Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Analysis the Roles and Responsibilities within Organisations Regarding Health and Safety in the Workplace
Assignment 1 1. Investigate and report on the health and safety organisation within a company, this could be the company within which you work.
1. Introduction For my report I am going to base my information on my company, AW (AgustaWestland) and in particular AW UK as we are an international company, legislation and regulations may differ in other countries. The Board of Directors of AW regard compliance with Health, Safety and Environmental (HS&E) and the continual improvement of HS&E performance as a mutual objective of management and employees at all levels. AW UK proactively and systematically integrate HS&E considerations into the planning, design, purchasing, manufacture, inspection/testing, delivery and customer service of aircraft systems and integrated operational support for the benefit of its stakeholders and the environment. Specifically, AW UK: • Ensure that elements of its activities, products or services that can impact on HS&E are identified, evaluated and taken into account through a continuing programme of risk assessment. • Take all measures necessary to prevent major accidents and minimise their consequences to persons and the environment in line with the Company Major Accident Prevention Policy. (See appendix 1) • Provide and maintain safe and healthy working conditions taking account of any statutory requirements and risk assessment findings. • Meet and strive to exceed applicable legal obligations and other requirements relating to HS&E aspects to which the businesses subscribe e.g. Finmeccanica, Customers, CAA etc. • Set HS&E objectives and targets which are annually reviewed with the aim of continually improving HS&E performance and monitored through the use of appropriate KPIs. • Consult with employee representatives on HS&E arrangements. • Communicate openly on the nature of their activities and report progress on HS&E plans and performance, including making this Policy available to all interested stakeholders. • Include HS&E assessment in all investment decisions • Promote HS&E awareness and best practice amongst their supply-chain and customers • Ensure that all staff and sub-contractors are made aware of the HS&E Policy and the requirements of the Management System through appropriate training, awareness briefings and notifications The HS&E Policy, its associated procedures and documents are issued under the authority of the Managing Director and implementation is mandatory on all persons having an impact on the HS&E performance of AWUK.

Page 1 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies 2. Levels of Organization

Steve Goddard

The organisational structure of the company in regards to Health and Safety is:

In addition to this the company also has Health, Safety and Environment committee meetings three times a year this include a representative from each part of the business.
Mr S Jones Business Affairs (Chairman) Mr B Tucker Safety & Environment Mr A Pearce Aircraft Support Services Mr P Smith Fire Station Mr S Kitto Transmissions Mr R Cranton ICT Mr P Coombs Aircraft Operations Mr M Burns Quality Assurance Mr M Bird Risk and Insurance Mrs S Dickinson H, S & E (Minutes Secretary) Mr A Hunns Safety & Environment Mrs M White Technical Services Mr R Porter DCC Mr J Parker Transmissions Mr M Salzer Engineering Mr D Collings DCC Operations Mr R Wardle EH101 Assembly Mr C Wall Logistics Mr C Higgins HR Mr M Pearce Aircraft Operations Mr D Angulo Logistics Mr R Worth Safety & Environment Miss H Close HR Mrs K Mead Material Services Mr I Salisbury Aircraft Operations Mr K Hunt AMICUS Mr M Fair Aircraft Support

Page 2 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies 3. People Involved

Steve Goddard

Following on from the above tables, the responsibility then falls on employees and there direct management to enforce and observe the health and safety rules. Within my office there is a health and safety board at the far end of the office, this board displays all of the relevant health and safety information and notices. These include: The LIONEL procedure: - This procedure is for fire, medical or security emergencies and is an anagram of specific information so that anyone would know exactly what to say when reporting a 999 call. Below is an image of the LIONEL procedure.

