TWUd

36

GMes
Gases used for TIG: Argon Helium or Helium

rot DO
or a mixture

WelhdlJbrng

-'HI

11.34

II)
of these gases" potential than argon and gives

A Transformer/Rectifier

(Constant

voltage type)

A power and power retnrn cable An Inert. active, or mixed shielding

gas has higher ionization

gas (Argon or CO')

deeper penetration, whilst argon is denser than air and gives good coverage of the weld area in the down hand position. We would need 2-3 times the flow rate of helium to get the same coverage as helium is less dense than air. In the overhead position the reverse is true. We often mix these gases to get both benefits" We sometimes use additions stainless steels, or copper"
Copyright e 2002 TWI Lid

I~)

Gas hose, flow-meter, ~IlG torch

&

gas regulator

with hose, liner, diffuser, contact tip & nozzle with correct drive rolls (Push or Pull)
and diameter and good extraction'
38

Wire feed unit Electrode

wire to correct specification

of nitrogen

when welding

some
Correct visor & glass, all safety clothing
J7

JP>mmetem &: InspectiQij Po»nm


11) 13) 15) 17) 19)
WFS/Amperage Wire type &0 Contact tip/condition

lL38

11.40

112) 114) 16) 18) 110) 112)

OCV & Arc Voltage Gas type & flow rate Roller size & pressure Inductance Connections Angles & travel speed" settings

Liner size Insulation/extraction Duty cycle

I")
Co~ghl

I I I I I I

1) 2) 3)

Silica inclusions

(poor inter-run

cleaning) with dip transfer)

Lack of side wall fusion (Primarily Porosity

(From loss of gas shield on site etc)" in lVITGItVIAG are caused by lack settings of the equipment

Most welding imperfections of welder skill, or incorrect The use oflow

quality wires will cause wire feed problems

Worn contact tips will cause poor power pick up, or transfer Bad power connections
Copyright 0 2002 TWI Uti

will cause a loss of voltage

in the arc"
40

e 21]02: TWZ lid

3.

flffl

Gases fQrl&G & MAG WelWng


Gases used for lVIIG: Argon Advantages: Disadvantages: Gases used for MAG:
fusion

11.44

or Helium of CO2 and Argon" spray transfer

CO2 or mixtures

11) 12) 13) 14)

Lower

sldU required

Ill)
112) 113) 11
4)

Lack

of sidewall

EasU)' automated All postuonal Thlcklthln (DIp/Pulse) material.

Range of consumables Loss

I I
I

CO2: Very good penetration, cannot support produces an unstable arc, with lots of spatter Argon: Shallow penetration.

Very stable arc, with low spatter

or ga.

shield/site

Complex

equipment

We mix both gases in mixture of between argon to get the benefits of both gases"

5-20% COlin

IS)
CopyrJghI

Continuous eledrode

liS)

High ozone levels·

For T stainless steel. we use argon with a 2% oxygen, this gives more fluidity to the weld and an improved toe blend"

e 2002

TWI Ud

4'

Copyrigti

e 2002

T'M Ud

![1J§ fQI MIGIMAG

& m:iCil_l1.46

Wires must be drawn as deposited and are therefore of very high quality. Electrode wires for MIG are the same as rods for TIG" The quality of temper and copper coating is also very important. The copper coating on ~lIG wires maximises the current pick up" Specifications for wires are as per their chemical compositions"

II

Grades:
Composition + Single, double, and triple de-oxidised wires'

11) 12) 13) 14)


15)
\6) 7)

A TransformerlRectifier (Constant voltage type) A power and power return cable A torch head assembly A granulated flux A flux delivery system A flux recovery system Electrode wire to correct specification and diameter Correct safety clothing and good extraction'
e 2002
T"M Ltd

Quality of winding:
Random wound. Layer wound. & Precision layer wound

Wires diameters:
0.6 - :>2.4 mm 0 supplied on 1 kg (fine wire) & 15 kg spools'
Copyrigtd@2002 TWI Lid 4J

