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You are on page 1of 130

An

A Introduction

I t d ti to t Finite

Fi it Elements

El t

S

Some P

Practical

i lC Concepts

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Who am I?

Introduction

• Bart McPheeters FEA Process

An Example

– Sr. Application Engineer Complicated

Models

– BS in Naval Architecture/Marine Choosing

E i

Engineering

i Elements

Interpreting

– MS in Solid Mechanics/Material Results

Wrapping Up

Science

– 20 years using and supporting

FEA

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

• How do we solve an engineering Introduction

FEA Process

problem?

bl ? An Example

Complicated

Models

• Classical Methods Choosing

Elements

– Closed Form Solutions Interpreting

Results

• Roark Wrapping Up

– Approximate Solutions

• Superposition, series solutions

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

How can we solve a complex problem? FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

• Solve a number of simple problems, add them all up Models

and get the answer of a complex problem Choosing

Elements

– “Squaring the Circle” Interpreting

Results

Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

• Numerical Methods FEA Process

An Example

– Take the complex problem and Complicated

Models

break it up into simple problems Choosing

Elements

• Finite Difference Interpreting

Results

• Finite Element Wrapping Up

• Boundary Element

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

What Exactly is The Finite Element Method? Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

The Finite Element Method is a way of Complicated

analyzing a complex engineering problem by Models

g it up

breaking p into many

y small, very

y simple

p Choosing

Elements

problems Interpreting

Results

– The many small pieces called finite elements

Wrapping Up

– The assemblage of elements is called a finite

element model

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Grid Point Introduction

FEA Process

or Node An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Element Interpreting

Results

Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

– A continuous structure has theoretically an FEA Process

infinite number of degrees of freedom An Example

Complicated

• Number of points that can move independently Models

Choosing

• An infinite number of simple problems! Elements

Interpreting

– The Finite Element Method approximates Results

the behavior of a continuous structure with Wrapping Up

a finite

fi it number

b off points

i t (d

(degrees off

freedom)

• A finite number of simple problems

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

– The finer the mesh (i.e. more DOF), the FEA Process

better we can approximate the structure An Example

Complicated

• Recall squaring the circle… Models

Choosing

– This includes Elements

Interpreting

• The geometry of the structure such as Results

curvature and thickness variations Wrapping Up

• Load application

• Stress and strain gradients

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

So what are these simple problems that we use? Introduction

FEA Process

– Break

B k complex l geometry into

i simple

i l shapes

h we An Example

can deal with (Lines, Squares, Cubes) Complicated

Models

– Use the computer to solve lots of these simple Choosing

problems

bl Elements

Interpreting

• And do millions and millions of simple numerical Results

operations on these simple problems Wrapping Up

• Computers are good at this

– Present the results graphically

• Computers are good at this too!

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

• History of the finite element method FEA Process

An Example

– The matrix theory of structural analysis first began Complicated

appearing in the technical literature in the early Models

1940s Choosing

Elements

– The term “finite element” was coined by Clough in a Interpreting

paper describing the technique used for plane- Results

stress analysis (Proceedings of the Second ASCE Wrapping Up

C f

Conference on Electronic

El t i Computation,

C t ti 1960)

– Large general-purpose finite element programs

began to appear in the 1970’s including NASTRAN,

ANSYS MARC,

ANSYS, MARC STARDYNE,

STARDYNE and d SAP

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

• Then things got really rolling… Introduction

FEA Process

– Finite element graphical pre and post An Example

processors became available in the 1980’s, Complicated

making the construction of finite element models Models

much easier and less pprone to human error Choosing

Elements

– Automatic meshing became a standard feature Interpreting

for graphical pre processors in the 1990’s. Results

Automatic meshing has gained much popularity Wrapping Up

as the automatic meshing technology matures

and the speed of computers continue to

accelerate

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

K But what is it really? FEA Process

An Example

N1 N2 F

• A simple example… Complicated

Models

K = Spring stiffness Choosing

Δu

(EA/L) Elements

Interpreting

Δu = Spring Results

N1 N2 Wrapping Up

elongation

F = Spring force

K * Δu = F www.NEiSoftware.com

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

FEA Process

Divide the geometry into simple An Example

elements and assemble all Complicated

elements Models

Choosing

[K] = Stiffness matrix of the part Elements

(Sum of all elements) Interpreting

Results

{u} = Components of the Wrapping Up

di l

displacementst off th

the nodes

d off

the part

{F} = Components of the loads

on the

th nodes

d off th

the partt

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

[K] *{u} = {F} FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Solve this matrix equation with thousands (or Models

millions) of unknown u’s Choosing

Elements

• This is the basic ‘displacement’ approach Interpreting

Results

Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

• Types of finite element methods Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

– There are two different types of finite Complicated

element methods - the displacement or Models

Choosing

stiffness method and the force or flexibility Elements

method Interpreting

Results

• In the displacement method, the node Wrapping Up

displacements are the basic unknowns in the

system of equations

• In the force method

method, the member forces are the

basic unknowns in the system of equations.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

