Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An Introduction to Finite Elements A I t d ti t Fi it El t
Some P S Practical C i l Concepts

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Who am I?
• Bart McPheeters
– Sr. Application Engineer – BS in Naval Architecture/Marine Engineering E i i – MS in Solid Mechanics/Material Science – 20 years using and supporting FEA
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Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction
• How do we solve an engineering problem? bl ? • Classical Methods
– Closed Form Solutions
• Roark
Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up

– Approximate Solutions
• Superposition, series solutions
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com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction How can we solve a complex problem? • Solve a number of simple problems. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. add them all up and get the answer of a complex problem – “Squaring the Circle” Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 4 triangles 8 triangles Many triangles www.NEiSoftware.

NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation Introduction • Numerical Methods – Take the complex problem and break it up into simple problems • Finite Difference • Finite Element • Boundary Element Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. very simple problems – The many small pieces called finite elements – The assemblage of elements is called a finite element model Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. and Simulation Introduction What Exactly is The Finite Element Method? The Finite Element Method is a way of analyzing a complex engineering problem by g p y y p breaking it up into many small. Analysis.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction Grid Point or Node Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up Element Example of a Finite Element Model www. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Introduction – A continuous structure has theoretically an infinite number of degrees of freedom • Number of points that can move independently • An infinite number of simple problems! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – The Finite Element Method approximates the behavior of a continuous structure with a fi it number of points (d finite b f i t (degrees of f freedom) • A finite number of simple problems www. Analysis.

e. and Simulation Introduction – The finer the mesh (i. more DOF).NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. the better we can approximate the structure • Recall squaring the circle… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – This includes • The geometry of the structure such as curvature and thickness variations • Load application • Stress and strain gradients www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis. Squares. and Simulation Introduction So what are these simple problems that we use? – Break complex geometry into simple shapes we B k l i i l h can deal with (Lines.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Cubes) – Use the computer to solve lots of these simple problems bl • And do millions and millions of simple numerical operations on these simple problems • Computers are good at this Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – Present the results graphically • Computers are good at this too! www.

1960) C f El t i C t ti – Large general-purpose finite element programs began to appear in the 1970’s including NASTRAN. ANSYS. MARC STARDYNE ANSYS MARC. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. STARDYNE. and Simulation Introduction • History of the finite element method – The matrix theory of structural analysis first began appearing in the technical literature in the early 1940s – The term “finite element” was coined by Clough in a paper describing the technique used for planestress analysis (Proceedings of the Second ASCE Conference on Electronic Computation. and SAP d www.

making the construction of finite element models p much easier and less prone to human error – Automatic meshing became a standard feature for graphical pre processors in the 1990’s.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Automatic meshing has gained much popularity as the automatic meshing technology matures and the speed of computers continue to accelerate Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Introduction • Then things got really rolling… – Finite element graphical pre and post processors became available in the 1980’s.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction K N1 N2 F But what is it really? • A simple example… K = Spring stiffness (EA/L) Δu = Spring elongation F = Spring force K * Δu = F NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Δu N1 N2 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.com 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

com 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction Divide the geometry into simple elements and assemble all elements [K] = Stiffness matrix of the part (Sum of all elements) {u} = Components of the displacements of th nodes of di l t f the d f the part {F} = Components of the loads on th nodes of th part the d f the t NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Introduction [K] *{u} = {F} Solve this matrix equation with thousands (or millions) of unknown u’s • This is the basic ‘displacement’ approach Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . the node displacements are the basic unknowns in the system of equations Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up method. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction • Types of finite element methods – There are two different types of finite element methods . • In the force method the member forces are the basic unknowns in the system of equations. www.the displacement or stiffness method and the force or flexibility method • In the displacement method.

NEiSoftware. including NEiNastran and most others Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction – Both methods can be used to solve structural problems • The displacement method is used by many modern finite element codes. Analysis.