18)
Copyright

.]',"'"

11.52
11) 13) 15)
1) WFS/Amperage Flux type & mesh size Wire '" & condition Flux delivery/recovery Insulation/duty cycle Tip size & condition Lack: of fusion (Caused by high levels of arc blow) Solidification cracks (From S pick up from high dilution) Shrinkage cavities (From high depth:width ratio) Porosity (Using damp fluxes, or un-cleaned plates)'

112) 114) 116) 118) 1110) 1112)

OCV & Arc Voltage 2) Flux condition Wire Specification Electrode stick-out Connections Speed of travel= 3) 4)

h Ill)
19)

Most welding imperfections in SAW are caused by incorrect setting of the equipment, using incorrect or wrongly dried consumables, or welding plates that have not been properly cleaned. Minor changes in the welding parameters of SAW can have a major effect on weld composition and weld quality>
Copyrighl ~ 2002 TWI Lid

CoP'jT1ghl e 2002 TWI Lid

JK~ i JElYl~ fQ[ SA ~~lmDg11.56


Consumables for Submerged Arc Welding consist of a wire and a l1ux' The wire is similar to that of solid wire MIGIMAG and is chosen from a table of chemical compositions'

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

11) 11.) 13) 14)

Low weld metal costs

EasUymedJanized
Low Ozoneproduction

Rapid weld completion Novisiblearc light

11) 11.) 13) 14)

RestrictedIn position
Arc bIowwl1h
DC

Shrinkage cavities Penetration control

IS)

IS)

Variablecomposition.

Fluxes are varied and are classified by their method of manufacture and composition'

Copyrlghll!:l2002

1\\1 Lid

47

Copyr1ghll!:l2D02

TWI Lid

...

171

In BS 4165 fluxes may be classified into:

Basicity Index*
Fluxes are grouped in BS 4165 by the amount of acid or basic elements they contain by a method called the Basicity Index This is calculated by dividing the Basic elements by the Acid elements as follows:" Basic Index number; Basic Elements % ; BI Number* Acidic Elements % The higher the index, the more basic is the flux. (Higher quality)"
Copyrlghl

Acidic Neutral Semi Basic Basic

< 0.9 BI number 0.9 - 1.2 BI number 1.2 - 1.8 BI number 1.8 - 2.5 BI number

Highly Basic 2.5 - 3.5 BI number" The higher the bascicity index number, then the higher the weld quality, (Higher strength & toughness in the weld metal) though the more difficult it becomes to use (Less tolerant of poor preparation etc.)
Copyright@~rMlld

e 2002

1'NI Lid

so

~~::::e:::ld:::§~ym~oo:::Jls:::o=n::::Dra::::::::wm.=· ~gS~13..05
Welding Symbols
A method of transferring information from the design office to the workshop
jZ'(.a""

Weld
a)

SymJboJis
Shall touch the joint intersection

on Drawmgs

13.10

1) Convention of the arrow line: BS. BSEn & AWS


b) Shall not be parallel to the drawing

Wd4 ._ "

~
The above information does not tell us much about the wishes of the designer. We obviously need some sort of code which would be understood by everyone" Most countries have their own standards for symbols. Some of them are BS 499 Part 2. AWS A2.4 & BS En 22553"
Copyright

c) Shall point towards a single plate preparation>

.~
Copyrfght gI 20021WI LId

e 2002

TW1 Lid

"

"

We1I&Symbo]s on Draw]ngs
2) Convention of The reference line: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A 2.4 (US)
a) b)

,ffl
13.15

Weld Symbols on Dmwin~


3) Convention of The reference line: BS En 22553 or ISO 2553
a) b) c) Shall touch the arrow line ShaD be parallel to the bottom of the drawing There shaU be a further broken line above or beneath the reference line (Except where the weld is symmetrical»

13.20

Shan touch the arrow line Shan be parallel to the bottom of the drawing"