– Both methods can be used to FEA Process

An Example

solve structural problems Complicated

Models

• The displacement method is used by Choosing

Elements

many modern finite element codes, Interpreting

including NEiNastran and most Results

Wrapping Up

others

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

Introduction

• So why use FEM? It has many FEA Process

An Example

advantages: Complicated

– Model irregularly shaped bodies Models

– Handles general loading conditions Choosing

– M d lb

Model bodies

di can b be composed d off diff

differentt materials

t i l Elements

– Handles many types of boundary conditions Interpreting

– Elements can vary in size allowing use of small elements Results

when necessaryy Wrapping Up

– The Finite element model can be changed relatively

easily and cheaply

– Model many different types of physics

– Represent non

non-linear

linear behavior

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

– Finite elements are shapes which are Introduction

relatively easy to formulate and analyze: FEA Process

An Example

beams, plates, and blocks Complicated

Models

• The stress and strain within each element is a

Choosing

function of the displacement of the grid points it Elements

is connected to Interpreting

Results

Wrapping Up

3D

1D

2D

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

– The displacement of each grid point may Introduction

FEA Process

be described by six independent degrees An Example

of freedom (DOFs). A degree of freedom Complicated

Models

is defined as an independent component of Choosing

translation or rotation θy

Elements

Interpreting

Three translations (ux, uy, uz) Results

Three rotations ((θx, θy, θz) uy Wrapping Up

= { ux uy uz θx θy θz } ux

uz

θz

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

• There are basically 7 steps that a FEA Process

An Example

user and a finite element code go Complicated

through to solve the problem Models

Choosing

– Some

S are user choices

h i Elements

Interpreting

• How to approximate reality Results

Wrapping Up

– Some are things an FEA code does for

you

• Solving lots of equations

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

• The 7 steps (user/software) FEA Process

1.

1 Discretize

Di ti the

th structure

t t An Example

2. Choose a displacement function Complicated

Models

3. Choose stress/strain and strain displacement Choosing

relations Elements

4. Construct element stiffness matrices Interpreting

Results

5. Construct a global stiffness matrix and apply Wrapping Up

loads

6. Solve for the unknown displacements

7. Calculate the strains, forces and stresses from

the displacements

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEA Process

• Step 1: Discretize and Select •Step 1

Element Type •Step 2

•Step 3

•Step 4

– Discretize usuallyy means some kind •Step 5

•Step 6

of auto meshing, which can be done •Step 7

in FEMAP, MSC.Patran or any pre-

processor

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

• An element type is selected based on the analysis FEA Process

j

objectives of the system

y to be solved for and the •Step 1

geometry of the problem •Step 2

– For example if the objective is to find how much a •Step 3

widget displaces in a linear structural analysis then a •Step 4

10 node tetrahedral may be a good choice •Step 5

– If you have a plate-like structure, a 4-node shell •Step 6

element may be a more appropriate choice •Step 7

– If you have a structure that looks like a bunch of

connected beams, then a 2-node beam element mayy

be a good choice

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

• Step 2: Select Displacement Function FEA Process

•Step 1

•Step 2

– The displacement function describes the

•Step 3

displacement at any point in the element as a •Step 4

function of its grid point displacements •Step 5

•Step 6

– This function is defined within the element using

•Step 7

nodal values of the element. For example, a 4-

noded QUAD has a linear displacement function,

while a 20

20-node

node Hex element has a quadratic

displacement function

– You likely did this without knowing you were doing

it in step 1 when you chose the element type!

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

– Most functions are linear or quadratic. Linear FEA Process

elements are referred to as h-elements and higher •Step 1

order

d elements

l t are referred

f d to

t as p-elements

l t •Step 2

• Quadratic elements are really p-elements, but are •Step 3

usually referred to as just quadratic elements •Step 4

• The term p

p-element

element is usually reserved for elements •Step 5

which can change their displacement function during an •Step 6

analysis •Step 7

– The result is an approximation by a discrete model

composed

p of a set of p

piecewise-continuous functions

defined within each finite domain or finite element

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEA Process

• Step 3: Define the strain/displacement •Step 1

•Step 2

and stress/strain relationship •Step 3

•Step 4

– Strain/displacement is defined as the •Step 5

relationship

l ti hi bbetween

t strain

t i and d •Step 6

•Step 7

displacement

– Example: for small deflection in one

dimension this could be:

Δ L u2 – u 1

ε x = ------- = -----------------

L L

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEA Process

– Stress/strain law, also called the •Step 1

•Step 2

constitutive law, is defined as the •Step 3

relationship between stress and •Step 4

•Step 5

strain The simplest constitutive

strain. •Step 6

•Step 7

law is Hooke’s law, where E is the

modulus of elasticity

σx = Eε x

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEA Process

• You probably did this without •Step 1

•Step 2

knowing it too! •Step 3

•Step 4

– Finite Element materials incorporate the •Step 5

constitutive relations

relations. •Step 6

•Step 7

• A Nastran MAT1 implies a certain

stress/strain relationship

– All elements have an implied strain/

displacement relationship

• This is part of the element formulation

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

• Step 4: Derive the Element Stiffness FEA Process

•Step 1

Matrix •Step 2

•Step 3

– The three most common method for •Step 4

developing the stiffness matrix are •Step 5

•Step 6

• Direct Equilibrium Method •Step 7

• Work/Energy Method

• Method of Weighted Residuals

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

– The Method of Weighted Residuals allows finite FEA Process

•Step 1

elements to be applied directly to any differential

•Step 2

equation •Step 3

• Commonly used in FEA codes •Step 4

•Step 5

– All these methods will

ill gi

give

e the same res

results,

lts •Step 6

however one or the other may be more efficient •Step 7

in specific cases

– When you chose an element type

type, this was

chosen as well.

• Someone already derived it for you!

