Mark Scheme January 2007

GCE

International GCE Biology (8040/9040) GCE Biology (Human) (8042/9042)

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January 2007 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2007

Contents

MARK SCHEMES pg Unit 3 Unit 5B 6103/02 W1 6105/01 Written Alternative Genetics, evolution and biodiversity 1 5

Unit 6

6106/02 W2 6106/03

Written Alternative Synoptic paper

14 18

Please note that this document is an International Supplement to the GCE Biology / Biology (Human) Mark Schemes (8040/8042/9040/9042) and provides Mark Schemes for Units 5 and 6, which were only available to International centres.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiners and revised, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of senior examiners and subject teachers. The schemes are further amended at the Standardisation meetings attended by all examiners. The Standardisation meeting ensures as far as possible that the mark scheme covers the candidates' actual responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same way. The schemes in this document are the final mark schemes used by the examiners in this examination and include the amendments made at the meeting. They do not include any details of the discussions that took place in the meeting, nor do they include all of the possible alternative answers or equivalent statements that were considered to be worthy of credit. It is emphasised that these mark schemes are working documents that apply to these papers in this examination. Every effort is made to ensure a consistent approach to marking from one examination to another but each marking point has to be judged in the context of the candidates' responses and in relation to the other questions in the paper. It should not be assumed that future mark schemes will adopt exactly the same marking points as this one. Edexcel cannot under any circumstances discuss or comment informally on the marking of individual scripts. Any enquiries about the marks awarded to individual candidates can be dealt with only through the official Enquiry about Results procedure.

January 2007

6103-02 Unit 3 Mark Scheme

Unit 3 W2 (6103-02)
Question 1 (Exoskeleton) temperature / 0C 25.0 26.0 28.0 29.0 29.5 30.0 32.0 36.0 (a) Water loss / m gh-1 Expt 2 Expt 3 5 5 7 10 23 35 43 70 4 5 10 10 28 37 42 67 Maximum Marks

Expt 1 4 5 8 9 25 38 46 68

mean 4.33/4.3 5.00/5.0 8.33/8.3 9.67/9.7 25.33/25.3 36.67/36.7 43.67/43.7 68.33/68.3

suitable table format ; rows and columns with correct headings and units ; [shaded areas optional] all means correct ; ; [1 error=1 mark, 2 errors=0 marks] 4 marks

(b)

F line graph format ; A axes correct - scale, orientation and labelled with units ; P all points plotted correctly ; L suitable line – point to point or good curve ; 4 marks

(c)

rate of water loss increases as temperature increases ; there is a large increase at 29.5 ° C / between 29-30 °C ; 2 marks

(d)

variability in readings is much greater at 29.5 °C (than 29 °C or 30 °C) ; readings at this temperature are less reliable / changing rapidly ; 2 marks

1

6103-02 January 2007

January 2007

6103-02 Unit 3 Mark Scheme

Question 1 continued

Maximum Marks

(e)

exoskeleton /eq must be changing in some way at 29.5 °C (to allow more water through) ; at temperatures above 29 °C /eq cockroaches may dehydrate/need to find water/remain in damp places / eq ; 2 marks Total 14 marks

2

6103-02 January 2007

January 2007

6103-02 Unit 3 Mark Scheme

Question 2 (a) 1

Maximum marks standardise source of inhibitor [specific part of flesh, cork bored extracts] from Gala OR standardise source of Bramley tissue / same ripeness or age ref. ; same/stated mass of apple (tissue) from Gala ; {grind / macerate / homogenise} Gala apple material (for same time) ; filter extract(s) / centrifuge (to obtain enzyme) ; boil (one half) of Gala extract / use of control without Gala extract ; use {discs of same surface area from Bramley / same mass / volume of homogenate} ; attempt to standardise {an end point (by the use of colour chart / photographs / eq) / a method of determining surface area of browning (since non uniform)} / use of colorimeter in correct context ; standardise experimental temperature conditions by use of incubator / eq ; add stated volume of Gala extract to Bramley apple ; time to reach (standard) brown colour OR surface area of browning after specified time ; repeat minimum of three times ; ref. to minimising effects of oxidation in preparation ; 9 marks

2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12

(b)

suitable table with units and correct rows and columns to include raw data to match suggested method ; mean reaction time ; bar chart and comparative / correct format for method described ; correct orientation of axes with labels and units ; 3 marks

3

6103-02 January 2007

January 2007

6103-02 Unit 3 Mark Scheme

Question 2 Continued (c) Limitations: difficult to standardise /eq end point ; difficult to keep apple browning the same (before addition of inhibitor extracts) ;