------. n IV

or

- - - --

Copyrfghl

e 20021'N1

Ud

copyrigtf

1\:1 2002 TWI Ud

"

Wcld Symbols on JD2Jmw]XDW'


Symbols: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A2.4 (US)
a) b) c) Welds this side of joint, go Wldemeath Welds the other side of

13.25

Wcld SymOO]SOJDl

DmwUng&
reference line line

13.30

Symbols: BSEn 22553. (ISO 2553)

the reference

line

the joint, go on top of the reference line be drawn with the

Symbols with • vertlc.lline component must vertical line to the left side of the symbol All CSA dimensions

d) e)

Alllln .. r dimensions are shown on the r!l:!!! of the symbol i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length ofany (spaces)"

os

are shown to the left of the symbol

I II
\

a) b)

Welds this ~de of joint, go on the ~

Welds the other side of the joint, go on the brokon reference Symbols with a vertical hne component must vertical line to the left side of the symbol All CSA dimensions

e)
d) e)

be drawn with the

are shown to the left of the symbol

All linear dimensions are shown on the !ii!!! of the symbol i.e, Number of welds, length of welds, length ofany spaces

I)

All leg lengths shall be preceded by Z and throat by a or S"

IOV

4x50(50,·

n/-~~;V-:;~;O(5~):I

Copyrlgh\ ~ 2002 TWlltd

Wcld §ymOO]s
BS 499 &AWS A2.4

OD

D1mw1i1l1lW;

I3.35

We1ld §yw1OO]s

OD

DmwUIDlgs
Z8~ or ; z

13.40

Weld Symbols on Drawings

~
Copyrtght@ 2002 TWI Ud

n/ n/

Weld Symbols on Drawings


BS En 22553 (ISO 2553)

8V
I
.Sb8l'\

I-i-.

Copyright ~ 2002 TV'" Ud

sa

Supplementary
Site Weld

Weld Symbols
Representation of welds done from both sides of the joint intersection, touched by the arrow head Ground flush Fillet weld Double bevel Double J"

Welding process. Numerical BS En & BS Further supplementary information, such as WPS number, or NDT may be placed in the fish tail"
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-SENiOR vVELDING LN"SPECTOR
QUESTION:

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You are required to visit a 'site on which your inspectors have been involved. Th~ work involves the inspection of a welded structure to an application standard and is now ready for . final approval.
1.

2.

What questions do you ask? What documents do you review or require before SUbmitting an inspection report to the authorities concerned?

TYPICAL

A..N'SV)-,ER: .

Prior to the site visit it is important to spend some time planning the visit, in order that a logical approach be made and that vital details are not overlooked. A knowledge of the standard that was used for fabrication, and the service conditions of the final product will be beneficial in esscssiiig the fitness of the product for service, A list of rhc inspection team and the team leader will ensure that those involved with the fabrication and inspection of the product are on hand to answer pertinent questions. These questions could include the completeness of the job, repair rate during production and safety standards on site, housekeeping, etc. TI1.estandard of access and scaffolding can have a direct bearing on the quality levels attained as safe confident workers are much more likely to produce quality fit ups and welds. Certain documents can greatly assist the overall audit pian such as quality plans and inspection check lists, if used on the job. Some standards (e.g. BS:5500) will tabulate a list of the required documentation which may be required to be included In the final data book package. If not specified by code or client specifications, thea the foHo··,:v-ing documents should be reviewed as a minimum prior to sizninz off and issuing 2. Certificate of Cornoliance.
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A review of the quality plan and inspection completed &.L'1d signed off.

check lists to ensure all stases c-

are

2.

Material certificates, mill test reports and material traceability records are documented and accepted. This may include consumable certification. Process control procedures should be reviewed for adequacy, accuracy and approval. These procedures should include approved cuttinzand welding procedures weld repair a nc I u 1 proceoures, __at treatment ~"f"." required, testing, an d finally, coating ,.{ Nn.. he L. procedures.
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4.