It is also worth noting that In AgustaWestland when making an emergency call we dial 999 which directs us to an internal line, AW will then dispatch our own medical, fire or security personal and if needed, further assistance can then be called for. The Health and Safety Law is displayed on the board. A poster of the first aiders, fire wardens and their locations in the building. The board also offers any other notices regarding health such as giving blood. 4. The Responsibilities of the Employer Within the health and safety policy for AW UK the responsibilities the employer are broken down into sections:

4.1 Managing Director and Senior Vice President Operations
The Managing Director and Senior Vice President Operations shall: • Provide appropriate leadership to their direct reports in promoting safe working practices and environmental probity. • Participate in periodic review of HS&E performance against targets and objectives.

Page 3 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

• Nominate company HS&E Committee representatives from their business areas. • Ensure senior management support and resource for specific activities as required to support the Company ISO 14001 certification. • Implement a HS&E strategy steering committee comprising managers from the following business areas: Centres of Excellence (Aircraft Ops, Transmissions, Cust Service and Composites) Site Facilities Engineering HR Logistics Quality Insurance Training Safety & Environment Business

The Committee shall meet three times a year under rotating chairmanship by CoE Vice Presidents.

4.2 Managers
All Managers are responsible for ensuring that activities under their control are undertaken in accordance with the requirements as set out in the AW UK Health & Safety Policy and Arrangements document and Environmental Management System (EMS). These documents identify the key responsibilities under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, Environmental Protection Act and other relevant HS&E legislation. All Managers shall: • Consult with the Safety & Environment (S&E) Department for interpretation of HS&E legislation and for advice and guidance on all HS&E matters. • Ensure that working practices, conditions and equipment within the workplace are subject to audit as defined by the Management Self Audit Programme. • Ensure that for all activities under their control an appropriate risk assessment is undertaken and that a register of these assessments is maintained together with the appropriate control measures. • Ensure that the findings of the risk assessment are communicated to all relevant persons, i.e. employees, temporary workers, contractors, visitors etc. • Ensure that risk assessment control measures are communicated, implemented, monitored and enforced. • Provide sufficient information, instruction and training to enable employees to perform their work safely and efficiently with the minimum impact on the environment. In particular, ensuring appropriate induction and training when new starters, processes or working practices are introduced. • Ensure appropriate consultation takes place with Trade Union appointed Safety Representatives on any changes that may have an impact on employee health, safety and welfare.

Page 4 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

• Ensure Fire Safety arrangements are implemented as required and act as a Fire Warden/Fire Marshal. • Ensure all accidents and near misses in areas under their control are reported and that the Emergency Preparedness Plan is implemented as necessary. • For areas covered by COMAH Regulations or designated as high risk, identify Site Incident Controllers in accordance with the Emergency Preparedness Plan. • Ensure emergency plans are communicated and practised on a local basis. Make sure they are familiar with the relevant statutory obligations applicable to equipment/operations under their control: Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV). Health Surveillance. Lifting Tackle. Portable Electrical Equipment. Pressure Vessels. Processes with environmental permits e.g. painting, surface treatment.

• Ensure that records of Personal Protective Equipment are kept up to date in line with the Company policy HSP2035. • Implement an environmental improvement programme to reduce the impact of the department’s activities. • Hold a monthly review of health, safety and environmental performance using a standard agenda as below: Accident Performance Review of risk assessment programme Review environmental improvement programme Review of audit results New HSPs/EMS – Implementation Training – review of department H, S & E Support AOB

These reviews may take the form of general management review meetings or, where appropriate, specific HSE meetings. • Ensure appropriate records are kept of the above in order to provide the necessary supporting evidence for demonstrating compliance to the enforcement authorities, management system certification bodies and for protection in civil litigation matters

4.3 Supervisors of Work Activities
Notwithstanding the responsibility of managers to manage HS&E issues, those persons who are not designated as Managers, eg. Supervisors but have responsibility for supervising work activities, also have a responsibility to protect the environment and ensure the H&S of the personnel they are supervising. They shall support line management by: • Advising Management of activities requiring risk assessment, or having inadequate assessment. • Participating in risk assessment of activities under their supervision • Understanding the risks associated with their area of control