Analysis.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction • So why use FEM? It has many advantages: – – – – – Model irregularly shaped bodies Handles general loading conditions Model bodies M d l b di can b composed of diff be d f different materials t t i l Handles many types of boundary conditions Elements can vary in size allowing use of small elements when necessary y – The Finite element model can be changed relatively easily and cheaply – Model many different types of physics – Represent non linear behavior non-linear Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

plates.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction – Finite elements are shapes which are relatively easy to formulate and analyze: beams.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and blocks • The stress and strain within each element is a function of the displacement of the grid points it is connected to Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 3D 1D 2D www.

uz) ( Three rotations (θx.NEiSoftware. A degree of freedom is defined as an independent component of translation or rotation θy Three translations (ux. Analysis. θz) {u} = displacement vector = { ux uy uz θx θy θz } θz uz ux uy θx Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. θy.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. uy. and Simulation Introduction – The displacement of each grid point may be described by six independent degrees of freedom (DOFs).

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. and Simulation The FEA Process • There are basically 7 steps that a user and a finite element code go through to solve the problem – S Some are user choices h i • How to approximate reality Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – Some are things an FEA code does for you • Solving lots of equations www.NEiSoftware.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Choose a displacement function 3. and Simulation The FEA Process • The 7 steps (user/software) 1. Choose stress/strain and strain displacement relations 4.NEiSoftware. Analysis. Construct a global stiffness matrix and apply loads 6. forces and stresses from the displacements Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. Discretize the structure 1 Di ti th t t 2. Calculate the strains. Construct element stiffness matrices 5. Solve for the unknown displacements 7.

Patran or any preprocessor FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www. and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 1: Discretize and Select Element Type – Discretize usually means some kind y of auto meshing. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. which can be done in FEMAP. MSC.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation The FEA Process • An element type is selected based on the analysis j y objectives of the system to be solved for and the geometry of the problem – For example if the objective is to find how much a widget displaces in a linear structural analysis then a 10 node tetrahedral may be a good choice – If you have a plate-like structure. Analysis. a 4-node shell element may be a more appropriate choice – If you have a structure that looks like a bunch of y connected beams. then a 2-node beam element may be a good choice FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 2: Select Displacement Function – The displacement function describes the displacement at any point in the element as a function of its grid point displacements – This function is defined within the element using nodal values of the element.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. while a 20 node Hex element has a quadratic 20-node displacement function – You likely did this without knowing you were doing it in step 1 when you chose the element type! www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. For example. Analysis. a 4noded QUAD has a linear displacement function.

Analysis.NEiSoftware. but are usually referred to as just quadratic elements p-element • The term p element is usually reserved for elements which can change their displacement function during an analysis FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 – The result is an approximation by a discrete model composed of a set of p p piecewise-continuous functions defined within each finite domain or finite element www. and Simulation The FEA Process – Most functions are linear or quadratic.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Linear elements are referred to as h-elements and higher order elements are referred to as p-elements d l t f dt l t • Quadratic elements are really p-elements.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 3: Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationship – Strain/displacement is defined as the relationship b t l ti hi between strain and t i d displacement – Example: for small deflection in one dimension this could be: u2 – u 1 Δ L = ----------------ε x = -----L L NEi Sensitive/Proprietary FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www. Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. strain The simplest constitutive law is Hooke’s law. and Simulation The FEA Process – Stress/strain law. where E is the modulus of elasticity FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 σx = Eε x www. also called the constitutive law.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. is defined as the relationship between stress and strain.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• You probably did this without knowing it too!
– Finite Element materials incorporate the constitutive relations relations.
• A Nastran MAT1 implies a certain stress/strain relationship
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

– All elements have an implied strain/ displacement relationship
• This is part of the element formulation
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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• Step 4: Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix
– The three most common method for developing the stiffness matrix are
• Direct Equilibrium Method • Work/Energy Method • Method of Weighted Residuals
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
– The Method of Weighted Residuals allows finite elements to be applied directly to any differential equation
• Commonly used in FEA codes
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

– All these methods will gi e the same res lts ill give results, however one or the other may be more efficient in specific cases – When you chose an element type this was type, chosen as well.
• Someone already derived it for you!

