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The work presented in this thesis is done under the supervision of Associate

Professor Kevin Wong, Kai Fai. During the course of it, Dr. Wong has given the

author utmost guidance, assistance and encouragement. For this, the author wishes

to express sincere gratitude to Dr. Wong.

The acknowledgements of the author are also given to the School of Civil

and Environmental Engineering of Nanyang Technological University for the good

research environment it provides.

In addition, the help and suggestion of all friends are highly appreciated.

Finally, a special gratitude of the author goes to her family members, her

parents, Wang Shijie and Zang Quantong, especially to her husband, Dr. Liu

Xianbin and her pretty daughter, Liu Siming. Only with the great assistance and

constant support of them, the fulfillment of this work becomes possible.

I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………….. I

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………. II

SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………. VI

LIST OF SYMBOLS…………………………………………………………….XV

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………...1

1.2 Main Contributions…………………………………………………..3

1.3 Arrangement of Contents…………………………………………… 4

2.2 Energy-Based Seismic Analysis Method…………………………… 7

2.2.1 Evaluation of Energy Dissipation Capacity of Structures………...8

2.2.2 Energy-Based Damage Index…………………………………….13

2.3 Seismic Beam-Column Joint models of Moment Resisting Steel

Frames……………………………………………………………….15

2.3.1 Connections………………………………………………………16

2.3.2 Panel Zones……………………………………………………… 19

2.4 Nonlinear Stochastic Dynamic Study……………………………... 24

2.4.1 Analytical Methods……………………………………………… 25

2.4.2 Numerical Method……………………………………………......31

2.5 Discussion on This Research………………………………………. 32

II

CHAPTER 3 SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF INELASTIC STRUCTURES

WITH FORCE ANALOGY METHOD……………………..35

3.2 Force Analogy Method…………………………………………….. 36

3.2.1 Basic Concepts…………………………………………………... 36

3.2.2 Force Analogy Method…………………………………………...38

3.3 Inelastic Dynamic State Space Analysis Using The Force Analogy

Method……………………………………………………………… 41

3.4 Modified Force Analogy Method with Static Condensation…….. 43

3.5 Energy Evaluation Method of Inelastic Structures under

Earthquake Loading……………………………………………….. 48

3.5.1 General Energy Formulation…………………………………….48

3.5.2 Energy Formulation with Static Condensation…………………..50

3.6 Summary……………………………………………………………. 52

WITH RIGID END OFFSETS……………………………… 54

4.2 Structural Modeling with Rigid End Offsets……………………...55

4.3 Member Stiffness Matrix with Rigid End Offsets………………...56

4.4 Numerical Examples……………………………………………….. 63

4.4.1 Example 1: One-Story One-Bay Moment Resisting Frame........... 64

4.4.2 Example 2: Six-Story Moment Resisting Frame………………… 71

4.5 Summary………………………………………………………….… 80

WITH PANEL ZONE DEFORMATION…………………...82

5.2 Panel Zone Deformation Model…………………………………… 83

5.3 Numerical Examples……………………………………………….. 85

5.3.1 Example 1: One-Story One-Bay Moment Resisting Frame……... 85

5.3.2 Example 2: Six-Story Moment Resisting Frame………………… 91

III

5.4 Summary…………………………………………………………... 121

STRUCTURES WITH THE FORCE ANALOGY

METHOD…………………………………………………… 124

6.2 Stochastic Force Analogy Method (SFAM)……………………... 125

6.2.1 Solution to the Equation of Motion Based on the Force Analogy

Method and State Space Method………………………………..125

6.2.2 Recursive Equation Used in the Stochastic Analysis…………... 127

6.2.3 Expressions of Random Variables and Boundary of Domains

Based on the Force Analogy Method…………………………... 131

6.2.4 Calculation of Joint Probability Density Function…………….. 138

6.2.5 Calculation of the Variance and the Covariance……………….140

6.3 Numerical Example………………………………………………..146

6.4 Summary…………………………………………………………... 151

INELASTIC STRUCTURES WITH RIGID END OFFSETS

AND DEFORMABLE PANEL ZONES…………………... 154

7.2 Simulation of the Earthquake Ground Acceleration……………155

7.2.1 The Random Model of Ground Acceleration………………… 155

7.2.2 Generation of Artificial Ground Acceleration……………….. 157

7.3 Monte Carlo Simulation Study on Inelastic Structures with Rigid

End Offsets Using the Force Analogy Method………………….. 164

7.4 Monte Carlo Simulation Study on Inelastic Structures with

Deformable Panel Zones Using the Force Analogy Method…… 175

7.5 Reliability Analysis of Inelastic Structures with Rigid End Offsets

and Deformable Panel Zones…………………………………….. 191

7.5.1 Reliability Analysis of Inelastic Structures with Rigid End Offsets

…………………………………………………………………. 193

7.5.2 Reliability Analysis of Inelastic Structures with Deformable Panel

Zones…………………………………………………………… 196

IV

7.6 Summary…………………………………………………………... 204

8.2 Recommendations………………………………………………… 208

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………..…211

V

SUMMARY

deformation in conventional building structures. Furthermore, due to the inherent