Page 5 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

• Understanding and enforcing relevant risk control measures i.e. engineering, procedural, training, maintenance, occupational health, personal protective equipment (PPE). • Understanding EMS requirements and enforcing environmental permit requirements that applies to their workplace. • Ensuring weekly LEV checks are carried out. • Ensuring gangways/escape routes are kept clear of obstructions and spillages. • Ensuring hazardous materials, including waste, are segregated/labelled and stored appropriately. • Reporting the need to repair plant, equipment and infrastructure that could adversely affect workplace health and safety or protection of the environment. • Ensuring team members have requisite HS&E training, notifying manager of training needs where necessary. • Ensuring that any workplace equipment is serviceable and, where appropriate, has a relevant statutory inspection validation date, for example – LEV, lifting equipment, portable electrical appliances and chemical retention bunds. • Ensuring that contractors working in their area of control have appropriate documentation, i.e. risk assessments, method statements etc. and that they have been made aware of any local H,S&E risks. • Ensuring new starters, learners and young persons are adequately supervised. • Ensuring accidents and near misses in their area of control are reported and investigated, acting as Fire Warden and, where nominated, as a Site Incident Controller (SIC) in line with the Emergency Preparedness Plan. • Ensuring any person under their control report to the Occupational Health Department (OHD) if they show symptoms of ill health that may be related to their workplace activity. The Departmental Manager must be advised in such circumstances. • Ensuring personnel under their control attend routine health surveillance and occupational medicals as required by the OHD. 5. The Responsibilities of the Individual Employees According to the AgustaWestland Health and Safety Policy all employees must: 1. Take reasonable care for the health and safety of themselves and of other persons who may be affected by their acts or omissions at work. 2. As regards any duty or requirement imposed on their employer or any other persons by or under any of the relevant statutory provisions to co-operate with them so far as is necessary to enable that duty or requirement to be performed or complied with. 3. Not intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety and welfare in pursuance of any of the relevant statutory provisions. 4. Report immediately to their Supervisors any unsafe situation or defective apparatus.

Page 6 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies 6. The Roles of Safety Officers and Representatives

Steve Goddard

6.1 Delegation of Health, Safety and Environmental Responsibilities by Managers
To support Managers in the day to day management of health, safety and environmental matters in the workplace, delegation of certain duties to others who are not necessarily in a supervisory role is permissible. However, final responsibility resides with the Manager. Persons appointed to provide HS&E assistance must receive appropriate basic training. This training will be undertaken by the S&E department. Tasks that could potentially be undertaken by persons providing HS&E assistance are: • Reviewing current status of risk assessments and maintaining a departmental risk assessment register. • Maintaining a register of PPE. • Maintaining a list of those persons who are subject to health surveillance and occupational medicals. • Accident record co-ordination including the investigation and reporting of accidents and near misses. • Progressing actions resulting from the monthly departmental HS&E reviews. • Delivering HS&E induction training to employees and temporary workers. • Carrying out weekly functional checks of LEV's. • Carrying out process inspections required for environmental permit compliance. • Preparation of HS&E action plans. • Maintaining a list of persons supporting the HS&E function within the department, e.g.: HS&E Assistant(s) Risk Assessors Fire Wardens First aider(s) Local Radiation Protection Supervisors Laser Safety Officers Spill teams Site Incident Controllers Waste collection co-ordinators

Page 7 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies 7. The Legal Requirement for Health and Safety Inspections

Steve Goddard

HSE will use inspection, within a legal framework of duties, standards, and sanctions, to obtain assurance that duty holders adequately control health and safety risks from work activities and meet relevant statutory provisions of the Health and Safety at Work Act. Inspections are the processes carried out by HSE warranted inspectors which involve assessing relevant documents held by the duty holder, interviewing people and observing site conditions, standards and practices where work activities are carried out under the duty holder’s control. Its purpose is to secure compliance with legal requirements for which HSE is the enforcing authority and to promote improving standards of health and safety in organisations. Roles Line Managers should: • • manage the work of their inspectors to achieve set objectives support and guide their inspectors as necessary

Inspectors should: • Apply their knowledge and skills to promote compliance of legal requirements by duty holders and to influence them to improve their management of health and safety, apply their knowledge and skills to promote compliance of legal requirements by duty holders and to influence them to improve their management of health and safety.

