A case based analysis of union history of OTIS Delhi and the best industry practices so as to suggest ways for operational reintegration of employees and development of synergy between them and to formulate future plan of action to reduce other issues arising between union and Management.



© Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi

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I am extremely grateful Dr. Bindu Chabbra for providing us the honor of carrying out the project, which helped us to put our learning’s into experience. Without her guidance i would not have been able to proceed with our project in the right direction. I would like to express our sincere regards to the staff of OTIS INDIA, New Delhi, whose help and guidance enabled us to complete the Project on “REINTEGRATION OF OPERATIONAL STAFF AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEE SYNERGY”. I would also like to thank our Teachers, Mentors, Family, Friends and Relatives who have helped us and supported us in all possible ways. A Project report needs co-operation, guidance and experience of many more people other than whose name appears on the cover, i would like to thank each and everyone who have helped us in our endeavor.

© Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi

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I have completed the Study Project titled “REINTEGRATION OF OPERATIONAL STAFF AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEE SYNERGY” under the guidance of Dr. Bindu Chabbra. This is an original piece of work & I have neither copied it and nor submitted it earlier elsewhere.

© Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi

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........................20 1.1 IDEAL HUMAN RESOURCE VISION:..............19 1........2..............1 OTIS.............:............7 1.....................................6 OTIS ELEVATORS INDIA LIMITED.....4 FUJITEC...............................................9 1...................................2..................................................................4...........5 KONE......2 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS & DISPUTES .............................................................................4.........................1 INTRODUCTION.........................2........................................................ 18 1................24 1........3 THE OPPORTUNITY..5.............8 1............................................................................2...........15 1.......1 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT (HRD):..9 SERVICE EXCELLENCE.........................................................................1 INUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN A NUTSHELL:...............................CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT......................22 1............................19 1.....7 1........................... New Delhi Page 4 .......5.....................................2 CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS:.......................................................3 INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION..............................24 1................11 INDUSTRY ANALYSIS.........................23 1...............................4....................3 THYSSENKRUPP.....25 OBJECTIVE.............4..................1 COMPANY HISTORY (GENERAL)..............................5 THE INNOVATION..26 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.....................................................9 1.3......4 UPGRADING FOR TOMORROW.................................................5..................................................................................................................20 1......................18 1..............4 COMPETITOR ANALYSIS.............................8 VALUES THAT GUIDE THE WORK BEHAVIOUR........................................21 1...1..........8 1...............23 1.2 THE EVOLUTION OF ELEVATOR IN INDIA...........20 1..3 PARTIES IN I......................R......................7 1....................................................................................................20 1...................................................................................................................................................5.................................................................R..................................................................23 1.......5 INDIAN PERSPECTIVE....................................................................5...........................................5 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES........................2 UNDERTAKING....................4 IMPORTANCE OF I......2.7 COMPANY VISION....................................19 1.................3 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND..................:....................2 SCHINDLER.....................1 WORLD PERSPECTIVE......................................................................................................................4.............6......15 1........................22 COMPANY PROFILE.............15 1.................8 1...

........................................................13 DURATION OF THE PROJECT..21............................................................1....32 1...................................................................................48 1..............52 1...............................................21......................................................21........27 AREAS COVERED..................15 MODELS OF MEDIATION..............21.......38 DATA ANALYSIS.......................31 LITERATURE REVIEW...........11 Q................................................12 TERTIARY OBJECTIVE-.........................................29 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY........................................27 SCOPE OF THE STUDY............................10 Q............................................21.......................... 37 1..10 ...........................................21..21...............20 THE INDUSTRIAL RELATION TENSION GRAPH –.......16 GLOBAL TRENDS IN MEDIATION.....................21...............21.....................................................18................................................................15 Q.............................................................14 ...49 1.............27 1........................36 1........................4 Q................47 1.........................................................................7 Q..............38 1.21........6 ...................................39 1...12 Q.............................................................50 1..................................................27 1.42 1...............................................................................17 EMPLOYMENT DISPUTE RESOLUTION (EDR): THE CASE FOR MEDIATION .................................................................32 1..........2 Q....................................19 HISTORICAL OVERVEIW (FILE DOCUMENT DELHI UNION).....................................................................18 FUTURE FOCUS.........................................53 1......................................................1 CONCLUSIONS..........................................................13 ..................11 SECONDARY OBJECTIVE-.....................................45 1............................................9 Q................................21...46 1.................................................................53 1..........................10 PRIMARY OBJECTIVE –....54 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.......8...........28 ASSUMPTIONS:.............................................4 .......................................................................................13 Q...........46 1.........48 1...............................................14 Q...................................5 Q....................................................................................................................21..................................2 ......................21..............15.........................1 Q......................................................32 1..........21 PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS................................................21...........14 INTRODUCTION..................................9 ...............1 ................................................................... New Delhi Page 5 ...................12 .......11.............................8 Q..52 1...........................39 1..................................51 1..................6 Q.........3 .......30 1..........................................7 .....5 ........51 1.3 Q...21.........................................................................46 1.........

..............................................65 1.......................64 1.....................58 1....61 1......35 BEHAVIORAL TRAINING TO FIELD EXECUTIVES: ...........28 CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES IN OTIS:........56 1..........................65 1..................................................63 1...61 1.........................................................28.......36 SENSITIVITY TRAINING FOR RESPECT: ......................28.....28....................4 LEAVE AND WORKING HOURS...65 1..................................28...........65 1......................40 SAY MEET: .........................................28.................... New Delhi Page 6 .....38 VOLUNTEER PROGRAM: ...29 GENERAL CONCLUSION............................62 RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS (ACTION POINTS)................55 1............................................................25 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN WORKERS & MANAGEMENT:.....................28.................................................................61 1..64 1....................1...............................................................................................................................65 1......1 HEALTH CHECK UPS –.........66 LIMITATIONS....32 SOCIAL CAUSE-.......58 1....................34 CONTRIBUTION POLICY IN CASE OF ACCIDENT: .27..........1 WAGES AND ALLOWANCES.............55 1...................................39 DIRECT RECRUITMENT: ......................................23 FACTS AND FINDINGS....66 BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................58 1.........................60 1..............................................................3 OVERTIME.........56 1.....................67 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.........60 1......................60 1...................................................24 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN OTIS.63 1.........................................5 WORKING CONDITIONS/ENVIRONMENT..........................2 INDISCIPLINE...................................................31 FAMILY SOCIALIZATION ACTIVITY.....27 GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE: ..........60 1......................................60 1.....64 1...................................................22 INTERPRETATION.................64 1....................................................................33.............................................6 MISCELLANEOUS....33 FAMILY INTEGRATION ACTIVITY-.........................33.....................................1 OTIS Grievance Procedure..............30 RECOMMENDATION & SUGGESTIONS FROM SURVEY..................................37 EQUITY AND FAIRNESS BRANDING: ..............................................65 1............2 EMERGENCY AID REGISTER-.............................................................................................................................................26 OVERALL REALTIONS BETWEEN WORKERS & MANAGEMENT: ....................................

1. 3. To encourage professional and disciplined working at all levels in the company and to set a personal example for subordinates. so that the fruits of growth can be shared by all. Satisfaction of the employees The three broad categories of measurement are: 1. This department is not only responsible for managing the workforce. To provide growth and opportunity for all employees. Customer satisfaction. To encourage "teamwork" and "team building. maintain. This measurement includes a combination of strategic and operational measures that reflect the: 1. 2.1 IDEAL HUMAN RESOURCE VISION: 1. To encourage fair dealings both within and outside the company.1 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT (HRD): The Human Resource Department (HRD) forms an integral part of any company. The crucial task of the Human Resource Department is to acquire. and maintain highest standards of honesty and integrity in business and personal dealings. productivity and service). New Delhi Page 7 . Acquisition of human assets 2. Efficiency and effectiveness of internal processes. Innovation 5. 2. Supporting human assets 1. but also takes charge of maintaining cordial relations among all its members. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. Maintaining human assets 3. Cost effectiveness 4.INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1. in line with the company's growth depending upon their ability and merit. develop. supervise and measure the human assets and the results of their work (quality. 3. 4.

and the institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. employee relations. while human resource management is a separate. New Delhi Page 8 . Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labors and harmonious relationships. and grievance and dispute settlement). Industrial relations also includes the processes through which these relationships are expressed (such as. The relationships which arise at and out of the workplace generally include the relationships between individual workers. industrial relations pertains to the study and practice of collective bargaining. 1. workers’ participation in decision-making.2. at all levels.1 INUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN A NUTSHELL: Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modern industrial society. Industrial relations are basically the interactions between employers.2 CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS: The term ‘Industrial Relations’ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’. 6. trade unionism. including human resource management.5. By “relations” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen. when it arises. particularly groups of workers represented by union in the company. it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees (labor) and employers (management).2. Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers. Now its meaning has become more specific and restricted. the relationships between workers and management. 1. and labor-management relations. and union-management (or labor) relations. the relationships employers and workers have within this organization are formed to promote their respective interests. Accordingly.” The term industrial relations explain the relationship between employees and management which stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship. industrial relations cover all aspects of the employment relationship. Therefore. employees and the government. The aim is to be an integral part of the global family. workers and trade unions. industrial relations were broadly defined to include the relationships and interactions between workers and management. To provide training to all the employees so that they become an integral part of the efforts to achieve excellence in the present working culture.2 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS & DISPUTES 1. largely distinct field that deals with non union employment relationships and the personnel practices and policies of employers. and the management of conflict between employers. Thus in our case industrial relations have a broad as well as a narrow outlook. From this perspective. Thus we can say that human relations and industrial relations are two separate functions. “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”. Originally.

A sound industrial relations system is one in which relationships between management and employees (and their representatives) on the one hand. Three main parties are directly involved in industrial relations: 1.1. They have the right to hire and fire them.2.R. They also want to share decision making powers of management.4 IMPORTANCE OF I. It also includes third parties and labor and tribunal courts. skills. close or merge the factory or to introduce technological changes. which provides employment to the different people on the basis of their qualification. Government: The central and Rajasthan state government influences and regulates industrial relations through laws. 3. New Delhi Page 9 . are more harmonious and cooperative than conflictual and creates an environment conducive to economic efficiency and the motivation.R.3 PARTIES IN I. The workers exchange their views with management and voice their grievances.: © Indira Gandhi National Open University.2. Employers: Here employer refers to the company. and between them and the State on the other. agreements.: An industrial relations system consists of the whole gamut of relationships between employees and employers which are managed by the means of conflict and cooperation. productivity and development of the employee and generates employee loyalty and mutual trust. Employees: Workers seek to improve the terms and conditions of their employment. rules. This sharing in decision making is strictly related only to safety measures and canteen facilities in the company. 2. knowledge etc. . 1. Workers have formed unions against the management and fully support each other on every issue. awards of court etc. Employers possess certain rights vis-à-vis labors. Management can also affect workers’ interests by exercising their right to relocate.

set of standards regarding the working conditions. material and machines are reduced to the minimum by making good overall relations between workers and management in PRPL. The industrial peace lies ultimately in a transformed outlook on the part of both. It naturally affects production because mighty cooperative efforts alone can produce great results. The resources are fully utilized. In other words. but workers has slows down the production process generally. Industrial relations thus have following significance: 1. It is the collection of rules and regulations. Strikes. continuous employment for all from manager to workers. employees and Government to work out a new relationship in consonance with a spirit of true democracy. complete unity of thought and action is the main achievement of industrial peace. goslow tactics. It will help in increase the production. gheraos. Both think themselves as partners of the company and the role of workers in such a partnership is always recognized.2Reduction in Industrial Disputes – Good industrial relations reduce the industrial disputes. to increase production of taps.Industrial relations are an important part of each and every organization and in the same way it plays a vital role in smooth functioning of production and other management processes.4Mental Revolution – The main object of industrial relation is a complete mental revolution of workers and employees.2. i. gherao and grievances are some of the reflections of industrial unrest which do not spring up in an atmosphere of industrial peace. This means.4. It is the business of leadership in the ranks of workers. lockouts.1Uninterrupted production/service – The most important benefit of industrial relations is that this ensures continuity of production/service. The healthy industrial relations are the key to the progress and success. Thus national interest is protected. 1.3High morale – Good industrial relations improve the morale of the employees. Wastages of man. New Delhi Page 10 .e. It also helps in promoting co-operation and increasing production in the company. Every worker feels that he is a co-owner of the gains of the company.5Reduced Wastage – Good industrial relations are maintained on the basis of cooperation and recognition of each other. 1. Employees work with great zeal with the feeling in mind that the main objective of the company and the workers is the same.4.2.2. This term consists a wide variety of practices according to internal and external environment of the company. Disputes are reflections of the failure of basic human urges or motivations to secure adequate satisfaction or expression which are fully cured by good industrial relations. workers recognize employer’s authority. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. 1.4. It increases the place of workers in the society and their ego is satisfied.2. Since from the establishment of the company in bhiwadi there were no strikes. 1. resulting in the maximum possible production. The company in his turn realizes that the gains of company are not for him along but they should be shared equally and generously with his workers. On the other hand.2.4. It will naturally have impact on production because they recognize the interest of each other. lockouts.4.

they take the form of industrial disputes. The dispute may be between two employers or between two employees. Industrial dispute is said to be disagreement or controversy between management and labor with respect to wages.2. working conditions. 2. Therefore. or between workmen and workmen. 3.5. 5. Such a dispute may include controversies between rival unions regarding jurisdiction also. There can be as many industrial may cover many issues of conflict. The worst result ins the loss of production and decline in natural income. it would facilitate understanding if the causes of industrial disputes or industrial conflict were definitely categorized and specified.1SPECIFIC CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES: In the background of the general foregoing comments.5 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES Conflict. and where as industrial dispute is specific. the specific causes of industrial conflict may be treated as causes of industrial disputes also. unpleasantness is created between both the parties. When it acquires a concrete and specific manifestation. is a general concept. The dispute may be connected with employment or terms of employment or with labor conditions of any person. 1. it becomes an industrial dispute. * There must be following ingredients of an industrial dispute: 1. The worker must be on the roll list of the industry. A grief illustrative check list of the specific causes of industrial disputes is given below: © Indira Gandhi National Open University. New Delhi Page 11 .2. When issues of conflict are submitted to the management for negotiation. that is. other employment matters or union recognition. or between employs workmen. there must be a relationship of employer and employee. which is connected with the employment or unemployment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labor of any person. as one of the feature of industrial relations. The demands of the workers must have been rejected by the employer. The industrial unit must be a going concern. Whether these tactics are successful or unsuccessful. industrial conflict is general. 6.1. 4. It must not be dead. Industrial dispute is defined by Section 2 (x) of the Industrial Disputes Act 1947 as follows:Industrial disputes is “Any dispute or difference between the employers and employees. The disputes between employer and employer both and vitiate the industrial atmosphere and peace.

