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Hand cleaning station at the entrance of the Toronto General Hospital Food safety
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and tevilah and netilat yadayim in Judaism. This is especially important for people who handle food or work in the medical field.Clostridium botulinum E." As a general rule. It protects best against diseases transmitted through fecal-oral routes (such as many forms of stomach flu) and direct physical contact (such as impetigo). Hinduism. for example. In symbolic hand washing. and tuberculosis. but it is also an important practice for the general public. People can become infected with respiratory illnesses such as influenza or the common cold. In addition to hand washing with soap and water.and airborne diseases. such as measles. Wudu in Islam and Misogi in Shint . the use of alcohol gels is an effective form of killing some kinds of pathogens. handwashing protects people poorly or not at all from droplet. Medical hand hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease. dirt. or with the use of soap. influenza. chickenpox. if they don't wash their hands before touching their eyes. Similar to these are the practices of Lavabo in Christianity. coli Hepatitis A Norovirus Parasitic infections Blastocystis Cryptosporidiosis Trichinosis Hand washing for hand hygiene is the act of cleaning the hands with or without the use of water or another liquid. Indeed. and/or microorganisms. nose. Contents [hide] Techniques . for the purpose of removing soil. including Bahá'í Faith. or mouth. The main medical purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands of pathogens (including bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause personal harm or disease. using water only to wash hands is a part of ritual handwashing as a feature of many religions. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has stated: "It is well documented that one of the most important measures for preventing the spread of pathogens is effective hand washing.
including under fingernails is seen as necessary. since the washing action separates the contaminants from the skin but does not completely flush them from the skin removing the excess water (with the towel) also removes the suspended contaminants. but there is some debate over the most effective form of drying in washrooms. warm air hand dryers and the more modern jet-air hand dryers. Hand antiseptics and alcohol rubs with moisturizers will also not dry out the skin on hands as much as soap and water. the total number of bacteria was reduced on average on the finger pads by up to 76% and on the palms by up to 77%. a study was conducted by the University of Westminster Trade Group. The scientists also carried out tests to establish whether there was the potential for cross contamination of other washroom users and the washroom environment as a result of each type of drying method.  Drying Effective drying of the hands is an essential part of the hand hygiene process. A growing volume of research suggests paper towels are much more hygienic than the electric hand dryers found in many washrooms. The use of a hand antiseptic or alcohol rub is much quicker and more effective than hand washing with soap and water. Moisturizing lotion is often recommended to keep the hands from drying out. the total number of bacteria was found to increase on average on the finger pads by 194% and on the palms by 254% drying with the jet air dryer resulted in an increase on average of the total number of bacteria on the finger pads by 42% and on the palms by 15% after washing and drying hands with a paper towel. One should rub wet. disposable or otherwise. to compare the levels of hygiene offered by paper towels.  Hand antiseptics Enough hand antiseptic or alcohol rub must be used to thoroughly wet or cover both hands. soapy hands together outside the stream of running water for at least 20 seconds. They found that: . After drying. a dry paper towel should be used to turn off the water (and open the exit door if one is in a restroom). Soap and water Main article: Hand washing with soap Conventionally. should one's hands require washing more than a few times per day. London and sponsored by the paper towel industry the European Tissue Symposium. before rinsing thoroughly and then drying with a clean towel. The front and back of both hands and between and the ends of all fingers are rubbed for approximately 30 seconds until the liquid. foam or gel is dry. It has been shown that the use of a towel is a necessary part of effective contaminant removal. the use of soap and warm running water and the washing of all surfaces thoroughly. In 2008. The key findings were: y y y after washing and drying hands with the warm air dryer.
Most are based on isopropyl alcohol or ethanol formulated together with a thickening agent such as Carbomer into a gel. In the late 1990s and early part of the 21st century. and hepatitis) and fungus.9%) of the bacteria on hands 30 seconds after application and 4 to 5 log10 (99. or a humectant such as glycerin into a liquid. vaccinia. or foam for ease of use and to decrease the drying effect of the alcohol. Alcohol rub sanitizers containing 70% alcohol kill 3. different hand drying methods were evaluated. . use of a warm air hand dryer spread micro-organisms up to 0. Alcohol rub non-water-based hand hygiene agents (also known as alcohol-based hand rubs.5 log10 (99. multi-drug resistant bacteria (MRSA and VRE). Alcohol rub sanitizers kill bacteria. The following changes in the bacterial count after drying the hands were observed: Drying method Effect on Bacterial Count Paper towels and roll Decrease of 24% Hot-air dryer Increase of 12% Hand antiseptic A hand sanitizer or hand antiseptic is a non-water-based hand hygiene agent. or hand sanitizers) began to gain popularity. which blows air out of the unit at claimed speeds of 400 mph. RSV.y y y the jet air dryer. was capable of blowing micro-organisms from the hands and the unit and potentially contaminating other washroom users and the washroom environment up to 2 metres away.25 metres from the dryer paper towels showed no significant spread of micro-organisms. herpes. Nevertheless the Dyson Airblade is the only hand dryer that uses a HEPA filter to remove over 99.9% of the bacteria from the air used to dry hands.999%) of the bacteria on hands 1 minute after application.99 to 99. rhinovirus. and some viruses (including HIV. the most common cause of contagious gastroenteritis. in a study conducted by TUV Produkt und Umwelt. Alcohol rub sanitizers are not as effective at preventing the spread of pathogens as soap and water. antiseptic hand rubs. tuberculosis. Hand sanitizers are most effective against bacteria and less effective against some viruses. In 2005. influenza. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are almost entirely ineffective against norovirus or Norwalk type viruses. The CDC recommends hand washing over hand sanitizing. Hand sanitizers containing a minimum of 60 to 95% alcohol are efficient germ killers.