Responsibilities Line managers are responsible for: • • • • ensuring that HSE’s strategic plans are reflected in appropriate inspection programmes nominating and assigning competent inspectors ensuring that competent inspectors carry out inspections ensuring that inspection programmes are met in timely fashion

Inspection staff and inspection team leaders are responsible for: • • • ensuring inspections are planned, carried out, and reported effectively following the appropriate enforcement decision making procedure where they identify a requirement for enforcement action meeting performance standards

See below for an Inspection Procedure Flowchart as used by the Health and Safety Executive:

Page 8 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Page 9 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Page 10 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Page 11 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Page 12 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies 8. Safety Inspection Procedures Plant Equipment Pressure Vessels

Steve Goddard

Currently Boilers and Air Receivers/Calorifiers are subject to examination by a competent person every 14 months and 26 months respectively. The inspection records are sent to the Safety Department for analysis and comment which in general will require action to rectify defects discovered in the examination. Complete records are maintained in the Safety and Maintenance Departments. Two copies of each examination are received by the Safety Department. A copy is filed. The other copy is sent to Maintenance Department with any notification for the requirement for the rectification of a defect. The Maintenance Supervisor holds this copy. Lifting Equipment All cranes, hoists, block and tackle, slings etc. are subject to 6 monthly inspections as required under the Factories Act 1961 by a competent person. The inspection records are sent to the Safety Department for analysis and written comments and where appropriate these comments will in general place a requirement on maintenance trade departments to rectify any defect discovered in the examination. All line managers must ensure that before any lifting equipment or related appliance is purchased a Plan Number is sought from the On Site Inspection Facility. This plant number must then be referred to on the official purchase order for the equipment so that the equipment bears that plant number when received into the Company. Local Exhaust Ventilation In AW UK local exhaust ventilation are legally required to be checked every fourteen months, however we do it every six months. Portable Appliance Testing (PAT) All items of mains-electrical equipment will be subject to a scheme of safety inspection/testing at the frequency specified in Appendix A (See below). The inspection team will visit all buildings annually and test all high risk equipment. Lower risk items in production areas will be tested 4 yearly whilst low risk office equipment will be subject to random testing. The following labels are currently the standard labels found on all portable appliances in the company. They alter colour from Yellow, Green and White to indicate the frequency of the test.

Page 13 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Page 14 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Asbestos Control

Steve Goddard

The following records shall be kept in support of asbestos control for a period of 40 years: • • • • • • • • • Building ACM surveys and risk assessments Work activity risk assessments and safe methods of work ACM sampling results Routine visual inspection and air monitoring results ACM remedial work/removal records, including relevant HSE notifications Occupational health records Asbestos Contractor approval records Aircraft/aircraft component records – Drawings, Parts Databases, Aircraft Technical Publications etc relevant to ACMs Asbestos Incident reports

The following flow chart describes the procedure to be used before working on asbestos areas:

Page 15 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

2. Discuss the safety requirements and factors which should be included in the design of automated areas. Make reference to the guarding of unmanned equipment and areas and safety in the design of flexible manufacturing cells and systems.
As machinery and plant have become more complex, so the techniques for protecting the operators have become more sophisticated. Over the years, individual countries have developed machinery safety standards to suit their particular methods of operating and their attitudes towards safety. However, as manufacturing has become more global there has been an increasing move towards international standardization. CNC machines are very safe to use as they are designed to be take little human interaction apart from the primary programming. One of the main advantages of CNC machines is that they are much safer than manually operated machines. The animation below shows a Boxford A3 HSRi² CNC Router with many of its safety features labelled.