uncertainty of the earthquake excitation, random process should be a more

appropriate model to represent this type of ground motion. Therefore, from the

1950’s, seismic analysis of structures has been divided into two different directions,

deterministic and stochastic. Although in the past fifty years stochastic dynamics

and reliability analysis based on random vibration have made great progress in

various aspects, the traditional deterministic design procedures is still in the

dominance. More effort in the field of nonlinear stochastic dynamic study is

necessary with the objective of general application of stochastic dynamic

methodology.

In this research, the force analogy method is used as a main tool to analyze

the inelastic dynamic response and energy dissipation of structures in both

deterministic and stochastic fields. A simple analytical method of modeling the

panel zone deformation is proposed. The model of rigid end offsets is also included

to give a more accurate structural model. New stiffness matrices for members with

two ends being rigid are obtained using the unit displacement method. With the aid

of static condensation, each term in the stiffness matrices using in force analogy

method can be derived simply through multiplying by a scale factor, which only

depends on the sizes of rigid end and offset lengths.

Based on the proposed model, numerical simulations are performed on a

one-story one-bay frame and a six-story moment resisting frame. Comparison of

results, such as global responses, global energy dissipation, local responses, and

local energy dissipation, between different models shows that rigid end offsets as

well as elastic and inelastic deformation of panel zones have significant effects on

dynamic behavior of inelastic structures subjected to earthquake excitation. In

addition, the Monte Carlo simulation method using 500 sample ground acceleration

time histories performed on a six-story moment resisting frame based on the

proposed model also indicates the significant influence of rigid end offsets and

panel zone deformation on structural inelastic dynamic behaviors in a statistic sense.

VI

This type of significant effect is further verified by investigating the probability of

failure of individual plastic hinge location based on the concept of the plastic

energy dissipated at individual plastic hinge location.

Finally, a new stochastic dynamic analysis method for inelastic structures

based on the force analogy method is proposed for the first time. The force analogy

method combined with the state space method has been proven to be efficient in

solving the equation of motion in inelastic dynamic analysis, since in the recursive

process only initial stiffness is involved, while the inelastic property of structures is

reflected by the inelastic displacement. This advantage of the force analogy method

is also evident in stochastic inelastic dynamic analysis. The proposed stochastic

force analogy method can produce the covariance functions of displacement,

velocity, inelastic displacement, and plastic rotation at individual plastic hinge

location. The reasonability of the proposed method is demonstrated by means of the

agreement of results of the proposed method with those of the Monte Carlo

simulation method.

VII

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 4.4 Derivation of Element Stiffness Matrix with Two Ends Being