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[K] is the global stiffness matrix . Analysis. and {u} is the global displacement vector FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www. and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 5: Assemble the element stiffness matrixes to create the global stiffness matrix – The final assembled stiffness matrix is a piece of the global equation {F} = [K]{u} where {F} is the global force vector.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
– Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is contingent upon the elements being compatible i.e. there are no seams or gaps in the model
• The nodes of one element connect to the nodes j of adjacent elements
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

– “Compatibility” requires that the displacements on the element boundaries are the same for g g (C0 continuity) y) neighboring elements (
• C1 continuity requires that the element curvatures/slopes are compatible – this is usually not the case as it causes numerical problems

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• Step 6: Solve for the unknown degrees of freedom ff d
– The global equations are a N set of simultaneous equations, where N i th i lt ti h is the number of degrees of freedom – Common methods of solving the global equations are Gauss Methods, Conjugate Gradient Methods, and Sparse Methods
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FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• Step 7: Calculate the element strains and stresses d t
– Using the node displacements strains can be calculated (from the earlier equations) ( q )
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

Δ L = u2 – u 1 ----------------ε x = -----L L

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NEiSoftware. for example) can be calculated if th are a f l l t d they function of ti f displacement.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. and Simulation The FEA Process – Using the strains the stresses can be calculated σx = Eε x – Other derived quantities (element forces. FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . which is fixed at x=0 and has an applied axial force P at x=L X P Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up L www.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example • Model Description p – Consider a Tapered Rod of Length L.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

Analysis. and Simulation An Example • Step 1 – Descretize and Select Element Types – Let’s use two elements and three nodes to represent the bar Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Element 1 Element 2 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

σx = Eε x NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.com 1-77-Nastran . it – Axial translations u1x and u2x are the only displacements at nodes 1 and 2. that is F1y=0 and F2y=0.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware. this element has two degrees of freedom Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • Assumptions – The bar cannot sustain shear force. Thus. – Any effect of transverse displacement is ignored. – Hooke’s law applies. and Simulation An Example • Let’s choose a 2-node 1D element type for this model – A 1D element is defined by two nodes at either end of it.

somewhat at odds with the taper in the real part • The taper will be accounted for by using multiple rods of shrinking cross-section • Obviously. Analysis. more elements = better answer • C Common t d ff i FEM modeling trade-off in d li • A better choice might be a tapered beam element www. and Simulation An Example In the next step we are going to choose a linear displacement element which is element.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. to L – If you use a Nastran CROD element.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. common for line elements Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 u = a1 + a 2 x u = global displacement at any distance x along the element x = local distance in element and varies from 0. this is the way it works www. and Simulation An Example • Step 2: Select a displacement function f i – Assume a linear displacement variation along the x axis of the bar This is a x-axis bar.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation An Example – The ai are coefficients for the linear displacement equation di l t ti – In matrix form this will look as follows: Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧ a1⎫ u = [1 x ]⎨ ⎬ ⎩a 2 ⎭ www.NEiSoftware.

NEiSoftware.com 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example • Express u as a function of global nodal displacements d1x and d2x by using them as boundary conditions • This is done by evaluating u at each node and solving for a1 and a2 as follows: ( ) Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 u 0 = d 1x = a1 u (L ) = d 2 x = a 2L + d 1x NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Solving for a1 a1 = d1x Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – And a2 d 2 x − d 1x a2 = L www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Substitute back into the original equation for u ⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞ u = d 1x + ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ L ⎠ – In matrix form Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎡ x u = ⎢1 − ⎣ L x ⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ L ⎦⎩ ⎭ NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .

com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example – Or write this as: u = [N 1 – where ⎧d 1x ⎫ N 2 ]⎨ ⎬ ⎩d 2 x ⎭ x N1 = 1 − L x N2 = L NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.

and Simulation An Example – Comments: • Ni’s are commonly referred to as shape functions – They are pretty simple for rod elements – They describe the displacement at any point inside the element as a function of the nodal displacements at the corners of the element Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware.

and Simulation An Example • Required properties for shape functions: – At x=0.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . N1 = 0 and N2 = 1 – N1 + N2 = 1 anywhere inside the element Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.NEiSoftware. Analysis. N1 = 1 and N2 = 0 – At X=1.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example • Step 3: Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationships d t / t i l ti hi – Strain/displacement (CROD uses this) Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 du d 2 x − d1x d εx = = dx L – Stress/strain (a Nastran MAT1 uses this) σ = Eε x x www.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example • Step 4: Derive the element stiffness and load matrix f1x f2x Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Starting from the definition of stress P σx = A – Where P is the applied force and A is the area the force is applied to NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .

NEiSoftware.com 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary . Analysis. and Simulation An Example Using the strain/displacement and stress/strain equations: ⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞ P = AE ⎜ ⎟ L ⎝ ⎠ The applied load at end 1 of the rod is: Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 f x1 = P www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

Analysis.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example • Substituting… f 1x AE (d 2 x − d 1x ) = L f x 2 = −P – And at the other end… Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.

Analysis. and Simulation An Example – And putting that into the equation: f 2x ⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞ = − AE ⎜ ⎟ L ⎝ ⎠ – Combining everything and putting them in matrix form Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧ f 1x ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ d 1x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ L ⎣ ⎩f 2 x ⎭ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation An Example – But this is familiar now! F = K u Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧f 1x ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ ⎩f 2 x ⎭ L ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ F are forces K is the element stiffness u are the displacements NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. Analysis.

NEiSoftware.com All other loads = 0.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. all other displacements unknown 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary . and Simulation An Example • Step 5: Assemble the element stiffness matrixes to create the global stiffness matrix and introduce boundary conditions Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 P Element 1 Element 2 Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Node 1 is fixed -> u=0 Node 3 is loaded -> f2x = P www. Analysis.

com 1-77-Nastran . matrix for a rod element we can write the following element stiffness equations: ⎧ f 1 x ⎫ A1 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ d 1 x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ L1 ⎣ ⎩ f 2 x⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎧ f 2 x ⎫ A2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧d 2 x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨d 3 x ⎬ f 3x⎭ L2 ⎣ ⎩ ⎦⎩ ⎭ NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Element 1 Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Element 2 www. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Based on our derivation of stiffness element.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Let’s simplify the stiffness matrices Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 [K ]1 ⎡ k1 − k1⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣− k1 k1 ⎦ AE k1 = 1 1 L1 ⎡ k2 − k2 ⎤ [K ]2 = ⎢ − k2 k2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ d and k2 = A2E 2 L2 where h www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

+ K 2 .com Global Stiffness Matrix [K] NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . − K2 0 ⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ ⎥ ⎪d 2 x ⎪ − K 2 ⎥⎨ ⎬ K 2 ⎥ ⎪d 3 x ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www. K 1.NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example – Assemble the two elements into a global system of equations [K ]1 = ⎡ ⎢ k1 ⎣ − k1 − k1 ⎤ k1 ⎥ ⎦ [K ]2 − k2 ⎤ ⎡k =⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣− k 2 k 2 ⎦ ⎧F 1x ⎫ ⎡ K 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨F 2 x ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 ⎪F 3 x ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ − K 1.

0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎥ ⎪d 2 x ⎪ K 1. − K2 K 2 ⎥ ⎪d 3 x ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ Load P at Node 3. and Simulation An Example – Include the boundary conditions Zero displacement at Node 1. no load at other nodes www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis. + K 2 − K 2 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. 1 Unknown at other nodes Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ K1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 ⎪P ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ − K 1.

com 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware. so we can eliminate that row and column known Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ K1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 ⎪P ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ − K 1. and Simulation An Example • Step 6: Solve for the unknown degree of freedoms which are d ff d hi h displacements d2x and d3x This displacement is known. 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎥ ⎪d 2 x ⎪ K 1. + K 2 − K 2 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ . − K2 K 2 ⎥ ⎪d 3 x ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.

and Simulation An Example • Which reduces to a simpler equation: ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡K1 + K2 − K2 ⎤ ⎧d2x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ ⎨d3x ⎬ − K2 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩P ⎭ ⎣ − K2 It doesn’t take a lot to solve this simple system of equations p y q Solve for d2x and d3x Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.NEiSoftware. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

the stresses can be calculated σ x = Eε x – Other derived quantities can be calculated if they q y are a function of displacement (element forces) NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation An Example • Step 7: Solve the element strains and stresses – Using the nodal displacements strains can be The d’s we found! calculated Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 u2 − u1 εx = = L L ΔL – Using the strains.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com 1-77-Nastran .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation But what about more complicated models? li d d l ? • There are a number of confounding things now… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

Analysis. Large displacement (LGDISP) Membrane.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . CTRIA3) • Solids (CHEXA.CTETRA) Large strain. CTETRA) • Different displacement functions Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Diff Different “types” of elements t “t ” f l t • • • • • • Linear. and Simulation Complex Models • Step 1 – Discretize the model – Lots of different elements available • Shells (CQUAD4. Membrane Bending (PSHELL) Revised Formulation (CQUADR) Different strain/displacement functions (MAT8) Etc… www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Quadratic (CQUAD8.