Most modern CNC machines are designed so that the cutting tool will not start unless the guard is in position. Also, the best CNC machines automatically lock the guard in position whilst the cutter is shaping material. The guard can only be opened if the cutter has stopped. CNC routers, used for shaping materials such as woods and plastics, have built in extraction. Dust can be very dangerous if inhaled and can also cause eye irritation. The CNC Router shown above has an outlet for an extraction unit. As the router is fully enclosed, dust cannot escape into the atmosphere. If an extraction unit is attached the dust is removed automatically. Most manually operated machine routers have very limited extraction systems which leave some dust in the air. The CNC router above has a single phase electrical supply. Most older machines such as manually operated milling machines and centre lathes have three phase supplies. A single phase electrical supply can be ‘plugged’ into any available socket. The electrical supply for the machine comes through a residual circuit breaker (RCB). If an electrical fault develops the RCB will cut off electrical power immediately. Single phase CNC machines can be moved more easily because they are simply unplugged and relocated. Three phase machines are specially wired by an electrician into the electrical supply and cannot be unplugged. Most CNC machines work behind a guard or even a closed, transparent safety door. This means that the operated cannot be hurt by 'flying' pieces of sharp/hot material.

Page 16 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Mechanical Hazards

Steve Goddard

Machines have moving parts. The action of moving parts may have sufficient force in motion to cause injury to people. When designing machinery and equipment areas be aware of the following mechanical hazards: • Machinery and equipment with moving parts that can be reached by people • Machinery and equipment that can eject objects (parts, components, products or waste items) that may strike a person with sufficient force to cause harm • Machinery and equipment with moving parts that can reach people such as booms or mechanical appendages (arms) • mobile machinery and equipment, such as forklifts, pallet jacks, earth moving equipment, operated in areas where people may gain access. Robotic arms can reach over their base, move with remarkable speed and high force, and can cause injury if controls to separate people from moving plant are not implemented.

Mobile plant operated in areas where people work may cause injury through collision. Traffic control and segregation are forms of control. Below is a list of hazards and associated risks: Hazard Rotating Shafts, pullies, sprockets and gears Hard surfaces moving together Scissor or shear action Sharp edge – Moving or stationary Cable or hose connections Risk Entanglement Crushing Severing Cutting or puncturing Slips, trips and falls (e.g. oil leaks)

Page 17 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Non Mechanical Hazards Non-mechanical hazards associated with machinery and equipment can include harmful emissions, contained fluids or gas under pressure, chemicals and chemical by-products, electricity and noise, all of which can cause serious injury if not adequately controlled. In some cases, people exposed to these hazards may not show signs of injury or illness for years. Where people are at risk of injury due to harmful emissions from machinery and equipment, the emissions should be controlled at their source. When designing machinery and equipment areas be aware of the possible non-mechanical hazards. Common non-mechanical hazards are shown below. Non-Mechanical Hazards Dust Explosive or flammable atmospheres Heat (Radiated or conducted) High Intensity Light (Laser, ultra-violet) Heavy Metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) Steam Ionising radiation (x-rays, microwaves) Risk control of mechanical hazards Separation is a simple and effective machinery and equipment risk control. Separation may be achieved by distance, barrier or time. • Distance separation means a person cannot reach the hazard due to distance. • Barrier separation means an effective barrier or guard denies access and controls ejection of parts, products or waste. • Time separation means at the time of access, the machinery or equipment is disabled. Examples include: • Physical barriers and guards such as fences, screens or fixed panels of various materials • Various forms of guarding and interlocking (as described in Australian Standard AS 4024, part 1601 and part 1602, Safety of Machinery) • Making the hazard inaccessible by reach (where the distance between a person and the hazard forms an effective barrier). Note: When considering the suitability of distance guarding; also consider the safe access requirements of maintenance people who gain access by ladder, scaffold or elevated work platform. Guarding A guard can perform several functions: it can deny bodily access, contain ejected parts, tools, off-cuts or swath, prevent emissions escaping or form part of a safe working platform. Guarding is commonly used with machinery and equipment to prevent access to: • Rotating end drums of belt conveyors • Moving augers of auger conveyors • Rotating shafts • Moving parts that do not require regular adjustment