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

• Step 5: Assemble the element stiffness FEA Process

•Step 1

matrixes to create the global stiffness •Step 2

•Step 3

matrix •Step 4

•Step 5

– The final assembled stiffness matrix is a •Step 6

piece of the global equation {F} = [K]{u} •Step 7

where {F} is the global force vector, [K] is

the global stiffness matrix , and {u} is the

global displacement vector

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

– Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is FEA Process

•Step 1

contingent upon the elements being compatible

•Step 2

i.e. there are no seams or gaps in the model •Step 3

• The nodes of one element connect to the nodes •Step 4

j

of adjacent elements •Step 5

•Step 6

– “Compatibility” requires that the displacements •Step 7

on the element boundaries are the same for

g g elements ((C0 continuity)

neighboring y)

• C1 continuity requires that the element

curvatures/slopes are compatible – this is usually

not the case as it causes numerical problems

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEA Process

• Step 6: Solve for the unknown degrees •Step 1

off freedom

f d •Step 2

•Step 3

•Step 4

– The global equations are a N set of •Step 5

simultaneous

i lt equations,

ti where

h N iis th

the •Step 6

•Step 7

number of degrees of freedom

– Common methods of solving the global

equations are Gauss Methods, Conjugate

Gradient Methods, and Sparse Methods

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEA Process

• Step 7: Calculate the element strains •Step 1

and

d stresses

t •Step 2

•Step 3

– Using the node displacements strains can •Step 4

be calculated ((from the earlier equations)

q ) •Step 5

•Step 6

•Step 7

Δ L u2 – u 1

ε x = ------- = -----------------

L L

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

– Using the strains the stresses can be FEA Process

•Step 1

calculated •Step 2

•Step 3

σx = Eε x •Step 4

•Step 5

•Step 6

– Other derived quantities (element •Step 7

calculated

l l t d if th

they are a ffunction

ti off

displacement.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

Introduction

• Model Description

p FEA Process

An Example

– Consider a Tapered Rod of Length Complicated

Models

L, which is fixed at x=0 and has an Choosing

Elements

applied axial force P at x=L Interpreting

Results

Wrapping Up

X

P

L

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

Introduction

• Step 1 – Descretize and Select FEA Process

An Example

Element Types Step 1

Step 2

– Let’s use two elements and three nodes Step 3

to represent the bar Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Step 7

Element 1 Element 2

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

• Let’s choose a 2-node 1D element type for this model Introduction

FEA Process

– A 1D element is defined by two nodes at either end of it.

it

An Example

– Axial translations u1x and u2x are the only displacements Step 1

at nodes 1 and 2. Thus, this element has two degrees of Step 2

freedom Step 3

• Assumptions Step 4

Step 5

– The bar cannot sustain shear force; that is F1y=0 and Step 6

F2y=0. Step 7

– Any effect of transverse displacement is ignored.

– Hooke’s law applies;

σx = Eε x

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

In the next step we are going to choose a Introduction

FEA Process

linear displacement element

element, which is An Example

somewhat at odds with the taper in the Step 1

real part Step 2

Step 3

• The taper will be accounted for by using Step 4

multiple rods of shrinking cross-section Step 5

• Obviously, more elements = better answer Step 6

Step 7

• Common

C ttrade-off

d ff iin FEM modeling

d li

• A better choice might be a tapered beam

element

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

• Step 2: Select a displacement Introduction

FEA Process

function

f i An Example

Step 1

– Assume a linear displacement variation Step 2

Step 3

along the xx-axis

axis of the bar.

bar This is a Step 4

common for line elements Step 5

u = a1 + a 2 x

Step 6

Step 7

u = global displacement at any distance x along the element

x = local distance in element and varies from 0. to L

– If you use a Nastran CROD element, this

is the way it works

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

Introduction

– The ai are coefficients for the linear FEA Process

displacement

di l t equation

ti An Example

Step 1

– In matrix form this will look as follows: Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

⎧ a1⎫

Step 6

u = [1 x ]⎨ ⎬

Step 7

⎩a 2 ⎭

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

• Express u as a function of global nodal Introduction

FEA Process

displacements d1x and d2x by using An Example

Step 1

them as boundary conditions Step 2

Step 3

• This is done by evaluating u at each Step 4

Step 5

node and solving for a1 and a2 as Step 6

follows: ( ) u 0 = d 1x = a1

Step 7

u (L ) = d 2 x = a 2L + d 1x

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

Introduction

– Solving for a1 FEA Process

An Example

a1 = d1x Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

– And a2 Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

d 2 x − d 1x

a2 =

L

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

– Substitute back into the original Introduction

FEA Process

equation for u An Example

⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞

Step 1

u = d 1x + ⎜

Step 2

⎟x Step 3

⎝ L ⎠ Step 4

Step 5

– In matrix form Step 6

Step 7

⎡ x x ⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫

u = ⎢1 − ⎥ ⎨ ⎬

⎣ L L ⎦ ⎩d 2 x ⎭ www.NEiSoftware.com

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

– Or write this as: Introduction

⎧d 1x ⎫

FEA Process

u = [N 1 N 2 ]⎨ ⎬

An Example

Step 1

⎩d 2 x ⎭

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

– where Step 5

Step 6

x

N1 = 1 − Step 7

L

x

N2 =

L www.NEiSoftware.com

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

– Comments: Introduction

FEA Process

• Ni’s are commonly referred to as shape An Example

Step 1

functions Step 2

Step 3

– They are pretty simple for rod elements Step 4

Step 5

– They describe the displacement at any point

Step 6

inside the element as a function of the nodal Step 7

displacements at the corners of the element

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

Introduction

• Required properties for shape FEA Process

An Example

functions: Step 1

Step 2

– At x=0, N1 = 1 and N2 = 0 Step 3

Step 4

– At X=1, N1 = 0 and N2 = 1 Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