2.5. demotion. promotion. Besides.1.5. If industrial disputes were to be classified on the basis of causes and their relative importance. shift working. Working conditions B.5. D. In times of unionization. retrenchment. which issue will become predominant will depend upon the importance of the workers attach to their problems. wages may constitute the single main source of industrial disputes. In which country and at what time. Behavioral maladjustments C.2 A.4 PSYCHOLOGICAL A. D.3 INSTITUTIONAL A. E.1.5. it would be found that their relative importance would vary from country to country and in the same country from time to time. Non-implementation of labor laws and regulations. the check list contains the main causes of industrial disputes but does not indicate their relative importance as causative factors.1. standing orders.2. Clash of personalities B. New Delhi Page 12 . jobsecurity. at one time.1 Division of the fruits of the industry A. Recognition of unions Membership of union Subject of collective bargaining Bargaining unit Union security 1. Authoritarian administration 1.2. The points of contact between the employer and employees are so numerous that no exhaustive list can be prepares. B. within the prevailing economic and political climate.1 ECONOMIC 1.2. B. In the earlier stages of industrial development. issues relating to recognition of unions and union security may figure more often in the industrial disputes. whereas at a different time or in a different country.2. Wage structure and demands for higher wages Methods of job-evaluation Deduction from wages Incentives Fringe benefits Methods of production and physical working conditions 1. 1.1.5. C. E.5 DENIAL OF LEGAL AND CONTACTUAL ROGHTS A. wages were the most important cause of industrial conflict. layoff.1. C. B.2 Terms of employment Hours of work. Technology and machinery C.5.1. Violation of collective bargaining agreements.2. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. and so on. customer rights and privileges and so on.1. etc.1. retirement. Layouts the relative importance of wages may decline and some other issue may become more important. In one country.1.

the conciliator sends to the industrial relations desk of the ministry of labor informing it about the failure of conciliation. COMPULSORY COLLECTIVE BRGAINING: It has been enforced by an amendment of the INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES Act of 1947 Made in 1982.5. The main objective of the work committee is to promote measures for preserving good relations among employers and employees. The court of inquiry has same powers as are vested in a civil court under the code of civil procedure. both central and state government may constitute a ‘court of inquiry’ for ‘enquiring into any matter appearing to be connected with or relevant to an industrial dispute. E. 3. This amendment has made collective bargaining compulsory.2.2. COMPULSORY ARBITRATION OR ADJUDICATION: © Indira Gandhi National Open University. no party. B. COMPULSORY INVESTIGAION: Under sec 6 (Industrial Disputes Act 1947).5.1. COMPULSORY CONCILIATION AND MEDIATION: The main features of this method are: 1. The state would then refer the matter to a suitable adjudicator. Generally the Labor Commissioner is appointed as the conciliating officer. The employee representation can be even more than the employer representation in the works committee. C. State sets up the conciliation machinery. It is a tripartite in nature 2. I. They have equal representation of the employers and employees. . The conciliating officer would act as a mediator between the two aggrieved parties and would try to reach an amicable solution between them. 4. They are: A. On failure of conciliation.1 SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES WITH STATE INTERVENTION: The state has stipulated certain methods to resolve industrial disputes. New Delhi Page 13 .2METHODS FOR SETTLING INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES: The various methods available for settlement of industrial disputes can be broadly classified into two categories: 1. ESTABLISHMENT OF BI-PARTITE BODIES: Works Committees are constituted in organizations having more than 100 employees. either the employers or the employees can say no to collectively bargain if the other party is willing to do so.2.e.

Compulsory reference but voluntary acceptance of award. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING (WITH / WITHOUT CONCILIATION) B. The method of adjudication involves two principals based on nature and reward for the issue under consideration: 1. Compulsory reference and compulsory acceptance of award.2 SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES WITHOUT STATE INTERVENTION: A.When all other matters of resolving conflicts are exhausted the state may refer the matter for adjudication.2. New Delhi Page 14 .5. VOLUNTARY ARBITRATION © Indira Gandhi National Open University. 1.e. 2. I. the conflicting parties have the option of accepting or rejecting the award given by the Adjudicator.2.

They have about 22% of the market share and supply products to 220 countries. They also provide service and maintenance for elevators and escalators on a contract basis. public buildings. schools. With numerous offices. consider that today. it is unarguably an important sector of the building industry and a worthy topic of research. materials and machinery.1INTRODUCTION – ELEVATORS Elevators have become an integral part of any building facility over the past few decades. With over 4 million elevators in operation today. Each of these has an annual turnover of over a billion dollars and is densely spread out throughout the country. Kone and Fujitec dominate the elevator market. the very earliest units were called hoists. elevators move the equivalent of the world’s population every 72 hours. Elevators consist © Indira Gandhi National Open University. To gain some idea of the effect of this one advancement. there are 5 major players – Otis. Thus. Another key thing to note here would be that all of these companies also manufacture and install escalators and moving walkways. The term elevator generally denotes a unit with automatic safety devices.1. their business amounts to more than $1. Otis is the largest producer of elevators and escalators in the world with an annual sale of $6.2 million elevators and escalators worldwide. In our everyday life. Thyssen-Krupp. 2009) Globally. New Delhi Page 15 . Otis spent over $100 million on research and development in 2001.1 WORLD PERSPECTIVE 1. This will give an idea of the scale on which each of these 5 giants function. Within the US. Otis alone services about 1.3.1.INDUSTRY ANALYSIS 1.5 billion and they have a workforce of about 9000 people.3. it makes good sense to have state-of-the art information trafficking and computerization. sub-stations etc. it accounts for an important facet of the building industry. Schindler. hundreds of projects running simultaneously and a huge inventory of men. (Elevator Introduction. as in a building or a mine.3. (otis and competitors.3 INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION 1.3 billion in 2001. we depend on them for vertical transportation in offices. 2009) 1. airports.2BACKGROUND – HISTORY OF ELEVATORS An elevator is a device for vertical transportation of passengers or freight to different floors or levels.

this design had evolved into the gearless traction electric elevator. By 1857. NY. Manufacturing of elevators again may be broadly classified in 2 types: © Indira Gandhi National Open University. In bigger facilities. This allows the building construction and elevator production to run in parallel.2009. Today. 2009) 1. as a simple freight hoist operating between just two floors in a New York City building. and today we have intelligent elevator systems that can be remotely tracked for maintenance and rework. like say Otis or Schindler. The power elevator debuted mid-19th century in the U. Otis is the world’s largest elevator manufacturer. This information is then passed on to the General Contractor who becomes the liaison between Owner and Elevator manufacturer. In 1889 came the direct-connected geared electric elevator. Push-button controls and various complex signal systems modernized the elevator even further and safety became an integral part of the design. were in use during the middle ages and can be traced back to the third century BC. The year 1926 saw the birth of the modern elevator in the Woolworth building. 2) It is a common practice to finalize on the elevator design during the pre-construction stage. Elisha Graves Otis was at the New York Crystal Palace exposition. New Delhi Page 16 . This decision is taken prior to commencement of work on the site. Electrical Engineer. (Elevator History. One of the sub-contractors will get in touch with an elevator manufacturing company.S.1.3EXISTING PROCESSES After the decision to install an elevator is taken. They were operated by animal and human power or by water-driven mechanisms. and with the help of Architect and Structural Engineer decides the requirements of the building.3. the following people are involved till the completion stage. ten years later. The Owner makes the decision to install an elevator of an array of elevators in the to-bebuilt facility. Depending on the budget allocated for elevators. the architect and structural designer will suggest the optimum elevator layout to the owner. allowing for the building of significantly taller structures. with related hoisting and lowering mechanisms and a source of power. a defining moment in elevator development. and. The owner will pass this information to the GC who will then prepare a Tender Document to invite bids from various sub-contractors. In 1853. After the sub-contractors submit their bids. Rudimentary elevators. The progress in this field has been astonishing ever since. the General Contractor may also have a Subcontractor who may refer to an Elevator Consultant. the GC will select the most appropriate ones and award the contract applicable to them. For the same. Elevator Manufacturing Company and other Sub-Contractors. The owner makes the decision. eventually to achieve mass production of elevators in the thousands. or hoists. he will hire a General Contractor (GC) to co-ordinate all the work and interact with the Structural Engineer. (Fig. Elisha's sons went on to found Otis Brothers and Company in Yonkers. By 1903. then the tallest building in the world. demonstrating an elevator with a "safety" to break the cab's fall in case of rope failure. the country's first Otis passenger elevator was in operation at a New York City department store. allowing hundred-plus story buildings to become possible and forever changing the urban landscape. Electromagnet technology replaced manual rope-driven switching and braking. and place a word order as per requirements supplied. Multi-speed motors replaced the original single-speed models to help with landing-leveling and smoother overall operation.of a platform or car traveling in vertical guides in a shaft or hoist way.

3) In this process. Kone and Thyssen-Krupp • Small local manufacturers Of these. They are already using a lot of computer-assisted tools for design. manufacture. (Fig. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. New Delhi Page 17 . Schindler. After the elevator has been manufactured. After installation of the system. assembly. there are 2 key areas where flow of information is enormous and multidirectional: General Contractor Manufacturing Adoption of IT in these sectors results in saving of time. the earlier occupy a very large part of the market share and offer the latest in design and safety. it may be installed into the building at the appropriate time during its construction schedule. the GC will obtain a working permit from a Licensing Inspector so that the elevator is now ready for use. The long term benefits include a more economical overall process and less rework.• Global giants such as Otis. This co-ordination is also the responsibility of the GC who is in contact with the Elevator Contractor. and better communication. maintenance and rework of elevators. more discreet information flow.

It has been seen that companies today offer fully integrated scheduling, engineering, production and installation under one roof. Once the order has been placed with the elevator company, they have highly sophisticated tools that will schedule the activities, makes designs and 3-D models, manufacture the parts and then hire sub-contractors who will install it on the site. (Fig. 4) This section is typically supposed to analyze the available 3-D modeling tools and suggest the appropriate ones for the elevator industry. On studying this sector and talking to several people in the industry, it was found that the elevator industry has already surpassed this stage and has gone ahead to develop tailor-made software and modeling tools as per specific requirements. Most big companies have extensive on-going research and are heavily investing in adoption of information technology. Also, they have moved to 4-D modeling, wherein they can visualize the elevator model and working at various stages of time. Some of the new technologies implemented by the industry giants are described below.

The market leader, Otis has successfully implemented high-end graphics and cutting – edge technologies to become #1 in the world. Apart from having developed design and modeling tools, they have also employed IT to predict problems and tackle them at an early stage to save on time later. Avoiding potentially costly elevator problems can be achieved through early planning. Hoist way modeling algorithms allow anticipation of complications that might arise from rope sway - a phenomenon that occurs in high-rise buildings. To facilitate this planning process, Otis has developed a special program called the OTISPLAN®. A design and evaluation tool, it simulates the actual operation of the building's vertical transportation system and proposes the optimal traffic handling solution. (Otis product details, 2009) Another interesting application developed by Otis is their remote monitoring system. Developed to optimize performance and minimize downtime, Remote Elevator Monitoring — REM® — tracks hundreds of system functions on thousands of elevators around the world. The REM system identifies most problems before they occur. REM detects deteriorating components and intermittent anomalies, and notes the small nuisances that might have gone undetected until they caused service disruptions. Intermittent problems are fixed before they annoy the tenants.

A Diagnostic software monitors elevators continuously and sends data to the REM unit located in the machine room. B The REM unit sends this information to the OTISLINE center.
© Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi Page 18

C Data is categorized by urgency and reviewed by OTISLINE representatives. D An OTISLINE representative alerts the field mechanic, if necessary. E The mechanic arrives at the job site with specific information, tools and parts to work on the elevator. (Otis Innovation, 2010)

Schindler is the second largest elevator manufacturer, and among the leaders in elevator design using computer-based modeling. They are currently working on automation software that will eliminate actual models, and be able to design and simulate elevators using a computer. Some such commercial products available are Schindler Draw and Schindler Spec. The best part about these products is that they work online and can be customized as per user requirement. Schindler Draw is the industry's first automated, interactive drawing program for hydraulic elevators, escalators and moving walks. The program simplifies drawing time and eliminates time-consuming manual layouts. The drawings are customized to your particular building. No boilerplate drawings here. The final drawing can be viewed, printed and inserted into building layouts and other documents, thereby shortening the approval process. Schindler Draw works online, or can be downloaded to your computer. It's also available on CD-ROM. Schindler Spec is an interactive architect's tool that customizes specifications to individual buildings. Like Schindler Draw, it works online, or can be downloaded to your computer. It is also available on CD-ROM. (schindler history, 2010)

Apart from having developed software and networking for scheduling, production and fabrication, they are now expanding into remote monitoring of elevators. This will enable their engineers to gather information about any elevator installed from their mainframe, which continuously tracks installed elevators worldwide. Thus, the engineer can simply go to any site, obtain relevant data on his laptop or PDA and even compare with similar platforms from their database. Particular progress in this area has been made in Germany, France, Belgium and the USA, where customer-focused service concepts such as TeleW@tch, POP or TAC20 utilize the internet, e-mail, text messaging and other IT technologies. The Tele-W@tch system records the frequency with which individual elevators are used; customers can view this information on the Internet and use it to plan service call-outs. POP is a service concept, which records all relevant service and repair information and presents it clearly to customers in the form of a service history. In the USA we developed the TAC20 monitoring system for hydraulic elevators, which facility managers and service engineers can use to continuously check the serviceability and technical condition of their installations. (Thyssenkrupp Index, 2010)

Fujitec America, Inc.'s Elevator Monitoring System (EMS™) is a sophisticated state-of-the-art, PC-based system designed as a comprehensive elevator © Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi Page 19

management device. Developed from the highest standards of quality synonymous with the name Fujitec, the Elevator Monitoring System contains distinctive graphical representations, interactive communication features, precise data accumulation capabilities and advanced event logging characteristics to satisfy a wide range of customer monitoring requirements. (Fujitecamerica Mordenization, 2010) An animation of computerized installation of an elevator can be found at the link below. It shows the application of 4-D modeling and emphasizes that the Contractor really need not know detailed specs of the elevator unit. (Fujitecamerica Animations, 2010)

1.4.5 KONE
KONE provides innovative and eco-efficient solutions for elevators, escalators and automatic building doors. We support our customers every step of the way; from design, manufacturing and installation to maintenance and modernization. KONE is global leaders in helping the customers manage the smooth flow of people and goods throughout their buildings. KONE’S commitment to customers is present in all KONE solutions. This makes them a reliable partner throughout the life-cycle of the building. They challenge the conventional wisdom of the industry. They are fast, flexible, and we have a well-deserved reputation as a technology leader, with such innovations as KONE MonoSpace®, KONE MaxiSpace™, and KONE InnoTrack™. One can experience these innovations in architectural landmarks such as the Trump Tower in Chicago, the 30 St Mary Axe building in London, the Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam and the Beijing National Grand Theatre in China and Delhi Metro Rail Stations in India. KONE employs over 32,000 dedicated experts to serve customers globally and locally in 50 countries. (Kone details, 2010)

Elevators are the lifeline of today's high-rise structures, and they're getting smarter, better looking and more efficient. As floor space in cities around the world becomes scarcer and dearer, buildings are being forced to go vertical. If the ground doesn't allow it, the sky is there to be exploited. Structures are reaching heights one could never imagine and to reach higher, elevators, the lifeline of any tall building, are getting faster & smarter. The vertical transportation industry would like us to know: "We move the equivalent of the world's population every three days." It's no idle boast. Today, elevators are no longer restricted to five-star hotels or high rise structures. Your favorite departmental store too may have a fancy 'bubble elevator' - impressive both in terms of looks and utility.

© Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi Page 20

The step was taken following the insistence of elevator makers that the collapsible gates were hazardous (during incidents such as fire. Best & Crompton. elevators have been in use since the beginning of the 19th century. elevators were mainly imported and installed locally by a number of manufacturers. the Bureau of Indian Standards banned the use and sale of collapsible-door elevators.5 mps. On January 1. Until the mid 1950s. etc. The market is also progressively shifting from low-mid rise to mid-high rise in the metro speeds below this. as these are known to be energy-efficient. Currently. Right now. Manual entrance elevators normally have speeds up to 0. Otis Elevator Co (I) Ltd was established in Mumbai. Johnson. Some of these players have local manufacturing facilities while newer players rely on imports. is still functional today. 1. only three states in South India have complied and some manufacturers have ceased supplying elevators with collapsible gates.5 mps over 20 storeys.In India. the market size for elevators supplied to new building installations is estimated to be around 19-20. Otis. In 1954. Many local players in each region have also emerged in the past couple of decades. All such lifts were to be fitted with imperforated solid or automatic doors within the next five years. Mitsubishi. Otis was the market leader with © Indira Gandhi National Open University. ThyssenKrupp.75 mps up to 20 storeys. which are still used today world over in high-rise applications.8 mps while speeds of automatic door elevators are predominantly in the 0. Dong Yang and Hyundai are just some of the players already here with talk of other big names also entering the market. New Delhi Page 21 . gearless machines are used . This creates a phenomenal opportunity for the elevator industry to raise quality standards of the units installed and make operation safer. The total market size is estimated to be about Rs 2. such as Bharat Bijlee's elevator division.3 THE OPPORTUNITY Most major global elevator manufacturers have a presence in India. Approximately 50-55 per cent of this market constitutes elevators with manual entrances and 40-45 per cent comprises elevators with automatic doors. Automatic door elevators are safer and recommended by inter-national building codes and the Indian market is gradually showing an upward shift towards automatic entrances. elevators installed in India are 1.0 mps is presently installed in India). and 2. other companies were established over the next two decades. and for children who tend to put their hands between the bars of the collapsible gates). Above 2. particularly at the upper end of the market. 1997. In turn.0 mps for buildings up to 12 storeys.ECE. as installed in Japan and Korea. geared AC machines are used.5/1.500 crore annually. Earlier.7mps and higher range (4. but in India the trend is towards AC with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) drives. and some of them have evolved into national players. ECE Industries. Speeds are expected to increase as buildings grow taller in India.000 units per annum. 1. Kone. So far. The catch: implementation of the standards was left up to each individual state. Fujitech. Schindler. and can go up to 12. in Kolkata's Raj Bhavan. gearless machines used DC drives. The challenge with the lower-end market segment is to convert it from a dependence on manual elevators to a desire for fully automatic units. One of the first installations from that time.5. Until about five years ago.0 mps and higher for taller buildings.

As a result of the rapid growth of micro-electronics and computer technology. Currently. it is expected that the standard of end products will only improve. microprocessors have made inroads into elevator control systems too. The existing installed base across the country is estimated to be in the range of 90.5. Lift makers are now offering maintenance contracts with improved customer service. which has an installed base of approximately 150. (Construction Update. 2010) 1. It is worth noting that over 40 per cent of these elevators have either crossed 20 years of age or are likely to reach the same in the near future. and now that FDI in construction has been permitted. contrast this with China.4 UPGRADING FOR TOMORROW Apart from the growth in new construction.000 units over the past three years. In 1979. Modernization presents a mammoth opportunity in upgrading the existing base and consequently most leading elevator companies have established their own modernization departments to upgrade their existing installed elevator bases.000 units during this period. that share has fallen to about 30-35 per cent. The metamorphosis of the market can be judged by having a look at industry growth. Further. or a complete replacement of the existing elevator. particularly newer buildings under construction. These elevators will either have to be replaced or upgraded to present-day technology. with some new subsystems being incorporated. user expectations of quicker response to breakdowns and emergency situations are yet to be met and the industry needs to work further towards meeting these. Modernization can be classified as an upgrade involving the retention of existing components. Large global organisations have set up shop here owing to the availability of skilled labour at a comparatively low cost. which is expected to continue at a rate of around 7 per cent over the next five to 10 years.5 THE INNOVATION Side by side is a continual process of R&D that is making elevators smarter than ever before. India has also become a base for the service-related industry. There is a trend of overseas architects establishing themselves in the country. where there are many exciting high-rise building and mall projects coming up in and around metro cities. other sides of the business driving the market will be the upgrade and replacement of existing lifts and service contracts. Their expectations are that properties must have global quality standards of amenities and facilities.5.000 plus units. the market is expected to grow to about 30-35.000 units to about 19. Otis unveiled the first high-speed elevator control system using a microprocessor to control every aspect of elevator operations followed by a sophisticated control system for © Indira Gandhi National Open University. upgrading of lifts is expected to generate fresh business worth about Rs 1 billion over the next five years.approximately 55-60 per cent market share but with the expansion of the market.000 units per annum. New Delhi Page 22 . as the availability of trained hands to maintain such old elevators is becoming scarce. according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. 1. Most offer tiered service levels ranging from fully comprehensive to a basic periodic oil and grease service with breakdown call-back service. the market leader in terms of size is Kone who recently bought out Bharat Bijlee's elevator division. thanks to buoyant GDP growth. However.000 units and a current market size of about 7580. which has increased from approximately 14. Overall.

the doors open and the passenger exits. the owners of new buildings are showing a preference for more sophisticated and higher technology products and lift systems such as intelligent or smart lifts. 1972. were authorized by the Indian Government to undertake phased manufacture of lifts (elevators) in India and. installs. cafeterias and other small shops.) This innovation was the ultimate in passenger communications. will go only one way . allowed to float a subsidiary company. sizes and speeds. double-deck elevator systems that improve on service and save space. The demand for better-looking elevators and escalators has been welcomed by the industry as an opportunity to do things the state-of-the-art way. the foreign collaborators. And thus we see glass walled elevator cars (bubble lifts) allowing passengers a bird's eye view of the city or a building's atrium. With plenty of development in semi-urban and rural areas too. The elevator doors close and it travels to the desired floor . service repairs and maintains various types of elevators and their components. the elevator industry is confident about its growth prospects. The Company manufactures.there. New Delhi Page 23 . As the value of land increases and the population grows.. demand for multi-storied buildings. and specialized elevators for specific applications. per minute. sports and movie channels.gearless elevators in 1990. residential elevators. and hence elevators in all shapes. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. The newer entrants in the market are targeting this premium segment. Not surprisingly. allowing the elevator system to be more energy-efficient and productive. with electroluminescent display screens in the car and hall that provide a complete computer graphics capability including cable TV news. Otis Elevators India Limited was incorporated on 30th October. freight elevators for moving heavy materials. sky lobbies that can incorporate restaurants.up! (Elevator World India Update.. This minimizes both waiting time and round-trip time for users.S. Otis Elevator Co. New Jersey. which evolved into solid state control. The need for creating excitement and moving more people faster and more efficiently has resulted in newer forms of dispatching. like destination dispatch control where the user enters the floor he wishes to go to onto a keypad near the elevator bank and the system designates the elevator into which he should enter.6.6 OTIS ELEVATORS INDIA LIMITED 1.1 COMPANY HISTORY (GENERAL) In early 1953. (Earlier control systems were relay logic-based.A. U. 1953 as a private limited company. escalators and travolators and high speed gearless elevators operating at a speed of 700 ft. for that purpose. It was converted into a public limited company on 11th August. 2010) COMPANY PROFILE 1.

8 VALUES THAT GUIDE THE WORK BEHAVIOUR By embodying these values and doing many small things right every day. We understand that the safe way is the only way.. New Delhi Page 24 . Otis was the first company to introduce the new device in India.000 elevators which amounts to over 65% of the total elevator business. that’s success. Also. Safety: Millions of people around the world use Otis elevators and escalators every day without giving safety a second thought. installing. 2010) 1. In 1994 Four new state-of-the-art elevatoring system viz. and run our business to the letter and spirit of the law. New Jersey. Otis deliver for its customers • • • • People: It believes the most important assets of the Otis Elevator Company is to go home at the end of every workday. it is the market leader in the domestic elevator industry and has a technical-cum-financial collaboration with Otis Elevator Co. quality has made Otis the most trusted name in the industry. We will inspire our customers’ total confidence through exceptional service that earns us 100 percent of their business. The Company in 1987 proposed to introduce new generation of Otis products such as 11 VTR and 13 VTR geared machines. For us. Infact. (Otis Fact Sheet.396 elevators per annum. we win the loyalty of our customers.7 COMPANY VISION “We intend to be the recognized leader in service excellence among all companies— not just elevator companies—worldwide. In 1997 a range of high-performance and aesthetically upgraded products with current technology was developed and released to meet the augmenting market. numero uno in the global arena and is a vital subsidiary of the multi billion dollars United Technologies Group.800 elevators per annum. electronic doorway obstruction detectors and automatic rescue device in the event of power failure with the help of a simplified and compact microprocessor based operational control system developed at the Company's in house R&D Centre. Otis Elevator (India) is one of the oldest joint ventures between an Indian and an American promoter. medium range door-operator systems. modernizing and servicing of elevators and escalators. Otis 2001 for medium size residential apartments and other Hydraulic elevator for low rise building were introduced.In 1985 the Company received approval from Government to increase its licensed capacity from 937 to 1. 2010) © Indira Gandhi National Open University. (Otis Fact Sheet. Japan. the Company set up a State-of-the-art manufacturing facility at Jigani industrial area near Bangalore with a capital outlay of Rs 18 crores with technical assistance from Otis Elevator Co. established some 45 years ago. Further in the same year Otis Elevator Company (India) was awarded the prestigious ISO 9002 certification for applying a quality assurance system in marketing. USA and Nippon Otis. With an installed base of 24. Quality: For more than 150 years. the company announced the launch of a revolutionary safety device to counter power failures and technical snags that bring moving lifts to a halt. Soon there after. Integrity: We must do the right thing every time. 100 percent of the time. Further application made to Government enhanced the expansion of its licensed capacity to 2. By acting ethically and honorably.” 1. with a view to increasing production capacity.

Think safety first. If the customer is not there. Convey a sense of urgency in your work and keep your customer fully updated on your progress. It’s not just “fixing a problem” or performing routine maintenance. Remember that every complaint contains an opportunity to exceed the customer’s expectations and transform a negative experience into a positive one. The employees are the Otis brand—the embodiment of the values Otis share. above all. Answer telephone calls in a standard way and before the third ring: "Otis Elevator Company. (Your name. other workers. the safety of 2. Every Otis employee is expected to practice Service Excellence every day. Take ownership of the complaint and work to resolve it promptly. Be prepared when going into a customer meeting. Likewise.9 SERVICE EXCELLENCE Service Excellence is more than what Otis provide. Each employee is responsible for their own safety. By the same token. to thank them for their business. Visit your customer every time you are in their building. 1. 4.1. Remember: If a customer asks you for something. New Delhi Page 25 . call the customer immediately. 5.) How may I help you?" Reply to every customer phone call or e-mail on the same day (leaving a message or e-mail if the customer is unavailable). giving a brief overview of the work you have completed. Conclude each meeting with a summary of action items. At the end of each work session. it’s the “smile” in the voice on the phone. 3. leave a card with a note. scan the area for hazards or risk of accident. Respond to customer requests promptly. make sure the job site or workspace is clean. it’s how the company think and act. empathize and respond with a can-do attitude. Every employee is empowered to take any action necessary to eliminate the potential for an accident. If circumstances arise that prevent you from keeping a promise. remain calm. At the beginning of each work session. every employee is an ambassador of Otis who must help us achieve our mission of being first in service. you own that request. Listen. the prompt response to a request and the drive to always improve. Deliver what you promise—promptly and unequivocally. check in and check out with them daily. Be your customer’s eyes and ears. Where appropriate. first in products and first in performance. When possible. Keep track of open action items until the request is fulfilled— and the customer is fully delighted. do not promise something you know Otis cannot deliver. 6. Think of yourself as an extension of the customer’s staff in every building you work in. Remember to ask if there is anything else you can do for them and. tidy and safe. It’s how Otis actually work with one another and how it work with its customers and the riding public. When a customer complains. The vision of making Otis the leader in service excellence envisioned to be evident in the actions of every Otis professional worldwide. and the safety of the riding public. offer suggestions that will help make them more successful. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. following this 12-point roadmap. 7.