Mist (Vapours or fumes) Noise Ignition sources (flame or spark) Molten Materials Chemicals Pressurised fluids and gases Electrical

Page 18 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

• Machine transmissions, such as pulley and belt drives, chain drives, exposed drive gears • Any dangerous moving parts, machines or equipment. Where access is not anticipated, a fixed guard can be permanently applied by bonding agent, welding or secured with one-way screws. If access is generally not required, a permanently fixed barrier is the preferred option. Where access to the hazard is infrequent, the installation of a fitted guard that can be removed by use of a tool may be an acceptable control, where the tool to remove the barrier or guard is not normally available to the operator. Adjustable guarding incorporates movable sections or panels of the guard and allows for material or parts to be fed into the guarded area while still preventing bodily contact. Tunnel Guards Tunnel guards provide a tunnel, aperture or chute in which material can be inserted into the machinery and equipment, but due to the restrictive design and depth of the opening, fingers, hands, arms or the entire person is prevented from intruding into the danger area. Where frequent cleaning is required, the guard may be constructed of mesh that prevents intrusion of body parts but allows for hosing. Food production workplaces that use conveyors in areas where hygiene or food safety is an integral part of the operation use fixed mesh guarding of conveyor end rollers. Interlocking Guarding Interlock guarding occurs when the act of moving the guard (opening, sliding or removing) to allow access stops the action of the hazardous mechanism. Interlock guarding works by: • Mechanically disconnecting the drive mechanism (applies a brake or disengages a clutch or geared mechanism) • Isolating the power source of the drive mechanism (stops the motor) • A combination of mechanical and power disconnection. Interlock guarding is generally achieved via mechanical or electrical means, but may also include hydraulic or pneumatic control systems. The energy stored in moving parts (momentum) can cause the mechanism of the machine or equipment to run on for some time after the source of driving energy has been removed. For access panels or doors supporting an interlocking device that allows access to mechanical parts that move for periods after the energy source is removed, a

Page 19 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

separate mechanism to delay release of the retaining or locking mechanism may be incorporated. Captive Key Systems Captive key systems rely upon a single key that is shared between the control panel (‘on’ switch) and the access gate lock of the physical barrier to the danger area. Removal of the key from the control panel can only occur when the switch is in the off position, and the gate will only release the key when in the locked position. Captive key systems do not provide full isolation of the power source, but may provide limited temporary access under controlled conditions. Effective supervision, instruction and training are required as administrative controls to ensure that only one key is available for the system, and the key is not removed from the access gate or guard by a second operator while a person is exposed to the danger area of the plant. Operations such as maintenance, repair, installation service or cleaning may require all energy sources to be isolated and locked out to avoid accidental start-up. Simultaneous Two-handed Operation Where a machine has only one operator, the use of simultaneous two-handed operation buttons can serve as a risk control. This ensures that operation of the hazardous mechanism cannot occur until both hands are clear of the danger area. The two buttons must be pushed at the same time and are located at a distance from each other that prevents simultaneous operation by one hand. The operation should be designed so that if either or both of the buttons are released, the hazardous action of the machine or equipment cannot be reached, or if it can be reached, the mechanism returns to a safe state. Presence Sensing Systems Presence sensing systems If physical guards are not reasonably practicable, then a presence sensing system can be used as a control to reduce risk. Presence sensing systems can be used where people enter areas shared by moving production equipment. Presence sensing systems are capable of providing a high degree of flexibility with regard to access. Presence sensing systems detect when a person is in the identified danger area, and stops or reduces the power or speed of the mechanism at the time of entry to provide for safe access.