– N1 + N2 = 1 anywhere inside the

element

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

• Step 3: Define the strain/displacement Introduction

FEA Process

and

d stress/strain

t / t i relationships

l ti hi An Example

Step 1

Step 2

– Strain/displacement (CROD uses this) Step 3

ddu d 2 x − d1x Step 4

εx = = Step 5

Step 6

dx L Step 7

σ = Eε

x x

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

• Step 4: Derive the element Introduction

FEA Process

stiffness and load matrix An Example

Step 1

f1x f2x Step 2

Step 3

– Starting from the definition of stress Step 4

Step 5

P Step 6

σx = Step 7

A

– Where P is the applied force and A

is the area the force is applied to

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

Introduction

Using the strain/displacement and FEA Process

An Example

stress/strain equations: Step 1

⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞

Step 2

P = AE ⎜

Step 3

⎟ Step 4

⎝ L ⎠ Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

The applied load at end 1 of the rod

is:

f x1 = P

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Example

Introduction

• Substituting… FEA Process

An Example

AE

(d 2 x − d 1x )

Step 1

f 1x = Step 2

Step 3

L Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

– And at the other end… Step 7

f x 2 = −P

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An Example

– And putting that into the equation: Introduction

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⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞ An Example

f 2x = − AE ⎜ ⎟ Step 1

Step 2

⎝ L ⎠ Step 3

Step 4

– Combining everything and putting Step 5

Step 6

them in matrix form Step 7

⎧ f 1x ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ d 1x ⎫

⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬

⎩f 2 x ⎭ L ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩d 2 x ⎭

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An Example

– But this is familiar now! Introduction

FEA Process

F K u An Example

= Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

⎧f 1x ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ Step 4

⎨ ⎬=

Step 5

⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ Step 6

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FEA Process

matrixes to create the global stiffness An Example

Step 1

matrix and introduce boundary Step 2

conditions Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Step 6

P Step 7

Element 1 Element 2

Node 3 is loaded -> f2x = P

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An Example

– Based on our derivation of stiffness Introduction

FEA Process

matrix for a rod element

element, we can An Example

Step 1

write the following element stiffness Step 2

Step 3

equations: Step 4

Step 5

⎧ f 1 x ⎫ A1 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ d 1 x ⎫ Step 6

⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ Element 1 Step 7

⎩ f 2 x⎭ L1 ⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ d 2 x ⎭

⎧ f 2 x ⎫ A2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧d 2 x ⎫

⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ Element 2

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An Example

– Let’s simplify the stiffness Introduction

FEA Process

matrices An Example

Step 1

Step 2

⎡ k1 − k1⎤ ⎡ k2 − k2 ⎤

[K ]1 [K ]2 = ⎢

Step 3

=⎢ ⎥ ⎥ Step 4

⎣− k1 k1 ⎦ ⎣ − k 2 k 2 ⎦ Step 5

Step 6

A2E 2 Step 7

AE k2 =

where

h k1 = 1 1 d

and

L1 L2

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An Example

– Assemble the two elements into a global Introduction

FEA Process

system of equations An Example

Step 1

− k1 ⎤ ⎡k − k2 ⎤

[K ]1 = ⎡⎢ [K ]2

k1 Step 2

=⎢ 2

⎣ − k1 k1 ⎥⎦ ⎣− k 2 k 2 ⎦

⎥ Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

⎧F 1x ⎫ ⎡ K 1 − K 1. 0 ⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ Step 6

⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ Step 7

⎨F 2 x ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 K 1. + K 2 − K 2 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬

⎪F 3 x ⎪ ⎢ 0 . − K2 K 2 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩d 3 x ⎪⎭

⎩ ⎭ ⎣

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FEA Process

Zero displacement at Node 1,

1 An Example

Unknown at other nodes Step 1

Step 2

⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ K1 − K 1. 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ Step 3

⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ Step 4

⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 K 1. + K 2 − K 2 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ Step 5

Step 6

⎪P ⎪ ⎢ 0 . − K2 K 2 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩d 3 x ⎪⎭ Step 7

⎩ ⎭ ⎣

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An Example

• Step 6: Solve for the unknown Introduction

FEA Process

d

degree off freedoms

f d which

hi h are An Example

Step 1

displacements d2x and d3x Step 2

Step 3

This displacement is known,

known so we can eliminate that row and column Step 4

Step 5

⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ K1 − K 1. 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ Step 6

⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ Step 7

⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 K 1. + K 2 − K 2 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬

⎪P ⎪ ⎢ 0 . − K2 K 2 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩d 3 x ⎪⎭

⎩ ⎭ ⎣

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An Example

• Which reduces to a simpler equation: Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡K1 + K2 − K2 ⎤ ⎧d2x ⎫

Step 1

Step 2

⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ Step 3

⎩P ⎭ ⎣ − K2 − K2 ⎦ ⎩d3x ⎭ Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

It doesn’t take a lot to solve this simple

p system

y of equations

q Step 7

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An Example

• Step 7: Solve the element strains and Introduction

FEA Process

stresses An Example

– Using the nodal displacements strains can be Step 1

calculated The d’s we found! Step 2

ΔL

u2 − u1 Step 3

εx = = Step 4

L L Step 5

Step 6

– Using the strains, the stresses can be calculated Step 7

σ x = Eε x

– Other derived qquantities can be calculated if they

y

are a function of displacement (element forces)

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complicated

li d models?

d l ?