Maximum marks

other chemicals may affect (colour change in) apples (chemicals that are also heat labile) ; immersion in / covering by solution may prevent / alter action of inhibitor on apple tissue ; uneven distribution of enzyme / inhibitor in apple tissue ; Further work: Investigate: inhibitor activity (from Gala apples) on other varieties of apples ; presence of inhibitor in other varieties of apples ; use of inhibitor enzyme in apple preservation / apples in fruit salads eq ; effect of inhibitor enzyme on other named plant organ (e.g. potatoes) ; compare effect of other named browning inhibitors ; 6 marks Total 18 marks

4

6103-02 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Unit 5B (6105)
Question 1 Maximum Marks

1 2

auxin / named example of an auxin such as IAA ; extension of {internode / stem} / cell elongation / breaking dormancy in {seeds /buds} / development of side shoots / causing leaf growth / reversal of dwarfism / bolting;

3 4 5

cell division / cell differentiation / cell expansion in leaves / combat aging in leaves /eq ; abscisic acid / ABA; ripening fruit / inducing flowering ;

Total 5 marks

5

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 2

Maximum Marks

(a)

(i)

prophase 1 ; 1 mark

(ii)

A = chromatid

B = centromere

C = chiasma / chiasmata ;; 2 marks

[3 correct = 2 marks, 2 correct = 1 mark]

(b)

(i)

(all) BbRr with black, rough fur ; 1 mark

(ii)

9

3

3

1; 1 mark

(iii)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ref. to expected numbers would be 27 black, rough : 9 black, smooth : 9 white, rough : 3 white, smooth ; the actual results differ from {expected ones / 9:3:3:1 ratio} ; genes for fur colour and texture are {on same chromosome / linked} ; tend to be inherited together ; only separated if {chiasma(ta) forms between them / crossing over takes place} ; ref. to recombinants ; recombinants are black with smooth fur and/or white with rough fur ; 4 marks Total 9 marks

6

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 3

Maximum Marks

(a)

(i)

labelling:

3 correct = 2 ;; 2 correct = 1 1 correct = 0

drawing:

plan with no cells; vein / midrib / upper epidermis shown in whole leaf; all features shown in whole leaf; 5 marks

(a)

(ii)

palisade – {packed with chloroplasts /chloroplasts can move in the cytoplasm to intercept light / lies under epidermis} to maximise the amount of light trapped ; spongy - some chloroplasts so can absorb light / ref. to air spaces to assist {diffusion of gases / gas exchange} ; lower epidermis - presence of stomata to allow {the entry of carbon dioxide / exit of oxygen} ; 3 marks

(b)

{large surface area / eq} to {maximise amount of light trapped / eq} ; more {chlorophyll/chloroplasts} to {maximise photosynthesis / trap as much light as possible} ; {more layers of palisade mesophyll cells / longer palisade cells / eq} to trap more light ; any other valid comment ; 2 marks Total 10 marks

7

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 4 (a) (i) A = protein B = phospholipid (bilayer);

Maximum Marks

1 mark (ii) C = glycoprotein / glycocalyx ; Role: recognition / antigen / receptor site / binds cells together /eq ; 2 marks (b) (i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 active transport and diffusion both involved ; ref. to {some / little / low rate of} diffusion / mainly active transport ; hardly any ions transported without ATP, with ATP rate of transport is higher ; diffusion only when no ATP present ; active transport requires energy / ATP {supplies energy / is energy source / eq} ; allows ions to {accumulate / build up / move against concentration gradient} ; 4 marks

8

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 4 continued (ii) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Maximum Marks

sodium ions {actively transported / pumped} out of ascending limb ; together with chloride ions ; into {medulla / medullary tissue} ; ions accumulate in {medulla / medullary tissue} ; ref. to lower water potential in {medulla / medullary tissue} / eq ; water moves out of {descending limb / collecting ducts} by {osmosis / diffusion} ; ref. to {increases concentration of urine / countercurrent multiplier} ; 4 marks Total 11 marks

9

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 5 (a) (i)

Maximum Marks (overall trend) as conc. of caffeine decreases, heart rate decreases OR converse as caffeine conc. increases, heart rate increases ; largest decrease between 1000 and 100 ppm / allow converse ; very low concentrations (0.0001 and lower) have no effect on heart rate ; increase linear between 0.0001 and 1.0, then increase greater; 3 marks

(ii)

((5.6 – 3.7) ÷ 3.7) x 100 ; 51.4 / 51.35 ; 2 marks

(b)

to observe the effect of no caffeine on the heart rate / to obtain a base reading ; 1 mark

(c)