Page 20 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Presence sensing systems can rely on foot pressure pads, infra-red sensing, light beams or laser scanning. The most appropriate type of sensing device will depend on the operating environment and access requirements. Australian Standard AS 4024.2 provides guidance on design specification, ratings on integrity and reaction times. Manufacturers’ specifications for installation and maintenance must also be observed. Specialist assistance may be required by experienced professionals to ensure correct selection and installation of presence sensing systems. Companies who manufacture or supply these systems also provide technical support and installation assistance. Safety Product Examples Power Isolation Prior to Multiple Access The KP1 switch interlock is designed to operate as part of an integrated safety system, controlling access to hazardous areas. The illustration details the requirement to isolate a valve, which in turn isolates the power to the machine via the machine control circuit.

To gain access to the machine first of all, the valve must be turned to the closed position and locked closed by removing the key. This locks the valve in the closed position and switches the power off to the machine. The key is taken to the X type key exchange box, inserted and trapped. This releases two further keys. These are used to unlock the AI access interlocks mounted on the access points to the machine. Pallet removal safety system - trapped key and perimeter guarding The safety system requirement is to ensure that when the pallet is to be unloaded, the robot will stop for the duration that the forklift truck is in the area, ensuring safe removal. Access is also required to the robot via a side gate when the robot needs to be put into a teach mode. Condition 1 The robot is active and loading the waiting pallet. The access point is locked closed and the light curtain is active protecting the opening to the out feed conveyor.

Page 21 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Condition 2 The fork-lift approaches the out feed conveyor and mutes the light curtain via the inductive loop mounted in the floor. The robot ceases operation and allows safe access. The forklift collects the pallet and withdraws. Once the forklift has retracted out of the protected area the light curtain will become active once more. The robot will only resume operation when a restart button has been depressed on the control panel. For personnel to gain access through the gate the robot is stopped via the 'KS20ES' trapped key unit. Key 'A' is inserted into the isolation lock of the access lock 'AIE', which allows the release of the personnel key, key 'B'. Key 'B' is taken into the area by the operative. This key can be used as a personnel key or as a teach key which is inserted into the 'KS20' within the area. This will enable the robot into a tech mode only.

Permit To Enter - Time Delay Control (Electronic) When the machine running down, the access keys are trapped and the switch contacts 3N/O 3N/C. Turning the isolation switch to the off position changes the contacts to the switch and initiates the timer. After a pre-set time (set to the run down time of the machine) the timer energises the solenoid and releases the access keys. The keys can now be transferred to the access interlocks fitted to the perimeter guard of the machine. In this condition, the isolation switch cannot be returned to the 'on' position. The isolation switch can also be 'locked off' with a padlock as an additional safety measure. The position of the solenoid is monitored by two safety switches. This feature enables an external dual channel safety relay to be

Page 22 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

connected to the two normally closed contacts of the safety switches. The safety relay will prevent the machine from being re-started in the event of solenoid failure.

Conclusion
From my research I have found that there are a vast variety of different safety systems for use in the automated manufacturing industry. Whilst this is the case the system or method used alters greatly due to the process being undertaken, the maintenance requirements, and the frequency of human involvement. The main common feature in most of the safety systems is a cut to the power causing the machine to power down safely when someone breaches the guards. For example this can be initiated either via a light gate, a guard being lifted or by a timer. The need for a detailed international standard is also quite apparent in this area. So far there is no such standard to detail the most effective means of safety and therefore no rules and guidelines to help employers understand what exactly is needed to protect their employees when operating, supervising or maintaining automated machines.

Page 23 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

Appendix 1

Page 24 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

MAJOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION PLAN

Page 25 of 26

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Steve Goddard

References & Bibliography
Internet AgustaWestland Health, Safety & Environment webpage www.theiet.org + virtual libraries www.books24x7.com http://www.technologystudent.com/cam www.castell.com/eu http://www.docep.wa.gov.au/WorkSafe/PDF/National_Standards/ Books Safety with Machinery, Second Edition by John Ridley and Dick Pearce Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems, Third Edition by Mikell P. Groover Other Roy Worth – Health, Safety & Environment Officer at AgustaWestland

Page 26 of 26

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.