Introduction

• There are a number of confounding FEA Process

An Example

things now… Complicated

Models

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

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Complex Models

• Step 1 – Discretize the model Introduction

FEA Process

– Lots of different elements available

An Example

• Shells (CQUAD4, CTRIA3) Complicated

• Solids (CHEXA, CTETRA) Models

• Different displacement functions Step 1

– Different

Diff t “types”

“t ” off elements

l t Step 2

• Linear, Quadratic (CQUAD8,CTETRA) Step 3

• Large strain, Large displacement (LGDISP) Step 4

Step 5

• Membrane Bending (PSHELL)

Membrane,

Step 6

• Revised Formulation (CQUADR) Step 7

• Different strain/displacement functions (MAT8)

• Etc…

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Introduction

• Meshing FEA Process

– What

Wh t type

t off element

l t to

t use?? An Example

Complicated

– How distorted can my elements be? Models

Step 1

– Can I use triangles or tets? Step 2

• Your ability to sufficiently discretize the Step 3

Step 4

model may determine which element types Step 5

are available Step 6

Step 7

– Solid-like structures may not be

appropriately modeled with shells, etc.

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Introduction

• In general, if the structure looks like FEA Process

a bunch of bars,bars use 1D bar An Example

elements Complicated

Models

• If it is built from plates, use 2D Shell Step 1

Step 2

elements Step 3

• If it is a 3D widget, use 3D solid Step 4

Step 5

elements Step 6

– Just because you have a 3D CAD Step 7

model doesn’t mean 3D solid elements

are the best way to model it!

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

elements…

Introduction

• There are a number of confounding FEA Process

things

thi in

i Step

St 2 as well…

ll An Example

Complicated

Models

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

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Step 2

– Displacement functions still often linear, but now Introduction

FEA Process

involve 4 equations for a 4

4-node

node quad in 2D

An Example

space: Complicated

• N1 = ¼ (1-x)(1-y) Models

• N2 = ¼ (x+1)(1-y) Step 1

• N3 = ¼ (x+1)(y+1) Step 2

Step 3

• N4 = ¼ (1-x)(y+1) Step 4

• Ni = 1 at each node, other Nj = 0 Step 5

• N1 + N2 + N3 +N4N4 = 1 at allll points

i Step 6

Step 7

– Shape functions are defined in

parametric space

• Element mapped to parametric space

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

• In 3D elements, the functions increase in number Introduction

p y

and complexity… FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

• Triangles and TETs… Models

– Triangles are special elements, in that they have a Step 1

different approach and mapping function Step 2

• The Strain/displacement functions for many do not work Step 3

as well as for QUAD elements

Step 4

• The basic triangle is a “constant strain” element, but

with a linear displacement function Step 5

Step 6

– Tets are also special elements

Step 7

• Linear ones often have problematic strain/disp functions

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elements

• Step 3 – Heart of the matter Introduction

– Choosing g strain displacement

p functions is the FEA Process

An Example

central problem of FEM Complicated

– Fortunately, FEM codes do it for you Models

• You just have to pick the appropriate element Step 1

f

formulation

l i Step 2

– Lots of different formulations depending on what Step 3

Step 4

you are trying to do: Step 5

• Linear analysis Step 6

• Nonlinear analysis Step 7

• Large strain

• Large displacement

• etc… www.NEiSoftware.com

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

• General Strain Displacement relation:

FEA Process

– Derive

Deri e some relation of internal strain to the boundary

bo ndar An Example

node displacements: Complicated

• {e} = [B]{ui} Models

Step 1

• [B] is the strain-displacement

strain displacement matrix Step 2

– A number of ways to calculate it Step 3

Step 4

• Assumed strain field Step 5

• Assumed displacement field Step 6

Step 7

• Assumed stress field

– In realityy often use hybrid

y technique

q

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Introduction

• Strain/Displacement relation FEA Process

– Suffice it to say that [B] is usually a An Example

Complicated

complex expression for most 2D and 3D Models

elements involving lots of integrals and Step 1

Step 2

differentiation Step 3

– Complex expressions are difficult or Step 4

Step 5

impossible to evaluate closed form for Step 6

arbitrary element shapes Step 7

• Hence the need to map to parametric space

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• Step 4 – Element stiffness matrices Introduction

FEA Process

– Numerical methods and tricks used to evaluate An Example

for FEM models Complicated

• Map the arbitrary element shape to an easily Models

evaluated square or cube Step 1

– Plates map to 2x2 squares Step 2

– Solids map to 2x2x2 cubes Step 3

• Approximate surface and volume integrals Step 4

using Gaussian Quadrature Step 5

Step 6

– Numerically calculate values at a limited Step 7

number of places

– Similar to Simpson’s Rule Integration

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Introduction

• Standard plate mapping FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

(-1,1) (1,1)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

(-1,-1) (1,-1) Step 7

4 Gauss

G points for

f performing

f numerical integration

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• A quadratic plate element will have 8 nodes defining Introduction

FEA Process

the boundary,

boundary and often have 9 Gauss points (3x3)