probably due to progressive adverse skin reactions. alcohol based hand sanitizers containing emollients caused substantially less skin irritation and dryness than soaps or antimicrobial detergents. advanced formulations have been developed. HandClens was shown to meet and exceed the FDA performance standards. with a patented SAB (Surfactant. The study demonstrated that. Despite their effectiveness. since the pathogens still remain on the hands.The increasing use of these agents is based on their ease of use and rapid killing activity against micro-organisms. In a recent study. In clinical trials. More recently. alcohol does not have persistent or cumulative antimicrobial activity after application. unlike Benzalkonium Chloride. The lower tendency to induce irritant contact dermatitis became an attraction as compared to soap and water hand washing. non-water agents do not cleanse the hands of organic material. however they should not serve as a replacement for proper hand washing unless soap and water are unavailable. but simply disinfect them. alcohol-free hand sanitizers tended to significantly under-perform alcohol or alcohol rubs as germ killers in clinical studies using standard protocols such as EN1500. Medical use . In the same study. Soapopular and DEBSBS. Other alcohol-free hand sanitizer products that use benzalkonium chloride as the active ingredient include Hy5. In the past. the effectiveness of alcohol was shown to decrease after repeated use. The efficacy of alcohol-free hand sanitizers is heavily dependent on their ingredients and formulation. The drying effect of alcohol can be reduced or eliminated by adding glycerin and/or other emollients to the formula. A further aspect of efficacy sometimes overlooked is the effect of repeated use. Purell has been shown to fail to meet the FDA 21 CFR 333. It is for this reason that hand sanitizers are not as effective as soap and water at preventing the spread of pathogens. Allergic contact dermatitis. Allantoin and Benzalkonium Chloride) formulation. some of which have been shown to out-perform alcohol.470 performance standards for health-care personnel antiseptic hand washes not just as a consequence of the decrease in effectiveness with repeated use. but due to a lack of persistence in antimicrobial activity after application and the decrease in effectiveness with heavy soil loads. The efficacy of alcohol as a hand disinfectant has been shown to decrease after repeated use. Frequent use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers can cause dry skin unless emollients and/or skin moisturizers are added to the formula. whereas the efficacy of an alcohol-free hand sanitizer based on Benzalkonium Chloride as its active ingredient has been shown to increase with repeated use. An example of this is HandClens. contact urticaria syndrome or hypersensitivity to alcohol or additives present in alcohol hand rubs rarely occurs.
If there is debris under fingernails. sterile towels for . Medical hand washing is for a minimum of 15 seconds using generous amounts of soap and water or gel to lather and rub each part of the hands. the paper towel should be used to turn off the water (and open any exit door if necessary). Hands should be rubbed together with digits interlocking. a bristle brush may be used to remove it. with large numbers of doctors and nurses routinely forgetting to wash their hands before touching patients. after washing hands with soap (B) and after disinfection with alcohol (C). After drying. This avoids re-contaminating the hands from those surfaces. The purpose of hand washing in the health care setting is to remove pathogenic microorganisms ("germs") and avoid transmitting them. One study showed that proper hand washing and other simple procedures can decrease the rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections by 66 percent. A relevant review was conducted by Whitby et al. Since germs may remain in the water on the hands it is important to rinse well and wipe dry with a clean towel. The draft guidance of hand hygiene by the organization can also be found at its website for public comment. The World Health Organization has published a sheet demonstrating standard handwashing and handrubbing in health care sectors. it is necessary to have a tap that can be turned on and off without touching with the hands. some chlorhexidine or iodine wash. The addition of antiseptic chemicals to soap ("medicated" or "antimicrobial" soaps) confers killing action to a hand washing agent.Microbial growth on a cultivation plate without procedures (A). Commercial devices can measure and validate hand hygiene. To 'scrub' one's hands for a surgical operation. Such killing action may be desired prior to performing surgery or in settings in which antibiotic-resistant organisms are highly prevalent. The New England Journal of Medicine reports that lack of hand washing remains at unacceptable levels in most medical environments. if demonstration of regulatory compliance is required.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).drying the hands after washing. Wash your hands!" How many times have you heard that from your parents? You might think they're just nagging you. or mouth. usually 2±6 minutes. and a sterile brush for scrubbing and another sterile instrument for cleaning under the fingernails. You're at risk every time you touch your eyes. All jewelry should be removed. they can spread germs directly to other people or onto surfaces that others touch. Long scrub times (10 minutes) are not necessary. In fact. one of the most common ways people catch colds is by rubbing their nose or their eyes after the cold virus has gotten on their hands. the hands are dried with a sterile cloth and a surgical gown is donned. everyone around you is coming down with something! . And before you know it. but actually the most important thing you can do to keep from getting sick is to wash your hands. If people don't wash their hands frequently (especially when they're sick). nose. water on the forearms must be prevented from running back to the hands. you can pick up germs from other sources and then infect yourself. When rinsing. Medical hand-washing became mandatory long after Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis discovered its effectiveness in preventing disease in a hospital environment. if you don't wash your hands frequently. After hand washing is completed. This procedure requires washing the hands and forearms up to the elbow.