Rigid……………………………………………………………….. 60

Displacement Patterns ……………………………………………...62

Figure 4.7 Acceleration, Velocity, and Displacement Spectra for 1940 El-

Centro Earthquake………………………………………………….64

Figure 4.9 Structural Global Responses of One-Story One-Bay Frame for Cases

NEO and REO……………………………………………………... 68

Figure 4.10 Some Local Responses of One-Story One-Bay Frame for Cases NEO

and REO…………………………………………………………… 69

Cases NEO and REO……………………………………………… 70

Figure 4.14 Structural Global Responses of MDOF Structure for Cases NEO and

REO………………………………………………………………... 75

Figure 4.15 Energy Dissipation of MDOF Structure for Cases NEO and REO.. 76

Figure 4.16 Plastic Rotation of MDOF Structure at Selected PHLs for Cases

NEO and REO ……………………………………………………...78

VIII

Figure 4.17 Plastic Energy Dissipation of MDOF Structure at Selected PHLs for

Cases NEO and REO……………………………………………… 79

Different Rigidities in Panel Zones………………………………... 88

Figure 5.5 Some Local Responses of One-Story One-Bay Frame for Different

Rigidities in Panel Zones………………………………………….. 89

Different Rigidities in Panel Zones………………………………... 90

Rotational Spring Stiffness………………………………………... 94

Spring Stiffness……………………………………………………. 95

Figure 5.10 Plastic Rotation of MDOF Structure at Selected PHLs with Different

Rotational Spring Stiffness………………………………………... 99

with Different Rotational Spring Stiffness………………………..100

Figure 5.12 Maximum Plastic Rotation and Plastic Energy at Each PHL with

Softer Rotational Spring k s1 = 4.80 × 105 kN-m/rad………………103

Figure 5.13 Maximum Plastic Rotation and Plastic Energy at Each PHL with

Soft Rotational Spring ks 2 = 5.55 ×105 kN-m/rad……………….. 105

Figure 5.14 Maximum Plastic Rotation and Plastic Energy at Each PHL with

Stiff Rotational Spring ks 3 = 1.55 × 106 kN-m/rad……………….. 107

Figure 5.15 Maximum Plastic Rotation and Plastic Energy at Each PHL with

Stiffer Rotational Spring ks 4 = 3.40 ×106 kN-m/rad……………... 109

Figure 5.16 Maximum Plastic Rotation and Plastic Energy at Each PHL with

Fully Rigid Spring ks 5 = ∞ kN-m/rad…………………………… 111

IX

Figure 5.17 Comparison of Maximum Global Responses between Models with

Different Stiffness and Yield Moment of Rotational Springs…….113

Different Stiffness and Yield Moment of Rotational Springs…….114

Models with Different Stiffness and Yield Moment of Rotational

Springs…………………………………………………………… 115

between Models with Different Stiffness and Yield Moment of

Rotational Springs………………………………………………... 116

Column Joints between Models with Different Stiffness and Yield

Moment of Rotational Springs…………………………………… 117

Figure 6.1 Single degree of freedom of System with PHL at the Base of the

Column…………………………………………………………… 147

Figure 6.2 Time Histories of Response Statistics of SDOF System under Non-

Stationary Excitation……………………………………………... 149

for Cases NEO and REO…………………………………………. 168

Figure 7.8 Standard Deviation of Velocity per Floor of MDOF Structure for

Cases NEO and REO…………………………………………….. 169

Figure 7.9 Standard Deviation of Acceleration per Floor of MDOF Structure for

Cases NEO and REO…………………………………………….. 170

Structure for Cases NEO and REO………………………………. 171

X

Figure 7.11 Standard Deviation of Plastic Rotation of MDOF Structure at

Selected PHLs for Cases NEO and REO………………………… 173

MDOF Structure at Selected PHLs for Cases NEO and REO…… 174

Figure 7.13 Maximum Mean and Standard Deviation of Global Response and

Energy Dissipation of MDOF Structure with Different Yield

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-

m/rad……………………………………………………………... 179

Different Yield Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness

= 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad…………………………………………….180

Yield Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-

m/rad……………………………………………………………... 181

Different Yield Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness

= 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad……………………………………………. 182

Figure 7.17 Maximum STD of Plastic Rotation and Maximum Mean and STD of

Plastic Energy at each PHL with Different Yield Moments of

Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad………... 183

Figure 7.18 Maximum STD of Plastic Rotation at each PHL with Different Yield

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-

m/rad……………………………………………………………... 184

Figure 7.19 Maximum Mean of Plastic Energy at each PHL with Different Yield

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-

m/rad……………………………………………………………... 185

Figure 7.20 Maximum STD of Plastic Energy at each PHL with Different Yield

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-

m/rad……………………………………………………………... 186

Selected PHLs with Different Yield Moments of Rotational Springs

with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad……………………………. 187

PHLs with Different Yield Moments of Rotational Springs with

Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad………………………………….. 188

XI

Figure 7.23 Standard Deviation of Plastic Energy Dissipation of MDOF

Structure at Selected PHLs with Different Yield Moments of

Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad………... 189

Figure 7.25 Histograms of Plastic Energy at Some Selected PHLs for Case

NEO……………………………………………………………… 194

Figure 7.26 Histograms of Plastic Energy at Some Selected PHLs for Case

REO…………………………………………………………….…195

Figure 7.27 Probability of Failure at Individual PHL for Cases NEO and

REO……………………………………………………………….196

Figure 7.28 Histograms of Plastic Energy at Selected PHLs for M s = 1695 kN-

m with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad…………………………..199

Figure 7.29 Histograms of Plastic Energy at Selected PHLs for M s = 3050 kN-

m with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad…………………………. 200

Figure 7.30 Histograms of Plastic Energy at Selected PHLs for M s = 5875 kN-

m with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad…………………………. 201

Figure 7.31 Histograms of Plastic Energy at Selected PHLs for M s = 11000 kN-

m with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad…………………………. 202

Different Yield Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness

= 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad…………………………………………….203

XII

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Rigid End and Offset Properties of Each Member ...........................66