NEiSoftware. Analysis. etc. and Simulation Shells and Solids • Meshing – What type of element to use? Wh t t f l tt ? – How distorted can my elements be? – Can I use triangles or tets? • Your ability to sufficiently discretize the model may determine which element types are available – Solid-like structures may not be appropriately modeled with shells.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.

Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. use 2D Shell elements • If it is a 3D widget.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. use 1D bar bars elements • If it is built from plates. and Simulation Shells and Solids • In general. use 3D solid elements – Just because you have a 3D CAD model doesn’t mean 3D solid elements are the best way to model it! NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www. if the structure looks like a bunch of bars.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Shell and Solid elements elements… • There are a number of confounding things in Step 2 as well… thi i St ll Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Step 2 – Displacement functions still often linear. Analysis. but now involve 4 equations for a 4 node quad in 2D 4-node space: • • • • • • N1 = ¼ (1-x)(1-y) N2 = ¼ (x+1)(1-y) N3 = ¼ (x+1)(y+1) N4 = ¼ (1-x)(y+1) Ni = 1 at each node. other Nj = 0 N1 + N2 + N3 +N4 = 1 at all points N4 ll i Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Shape functions are defined in parametric space • Element mapped to parametric space www.

the functions increase in number p y and complexity… Triangles and TETs… – Triangles are special elements. in that they have a different approach and mapping function • The Strain/displacement functions for many do not work as well as for QUAD elements • The basic triangle is a “constant strain” element. but with a linear displacement function Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Tets are also special elements • Linear ones often have problematic strain/disp functions www. and Simulation Shells and Solids • • In 3D elements.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. FEM codes do it for you • You just have to pick the appropriate element formulation f l i Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Lots of different formulations depending on what you are trying to do: • Linear analysis • Nonlinear analysis • Large strain • Large displacement • etc… www. and Simulation Plate and Solid elements… elements • Step 3 – Heart of the matter – Choosing strain displacement functions is the g p central problem of FEM – Fortunately.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Plate and solid elements • General Strain Displacement relation: – Derive some relation of internal strain to the boundary Deri e bo ndar node displacements: • {e} = [B]{ui} Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • [B] is the strain-displacement matrix strain displacement – A number of ways to calculate it • Assumed strain field • Assumed displacement field • Assumed stress field – In reality often use hybrid technique y y q www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Plates and Solids • Strain/Displacement relation – Suffice it to say that [B] is usually a complex expression for most 2D and 3D elements involving lots of integrals and differentiation – Complex expressions are difficult or impossible to evaluate closed form for arbitrary element shapes • Hence the need to map to parametric space www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. Analysis.

NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Plates and Shells • Step 4 – Element stiffness matrices – Numerical methods and tricks used to evaluate for FEM models • Map the arbitrary element shape to an easily evaluated square or cube – Plates map to 2x2 squares – Solids map to 2x2x2 cubes Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • Approximate surface and volume integrals using Gaussian Quadrature – Numerically calculate values at a limited number of places – Similar to Simpson’s Rule Integration www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.1) (1.1) Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 (-1. and Simulation Plates and Solids • Standard plate mapping (-1.-1) 4G Gauss points for performing numerical integration f f www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware.-1) (1.

and often have 9 Gauss points (3x3) boundary A linear hex element will have 8 integration points (2x2x2). shear and extensional loads will be evaluated differently – “Reduced shear integration” elements use 2x2 or 2 2 2 f b di and extensional l d and 2x2x2 for bending d t i l loads.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. and Simulation Plates and Solids • • A quadratic plate element will have 8 nodes defining the boundary.NEiSoftware. d a single point for shear to prevent numerical problems Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • www. a quadratic 20-node hex will have 27 (3x3x3) Sometimes bending.

and Simulation Plates and Solids • The mapping transformation loses accuracy as the element looks less and th l tl k l d less like the mapped shape – This is why distorted elements are “bad” bad – The accuracy of Gaussian Quadrature gets worse as the element shape distorts as well di ll Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation Plates and solids • Step 5 – Assembly of global K – Individual matrices are much more I di id l ti h complicated • Can be 24x24 size or larger Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Once the element matrices are done done. but idea but… – “extraordinary models require extraordinary techniques…” www. assembling them into a global matrix is a simple task • Step 6 is the same idea.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