At Otis. 11. Take pride in your company. It’s up to you to create a work environment where the needs of customers are met promptly by leveraging Otis’ global network of knowledge and experience.8. 9. By expanding our knowledge and skills. The research is undertaken with the objective to evaluate the relationship between workers and management. 10. (Otis Fact Sheet. A smile goes a long way toward maintaining a positive image. then work to eliminate it. to analyze this relationship. 2010) OBJECTIVE The industrial relations in an organization lie in the employer-employee relationships. Take pride in your work. Apply ACE tools to identify the root cause of a problem. Adopt a pleasant and constructive attitude. Never assume that any problem has been fixed. Never pass along errors. 12. to find out the areas where an issue arises & how to maintain a good relationship between them. Be uncompromising on work quality. Follow up on every job. Remember that you are always on view. New Delhi Page 26 . Take pride in your appearance. we succeed or fail as a team. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. We are responsible for our own learning and self-development. we enhance our ability to help both Otis and our customers. Ask yourself: “What does the customer want?” Then work to exceed those expectations.

Delhi. To safeguard the interest of labor and management by securing the highest level of mutual understanding and good-will among all those sections in the industry which participate in the process of production. AREAS COVERED In this project the covered areas are:1. 5. 3. 6. To investigate the structure and main features of industrial relations in Otis. 4.12 TERTIARY OBJECTIVEThe tertiary objectives can be summarized in different points as follows: 1. 1. 2. strikes. To eliminate.1. To establish and nurse the growth of an Industrial Democracy based on labor partnership in the sharing of profits and of managerial decisions. 7. as far as is possible and practicable. lockouts and gheraos by providing reasonable wages. To raise productivity to a higher level in an era of full employment by lessening the tendency to high turnover and frequency absenteeism. so that ban individuals personality may grow its full stature for the benefit of the industry and of the country as well. Vesting of a proprietary interest of the workers in the company in which they are employed. Main aspects of Industrial relations © Indira Gandhi National Open University. which are an essential factor in the productivity of workers and the industrial progress of a country. To avoid industrial conflict or strife and develop harmonious relations. said fringe benefits.11 SECONDARY OBJECTIVEThe secondary objectives are 1) A case based analysis of union history of Otis Delhi 2) Study to suggest ways to further improve the management and union relations in light of the best practices prevalent in the industry. New Delhi Page 27 . improved living and working conditions. 1.10 PRIMARY OBJECTIVE – The primary objective of the research is to find ways to reintegrate operational staff and development of employee synergy” on the basis of analysis of available history of industrial relations in OTIS.

Industrial disputes and its causes 3. Communication between workers and management 4. The study helps in resolving the unnecessary issues raised by the workers which reduce the production efficiency generally by © Indira Gandhi National Open University.2. 7. 5. Workers participation in management 6. New Delhi Page 28 . Intra-relationship between unionized and non-unionized workers SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the study is extended to the assessment of relations between the workers and management in Otis. Union in the organization. Relations between workers and management.

I would like to list them here: ASSUMPTIONS: © Indira Gandhi National Open University. vocational. I had to make a number of assumptions for the sake of a useful and reasonably accurate project in the field of overall relations between workers and management. This is specifically for the company and can not be generalized because of customized details. Due to lack of sufficient knowledge.slowing down the production. health or behavior problems can also be benefited from this report. including overall organization. Employee counseling on all types of personnel problems-educational. This project is mainly for fair practicing of management and workers with each other in the company. It will also help to find out the area where the management can make new policies and implement those policies to improve the relations between workers and management. New Delhi Page 29 . supervision and co-ordination of industrial relations policies and programmes. While I believe that all such assumption were justice and have put in all techniques from wherever they were available some assumptions and limitations remain to keep every thing honest. This report will help in Administration.

New Delhi Page 30 .1. Observations and Interviews were taken to crosscheck the authenticity of the secondary data. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY © Indira Gandhi National Open University. The provided data by company is authentic and completely reliable. 2. The data collected is 100% correct as no personal prejudices are assumed to be involved relating to the personal interviews and discussions.

New Delhi Page 31 .e. Also to find out the main aspects of existing relations between workers and management and how to improve them. During the research period i had to report at 9 am and leave at 5:30 pm. from which sources and by what methods. An unstructured interview of Managers and company lawyers was also undertaken as a part of primary research analysis. This is the general shift in which managers.13 DURATION OF THE PROJECT The research is undertaken with the objective to evaluate the industrial relations & disputes between workers and management in Otis. we were not privy to any union leader as it would have had an adverse effect on the ongoing dialog A research design is the framework of plan for a study which is used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data collected. 1. and officers of different department’s works in the plant. During this period we also completed a project i. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. The research is for workers and management and to analyses their relations with each other in all respect. of “REDUCING LITIGATIONS” which is a detailed study in minimizing litigations of Otis. It is the blue print that is followed in completing the study. executives.The format of the research is majorly based on secondary data analysis of the similar problems existent in the elevator industry based on exploratory structure only. It is the overall operational pattern of the project that stipulates what information needs to be collected. It specifies the methods and procedures of acquiring the information needed to conduct the research effectively. Since highly sensitive negotiations for the tri-yearly UnionManagement settlement was underway during the period of internship. The basic objective of research cannot be attained without a proper research design.

the first relates to an explanation of the models and styles of mediation that are currently being promoted in the literature in an endeavor to capture some of the current thinking around the practice of mediation and ADR. (Mahin. The second theme relates more specifically to global trends and reflective thinking about the future emerging in the field of mediation and dispute resolution practice. In a review of the book “Managing Workplace Conflict: Alternative Dispute Resolution in Australia” by Van Gramberg. the mediator works to bring the parties off their positions to a compromise. he is surprised at how little attention seems to have been paid to the resolution of workplace disputes in the literature of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in Australia and this would seem to apply to New Zealand as well. The purpose of this literature review is to attempt to capture “the state of the art” as academics and practitioners currently regard it and have focused on material produced between 2000 and 2009. the settlement. 2006) points out that given the importance of employment for most people and the number of disputes that arise. In the facilitative model mediators are encouraged to focus primarily on helping the parties identify and express their interests and needs. (Wertheim. Evaluative mediators try to provide disputants with a realistic assessment of their negotiating positions according to legal rights and entitlements and within the anticipated range of court outcomes. which has a focus on dealing with the © Indira Gandhi National Open University.Stephen.. New Delhi Page 32 .14 INTRODUCTION The growth of mediation over the last 20 years has promulgated quantities of literature both pragmatic and theoretical as practitioners and academics have grappled with the critical issues facing the development of mediation practice and alternative dispute resolution (ADR). The review has been written with a practical application in mind and is designed to set the context for discussion.A.LITERATURE REVIEW 1.. particularly those within a statutory context. Tillett (Gramberg.C. Although this review attempts to address the works of seminal thinkers. therapeutic and evaluative and makes the point that mediators in practice might demonstrate use of two or more models..15 MODELS OF MEDIATION The first step in examining national and international mediation and ADR trends is to examine the current thinking around mediation models Boulle (1998) distinguishes between four models of mediation. May 2002) 1. the main objective of settlement mediation is to encourage incremental bargaining towards a central point between the two parties’ positions. facilitative. a style that is common where parties are in conflict over a single issue . Finally the therapeutic model. The briefing required that this literature review be focused on current national and international trends in mediation and dispute resolution and comment on any processes and practices that support professionals in the delivery of quality dispute resolution services. With this in mind two themes were selected.Love.L.Peck.often money. E. assuming that this will bring to the surface common ground and highlight areas for trade-offs and compromise. & Littlefied.. time constraints and limited access to information mean that some works will not have been included. What became apparent in the process of the review was the need to identify themes to help refine the material. 2006) Briefly summarized.

The transformative approach to mediation does not seek resolution of the immediate problem. both socially and culturally. The primary goal of transformative mediation is to foster the parties' empowerment and recognition. in theory.underlying causes of the problem with a view to improving future relationships between the parties. means enabling the parties to define their own issues and to seek solutions on their own. problem-solving mediators often play a large role in crafting settlement terms and obtaining the parties' agreement. (USACE) In the prominent work by Bush and Folger (1994) on Transformative Mediation the authors contrast their perspective on the practice of mediation with the more traditional problem-solving approach and explore the transformative potential of mediation. (Travis. The approach is pragmatic. yet more open view. they focus on information that relates to the problem itself rather than exploring broader issues relating to the parties’ identities and relationships. empowerment and recognition pave the way for a mutually-agreeable settlement. thereby enabling them to approach their current problem. (Lusturum. but rather. but also the substance of the discussion. According to Bush and Folger the goal of problem-solving mediation is generating a mutually acceptable settlement of the immediate dispute. as well as later problems. This approach. New Delhi Page 33 . Empowerment. seeks the empowerment and mutual recognition of the parties involved. according to Bush and Folger. They see problem solving mediators as often highly directive in their attempts to reach this goal . This approach attempted to re-examine traditional approaches to conflict mediation by examining the stories (or discourses) we tell about our conflicts. According to them although all decisions are. Within the mediation framework a safe place is set up for disputants to tell their personal stories about the conflict and their relationship to it. left in the hands of the disputants. Its primary focus is on the problem itself and mediators encourage parties to explore data and experiences related to the problem. Critics of this approach argue that when mediators practicing the model probe for issues underlying the conflict. 2007) © Indira Gandhi National Open University. Recognition means enabling the parties to see and understand the other person's point of view – to understand how they define the problem and why they seek the solution that they do. but that is only a secondary effect. focuses on underlying interests and needs and is well expressed in the influential work by Moore (1996). with a stronger. Facilitative mediation (sometimes known as problem-solving mediation) is widely practiced amongst the mediation community. avoids the problem of mediator directiveness which so often occurs in problem-solving mediation. 2001). Instead people construct conflict from narrative descriptions of events and the stories we tell about these events condition our interests. while avoiding areas of disagreement where consensus is less likely. The narrative approach to managing and mediating conflicts was offered by Winslade and Monk (2000). Often. The authors introduced theory that challenges assumptions that our interests are “natural” and argue that what people want does not stem from internal desires or interests. putting responsibility for all outcomes squarely on the disputants. according to Bush and Folger. focusing on areas of consensus and "resolvable" issues.they control not only the process.

New Delhi Page 34 . There has been significant international debate since the publication of “The Promise of Mediation” (Bush and Folger 1994) and “Narrative Mediation” (Winslade and Monk 2000).Using highly developed questioning and listening skills the mediator works to foster communication among the disputants to explore the full dimensions of the conflict. breakthrough to a deeper understanding of the relational issues of the problem. others have found that their styles are an amalgam of various models. they invite researchers and practitioners to evaluate its usefulness in a variety of contexts. because of the newness of the model... The three defining features of this model are that it is pro-active. (Picard. by focusing on the problem and by exploring the parties’ concerns about the conflict. and the Narrative model where the mediator works to co-construct a new non-conflict story (and spends little time probing the “problem” story). (Danesh. In contrast. the difference between the Insight model and the Interest-based “problem solving” model is. Once the biases and assumptions about a conflict are uncovered.J.B. which the authors maintain focuses on the interactions between the parties (looking for opportunities to foster empowerment and recognition). Picard and Melchin found when they looked at their own mediation practice they could. According to Picard and Melchin (2007) mediators who practice this type of mediation look for direct insights (moments of clarity. In comparison to the Transformative model. The Transformative and Narrative models maintain that probing for information about the problem keeps parties locked into a conflict and to achieve resolution a shift must be made away from the problem. and works to uncover the assumptions that each party brings to the conflict. the “Ah ha!”) and inverse insights (those new insights that a mediator achieves by displaying curiosity and by challenging assumptions and expectations) into what the conflict means to each party by discovering what each party cares about and how that threatens the other party. interests and feelings that underlie the problem”.H. Insight mediators work under the assumption that conflicts are maintained by feelings of threat and the Insight mediator works to help parties examine and understand their underlying values and threats. unity-centered and © Indira Gandhi National Open University. In their view this model is well suited to conflicts where there is an ongoing relationship and. Canada. the Insight model takes parties through an in-depth exploration of the presenting problem rather than around it. 2002). but move through and beyond it to understand “the deeper cares. Many mediators continue to identify with a particular model in their practice.The mediator then works to break down the conflict into its component parts and stories. June. Insight mediation is the model that is taught and practiced. values. Whilst the Insight model does share some similarities with the problem-solving model. concerns. that the Insight model is relationship-centered rather than problem-centered and assumes that parties must not only explore the problem.2005). respect and collaboration. At Carleton University in Ottawa. according to Picard and Melchin. Another perspective is offered by Danesh and Danesh (2002) who use the consultative intervention model to offer a critique of institutionalized mediation. alternative approaches are considered and new stories about the conflict are created the aim being to move disputants from seemingly intractable conflict situations to new stories based on draws on the work of Canadian philosopher Bernard Lonergan and his theory of insight. both real and perceived.These models have been positioned as alternatives to the interest-based approach that has dominated mediation practice especially in business and legal matters.

Tied into this is the premise that our approach to conflict . The author maintains that although this style is illustrated in divorce mediation. there is little documented research or discussion about it. firstly a disputant could leave a conflict resolution process with a better understanding of how to deal with the psychological and physical toll that conflict can have on individuals and their relationships. pragmatic focus. the authors consider that in combining these components. having a highly active mediator who is clearly the leader of the problem solving process rather than a non-directive facilitator and a circumscribed.S. (Ghosh. the consultative conflict resolution model should “invite participants to consciously reflect on the range of predominant worldviews and the relationship of those worldviews to approaches to resolving conflict”. A pro-active effect offers three possibilities. The characteristics of the Strategic style are summarized as having a focus on latent causes. Encouraging disputants to consider how they can build a degree of trust and unity between themselves as a group rather than focusing on themselves as individuals. the intensity of it and the way we pursue conflict resolution. 1996: 76)..J. Mediators surface problems that are immediately relevant to solving a practical problem in an efficient manner.. is tied into our worldview – proactive conflict resolution requires making participants aware of the connection between their worldview. may result in conscious reflection and facilitate a more harmonious. in his view reveal little evidence of mediators who believe it is important to search for and address underlying causes of conflict and in fact most of the empirical studies focus on a “professional bent” to encourage discussions around interests rather than positions or a non-directive facilitator who aims to improve communications and understanding. and how conflicts emerge. Engagement in a consultative intervention model gives disputants the opportunity to learn about themselves and others. 2007). features which they argue are missing from the predominant mediation models. disputants may learn how to approach future conflict in a way that lessens the appearance of conflict in the first place. The authors contrast this with the interest-based approach (Moore 1996) where the job of the mediator is to help individuals to avoid “the particular idiosyncratic problems that are pushing the parties toward impasse” and focus them instead on an institutionalized model that aims at resolving the specific differences between them (Moore. In a new article by Kressel (2007) the Strategic style of mediation is approached in which the mediator attempts to attend to the underlying dysfunction that is fuelling the conflict. (a worldview self education as they are encouraged to become aware of and reflect upon their own worldview). New Delhi Page 35 . The current challenge according to the authors is to recognize a condition of unity as the broader purpose of conflict resolution.The author cites a number of writings that. Thirdly. regardless of agreement making. the conflict they are in and their approach to the resolution of that conflict. and their alternatives. Finally. Secondly. According to Danesh and Danesh conventional mediation is not designed to engage at the level of worldview. education as “challenge and transparency” meaning that the process itself educates disputants by challenging them to evaluate themselves. disputants can learn how to better manage future conflicts without resorting to external intervention. repeated experiences involving disputing parties with ongoing relationships and © Indira Gandhi National Open University. The author considers that the strategic style is a result of mediators’ training in disciplines with well-developed traditions of latent cause thinking. (Kressel.educative. 2007).According to the authors it is important that this process be transparent so disputants recognize the worldview underlying their approach to conflict. meaningful process as disputants reflect upon the nature of conflict and their own behavior in trying to settle the matter at hand.