An Example

• A linear hex element will have 8 integration points Complicated

(2x2x2), a quadratic 20-node hex will have 27 Models

(3x3x3) Step 1

Step 2

• Sometimes bending, shear and extensional loads

Step 3

will be evaluated differently Step 4

– “Reduced shear integration” elements use 2x2 Step 5

or 2x2x2

2 2 2 ffor b

bending

di and d extensional

t i l lloads,

d and

d Step 6

a single point for shear to prevent numerical Step 7

problems

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Introduction

• The mapping transformation loses FEA Process

accuracy as the

th element

l t looks

l k less

l andd An Example

Complicated

less like the mapped shape Models

Step 1

– This is why distorted elements are “bad”

bad Step 2

– The accuracy of Gaussian Quadrature Step 3

Step 4

gets worse as the element shape Step 5

di

distorts as wellll Step 6

Step 7

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Introduction

• Step 5 – Assembly of global K FEA Process

– Individual

I di id l matrices

ti are much

h more An Example

complicated Complicated

Models

• Can be 24x24 size or larger Step 1

– Once the element matrices are done

done, Step 2

assembling them into a global matrix is Step 3

a simple task Step 4

Step 5

• Step 6 is the same idea,

idea but

but… Step 6

Step 7

– “extraordinary models require

extraordinary techniques…”

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– Solution usually stated as: Introduction

– {{u}} = [[K]]-1{{P}} FEA Process

– In reality a number of different techniques are used to An Example

find {u} – we don’t invert [K] per se Complicated

• Gaussian elimination that you learned in school is very Models

slow Step 1

• Upper/Lower Decomposition techniques faster Step 2

• Sparse solution methods often used Step 3

– Since most elements of a model usually connect to only a Step 4

limited number of other elements, [K] usually has a lot of Step 5

zero terms

– The matrix is often “almost” diagonal Step 6

• Iterative solvers sometimes faster Step 7

– Guess at a solution and iterate and adjust until it works

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• Step 7 – Finding results from displacements Introduction

– Using the defined [B] strain/displacement equation, FEA Process

you can get strains from {u} An Example

– From strains, depending on the element formulation, Complicated

you can get stresses, internal forces, etc. Models

– Recall that we were numerically evaluating the Step 1

solution at a limited number of places – the Gauss Step 2

Points Step 3

– Results often reported at Gauss points Step 4

Step 5

– Centroidal (element center) and Nodal (element

corner) results must be interpolated and extrapolated Step 6

from the Gauss point values using the shape Step 7

functions (from step 2)

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Introduction

• So how do we choose all these FEA Process

An Example

things? Complicated

Models

• Let’s look at a simple model that can Choosing

Elements

be solved in many ways Interpreting

– Illustrate advantages and Results

FEM Codes

disadvantages of different element Wrapping Up

types

– Help guide your choices

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Some Comparisons…

Introduction

FEA Process

Consider a simple cantilever beam: An Example

Complicated

P = 10 psi Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

10”

1”

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Cantilever test

Introduction

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“Theoretical”

“Th ti l” Roark

R k Solution

S l ti for

f the

th end

d deflection:

d fl ti An Example

Complicated

δ = wl4/8EI w = 10 lb/in Models

Choosing

l = 10 in Elements

δ = .00500” E = 30x106 Interpreting

Results

I = bh3/12 = 1x13/12 = .0833 FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

“Theoretical” Solution for the root moment is: Models

M = wl2/2 Choosing

Elements

M = 500 in-lb Interpreting

Results

“Theoretical” Solution for the root stress is: FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

σ = Mc/I

σ = 3000 psi

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Cantilever test

Introduction

• We’ll start with the simplest FEA Process

An Example

approximation Complicated

Models

– A beam model Choosing

– Beams are ‘theoretically

‘ correct’’ so it Elements

Interpreting

should be a slam dunk, right? Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Cantilever Test

Introduction

FEA Process

OK, it sounds simple

OK simple, so I run it through my An Example

FEM code. But I get the following answers: Complicated

Models

δ = .00507 Choosing

σ = 3000. psi Elements

Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

.00507?

00507? Wrapping Up

exact Roark answer?

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Cantilever Test

Not necessarily – Nastran may just make a Introduction

FEA Process

different set of assumptions: An Example

Nastran users typically use a PBAR card like this: Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

$ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

PBAR 1 1 1. .083333 .083333 .140833

Interpreting

.5 .5 -.5 .5 -.5 -.5 .5 -.5 Results

0.85012 0.85012 0. FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Cantilever Test

Introduction

• If the section were non-symmetric, there FEA Process

would ld be

b additional

dditi l considerations

id ti An Example

Complicated

– Offset of centroid and shear center Models

Choosing

(twisting) Elements

– Warping Interpreting

Results

– Non-uniform shear distribution FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

• Nastran CBEAM does these, Roark doesn’t

– Even simple beams can get complicated!!

• Nastran CBAR is a simpler element

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Cantilever test

Introduction

• One further note FEA Process

An Example

– My model used 10 elements along the Complicated

length Models

Choosing

– Identical results

res lts would

o ld be obtained for Elements

Interpreting

this problem using a single element Results

• If the deflection along the beam (or the FEM Codes

deformed shape is unimportant), you can Wrapping Up

use fewer bars

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Cantilever test

OK, now let’s make it from shell elements, and try Introduction

FEA Process

different meshes to see what works: An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

δ = .00504 Very nice

Results

σ = 2713 psi ~10%

10% low

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Cantilever test

Introduction

• With more Elements… FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

δ = .00505 All nice!