NEiSoftware. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . [K] usually has a lot of zero terms – The matrix is often “almost” diagonal • Iterative solvers sometimes faster – Guess at a solution and iterate and adjust until it works Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Plates and Solids – Solution usually stated as: – { } = [ ]-1{ } {u} [K] {P} – In reality a number of different techniques are used to find {u} – we don’t invert [K] per se • Gaussian elimination that you learned in school is very slow • Upper/Lower Decomposition techniques faster • Sparse solution methods often used – Since most elements of a model usually connect to only a limited number of other elements.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. – Recall that we were numerically evaluating the solution at a limited number of places – the Gauss Points – Results often reported at Gauss points – Centroidal (element center) and Nodal (element corner) results must be interpolated and extrapolated from the Gauss point values using the shape functions (from step 2) Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . you can get strains from {u} – From strains. and Simulation Plates and solids • Step 7 – Finding results from displacements – Using the defined [B] strain/displacement equation. etc.NEiSoftware. internal forces. you can get stresses. depending on the element formulation.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Plates and Solids • So how do we choose all these things? • Let’s look at a simple model that can be solved in many ways – Illustrate advantages and disadvantages of different element types – Help guide your choices Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

Analysis. and Simulation Some Comparisons… Consider a simple cantilever beam: P = 10 psi Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 10” 1” www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .00500” Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up l = 10 in E = 30x106 I = bh3/12 = 1x13/12 = .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever test “Theoretical” Roark Solution for the end deflection: “Th ti l” R k S l ti f th d d fl ti δ = wl4/8EI w = 10 lb/in δ = .0833 www. Analysis.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever test Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up “Theoretical” Solution for the root moment is: M = wl2/2 M = 500 in-lb “Theoretical” Solution for the root stress is: σ = Mc/I σ = 3000 psi www.

and Simulation Cantilever test • We’ll start with the simplest approximation – A beam model – Beams are ‘ ‘theoretically correct’ so it ’ should be a slam dunk. right? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

FEM code.00507 σ = 3000.com 1-77-Nastran . psi Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up .NEiSoftware.00507? 00507? Shouldn’t the beam be giving me the exact Roark answer? NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. and Simulation Cantilever Test OK. But I get the following answers: δ = .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. OK it sounds simple so I run it through my simple. Analysis.

5 0 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up •Nastran is including the shear deflections here.5 -.85012 3 1 . the shear stress is not included in the stress report. Analysis. 5 6 7 8 .5 0. and Simulation Cantilever Test Not necessarily – Nastran may just make a different set of assumptions: Nastran users typically use a PBAR card like this: $ PBAR 2 1 .5 9 -. so the deflection is greater by the amount of the shear •However.5 -.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.083333 . -.5 0.083333 .5 0.5 .85012 4 1.140833 . so the www.com stress value agrees with the Roark solution NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

and Simulation Cantilever Test • If the section were non-symmetric. there would be additional considerations ld b dditi l id ti – Offset of centroid and shear center (twisting) – Warping – Non-uniform shear distribution • Nastran CBEAM does these.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. Roark doesn’t – Even simple beams can get complicated!! • Nastran CBAR is a simpler element NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.NEiSoftware.

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. you can use fewer bars Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www. and Simulation Cantilever test • One further note – My model used 10 elements along the length – Identical results would be obtained for res lts o ld this problem using a single element • If the deflection along the beam (or the deformed shape is unimportant).

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.00504 σ = 2713 psi Very nice ~10% low 10% www. now let’s make it from shell elements.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation Cantilever test OK. and try different meshes to see what works: Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .NEiSoftware.

00505 σ = 3083 psi All nice! www. and Simulation Cantilever test • With more Elements… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. Analysis.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever test • Now about if we turn the elements on their side so they g are in bending? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Cantilever Test • 1x10 mesh δ = .com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.00502” p σ = 2797 psi Nice A little low Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

Analysis. but not too much Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Cantilever Test • With a 4x40 mesh? δ = 00502” p σ = 3174 psi Nice A little high.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.00117 σ = 823 psi Terrible! Even worse! Recall that triangles have different formulations that are not as effective as QUADs! www. and Simulation Cantilever Test How about triangles? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .

NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever test • Or lots of triangles? g Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .00439 σ = 2558 psi Still too stiff Still low 4-node triangles are too stiff – you can use them here and there in a model. but you don’t want a whole model made from them.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. Analysis. preferentially take the load. And because they are stiffer than quads they will quads.com 1-77-Nastran .

00429 00429 σ = 2194 psi Bad. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Cantilever Test How about ‘bad’ elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . but not too bad Same… www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Cantilever Test How about bad elements with QUADRs? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.00481 σ = 2937 psi Much better Very much better QUADR elements tolerate distortions much better then QUAD4s www. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware.00499 σ = 2479 psi Great for one elment! Not too bad here either www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Cantilever Test What about solid elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .

and Simulation Cantilever test • Or lots of solid elements… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .00501 σ = 3006 psi Very nice Very nice too.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. www.NEiSoftware.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. like triangles. have different formulations www.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever test Why d h does everyone tell me to avoid TET4 elements? ll id l Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.00127 σ = 850 psi •They are often ‘too stiff too stiff’ As bad as triangles Terrible! Recall that TET elements.

00385 σ = 2330 psi Still bad www. and Simulation Cantilever test • Lots of TET elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

00490 Not bad for a single element! σ = 2403 psi Not great. www. and Simulation Cantilever test But what if I use parabolic TET10 elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = . but not terrible Most meshers automatically create these instead of TET4 elements! A single element is good for displacement but more are needed for stress displacement. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

Analysis. but it required 4129 grids!!! www. and Simulation Cantilever test • And with lots of them… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.00501 σ = 2998 psi This is a very good answer.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran . especially for distorted geometries and places where you are forced into tets • Many meshes give good displacements. and Simulation Conclusions from this test • A fine mesh cures many ills – Unless you use the wrong elements elements… • It takes a lot of tets to get the right answer • Parabolic tets can help a lot. displacements but still give bad stresses • It’s just hard to g g j get good stresses – be wary! www.NEiSoftware.

Analysis.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Conclusions from this test • One last conclusion: – The structure looked like a beam – The beam model gave the best g answers with the fewest number of elements Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

getting results… – FEM codes really only calculate Gauss point results • Nastran has no mechanism to get the Gauss Point stresses • Nastran interpolates to get centroid values • Nastran extrapolates to get element corner results Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up – These are not “Nodal” stresses –they are www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Getting Results • Now lets revisit step 7.com calculated by each element for its own nodes 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary .NEiSoftware. Analysis.

com 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Getting Results • Post-Processors plot nodal results (usually) not element corner results • The extrapolation usually produces different values from different elements for the same nodes • Element results therefore must be manipulated at the nodes to create a single value for the plot • Consider this example… NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www. Analysis.NEiSoftware.

Analysis.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary N3 G3 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up N1 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Results • This is a typical element yp N4 G4 Centroid G1 G2 N2 www.

NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 90 G3 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 70 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Results • Results are reported at element p corners and centroids like this: 100 G4 80 G1 G2 60 www.

com G3 90 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 80 65 70 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Results • Consider another element connected to this element: 125 G4 95 G1 G2 110 G3 100 G4 80 G1 G2 60 www. Analysis.

it is necessary to come up with some ‘best guess’ g NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www. Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. the elements have different answers! – This is typical (and not necessarily wrong) – To get a ‘nodal’ value for the post nodal processor. and Simulation Results • And at the connected nodes.

100) = 110 www. Analysis.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Results • Some typical ways to do this: yp y – Average the connected elements • 110+100/2 = 105 • Most common default method • ‘Stress Averaging’ Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up – Pick the largest • Max(110.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Results • This is fine as long as the elements are the same thickness and that the results are something that makes sense to average or pick the max of – But if they are different? – Consider Consider… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.NEiSoftware. Analysis.

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Results • A beam made from plates of two thicknesses: thi k Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • You expect a stress distribution like this: www.

Analysis. averaged it could look like this: The peak is now in wrong location and wrong magnitude! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Results • But if the element results are averaged.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis. and Simulation Results • The moral of the story is… y – Be careful with what you plot • Smooth contours look nice but may hide high stresses Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Results • • Look at the real element results! Don’t average adjacent elements – especially if they g j p y y are different thicknesses or materials Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.NEiSoftware. Analysis.