Another key issue is whether the policy aims of mediation such as improving access to justice. Germany Switzerland and Yugoslavia with the exception of the Netherlands and South Africa. how to mobilize mediation practice in the shadow of the court. Cloke (2002) offers another vision of mediation practice and conflict resolution.) Cloke encourages mediators and parties in conflict to improve their dispute resolution skills by travelling “the path of transformation and transcendence of wisdom. Paleker (2003) remarks that a lack of clear process definition leads to disparate practices and Alexander (2003) goes on to comment that whilst disparate practices reflect mediation diversity. Austria.N. either from case to case or within a given dispute. 1. how flexible are mediators in moving between styles. In regards to process. Every conflict and every resolution. Denmark. "has a spiritual dimension and energy. universal themes exist around such issues as the debate on standards for mediation practice and accreditation. flexibility v regulation. trusting collaborative relationships. Belgium.16 GLOBAL TRENDS IN MEDIATION Mediation growth and application is very much influenced by the context in which it takes place. 2002-2003) © Indira Gandhi National Open University. says Cloke. (Palekar. Finally. ADR plays a unique role in South Africa due to the fall of the apartheid system and the ensuing human rights and discrimination issues.V.organizational contexts that support reflection about latent causes – such training is not typical of lawyers. labour mediators and the community mediators who govern the world of ADR. it is necessary to become aware of and cultivate spiritual experience within ourselves.. in what ways is the strategic style more effective or less so?” Some recent literature from the USA and the creation of the Harvard Negotiation Insight Initiative led by Erica Ariel Fox has seen a progressive move towards managing conflict at a deeper level and encouraging mediators to explore the “spiritual” side of mediation." (Cloke: 119). honest and empathetic communication. (Cloke. which means pursuing mediation as a spiritual task. reducing court waiting lists and increasing consumer satisfaction with the legal system have been and can be met. the author raises a number of empirical questions: “How common is the strategic style? In settings for which the strategic style as well as other styles are appropriate. New Delhi Page 36 .The work aims to examine the essence of the process rather than the procedure and sets out to challenge mediators to question their own assumptions about how conflict should be handled and notes that mediation is about "respect. And so within the modern mediation movement there is a variety of models being practiced and researched. 2002). forgiveness and closure.. they also pose a real problem for quality control and mediation promotion amongst consumers. Alexander (2002) points out that mediation and ADR has grown rapidly in many common law jurisdictions such as USA. spirit and heart” (p1). 2003). Canada and England and less quickly in civil law jurisdictions such as Germany. (Alexander. Cloke does not address litigated disputes and so the direction that is set out in the book would be more difficult when disputes have reached court or with people who do not have an ongoing relationship. Alexander suggests that despite the differences in developmental stages.. as the parties’ motivation and circumstances alter? In settings for which the strategic style as well as other styles are appropriate." (Cloke: 125).Ferdinand. Boldness.. In the more complex “The Crossroads of Conflict” (2006. spirited issues in mediation. the debate continues about the practice of mediation versus the theory of process – this being more obvious in the courtrelated mediation where lawyers or judges play a role. how to determine the suitability of a dispute for mediation. responsibility. Australia.

EDR in the USA is affected by its setting in the private.A. coverage of both common law and civil law jurisdictions. Dispute. the timing of the intervention and the nature. Further reading of Global Trends in Mediation 2nd Ed (2006) as a resource may be warranted as this book. laws and practices. According to Lipsky and Avgar (2004) the growth of ADR in employment relations over the last 25 years has been called a “quiet revolution”. or those with a socio and psychology background. Employment. she observes that mediators. training. REDRESS which stands for (Resolve. Alexander points out that there is a risk in merely reproducing policy and making international comparisons without asking which success stories will or will not translate. qualifications or demographics of the neutrals.S. New Delhi Page 37 . In the article she maintains that dispute system design determines many aspects of an EDR program and focuses on in-house system design for employment conflict.000 exit surveys provides evidence of consistently high participant satisfaction with the program. make better mediators. psychologists or academics. Postal Service (USPS) embraced it in 1996 after a pilot in 1994. Contributions are from senior dispute resolution academics or practitioners.At the practice end of the spectrum. According to Bingham there is little systematic employment research comparing the impact of different models of mediation on participant and organizational outcomes. tend to mediate in a way that reflects their previous training whether as lawyers. Transformative mediation gained wide recognition in the USA when the U. The USPS mediation program REDRESS has however generated comprehensive data. engineers. REDRESS is also at times offered at the formal complaint stage. social workers. 1. The REDRESS mediation program is generally offered to employees at the EEO informal counseling stage. standards. According to Bingham (2004) in her comprehensive review survey of the research on employment dispute resolution conducted in recent years. attention to the diversity of legal cultures and systems on four continents. In the public sector mediation predominates and Bingham provides a raft of survey data to indicate that mediation is being experimented with in personnel and employment disputes. REDRESS mediation is a voluntary alternative dispute resolution program offered to employees nationwide as part of the Postal Service’s Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) complaint process. The debate continues as to whether lawyers. although not available at the time of this review provides.Donald. nonprofit or public sectors. Data collected from 180.) Bingham’s article also considers the case for arbitration. Reach Equitable. She concludes by suggesting that the growing body of research indicates a case has been made for mediation as compared to arbitration in the field of employment disputes. Swiftly) is the US Postal Service's alternative dispute resolution mediation program with around 1500 neutral mediators offered on roster. (Loft. They maintain that the next generation of researchers must examine the societal implications of ADR and ask the question “Has the transformation of employment dispute resolution in the United States © Indira Gandhi National Open University.17 EMPLOYMENT DISPUTE RESOLUTION (EDR): THE CASE FOR MEDIATION The USA has a different context for employment disputes from that of New Zealand given the presence of statutory employment dispute resolution processes in this country. Solutions. regardless of accreditation training. Although the design of best-practice formula for mediation models and systems cannot be significantly dependent on the nature of the legal system in which it operates. an analysis of mediation models. a wider spectrum of mediation laws and approaches worldwide than is traditional in comparative studies.

regardless of the context in which the ADR professional practices and regardless of the preferred model of mediation there is a sense that mediation and ADR needs to look underneath the conflict and to move into a realm that explores conflict at a deeper level for disputants. techniques and skills. 1.strengthened or weakened employee rights and our system of social justice”? This question might also be asked in the New Zealand context.18 FUTURE FOCUS 1. an evaluative model of mediation would suit their needs. New Delhi Page 38 . With time she suggests it will become apparent whether certain classes of cases are better suited to one particular style of mediation.J. Some of the literature has pointed to the debate about the need for ongoing and enforceable codes of practice and the NADRAC Report on standards and accreditation for mediators and those in the ADR industry is closer to home than much of the literature which emanates from the United States. The challenge as Mayer (2004) points out – is that the field of conflict resolution needs to broaden its role definition and become conflict engagers. 2001).1 CONCLUSIONS The available literature points to a future where practitioners and academics are beginning to understand the need to consolidate and to work collaboratively on progressing the practice and theory of mediation and ADR. (McFarlene.. mandatory mediation is required in all case-managed actions in the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton. to unify sectored interests and to ensure that the diversity of society is represented amongst practitioners.She submits that whilst for some. Canada. However. The message seems to be. it is better clearly labeled as an alternative process (suggesting “neutral evaluation” rather than ‘evaluative mediation’) that is separate and distinct from mediation. Brown (2002) comments that Ontario’s experience with mandatory mediation is new. she makes the point that the statutory framework in Ontario strongly suggests that facilitative rather than evaluative mediation (an approach that she maintains promotes positioning and polarization) is the approach to be applied in the court-connected mediation process. In Ontario. Her article quotes research completed by Dr Julie MacFarlane “Culture Change? A Tale of Two Cities and Mandatory Court-Connected Mediation” and indicates that some of the legal fraternity would like to re-shape the mediation process to offer the process of evaluation. Evaluation should be recognized as a completely different activity that requires different mental processes.18. By clearly distinguishing the process. a consumer would have clarity about what to expect from the dispute resolution process. © Indira Gandhi National Open University.

There was a strong and militant trade union who had a strong hold over the staff. New Delhi Page 39 . But the Division was ‘well known’ for various other reasons. The North Zone (NR) of Otis Elevators India Ltd is the biggest in geographical area and in terms of number of divisions. There were inter-group rivalries in many cases between the workers and promoted executives from worker ranks affecting the customer service area.19 HISTORICAL OVERVEIW (FILE DOCUMENT DELHI UNION) The history under consideration is from early 2005.The file starts with a new Zonal Human Resource Manager being appointed. and who regularly threatened the management and tried to enforce their will on the Management. Service personnel were mostly well equipped for their task but had become nonchalant under the influence of a strong trade union. A critical division in a predominantly urban belt it was considered to be a vital Division in terms of productivity of sales and service personnel and in terms of new business. The situation was considered to be very serious and the 20022003 batch of workers promoted to executives were considered pariah by the workers in general and union in particular. © Indira Gandhi National Open University.DATA ANALYSIS 1.

MS was handed over to the police on charges of theft during a service call due to failure of production of proper company authorization. 2007 salaries on the grounds that payment was deducted on basis of no work done during period of agitation. Sensing the workers changing mood. But the trade union would not allow its implementation as they stated that it was a inadequate effort with faulty methodologies. an ad-hoc payment in lieu of salaries for the month of December was released as non submission of TT had delayed salary payment that month. This coupled with the release of company sponsored motorcycles during the period of high drama. The union felt challenged and declared ‘non-cooperation’ against Management. the requisite attendance in form of the Time Tickets was not being deposited by the workers due to instigations from the Union. increased the goodwill of HRM and expressed the good intent of the company per se among the general workers immensely. the management had decided to make best use of the opportunity to show the union their proper place. 2006-January. to keep them in good humour. Rejected thrice under pressure by the workmen. always doing his best. the cheques © Indira Gandhi National Open University. The paper implies that at this point. Memo was issued to the President of the Union for instigating unlawful activities against the management proposing disciplinary action. The Union got another issue when a workman. But it was not fruitful. In October 2006 new hazard training was being implemented in all branches of the Zone. Union started propaganda against the management. we came to know that the new HR Manager (HRM) was very ‘friendly’ with the trade union functionaries of all denominations. At this stage the management decided that softer options would not work and they had to enforce implementation. the new training and hazard tests were implemented without the ‘consent’ of the trade union. The management in a tactical move though refused to acknowledge the blatant illegal actions of the union but still on purely humanitarian basis. The NR management especially the HRM was quite active at this point and they had agreed to look into the Union raised issues till date and had promised to solve all genuine problems within their jurisdiction expeditiously.At this outset. Meanwhile their members who where issued memos became extremely restive as it was their first experience in their career life and pressurized the leaders to solve the issue. in a brilliant reconciliatory mode in times of high tension. Memos were issued individually to all the staff who boycotted the test for disobedience and dereliction of duty. the Union went aggressive and boycotted the December. Hazard Tests arranged was boycotted by majority of the staff despite giving prior notice. Further. Accordingly. even out of the way. Further. New Delhi Page 40 . Though the company bailed out the workmen through prudent legal diligence the Union took it as an opportunity to start an intensive agitation against the so called deficiencies in the attendance system and started an en-masse gathering at the corporate office causing unnecessary ruckus. posted the salary cheques to each individual workmen. Consequentially. They pressurized the workers to close down their salary accounts and demanded salary payments henceforth only in cash. under instruction from the Union. Several rounds of discussion took place to make the union leaders see reason and not to stand on petty ego problems when larger organizational interest was at stake.

The coup d'état for the Union was dealt by SB in November-December. its General Secretary. the Area Managers were advised to keep a close watch on the activities and create record against non performers. There was perceptible enthusiasm all round and energies were channelised for productive purposes © Indira Gandhi National Open University. JSS contacted the HRM repeatedly seeking early solution. Through a series of campaigns morale of all functionaries was boosted and a call was given to make the Zone All India No. The first move was to reduce their source of funds. A number of coordinated training programs in line to the managements long term goals and objectives were also arranged. While the leaders were unhappy other workmen felt relieved. At this point. The HRM and his team took up the challenge and through a series of training classes and meetings a group of agents were trained to do this line of business. Soon after this the union was further brought to their senses. 1 in premium growth rate. salaries were needed badly and as a result. New Delhi Page 41 . Due to a number of factors including domestic compulsions. Organizational imperatives were explained and their cooperation sought for making the Zone the high performing Zone. Union was at its wits end and sought appointment with HRM. 2007 when JSS. In due course. Through various meetings inputs were given to AMs to build their confidence. This incident was an eye-opener for other pressure groups.were slowly but surely changing the belligerent mood of the union members. the much awaited appointment with HRM was granted. the workers pressurized the leaders to reach a compromise at the earliest. They were assured that the issue would be settled at the appropriate time. Staff meetings were addressed by SB in all branches during all branch visits. External competition was catching up and Company had decided to concentrate on premium new product lines. The request for withdrawal of the memos was turned down but it was agreed that no further action would be taken if such instances were not repeated. Undaunted by challenges the matter at hand was taken very seriously. SB agreed to their view that in the competitive external scenario management and union had to work together for the organizational cause. Yet achievement of target for the year was a difficult task as the required growth rate was highest for the Division among all Divisions. By October 2007 there was tangible difference in new business performance. especially new business. Under the intense pressure of the members of the Union. General Secretary and a few other senior functionaries met the HRM urged for reconciliation. Slowly the impact of the agitation started whittling down and open methods like dharna and demonstration was completely stopped. Performance of the Division in New Product business was relatively poor since neither the field marketers nor the Area Managers were competent to explain the nitty gritty of the ever-changing products. At the appointed time the Union President. A semblance of peace having realized AMs were told to concentrate on key result areas. Concurrently the Area Managers were fully empowered and full backing was assured for their legitimate legally and morally sustainable action. the able and militant General Secretary of the Union was successfully convinced to join Executive-8 ranks along with his top aides.

it now became a more reconciliatory and mutually amenable forum for genuine workmen grievances. New Delhi Page 42 . As a matter of fact. 2006-2010) 1. the case of OTISNR in general is at par with the industrial best practices of today and requires due consideration and praise for its transformation of a worst possible situation to its advantage. From a militant. A model of industrial relations in modern post-politicized union times. the union itself under the influence of HR’s efforts transformed itself. The case of Otis-Northern Region is a classical refute to the age old concept prevalent in the industry in general that malpractices have a long history and therefore should be eliminated through slow process only.1 © Indira Gandhi National Open University. NR. The premises that drastic action in one zone would escalate into national problem and affect the performance of the company was also found to be entirely frivolous..20 THE INDUSTRIAL RELATION TENSION GRAPH – (Mehta. The study amply demonstrates the affect a diligent Human Resource Team can have on an organization.2008) FIG. A militant union that was bent on challenging every decision of the management was transformed to a willing cooperator of broader management objectives through a number of brilliant tactical moves. (OTIS UNION FILE DOC.Madhavi. 31-28. demanding tone.July.When the financial year closed the Zone achieved splendid results as per the corporate objective of the company. One of the most remarkable achievement during the period was the realization among the workers of the basic fact that the management is genuinely concerned with their well being and hence the increasing irrelevance of the so called Union leaders as there representatives.