The results were kind of gross. . and a bathroom is a bathroom. Only 42% of the people in the survey washed up after petting a dog or cat. from tainted surfaces. By frequently washing your hands the right way. Defensive Hand Washing Did you know that an estimated 1 out of 5 people don't wash their hands after using the restroom? In 2005 the American Society for Microbiology did a survey of hand washing. you might as well not have bothered. through contaminated water and food. They asked people questions about their hand-washing habits and also watched people in public restrooms. Fido and Fluffy are dirtier than you think. For example: y y y y y People don't always wash their hands after using the bathroom 91% of adults say they always wash their hands after using public restrooms. but just 83% were seen doing so. Whatever you did. You've seen your dog roll in that mystery smell in the park or your cat rub against you after using the litter pan. you came into contact with germs. Just 21% wash their hands after handling money.The First Line of Defense Against Germs Think about all of the things that you touched today ² from the telephone to the toilet. you'll wash away germs ² such as bacteria and viruses ² that you have picked up from other people. Maybe you blew your nose and played with your dog. or from animals and animal waste. So it's easy for germs on your hand to end up in your mouth (maybe when you scarfed that handful of popcorn with your teammates right after soccer practice). Only 32% of people in the survey said they wash their hands after coughing or sneezing. But if you then reach for your friend's pizza. People wash their hands less at home 83% say they wash their hands after using the bathroom at home. Germs are germs. So it's nice that you protect the people around you by covering your mouth with your hand when you cough.
. consider using a paper towel to flush the toilet and open the door because toilet and door handles harbor germs. and apply a moisturizing lotion liberally afterwards. pat rather than rub hands dry. between your fingers. use a mild soap with warm water. In public restrooms. In one study. Follow these simple steps to keep your hands clean: y y y y y Use warm water (not cold or hot). waterless hand soaps or scrubs are a good alternative. your wrists. your friends may be harboring some dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. Throw the towel away after you leave. Rub your hands together vigorously and scrub all surfaces: Lather up on both sides of your hands. think about using an alcohol hand sanitizer. and around your nails. only 58% of female and 48% of male middle. Use whatever soap you like.and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom.And even if you're a good hand-washer. Wash for 15 seconds about how long it takes to sing "Happy Birthday. If you suspect that your hands have come into contact with someone with an infection. To prevent chapping or dry skin. Antibacterial soaps are popular but regular soap works fine. Yuck! Back How to Wash Your Hands Correctly There's a right way to wash your hands. or sports bag. locker. car. or towelettes. purse. They're usually available as a liquid. and often come in small travel sizes that are perfect for keeping in your book bag." Rinse well under warm running water and pat dry with a clean towel. When there is no soap or water available. wipes.
.Remember. The CDC recommends choosing products that contain at least 60 percent alcohol. So hum a few verses of "Happy Birthday" and lather up! Proper use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer Alcohol-based hand sanitizers. covering all surfaces of your hands. They're actually more effective than soap and water in killing bacteria and viruses that cause disease. If your hands are visibly dirty. which don't require water are an excellent alternative to hand washing. particularly when soap and water aren't available. Some "waterless" hand sanitizers don't contain alcohol. if available. To use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer: y y Apply about ½ teaspoon of the product to the palm of your hand. However not all hand sanitizers are created equal. until they are dry. Use only the alcohol-based products. you should wash with soap and water. rather than a sanitizer. Using these products can result in less skin dryness and irritation than hand washing. Rub your hands together. Commercially prepared hand sanitizers contain ingredients that help prevent skin dryness. proper and frequent hand washing is the key to preventing the spread of many common infections.
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