Personnel qualification review should include welder qualifications, NDT and Inspection personnel approvals and all should be up to date and current in the particular discipline of expertise.

-1-

Tews Associated with QAlQC


A Defect: A welding imperfection that falls outside of a level of acceptance in an applied standard"

10.30

D1llltiesof i Senior InspecWr


1) Plan An agreed, pre-determined and structured pathway, that meets a specific aim To make all necessary arrangements required to carry out, or fulfil a plan
Ensuring all things
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aass~.ofd~fects:
Minor: Major: Critical: Unlikely to cause failure

2) Organise

in Ibe con-eel place allhe

correct lime

of the product"

3) Supervise
Likely to cause failure, but small risk of loss of life" with high risk of 4) Audit

To instruct, and control the work of staff in areas for which you are responsible To carry out a periodic and systematic

Extremely likely to cause failure, loss of life"


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"check" on a system/process to ensure that it has been carried out as specified"


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"The really nice thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise and is not preceded by long periods of worry and depression'>
We make plans every day for the most trivial of things All delegates must have planned to come here today' Many tools are used for production planning including: Gant Charts. Forward and Reverse Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis. etc"
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Using the following headings and the days on which they will be covered on the course, make a reverse schedule plan to your exam date, utilising your available free time. Your plan needs to be flexible in case there are any changes to the course structure. Remember that Radiographic sensitometry) is not covered Specific theory Interpretation (Theory, on the course syllabus. practical, or

Fractures Oral e 2002 TWI

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Rad'Int
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Weld symbols

Success" --........

NDT reports

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Once an inspection plan has been made the organisation must then begin"
'This may involve the following
1) 2) Any training Procurement Transport Accommodation Any special Leave cycles etc' elements: required

Once a plan has been organised it is essential that control exercised so that the plan is successfully implemented A supervisor is essentially a manager requires certain specific management of men which skills:

is

& certification of equipments

Staffing the plan


to/from site, and at site and messing etc)

Each student should give an attribute/skill that they think is important for "effective supervision of welding inspectors" Student board" names to be placed next to their choice on the white

3)
4)

5)
6) 7)
Copyrfghl
(0

needs (Religious

Do not open next slide until this task has been carried

out""

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DOCUMENTAT!ON
FOLDER I
1.0 Certificate of Completion 1.1 Inspection & Release Note (LRS) 1.2 IInspection and Test Plan 2.0 IProcedures 2.1 2.2
0

USER GUIDE

~ IrF-a-b~ri-ca--tJ.-, o-n--:"&-E--x-.ecu-'-ti-on-,-':Pr-oc-v-ed-:-ur-re-----,

IConsumable
IDimensional

Control Procedure

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7~
.)

IWeld Visual Inspection Procedure


Control Procedure (PoW.H.T procedure lHyd.I"Otest Procedure !Load out Procedure !Painting Procedu.re

2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.0

INDT Procedures I---. ~.-~~~~~--------~ t


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 IRadiography Test Pro~e lmtrasonic lestProcedure IM.P.I. Procedure jLiquid Penetrant Inspection Procedure !Equipment Calibration. Cer.ifi.cate !List GfN.D.T. Operators & Cert1.""icates

FOLDPR2
4.0 Welding Procedures (\,VPS + PQR) (as oer index)

·uIList

of Welders & Certificates (Certificates as per list)

Page I of3

DOCUMENTATION

USER GUIDF

5..+INDT Repcns

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f-----l

RT Reports UT Reports '-------l>~ ~IT Reports


.. ~

5.5 Visual Inspection Report..s

5.7lHydrGtest reports with ICalibration Certificates 5.8!P.W.H.T. 5.glHardness Rep(Jrt Test Report

5.10 Site Query Reports / Non-conformance Reoorts 5. I r!Painting Control Reports

5. 121Paint Warranty 5.13! Concrete Test Certificates

FOLDER 4
6.0 As-built Drawings ( as r as-built drawinz re .ster)

6.1

IAs-built

Weld Maps

user guide...:cls/...f.R

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