Analysis. build and solve [K]-1 – Explicit codes – fast solve at [Ke] level. nonlinear fast. and Simulation FEM Codes • • Not all FEM Codes are created equally Different codes designed for different purposes – Linear codes – optimized for infinitesimal displacements – Nonlinear codes – optimized for iteration • [K] changes during solution – Implicit codes –statics.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. level – Eulerian codes – for fluids (constant volume) – Thermal codes – heat transfer There is no one code that can do everything! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • www.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation FEM Codes • Infinitesimal displacements – The motion of the node is Th ti f th d i inconsequential to the solution of the problem • Example – cantilever beam Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • Large displacements – The motion of the nodes changes the solution l ti • Example fixed-fixed beam • Bouncing ball • C t t Contact www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Infinitesimal Displacements • Cantilever beam Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up – Tip motion does not affect root load significantly for small displacements – Eff t is proportional to sin(theta) Effect i ti l t i (th t ) • =~ 0 for small deflections (<1/10 length) www. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Infinitesimal Displacements
• Fixed-Fixed Beam
Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up

– Initially no bending, no axial load – all shear – Once center deflects, bending and axial loads appear and grow
• Becomes primary load path!

– Motion of the beam center affects the responses significantly
• Not an infinitesimal deflection problem • An ID code will not show this effect!
NEi Sensitive/Proprietary

www.NEiSoftware.com

1-77-Nastran

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes
• Linear ( (Most FEM codes including NEi Nastran do this)
– Stiffness matrix stays the same for y the entire solution
• Single unique static solution
– Loads can be applied in any order
Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up

• Unique steps for other solutions
– Transient frequency response modal Transient, response,
www.NEiSoftware.com
NEi Sensitive/Proprietary

1-77-Nastran

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes
• Nonlinear (NEi Nastran does this too!)
– Stiffness matrix changes as solution evolves Stiff ti h l ti l
• Load applied in increments • Solutions necessary for each increment to get answer
– May require multiple iterations to get results for each increment – Solve the static problem many times! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up

• Solution is load path dependent
– Order of loads is important

• Large displacements require a nonlinear solution
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com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation FEM Codes • Implicit (NEi Nastran or NEi Fusion) – Full stiffness and mass matrices assembled and F ll tiff d ti bl d d solved – Variety of solutions • Transient modal static Transient. Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • Explicit (NEI Explicit for example) – – – – Solved at element level – no big matrices Only transient solution available O l t i t l ti il bl Good for highly nonlinear problems Good for very large models www.NEiSoftware. modal.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

and Simulation Other Applications • In general. the finite element method can be applied to any continuum described by partial differential equations • Thermal Analysis • Fluid flow/wave propagation • Electromagnetic • Dynamics www.NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis. and Simulation Other Applications – Example: Steady-state heat conduction • Replace the structural stiffness matrix with the matrix of thermal conductivities • q = kT where q is heat flow k is thermal where. conductivity and T is temperature • Single DOF at each node (temperature) • This is why most FEM codes also do thermal problems! www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran .

1994 J. D. Bathe Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis Prentice-Hall. J.N. Zienkiewicz The Finite Element Method McGraw-Hill.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com 1-77-Nastran . 1984 NEi Sensitive/Proprietary • www.NEiSoftware. Reddy An Introduction to the Finite Element Method McGraw-Hill. 1989 Harry G. 1982 P ti H ll R. Cook Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis John Wiley & Sons. 1998 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up • • • Richard H. C. Analysis. Shaeffer MSC/NASTRAN PRIMER. MacNeal Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance O. and Simulation References • • K.

NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Conclusions • Now you should be somewhat familiar with some FEM buzzwords: – – – – – – Gauss Points Shape Functions S Continuity Explicit/Implicit Large Displacements Etc… NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.com 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . you should have a passing familiarity Introduction with these concepts FEA Process – Why there are all sorts of different element types An Example Complicated • Which type is or is not appropriate to use Models – Approximation issues with FEM Choosing Elements • Linear assumption Interpreting • Infinitesimal assumption Results Wrapping Up • Shape functions p • Distorted elements • Triangle and TET issues – Results and where they come from • Averaging by post-processors www.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Conclusions • But seriously.

and Simulation The End Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up Thank You for Joining Us! www. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

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