2 The graph is a product of full scale detailed analysis of OTIS-Delhi union file of North O H MIE Region which was provided to us.The definition of scale rating is as follows – S.2006.The timeline which is taken in the above study and which was provided A E1 mentioned file starts from S by the CL November. (TABLE 0. . New Delhi . The tension mentioned above is defined on a 5 point inferential scale which has been purely defined on the secondary literature review available on Industrial relations. The basis on which the scale is defined is purely inferential and laden with researcher’s acumen to understand the historical context & background and as per the information provided by the testimony of managers who faced these situations.0) 1 2 3 4 5 SCALE S5 S4 S3 S2 S1 DEFINITION AGITATION STALEMATE NEGOTIATION DÉTENTE BONHOMIE RANGE 5<S5<4 & S5=5 4<S4<3 & S4=4 3<S3<2 & S3=3 2<S2<1 & S2=2 1<S1<0 & S1=1 & 0 The level of tension have been defined on the following five point scale – DT N E ÉE T C Page S A E2 43 L © Indira Gandhi National Open University. as well as B N O the inferences from the “Minutes of the meeting file” along with the first.FIG.NO.The red line above represents the rise and fall in the level of tension which existed between Management and union. The whole scale is decreasing in intensity of tension from scale 5 to scale 1.

0) 1 2 3 .3 & S4.NO. or worry or the act of attempting to stir up public opinion for or against something or The act of agitating or the state of being agitated or Extreme emotional disturbance. memos and notices like “I am aggrieved” or “I am shocked” .There were certain expression which were very helpful in deducing this level of scale from the letters.c=3.b S5." — Wiranto . "talks between Israelis and Palestinians" talks .6 3. P DWARKANATH] in which a Manager is surrounded by the workmen from union and is not allowed to move around too. This is the case when either of the management or the union is not ready even to discuss an issue or they are ready to discuss but not finding a common basis of talks. In Indian context there are terms which describe this state like “Ghairao” [NHRD MEET.3 SCALE 3(NEGOTIATION) – As defined by the online dictionary is a discussion intended to produce an agreement. Hostile & Assertive in decreasing order of intensity of disturbance in relations of management and union. such as a political or social issue [1w]. We have also divided the negotiation scale into 3 major parts in decreasing order of intensity. New Delhi Page 44 . The Jakarta Post (Indonesia). The three categories are namely S.NO. "we had a word or two about it" .b<3.c=4. an expression of extreme emotional disturbance is also considered to be the part of tension scale.3<S4.a S4.6< S5. The three categories are namely – © Indira Gandhi National Open University. Oct 28.3 SCALE 4 (STALEMATE OR DEADLOCK) – As defined by the online dictionary is a deadlocked situation.b<4. "the buyout negotiation lasted several days". from AngloNorman estale (a fixed position) + -mate. Usage "`We can again resort to lobbying in case we fail to avoid a stalemate. To bring into a stalemate [From Middle English. Agitation and can reach upto the level of actual manhandling and destruction of organizational property.c<2 & S4.0 namely the Militant. Elected Chairman of Team to Elect exchange of views on some topic.a S5. (TABLE 2. We have also divided the stalemate scale into 3 major parts in decreasing order of intensity. "they disagreed but kept an open dialogue". The three categories are shown in Table 1. discussion. dialogue give-and-take.a =5 4.' Latief said. perturbation or the stirring up of public interest in a matter of controversy.b=4. This is a pressure tactic used by the union to get their demands met.i.e.a <4. The militant is the situation which is marked by violent strikes . Besides this if it is explicitly evident that an actual situation of agitation was present we have given it a rating of scale 5.6 4.a=4 3.6<S4.6 & S5.6 & S4. disturbance. 1997.SCALE 5(AGITATION) – As defined by the online dictionary is a state of excitement. SCALE S4. "we had a good discussion".a<3.c DEFINITION FATIGUE STATUS QUO TRANSITION RANGE 4<S4. word .3< S5.0) 1 2 3 SCALE S5.. We have also divided the agitation scale into 3 major parts in decreasing order of intensity.This represents all forms of violent actions. 28-04-2010.3 & S5.c DEFINITION MILITANT HOSTILE ASSERTIVE RANGE 5< S5.b=3. S.b S4. PHDCCI.c <4 & S5.(TABLE 1.

Madhavi. Relief . Hospitality. Geniality.1 2 S5.0) SCALE 1 S5.NO. Easing. Cheerfulness.July.2 3 S5.the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance). Easement. New Delhi Page 45 . (TABLE 4.NO. (TABLE 3. .2008) 1.1 2 S5.21 PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS The data was collected through questionnaire and following is questionnaire analysis and interpretation: © Indira Gandhi National Open University.3 DEFINITION PROPOSAL CONSISTENCY ACCEPTANCE RANGE 5<S5<4 & S5=5 4<S4<3 & S4=4 3<S3<2 & S3=3 SCALE 2 (DÉTENTE) . (TABLE 5. We have also divided the bonhomie scale into 3 major parts in decreasing order of intensity.1 2 S5.The easing of tensions or strained relations Alleviation. 31-28.. Good Humour. Heartiness.NO.S. Cordiality. Friendliness. Good Cheer. . Congeniality. "he asked the nurse for relief from the constant pain".3 DEFINITION AMICABLE CORDIAL QUID PRO QUO RANGE 5<S5<4 & S5=5 4<S4<3 & S4=4 3<S3<2 & S3=3 (Mehta. The three categories are namely S. Conviviality. Warmth.2 3 S5.3 DEFINITION RELIEF ASSUAGE CONVIVAL RANGE 5<S5<4 & S5=5 4<S4<3 & S4=4 3<S3<2 & S3=3 SCALE 1(BONHOMIE) – Affability. The three categories are namely – S.2 3 S5.0) SCALE 1 S5. .0) SCALE 1 S5. We have also divided the detente scale into 3 major parts in decreasing order of intensity.

New Delhi Page 46 PERCENTAGE 43.1. 36% believe lack of visible influence forms satisfaction levels.2 Q.66% 0 0 20% 0 . Only 10% are in favor of satisfactory relations. specify ____________ No Response ANALYSIS: In the concern of basis of the ratings of relationship between workers and management the response is as follows: Whereas 43% are in view that the basis is number of grievances is the basis of relationship between them. 1.0% 0 ANALYSIS: In the concern of relationship between employees and management in this establishment 13% of the workers said that relations are excellent.66% 10.3 Q. 1.33% 0 36. A good thing is that none of them are in opinion that relations are unsatisfactory.1 Q. A good 20% thinks that transparency of management is the main factor of rating the relationship between workers and management.3 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.21. 77% of them said they are very satisfactory.2 What factors were taken into account in making the above rating? (Check as many as applicable) FREQUENCY 1 Number of grievances 13 2 Labor turnover No Response 3 Number of industrial dispute/strikes 11 4 Open communication between workers and No Response management 5 Grade of job done by worker No Response 6 Transparency of management 6 7 Others.21.33% 76. This once again prove our assertion that the company is witnessing a period of bonhomie.1 How would you rate the relationship between employees and management in this establishment? (Check only one) 1 2 3 4 Excellent/Outstanding Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Unsatisfactory FREQUENCY 4 23 3 No Response PERCENTAGE 13.21.

the response I get is that 26 workers out of 30 samples accept that there are regular meetings between senior managers and workers. New Delhi . if any. Hence this shows that there is a good communication level between workers and management.21.4 Q. of the following methods does management regularly does to communicate to its employees? (Check as many as applicable) 1 Regular meetings between senior managers and employees 2 Task forces or working parties 3 Regular meetings between employees and supervisors or line mgmt 4 Daily “walk around” the workplace by senior management officials 5 Formal joint consultative union meetings 6 Quality department/productivity improvement groups 7 Suggestions schemes for employees 8 Employee representatives sitting on board of directors meetings Regular social functions ANALYSIS: In the concern of communication level between workers and management. All 30 workers accept that regular meetings between workers and supervisors results in good communication level. out of 30 samples 26 No Response 30 29 No Response 18 27 No Response 1. Almost all workers are in view that daily walk around of the workplace is an effective measure to improve the communication level between them.Which. Number of persons.4 Does management consult with employee representatives or union officers on the following: (Encircle appropriate code (1-3) for each area of concern) Staffing levels Wage increases Occupational health & safety Introduction of new technology Dismissals & disciplinary action Changes in work action ALWAYS 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) SOMETIMES (2) 2 2 2 2 2 NEVER 3 3 3 3 3 3 Page 47 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.

fax or similar facilities 5 Use of bulletin boards 6 Time off from work for union business/activities 7 None of the above ANALYSIS: In the concern of privileges that are provided by the management to union officers/members.5 Q.66% 0 Page 48 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.6 How often does the union discuss employee relation matters with management? 1 Once a week 2 Once a month FREQUENCY 2 No Response PERCENTAGE 6. Fax facility is only being provided when it is very urgent and important work.6 Q. the response received is that the union officers /members cannot enter or participate in the meeting without prior permission of desired officials. Workers are allowed to use phone facility but not the fax facility.5 Which of the following privileges are provided by management to union officers/members? (Check as many as applicable) 1 Access to an office or meeting room 2 Access to secretarial assistance 3 Access to essential facilities 4 Access to phone. Union members are not permitted a office or meeting room in the corporate Each and every worker cannot use this facility without prior permission of the related officer or executive.21. This is done to keep the workers update and aware of the management activities and policies.Major change product/services ANALYSIS: in (1) 2 3 From the above question it is pretty clear that management consults workers representatives on almost all the issues at regular time period to make a best decision. New Delhi . There is a separate notice board for union members or the workers.21. if management thinks so. out of 30 sample 21 No Response 29 22 30 No Response No Response 1. on which latest notices and information is pasted. Number of person. 1.

7 What issues were frequently raised by the union with management? (Check as many as applicable) Number of workers out of 30 samples 1 Wage increase 2 Payment of allowances 3 Overtime (Hours/Pay) 4 Leave benefits Dispute settlement procedures 5 Working condition/environment 6 Hours of work 7 Occupational safety and health measures 8 Change in working time arrangements 9 Change in work practices 10 Management practices 11 Introduction of new technology 12 Participation in training programs 13 Introduction of career paths of employees 14 Change in dispute settling procedures 15 Dismissal/disciplinary measures 16 Individual grievances According to settlement According to settlement 29 20 14 No Response No Response 23 17 21 23 No Response No Response No Response 13 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.33% 0 In the concern of how often does union discusses employee relation matters with management. 1. There is no provision of discussion once in three months or once in a week. New Delhi Page 49 .83.33% is in view that they talk only when an issue arises and only 10% is in view that they talk to management once in 3 months.21.3 Once in 3 months 4 Only when an issue arises 5 Never ANALYSIS: 3 25 No Response 10.0% 83.7 Q. the response is that majority of workers i. When ask from management it was found that workers discuss only when an issue arises.e.

8 Which of the following were the subjects of negotiations? 1 Wage increases 2 Payment of allowances Number of workers out of 30 sample 28 26 Page 50 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.21. Where the services of a workman are terminated unless the wages are paid to him on the day of his termination. but in Otis. Wage increases and payment of allowances are most common issues raised by the workers. For any administrative reason. Change in work practices. These are most common because maximum workers most required benefits and facilities for them. Wages will be paid monthly within 7 days of the completion of the wage period. 3. changes in working time arrangements leave benefits dispute settlement procedures. etc. New Delhi . he shall present him in the factory to receive his wages on the usual pay day 1. namely. Wages/Allowances. Dismissal/disciplinary measures are the issues which are raised by workers rarely. specify Revise study of incentive scheme Canteen facility Transportation facility 27 22 21 ANALYSIS: In the concern of the issues that are frequently raised by the union the response from the workers and the staff is very good. if the amounts that are due and payable to him is not deposited into his account. Revise study of incentive scheme. shall be deposited into his account. No payment whatsoever will be made directly to him at the factory. he shall intimate the same to the Company within a week’s time to take immediate necessary action in the matter. Workman is required to open a Savings Bank Account in the nearest branch of specified bank(HDFC) or at any other place of posting from time to time and all payments that are due to him including the statutory payments. Canteen facility. Besides these. PAYMENT OF WAGES:* 1. working condition/environment. Introduction of new technology. Transportation facility are also commonly raised issues by the workers. Bonus. 2.17 Others. In the case of all statutory payments. Overtime. he will be required to sign in the statutory register(s) maintained for the purpose at the factory as advised to him by the management. the wages and allowances are paid according to the settlement.8 Q. Management practices.