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

σ = 3083 psi

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Cantilever test

Introduction

• Now about if we turn the FEA Process

An Example

elements on their side so they Complicated

Models

g

are in bending? Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Cantilever Test

Introduction

• 1x10 mesh FEA Process

An Example

δ = .00502” Nice Complicated

Models

σ = 2797 p

psi A little low Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Cantilever Test

Introduction

• With a 4x40 mesh? FEA Process

An Example

δ = 00502” Nice Complicated

Models

σ = 3174 p

psi A little high, but not too much Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Cantilever Test

How about triangles? Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

δ = .00117 Terrible! Results

σ = 823 psi Even worse!

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

as effective as QUADs!

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Cantilever test

Introduction

• Or lots of triangles?

g FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

δ = .00439 Still too stiff Interpreting

Results

σ = 2558 psi Still low FEM Codes

4-node triangles are too stiff – you can use them here and Wrapping Up

there in a model, but you don’t want a whole model made

from them.

And because they are stiffer than quads

quads, they will

preferentially take the load.

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Cantilever Test

Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

How about ‘bad’ elements? Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

δ = .00429

00429 Bad, but not too bad FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

σ = 2194 psi Same…

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Cantilever Test

Introduction

How about bad elements with QUADRs? FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

δ = .00481 Much better Interpreting

σ = 2937 psi Very much better

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

QUADR elements tolerate distortions much better then QUAD4s

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Cantilever Test

Introduction

What about solid elements? FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

δ = .00499 Great for one elment! Interpreting

Results

σ = 2479 psi Not too bad here either FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Cantilever test

Introduction

• Or lots of solid elements… FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

δ = .00501 Very nice Results

FEM Codes

σ = 3006 psi Very nice too. Wrapping Up

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Cantilever test

Introduction

FEA Process

Why

h ddoes everyone tell

ll me to avoid

id TET4 elements?

l An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

δ = .00127 As bad as triangles Results

FEM Codes

σ = 850 psi Terrible! Wrapping Up

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stiff’

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Introduction

• Lots of TET elements? FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

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Results

δ = .00385 FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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σ = 2330 psi

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Cantilever test

Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

But what if I use parabolic TET10 elements? Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

δ = .00490 Not bad for a single element! Results

FEM Codes

σ = 2403 psi Not great, but not terrible Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Cantilever test

Introduction

• And with lots of them… FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

δ = .00501 Results

σ = 2998 psi

FEM Codes

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

• A fine mesh cures many ills Introduction

FEA Process

– Unless you use the wrong elements

elements… An Example

• It takes a lot of tets to get the right answer Complicated

Models

• Parabolic tets can help a lot, especially for Choosing

Elements

distorted geometries and places where you Interpreting

are forced into tets Results

FEM Codes

• Many meshes give good displacements,

displacements Wrapping Up

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• It’s jjust hard to g

get g

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction

• One last conclusion: FEA Process

An Example

– The structure looked like a beam Complicated

Models

– The beam model g gave the best Choosing

Elements

answers with the fewest number Interpreting

Results

of elements FEM Codes

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Getting Results

Introduction

• Now lets revisit step 7, getting FEA Process

An Example

results… Complicated

Models

– FEM codes really only calculate Gauss Choosing

point results Elements

Interpreting

• Nastran has no mechanism to get the Gauss Results

Point stresses FEM Codes

• Nastran interpolates to get centroid values Wrapping Up

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– These are not “Nodal” stresses –they are

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Getting Results

Introduction

• Post-Processors plot nodal results FEA Process

(usually) not element corner results An Example

Complicated

• The extrapolation usually produces Models

different values from different Choosing

Elements

elements for the same nodes Interpreting

• Element results therefore must be Results

FEM Codes

manipulated at the nodes to create a Wrapping Up

single value for the plot

• Consider this example…

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• This is a typical

yp element FEA Process

An Example

N4 N3 Complicated

Models

G4 G3 Choosing

Elements

Centroid Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

G1 G2 Wrapping Up

N1 N2

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• Results are reported

p at element FEA Process

An Example

corners and centroids like this: Complicated

Models

100 90

Choosing

Elements

G4 G3 Interpreting

Results

80 FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

G1 G2

70 60

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• Consider another element connected FEA Process

An Example

to this element: Complicated

100 90 Models

125 110

Choosing

Elements

G4 G3 G4 G3 Interpreting

Results

95 80 FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

G1 G2 G1 G2

80 65 70 60

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• And at the connected nodes, the FEA Process

An Example

elements have different Complicated

answers! Models

Choosing

– This is typical (and not necessarily Elements

Interpreting

wrong) Results

FEM Codes

– To get a ‘nodal’

nodal value for the post Wrapping Up

processor, it is necessary to come

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• Some typical

yp ways

y to do this: FEA Process

An Example

– Average the connected elements Complicated

Models

• 110+100/2 = 105 Choosing

Elements

• Most common default method Interpreting

Results

• ‘Stress Averaging’ FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

– Pick the largest

• Max(110,100) = 110

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• This is fine as long as the elements FEA Process

An Example

are the same thickness and that the Complicated

results are something that makes Models

Choosing

sense to average or pick the max of Elements

Interpreting

– But if they are different? Results

FEM Codes

– Consider…

Consider Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• A beam made from plates of two FEA Process

thicknesses:

thi k An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

• You expect a stress distribution like Wrapping Up

this:

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

• But if the element results are Introduction

FEA Process

averaged it could look like this:

averaged, An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

The peak is now in wrong location and wrong magnitude! Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