Table 4.2 Maximum Structural Global and Local Responses of One-Story One-

Bay Frame for Cases NEO and REO................................................67

Structure for Cases NEO and REO...................................................74

Structure for Cases NEO and REO...................................................77

Table 5.1 Maximum Structural Global and Local Responses of One-Story One-

Bay Frame with Different Rotational Spring Stiffness.....................87

Structure with Different Rotational Spring Stiffness........................93

Structure with Different Rotational Spring Stiffness........................96

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness ks1 = 4.80 × 105 kN-

m/rad ...............................................................................................102

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness ks 2 = 5.55 ×105 kN-

m/rad ...............................................................................................104

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness ks 3 = 1.55 × 106 kN-

m/rad ...............................................................................................106

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness ks 4 = 3.40 × 106 kN-

m/rad ...............................................................................................108

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness = ∞ kN-m/rad ......110

Table 7.1 Maximum Mean and Standard Deviation of Global Response and

Energy Dissipation of MDOF Structure for Cases NEO and REO 167

XIII

Table 7.2 Maximum Mean and Standard Deviation of Local Response and

Energy Dissipation of MDOF Structure for Cases NEO and REO 172

Table 7.3 Maximum Mean and Standard Deviation of Global Response and

Energy Dissipation of MDOF Structure with Different Yield

Moments of Rotational Springs with Stiffness = 1.55 × 10 6 kN-m/rad

........................................................................................................178

XIV

LIST OF SYMBOLS

A State space matrix

c Damping

C Damping

C Damping matrix

d Depth of beam

DE Damping energy

E Young’s modulus

E [ xk xk ] Covariance of relative displacement and relative velocity

Fy Yield strength

XV

g Gravity acceleration

GXX (ω ) One-sided power spectral density function

H Earthquake transition matrix

Ib Moment of inertia of the beam

IE Input energy

I Identity matrix

k Time step

ke Initial stiffness

kt Post-yield stiffness

K Stiffness

KE Kinetic energy

K Stiffness matrix

K nn Stiffness matrix after static condensation

KP Structural member recovery force matrix

KR Structural member restoring moment

KR Structural member restoring moment matrix

condensation

L Length of member

Lb Length of beam

Lc Length of column

(2) Mass

M Mass

Mb Yield moment of the beam

XVI

Mc Yield moment of the column

M Mass matrix

M (t ) Total moment vector

M ′(t ) Elastic moment vector

M ′′(t ) Inelastic moment vector

Mk Discrete form of total moment vector

n Structural degree of freedom

N (1) Original degree of freedom of structure

(2) Number of samples

Pf Probability of failure of individual plastic hinge location (PHL)

PE Plastic energy

PEcapacity Capacity of plastic energy dissipation at individual PHL

S (t ) Stationary process

SE Strain energy

S [ x(t ) ] Standard deviation of samples

t Time

t0 Initial time

tk Time at step k

T (1) Natural period of structure

(2) Time duration

Tn Natural period of structure

XVII

x(t ) (1) Relative displacement

(2) Displacement

xk Discrete form of relative displacement

xy Yield displacement

Xk Discrete form of relative displacement vector

x (t ) Relative velocity

x k Discrete form of relative velocity

(t )

X Relative velocity vector

x(t ) Relative acceleration

(t )

X Relative acceleration vector

x ′(t ) Elastic displacement

X′(t ) Elastic displacement vector

x ′′(t ) Inelastic displacement

x k′′ Discrete form of inelastic displacement

X′k′ Discrete form of inelastic displacement vector

(t )

X Earthquake ground acceleration vector

g

(t )

Y Absolute velocity vector

(t )

Y Absolute acceleration vector

z (t ) Structural state vector

zk Discrete form of structural state vector

∆t Time interval

∆ω Frequency increment

αg, βg Constants in deterministic modulation function

XVIII

σy Yield stress

σ a2 k

Variance of ground acceleration

σ x2 k

Variance of relative displacement

σ x2 k

Variance of relative velocity

σ θ2′′ k

Variance of plastic rotation

µa k

Mean of ground acceleration

µx k

Mean of relative displacement

µ x k

Mean of relative velocity

µθ ′′k

Mean of plastic rotation

εµ Ultimate strain

ζ Damping ratio

ζg Damping ratio of ground

φ (t ) Deterministic modulation function

Φ0 Spectrum level

θ k′′ Discrete form of plastic rotation

∆Θ ′′(t ) Incremental form of plastic rotation vector

Θ ′k′ Discrete form of plastic rotation vector

XIX

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