New Delhi . rules 26 No Response No Response 19 25 37 23 No Response 24 No Response No Response 26 No Response 19 22 1.21.3 Overtime (Hours/Pay)* 4 Leave benefits 5 Working condition/environment 6 Hours of work 7 Occupational health and safety measures 8 Change in working time arrangements 9 Change in work practices 10 Management practices 11 Introduction of new technology 12 Workers education program and development 13 Dispute settlement procedures 14 Introduction of new career paths 15 Regularization of casual/contractual employees 16 Dismissal/Disciplinary measures 17 Organizational structuring 18 Others. by the workers. 1.10 Q. rules As per govt. But slowdown and overtime ban is a generally occurring industrial action. specify___ Service vehicle Attendance Register As per govt. no mass leave. the response is fantastic and a unexpected result is obtained that since 2004.9 Please indicate the type of industrial action that occurred in this establishment? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Strike Sympathetic strike Boycott Sit down strike Slowdown Overtime ban Number of workers out of 30 samples No Response No Response No Response No Response 30 30 ANALYSIS: In the concern of industrial actions that were occurred in this establishment.9 Q. there were no strikes.21.10 Page 51 © Indira Gandhi National Open University. etc.

specify ANALYSIS: In the concern of efforts made to recover these above effects. the response is as follows: The company tends to outsourcing of the services to complete the service cycle processes.11 If yes. specify Number of workers out of 30 sample No Response No Response No Response As per settlement with union No Response No Response Page 52 © Indira Gandhi National Open University.During the industrial action. what efforts were made to offset or recover these effects? (Check as many as applicable) Number of workers out of 30 samples 21 24 20 No Response 20 No Response No Response 1 Redirect production or service to sister company/subsidiary 2 Use of overtime 3 Temporary increase in staff 4 Use of management labor 5 Use of contract services 6 Non-striking employees continue working 7 Others.12 Q. New Delhi . 1. Till date there is not even a single non-striking worker continued working.21. The management occasionally increases the staff by using the housekeeping and contract labor in production process.21.12 What method is used in fixing or revising wage and salaries of majority of the employees? (Check only one) 1 Collective Bargaining Agreement 2 Individual Agreement between employer and employee 3 Employer’s decision 4 Agreement between employer and union 5 Wage restructuring due to minimum wage issuances of Regional Tripartite 6 Others.11 Q. was there any effect on output or service of this establishment? YES **** NO 1. there is only slowdown of the production process.

21.13 Q.13 what is the basis of payment for majority of the employees? In this concern the response received from the workers that payment is done on monthly basis.14 Q. New Delhi Page 53 .14 Does this establishment grant its employees any of the following? (Check as many as applicable) Leave Benefit Vacation leave Sick leave Privilege leave Maternity leave Others. bonuses and social security schemes the response received was that vacation and privilege leaves are only granted and as per according to the governments act where as no maternity leaves are granted neither by government act © Indira Gandhi National Open University. specify Allowances. Bonuses Cost of living allowances Productivity bonuses Transportation allowances Representation allowances Incentive pay Social Security Schemes Separation/Termination pay Retirement pay Pension plan Life insurance (for staff only) Accident and sickness insurance plan Medicines (for staff only) ANALYSIS: As per govt.21. 1. act YES Not Available YES Not Available Not Available YES Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Employers decision Not Available YES Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available YES YES Not Available YES YES YES YES YES YES YES In the concern of granting leaves.1.

Hence the relation between © Indira Gandhi National Open University. This ultimately results into achievement of goals and objective of firms and individuals. Whereas only cost of living allowances (for staff only)is granted as per the government act. life insurance plan (for staff only). productivity bonuses. which are as follows: 1. regular present on working days. 2. as there are no female workers. 1. and incentive pay are granted according to employer’s decision. etc.15 What does management do to improve the relations between superiors & subordinates in the organization? In the concern of what management does to improve the relations between superiors and subordinates in the organization. New Delhi Page 54 . this encourages the workers to work hard and motivate them to achieve the desired target taking less time then the standard so that they may be rewarded for doing so. 3. GET TOGETHER: Management also arranges get together for workers so that they can enjoy and recharge themselves to achieve new targets by removing and lowering down the tensions regarding to the work. pension plan. retirement pay. TRAINING AND DEVELPOMENT PROGRAMMES: The management of OTIS takes every possible action to improve the relations between workers and management because company depends on workers to achieve the goals and survive in the competitive market.15 Q.21. However. the response is that the management adopts following actions to improve the relations and trust of workers on management. All of the above activities create a good working environment in the company. In allowances. Management tries to make good relations with workers for this they organizes various training and development programmes for workers at regular time period whenever required. GIFTS: Gifts are also given to the workers for achieving a desired work performance. accident and sickness insurance plan and medicines (for staff only) are granted as according to the employer’s decision. By which workers are encouraged and motivated to work hard.nor on employers decision. In social security schemes separation/termination pay. no maternity leaves granted are but natural. transportation allowances.

Hence in Otis controlling workers of different thinking and background requires a little extra effort. cultural and social background. Management consults with union leaders or union officers on almost all the issues to make a best decision. hence they have no issue of dispute relating to increase in wages and allowances. 6. Workers in Otis are from different economic. to affect the management functioning. whether one like it or not. as they are the member of union. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. 8. It also founded that (by observation and discussions) workers creates issues willingly. This difference of background has a clear effect over the thinking of the workers. New Delhi Page 55 . their mentality is also small.22 INTERPRETATION These results or survey that about 85% employees are satisfied with the management activities and these results in a better working environment and building of good relations between workers and management but rest of the sample had negative attitude towards the management. and they have to support each other either wrong or right issues. 1. This early finding is quite similar to the performance of evidence that has since been reported. respectively. This survey indicated that though the workers and management have good understanding and trust on each other but there is still a long way to go. An important finding is that satisfaction varies with the jobs one holds and the level education of the worker. Also it increases the trust of workers in management of the company. 2. By observation it was founded that there is a lack of unity among workers to some extent. The view that is clearly taken is that the majority of gains and management policies and practices fully employed tend to have good relations in the company. The wages and allowances are according to the settlement. This is so they are dissatisfied with the management of Otis. 1. The finding of the study reveals that the relational level of workers is significantly associated with need satisfaction. generally in end of the month when the work load is more both on workers and management to achieve the production target and make payments of wages and salaries of workers and staff. Better and liberal management policies improve the relations between workers and management. 4. 3.23 FACTS AND FINDINGS Following are the findings of the research project: 1.workers and management are very satisfactory and above analysis of questionnaire proves this. This affects the policy and decision making by the management. But still there is lot to do and improve the communication level and overall relations. Because due to low education level. 5. 7. The higher the relational level greater is the need satisfaction. Management policies play a vital role in smoothing the relations.

There are two dominant aspects of the industrial relations scene in Otis also as it is modern industrial society: 1. workers. The cooperation between the two is one of the basic requirements for the smooth functioning in the plant and the growth. COOPERATION: . labor stands for the workers who man the factories. mines.9. Whereas front liners and contract labors constitute of 72. canteen facility etc. Capital stands for the owners of business enterprises who supply the capital and own the final products.The second aspect of the system of industrial relations in Otis is the existence of conflict. It becomes apparent when industrial disputes resulting in strikes and lockouts become frequent.81 % respectively.-Northern Region is the principle employer which hires workers as per its requirement time to time. so that the workers working in the organization cannot leave the plant and the new candidates should attract and apply for the various jobs. i. Here. and other industrial establishments or services. specially the managers. as human needs and desired cannot be fully satisfied. transport facilities.The modern industrial action is based upon cooperation between labor and capital. There is a fair degree of give and take as it offers employment. In Otis. They makes various policies regarding working conditions. CONFLICT: . The prevailing industrial unrest. are the occasional expressions of the ever-present and latent conflict between workers and management. is inherent in the industrial relations set up of today. 1.e. wages and other amenities of life to the workers. The managers emphasizes on building of good relations with workers. particularly the groups of workers represented by the union.24 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN OTIS Otis Elevators India Ltd. the frequency of work –stoppages resulting either from strikes or lock-outs and the slowing down of production. In brief we can say that the relations between employees and management in this establishment are satisfactory. New Delhi Page 56 . cooperation flows from the pursuit of self-interest both by the owners of capital and the labor power. like cooperation. As for the proper functioning and continuous production of taps in the plant. working hours. It is an © Indira Gandhi National Open University. Otis-NR has a work force of 187 workers. As Otis is an MNC and MNC’s always recruits employees who are experienced. 2. Industrial relations are the relationship between employees and management or between workers and management. management tries to recruit new laborers and controls them according to the plans to achieve the goals and objective. Conflict. The management tries to satisfy the need and utilizes effectively the skills and knowledge of the workers.78% & 16. 1. In the same way the managers here are very experienced and they clearly know how to get work done through workers.25 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN WORKERS & MANAGEMENT: Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results can be obtained.

Managers also tries to solve their problems and fulfills their demand if seems to be of facts. in which the supervisors gives detailed information about each and every worker working under him. So management always consults with the workers about the introduction of new technology. in which the workers put their problems and issues in front of managers in these meetings. The management also makes various suggestion schemes at regular time period for employees. All notices concerning workman shall be displayed on the notice board maintained for such purpose at the entrance or at conspicuous place in the factory. When a new technology is to be introduced in the Otis. This is done to know about a rough estimate of time consumed in production of single piece and material consumed and also a rough idea of cost incurred on production of that single unit. because good health have clear effect on production and during production process precautions are must to be safe from any casualty. In the same way. Management always consults union officers about occupational health and safety. Not only has this it also built a god personal and organizational relations between them. or emotions by two or more persons. workers and management is needed to work combined to achieve the goals and objectives of the company. notices. It shall be the responsibility of each workman always to be acquainted with such orders. because they are the first person who faces the problem and has best knowledge about the machines and production process. Health and safety is an important issue for management as well as for workers. So the communication between the management and workers are presently very satisfying for both sides. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. communication between workers and management is evidently very good. The main objective of making these suggestion schemes is to develop the workers and employees in their all respective fields. the management of Otis consults with union officers about the staffing level of management sometimes. In Otis. This collectively results in achievement of organizational and personal goals and objectives. The management has put up union notice boards. regular meetings between senior managers and workers are conducted once in a month. in case having any problem or grievances. So both are needed to work properly and collectively. That’s why the good communication between the management and workers results in smooth functioning of the business. For this. They also seek for any new change which can be bringing in the production process. Regular meeting are also conducted between supervisors and managers. opinions. instructions or communications as may be displayed on the notice board of the company from time to time. Workers and management are like the two tyres of a scooter. Whenever one gets damaged other gets affected and stops working or when one gets damage other is useless. In Otis. All workers are equally treated by the management. There is a continuous two way flow of information between the management and workers. the management always consults the workers about their views regarding that new technology. Before bringing major changes in products the management always consults with workers. New Delhi Page 57 . There is frequent walk around of work sites by senior management officials. They look the proper functioning in the each and every department of the plant. ideas.

The workers maintain a good level of discipline in the company. Increasing and maintaining the level of discipline in the working environment is a very important and basic need to achieve the targets. the relationship that exists within the industry between the employer and his workmen is studied. So overall relations in the company are very satisfactory and earlier analysis of questionnaire proves this.27.26 OVERALL REALTIONS BETWEEN WORKERS & MANAGEMENT: As describe earlier in this study report that industrial relations are basically the interaction between employers. the workers and management cooperates with each other in all respect and activities to achieve the desired goals and objectives. Each and every organization makes efforts to increase the level of trust in its employees. Lack of trustworthy ship in workers and management leads to downfall of the company. New Delhi Page 58 . Both support each and every activity. Any staff member who has a grievance with respect to appointment. or an officer of the company. academic freedom or working conditions and who has been unable to resolve the matter with his/her supervisor.e. employees and the government and the institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated. These facilities are given to maintain the trust of employees on the company. The Grievance Officer or company’s officer © Indira Gandhi National Open University. i. In this. But there is a lack of full support without any personal objectives. can bring this matter to the attention of the company’s Grievance Officer or any other OTIS’s officer. The grievance process is intended to define clearly the matters that are at issue. Otis provides number of various facilities like transportation facility. In the same way in Otis also workers and management enjoys a good level of trust. assignment of duties. the workers and staff members. promotion. to the workers and it employees. The management continuously tries to maintain the discipline in the company and workers co-operates the management but still there is certain issues on which workers creates indiscipline.1. to assure the staff member that his/her complaint or problem has been presented to and considered by appropriate company’s officials.1 OTIS Grievance Procedure The OTIS Grievance Procedure identifies the necessary steps for handling Disputes that have not been resolved through the normal process of reasoned discussion. and to assure the Otis’s community that decisions affecting staff members’ work relationships in the workplace are fully considered. Trustworthy ship is also an important aspect of Otis family. salary. In Otis. There is a two way flow of information among workers and management and both shows a keen interest in each other as if one works the another will give the same response as he get.27 GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE: 1. So that they may not leave the company. or with the project leader/principal investigator of a grant supporting his/her work. canteen facility. etc. The communication level in Otis is quite good. 1.

All grievances arising out of or in course of employment shall be resolved by adopting following grievances procedures: Step I : The aggrieved workman in the first instance shall submit his grievance in writing in person to his immediate supervisor. within seven (7) days after receiving the complaint. will be adopted for the redressed of grievances there shall be no slowing down or interruption of work and no industrial dispute shall be raised before the above procedure is exhausted. gherao etc. the grievance shall be bought in the notice of General Manager whose decision shall be final. in which case other specific policies will be applied. if felt necessary by him. the staff member may petition to the Grievance Officer for formal consideration of the grievance. In no case. It will contain any data that the petitioner deems pertinent to the case. or if the staff member has not received a response from the Chief Executive Officer or MD within thirty days after having submitted his/her written grievance. Step II : In case the workman is not satisfied with the action taken by his immediate superior or no action is taken within the above stipulated period. if the grievance is against the action of the Chief Executive Officer or if the Chief Executive Officer for any other reason is unable to consider the grievance. The Head of the Department shall investigate and take suitable action within 7 days of receipt of such grievance. unauthorized assembly inside / outside the premises. The individual or individuals against whom the grievance is being alleged will also be asked to provide a written response to the grievance. The Grievance Officer or other OTIS officer. If a resolution acceptable to the staff member is not thereby effected. recourse to intimidation. The Labor Welfare Officer or an Officer of the Personnel Department shall participate actively for settling the grievance. All allegations of unlawful discrimination or harassment are to be handled under the Laboratories policy regarding “Sexual Harassment”. who would look into the grievances of the aggrieved workman within 48 hours on receipt thereof and take suitable action. will inform the staff member under which policy or procedure the complaint should be addressed and how to proceed. If the allegation falls under the Grievance Procedure.will determine (possibly in consultation with other company’s management) if the allegations are related to scientific misconduct or unlawful discrimination or harassment. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. A petition will set forth in detail the nature of the grievance and will state against whom the grievance is directed. New Delhi Page 59 . violence. Step III : In case the grievance remains unsettled with the Head of the Department. threat. he shall present his grievances in writing to the Head of the Department within 3 days after the expiry of 48 hours of his grievances having been brought before his immediate supervisor. All allegations of misconduct in scholarship and research are to be handled under “OTIS’s Policies and Procedures on Research Misconduct”. then the staff member will provide a written summary of the grievance to the Chief Executive Officer or to the MD.