Introduction

• The moral of the story

y is… FEA Process

An Example

– Be careful with what you plot Complicated

Models

• Smooth contours look nice but may Choosing

Elements

hide high stresses Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Results

• Look at the real element results! Introduction

• Don’t average

g adjacent

j elements – especially

p y if they

y FEA Process

are different thicknesses or materials An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

Interpreting

Results

FEM Codes

Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes

• Not all FEM Codes are created equally Introduction

FEA Process

• Different codes designed for different purposes An Example

– Linear codes – optimized for infinitesimal Complicated

displacements Models

Choosing

– Nonlinear codes – optimized for iteration

Elements

• [K] changes during solution Interpreting

– Implicit codes –statics, build and solve [K]-1 Results

FEM Codes

– Explicit codes – fast,

fast solve at [Ke] level,

level nonlinear Wrapping Up

– Eulerian codes – for fluids (constant volume)

– Thermal codes – heat transfer

• There is no one code that can do everything!

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes

Introduction

• Infinitesimal displacements FEA Process

– The

Th motion

ti off the

th noded is

i An Example

inconsequential to the solution of the Complicated

Models

problem Choosing

• Example – cantilever beam Elements

• Large displacements Interpreting

Results

– The motion of the nodes changes the FEM Codes

solution

l ti Wrapping Up

• Example fixed-fixed beam

• Bouncing ball

• Contact

C t t

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Infinitesimal Displacements

Introduction

• Cantilever beam FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

– Tip motion does not affect root load Interpreting

significantly for small displacements Results

FEM Codes

– Effect

Eff t isi proportional

ti l to

t sin(theta)

i (th t ) Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Infinitesimal Displacements

• Fixed-Fixed Beam Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Elements

– Initially no bending, no axial load – all shear Interpreting

– Once center deflects, bending and axial loads Results

appear and grow FEM Codes

• Becomes primary load path! Wrapping Up

– Motion of the beam center affects the responses

significantly

• Not an infinitesimal deflection problem

• An ID code will not show this effect!

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes

Introduction

• Linear ((Most FEM codes FEA Process

An Example

including NEi Nastran do this) Complicated

Models

– Stiffness matrix stays

y the same for Choosing

Elements

the entire solution Interpreting

Results

• Single unique static solution FEM Codes

– Loads can be applied in any order Wrapping Up

– Transient,

Transient frequency response

response, modal

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes

Introduction

• Nonlinear (NEi Nastran does this too!) FEA Process

– Stiffness

Stiff matrix

t i changes

h as solution

l ti evolves

l An Example

• Load applied in increments Complicated

Models

• Solutions necessary for each increment to get

Choosing

answer

Elements

– May require multiple iterations to get results for

Interpreting

each increment

Results

– Solve the static problem many times!

FEM Codes

• Solution is load path dependent Wrapping Up

– Order of loads is important

• Large displacements require a nonlinear solution

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes

Introduction

• Implicit (NEi Nastran or NEi Fusion) FEA Process

– Full

F ll stiffness

tiff and

d mass matrices

ti assembled

bl d and

d An Example

solved Complicated

Models

– Variety of solutions

Choosing

• Transient,

Transient modal

modal, static Elements

• Explicit (NEI Explicit for example) Interpreting

Results

– Solved at element level – no big matrices FEM Codes

– O l ttransient

Only i t solution

l ti available

il bl Wrapping Up

– Good for highly nonlinear problems

– Good for very large models

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Other Applications

• In general, the finite element method Introduction

FEA Process

can be applied to any continuum An Example

described by partial differential Complicated

Models

equations Choosing

Elements

• Thermal Analysis Interpreting

Results

• Fluid flow/wave propagation FEM Codes

• Electromagnetic Wrapping Up

• Dynamics

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Other Applications

Introduction

– Example: Steady-state heat conduction FEA Process

An Example

• Replace the structural stiffness matrix with Complicated

the matrix of thermal conductivities Models

Choosing

• q = kT where

where, q is heat flow k is thermal Elements

conductivity and T is temperature Interpreting

Results

• Single DOF at each node (temperature) Wrapping Up

problems!

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

References

• K. J. Bathe Introduction

Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis FEA Process

P

Prentice-Hall,

ti H ll 1982 An Example

• R. D. Cook Complicated

Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis Models

John Wiley & Sons, 1989 Choosing

• Harry G. Shaeffer Elements

MSC/NASTRAN PRIMER, 1998 Interpreting

Results

• Richard H. MacNeal Wrapping Up

Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance

• O. C. Zienkiewicz

The Finite Element Method

McGraw-Hill, 1994

• J.N. Reddy

An Introduction to the Finite Element Method www.NEiSoftware.com

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Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Conclusions

Introduction

• Now you should be somewhat FEA Process

An Example

familiar with some FEM buzzwords: Complicated

Models

– Gauss Points Choosing

– S

Shape Functions Elements

Interpreting

– Continuity Results

Wrapping Up

– Explicit/Implicit

– Large Displacements

– Etc…

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Conclusions

• But seriously, you should have a passing familiarity

with these concepts Introduction

FEA Process

– Why there are all sorts of different element types An Example

• Which type is or is not appropriate to use Complicated

Models

– Approximation issues with FEM Choosing

• Linear assumption Elements

Interpreting

• Infinitesimal assumption Results

• Shapep functions Wrapping Up

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– Results and where they come from

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The End

Introduction

FEA Process

An Example

Complicated

Models

Choosing

Thank You for Joining Us! Elements

Interpreting

Results

Wrapping Up

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