1. The plant is working on shift basis.28. 1. ill treatment by staff members. It was clearly defined in the settlement about the wages and allowances which are to be given to workers. then disputes occurs.06:00 am to 02:30 pm B . There is a fixed settlement procedure for leave benefits in OTIS.1. In OTIS. Following are the shift timings: G . which management think is irrelevant.28. allowances. They take various actions to maintain the discipline.3 OVERTIME This is also one of the causes of industrial disputes in OTIS.28 CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES IN OTIS: The causes of industrial disputes can be broadly classified into two categories: economic and non-economic causes.4 LEAVE AND WORKING HOURS Leaves and working hours have not been so important causes of industrial disputes in OTIS. leave and holidays without pay. So wages and allowances are not major causes of conflict in OTIS. for which they ask for overtime.1 WAGES AND ALLOWANCES Since the cost of living index is increasing.09:00 am to 05:30 pm A .02:30 pm to 11:00 pm © Indira Gandhi National Open University. workers generally bargain for higher wages to meet the rising cost of living index and to increase their standards of living. working hours. The economic causes will include issues relating to compensation like wages. the wages and allowances are fixed as according to the settlements.28. But it is solved before it creates any serious problem for the plant.28. Workers create a scene on overtime when they know that management will start overtime to achieve the monthly target of production. New Delhi Page 60 . unjust layoffs and retrenchments. When the amendments are to be made in the settlements the workers generally opposes the wages given to them and demands to increase their wages.2 INDISCIPLINE Maintenance of discipline in the plant is one among the main objectives of the management in OTIS. and conditions for work. The non economic factors will include victimization of workers. political factors. because the wages and allowances are fixed and cannot be changed till amendment in the settlement. But still it is a cause of industrial disputes. sympathetic strikes. 1. Managers and supervisors emphasizes on creating and maintaining a disciplinary environment in the plant. 1. bonus. indiscipline etc. But when the demand or need of the workers is not fulfilled by the management.

Revise study of incentive schemes ix. emergency exits etc. also responsible for these changes. Individual grievances 1. facilities. Introduction of new technology vi. modern researches etc. This sometimes results in misunderstanding between management and workers on one or more issues. 1. New Delhi Page 61 . that the satisfaction or dissatisfaction from it can affect the individual behavior considerably in all walks of life.5 WORKING CONDITIONS/ENVIRONMENT When a plant is established. lighting in certain departments etc. Transportations facilities vii. increasing working area of organization etc. Employees shall not be change their shifts without prior permission.29 GENERAL CONCLUSION Today. It considers various standards like proper space. 1. Change in working time arrangements v. It becomes © Indira Gandhi National Open University.28.6 MISCELLANEOUS The Miscellaneous factors include i. In the same way industrial relation also played an important role in bringing out the changes in the organization. Work load ii.11:00 pm to 06:00 am Shift working shall be regulated in accordance with the provisions under the Factories Act. There are so many factors for such structural changes like increase in level of education of the people.28.C . many organizations are structured very differently from the way they would have been 10 year ago. Amendments in various laws time to time. workers raises issues on ventilation. ventilation. It can be said that work and behavior forms an essential part of human activity. performance appraisal. Work occupies so much of man’s life span. Non-implementation of agreements & awards etc. generally in OTIS. tough competitions. Canteen facilities viii. its whole map & layout is first need to be getting registered. Standing orders/rules/service condition/safety measures iii. The Management may regulate shift working or other working of workers taking into consideration the convenience of working. iv. improper dusting.

For this men have to make certain adjustments. All basic policies and procedures relating to Industrial Relations should be clear to everybody in the organization and to the union leader. integrating and ego satisfying. it makes time go faster and second It keeps the employees challenged. The impact of work and working conditions on men cannot be denied.30 RECOMMENDATION & SUGGESTIONS FROM SURVEY The management can improve the actual relations between workers and management by utilizing the following tips: 1. Due to this. New Delhi Page 62 . The management should measure workers satisfaction regularly. The personnel manager should remove any distrust by convincing the union of the company’s integrity and his own sincerity and honesty. While it is not for the management to interfere with union activities. central influence in the pattern of each person life. Suspicious. its action and attitude will go a long way towards developing the right kind of union leadership. First. When this happens the efficiency and effectiveness in workers and management also affected. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. Management should encourage right kind of union leadership. Management can also improve the relations by keeping the job interesting. Management can also increase in the allowances by making amendments in the settlement. 7. 6. they will pay less attention to their duties. When the co-operation is of very high level between workers and management then they makes a very healthy working environment but on the other hand if management doesn’t co-operates with workers and Vic-e-versa then this conditions gives origin to grievances which results in disputes. compromises and have to co-operate the management of the organization to achieve organizational and individual goals. 1. In an organization workers and management has significant role to play. 3. rumors and doubts should all be put to rest.extremely important to enquire about the factors that are associated with work in the organization. Both management and unions should develop constructive attitudes towards each other 2. relations between workers and management gets disturbed and ultimately the whole process of achieving goals and objectives disturbs. Management tries to satisfy the workers needs and solve their problems as soon as possible because when they are dissatisfied they generally stops or slow downs the production process. 5. or choose the union leadership. If the employees get bored. The personnel manager must make certain that line people will understand and agree with these policies. It operates as a great stabilizing. 4. Management never wants that workers will stop or slow down the production process so it takes appropriate actions to solve the problems.

Introduce a mediator to help both sides to achieve a greater understanding of the underlying issue as well as provide constructive tools and techniques to avoid further conflicts. 8. RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS (ACTION POINTS) The following industrial best practices in form of recommendations and implementation on a short and long term basis can play a vital role in solving the primary objective of the research project. Phase 3: Organize “Meet the MD” meets for the socially active spouses. Phase 2: Integrate social activities of wives from both the factions under female HR leadership in such a manner so as to be imperceptible on workers front. 1. The meets will be strictly “Non-Official Work” types where the top management will involve itself in © Indira Gandhi National Open University. This can be done by deliberately bringing together the social activities in the same area/time frame etc. Phase 1: Organize social welfare activities by the spouses of the two groups separately to attract attendance. Highlight the activities as CSR for welfare and giving back to the society. New Delhi Page 63 . a primary stated aim of the Union who thereby cannot question the motives without questioning its founding principles.31 FAMILY SOCIALIZATION ACTIVITYThe model is based on the TAFE TRACTOR. Bangalore model. The idea is to launch a sustained family involvement and cultural reorientation of families especially the spouses of both the factions under HR supervision whereas group activities under the guise of corporate social responsibility can be organized in phased manner.

Conflict Resolution & for Conflict Reconstruction) 1.) -No Medical Professional (Doctor) will be required as the tests are simple and can be easily carried out by internal volunteers. These campaigns can also be beneficial long term as not only CSR activities but also as employee welfare measures. i suggest a comprehensive bouquet of social activities under the banner of CSR for the workers in general. Environmental and Safety Camps for Neighborhoods etc. each strip/needle of the glucometer costs Rs.2 EMERGENCY AID REGISTER© Indira Gandhi National Open University..10 per person. (Frerks. these programs are relatively low cost in the sense that: -Low fixed cost (Approximately two apparatus namely glucometer and blood pressure measurement instrument will cost around Rs.33 FAMILY INTEGRATION ACTIVITYIn light of the prevalent nature of the North Indian worker mindset.Georg.) -Low Variable cost (Approximately. organizing various recreational and relationship building activities strengthening the intra spouse ties.32 SOCIAL CAUSESimultaneous to the above proposal. Further. Women's Role In Conflict Prevention. Area wise campaigns like Blood Donation.33. Phase 4: We envision further that the influence of this handful of socially active spouses on their areas of activity to generate the curiosity factor to bring in the other more reluctant ones in the fold.5000 and can be used again and again. Physiotherapists and Yoga experts are available for the proposed health welfare camps at nominal rates. social welfare tips. New Delhi Page 64 . This in turn can be further explored to bring in the needed cultural changes to reintegrate the families and by extension the employees of the two factions. -Dieticians. This type of programs have the unique advantage that the feuding factions cannot demand separate time slots as tests like fasting sugar and blood pressure tests need to be measured in the morning only. 1.1 HEALTH CHECK UPS – Free monthly health checkups like blood pressure and blood sugar monitoring camps in tandem with other such socially significant programs like yoga and meditation camps will be undertaken area wise/region wise.33. we propose further a family integration process whereby 1. will bring together the entire staff irrespective of inherent frictions on basis of a social/humanitarian call.

34 CONTRIBUTION POLICY IN CASE OF ACCIDENT: To reintegrate the factions i propose that the Company brings in as a well publicized policy that the contribution to an employee in case of his sudden demise will be beared by even the field executives and that to in a proportion slightly higher than the unionized staff. the whole process must be very transparent and every step in the direction must be communicated fully to the workers also. 1. This will bring equity among the employees as even the unionized workers can v to themselves that the field executives are working more and hence are eligible for the increased payment given to them. I suggest that the company compiles an EMERGENCY AID REGISTER consisting of the blood groups and other vital medical details of the employees of all hue. The causes of this are varied but it is pertinent to state that the field executives are a part of the feud that can be more easily trained to handle the antagonism.39 DIRECT RECRUITMENT: To further bring in equity among the employees i also suggest that the field executive position may not be confined to promoting union workers only but also include direct recruitments. It calls for stressing on equality for all as human beings and respect of the others. 1.37 EQUITY AND FAIRNESS BRANDING: The suggestion calls for KRA Justification for the field executives. I propose behavioral trainings for the field executives to imbibe into them the grace to accept criticism as a gift in an unpleasant wrapper.35 BEHAVIORAL TRAINING TO FIELD EXECUTIVES: That there is a friction between the unionized workers and field executives is a fact undeniable as of today. This should be HIGLIGHTED amongst the entire staff so that in cases of emergency. 1. 1.38 VOLUNTEER PROGRAM: The suggestion is concerned with the fact that there is a certain part of workers who are and will be interested in carrying out higher responsibilities if given the chance. © Indira Gandhi National Open University. 1. It should also be communicated that the policy was on behest of the Field Executives representation. 1. blood donations can be arranged effortlessly intercompany.Further in the process.36 SENSITIVITY TRAINING FOR RESPECT: We suggest that in a major inclusion. the company includes “RESPECT FOR EACH OTHER” as a vital and highly publicized policy. This idea of REPSECT is in accordance to the RESPECT IDEALS OF AN ORGANISATION as implemented by BP and many others. Further. New Delhi Page 65 . This in turn will create a sense of empathy among the workers as they will see it as a goodwill gesture on part of the field executives. This policy will further the integration of the employees as no friction can justify avoiding life saving aids. This calls for redefining and visibly enhancing the responsibilities of the field executives to justify the increased payment to them. Hence i suggest that the operational managers do delegate such work to interested workers informally so as to encourage and groom them for future executive positions. This will dilute the unionized workers acrimony to field executive par se and hence help in further reintegrate the operational workers.

It is an industrial study. The Company cannot disclose the data due to security issues. Every individual bound to make mistake at some points. employment. detailed statistics for real wages and earnings for all the labor and staff are not available.40 SAY MEET: A pertinent and useful industry endorsed initiative. this is due to security issues of the company. the field executives and the management cadre to discuss various development goals. LIMITATIONS Any study analyzing human factor in the work setting cannot claim perfection in view of the nature of the subject itself and present one in no exception to it. New Delhi .1. absenteeism. The meeting will strictly keep away from contentious issues and must be used as a forum of critical development initiatives across the organization that even the union cannot refuse to attend. Its scope is limited and excludes deeper enquiry into other aspects of industrial relations. I would like to list the limitations of the study here: • • Considering the fact that nothing is perfect in the world. a number of limitations and constraints were faced and it is necessary to point them out at the very outset. training. For example. Page 66 © Indira Gandhi National Open University. such as wage structure. we recommend the formation of a committee consisting of representatives of the workers. labor turnover etc. job security and other personal issues such as promotion. The non-availability of adequate and reliable statistical information for some years and for some vital issues has made it difficult to study all the important issues in industrial relations in proper perspective. During the study.

Petersberg University .App. 2010.. May 25).constructionupdate.3d 408. 141 Cal. New Delhi Page 67 . The period of the study is during highly sensitive negotiations for the tri-yearly Union-Management settlement. which may skew the results accordingly but in absence of all-round perspective there is no measure to adjust its real effects. Limited knowledge of the researchers in the field of research may lead to interpretational errors. St. from www. As otherwise preoccupied. The results have not been tested. The study had the constraint of having missed a vital link in the entire saga – The perspective of the union due to ongoing settlement negotiations. such as unwillingness to disclose certain information. Sources of Conflict & ways of http://www. The research was conducted during the salary day when all the employees gather together at the corporate office. The study had constraints of variety.V.N.Ferdinand.constructionupdate. ( © Indira Gandhi National Open University. Alexander. Brown. Though i tried to include a good variety of Managers from varied departments but still it is not the real representative of the whole organization. Retrieved May 25. Most of the respondents who were there were from management so a sufficient number for the other side was absent. 412 (392 1983). The research was based on primary collection of data through voice interview so there may be chances of human error and biasness. 119-120. A. the sample size was therefore low. The study had limitations of structure as all the primary data collection was based on unstructured explicit interviews. Thus.• • • • • • • • • • • • Limitations of primary data cannot be ruled out. 2003). 2053 (Ohio Supreme Court April 24. The study had time constraints as it had to be submitted in the stipulated period of time limit given. Schindler Elevator Corp. (2002). (2002-2003). A busy schedule of managers and workers also makes the collection of information o information a very difficult one. BIBLIOGRAPHY Marshall v.This is because of lack of access to the union during the project due to internal compulsions.. nonavailability of union perspective was felt . Blount Vs. Cloke. A New Management Theory. Construction Update.

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