1 2 3 4 5

to eliminate a source of error ; Daphnia are {ectothermic / eq} animals ; {metabolic rate / eq} depends on temperature ; if temperature changes, heart rate changes ; this could have masked the effect of caffeine on heart rate / ref. to temperature affects concentration of oxygen in water ; 3 marks

(d)

1 2 3 4

nicotine is {a mimic of / chemically similar to} acetyl choline ; nicotine binds to the receptors on the post synaptic membrane ; results in {action potentials being generated / depolarisation} ; then blocks the synapse / not broken down ; 2 marks Total 11 marks

10

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 6 (a) maltose ; ref. to hydrolysis ; of glycosidic bond ; by maltase ; [max = 2 if maltose not identified]

Maximum Marks

3 marks

(b)

1 2 3 4 5

villi increase surface area ; microvilli increase surface area of (epithelial) cell (surface) membrane; ref. to capillary networks in villi (remove glucose to) maintain {concentration / diffusion} gradient ; {thin / single cell} epithelium reduces distance between {lumen / eq} and the blood ; ref. to {carrier proteins / sodium ion mechanism / co-transport of glucose} in cell (surface) membrane of epithelium ; 3 marks

(c)

(i)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ref. to negative feedback ; increase in blood glucose detected by β-cells (in pancreas) ; insulin released ; from {β-cells / Islets of Langerhans} (in pancreas) ; glucose to glycogen and fat / ref. to glycogenesis ; in liver ; increase permeability of cell membrane to glucose ; ref. to conversion of glucose to fatty acids / fats ; glucose levels turn to {normal / set point} ; 6 marks Total 12 marks

11

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 7 (a) succession ;

Maximum Marks

1 mark (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 increased number of species as succession progresses / number of species increases from grassland to woodland ; any suitable manipulation of data ; grassland is open habitat but trees provide more cover ; birds easily spotted by predators in grass / converse for trees and shrubs ; trees provide {roosting / nesting} sites; mixed woodland provides greater variety of food to support more species ; trees provide more niches for species than smaller shrubs ; 5 marks (c) 1 2 3 4 pine trees have less food available for birds / eq ; needles on the woodland floor do not support as many invertebrates / eq (which birds eat) ; reduction in the variety of {microhabitats / niches} ; idea that mixed woodland {has many layers / is more varied} that shelters birds / provide nesting sites; 2 marks

12

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6105 Unit 5B Mark Scheme

Question 7 continued (d) 1 2 deforestation / eq ;

Maximum Marks

leaves soil exposed to erosion / loss of habitats / change in biodiversity ;

3 4 5 6 7 8

acid rain / eq; damages leaves / needles of trees / eq; global warming / increase in greenhouse gases / eq ; summer drought reduces tree growth / eq; physical disturbance by recreational activities ; trampling destroys {vegetation / habitats} ; [two pairs only] 4 marks Total 12 marks

13

6105 January 2007

January 2007

6106-02 Unit 6 (W2) Mark Scheme

Unit 6 W2 (6106-02)
Question 1 (a) Field Number of number skylarks in plots with cut wheat stems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 0 2 0 3 2 0 0 1 8 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 0 2 7 0 1 3 9 2 3 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 5 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 0 5 5 Mean number of skylarks in plots with cut wheat stems ha -1 0.6 0.4 1.4 1.8 2.6 2.0 0.2 0.0 1.6 6.2 Number of skylarks in plots with uncut wheat stems 2 0 2 5 5 3 2 0 2 8 1 1 3 5 2 4 2 0 1 9 2 0 4 4 2 3 2 0 1 9 1 0 3 3 2 4 2 1 3 5 1 0 2 2 0 1 1 0 2 7 Mean number of skylarks in plots with uncut wheat stems. ha -1 1.4 0.2 2.8 3.8 2.2 3.0 1.8 0.2 1.8 7.6 Maximum marks

neat table correctly formatted with raw data and field numbers ; correctly labelled rows and columns with units ; all means correct ; ; [1 error = 1 mark, 2 errors = 0 marks] 4 marks (b) F A P bar chart of means for each field ; axes correct – scale, orientation and labelled with units ; data plotted correctly ; 3 marks

(c) there is no significant difference between the number of skylarks in the {cut / eq} and {uncut / control / eq} fields ; 1 mark

14

6106-02 January 2007

January 2007

6106-02 Unit 6 (W2) Mark Scheme

Question 1 Continued

Maximum marks

(d) there is a significant difference between the number of skylarks in the {topped / eq} and {untreated / control / eq} fields /reject the null hypothesis ; at the 5% value ; [not just p = 0.05] since the W value is less than (the critical value) 8 ; 3 marks Total 11 marks

15

6106-02 January 2007

January 2007

6106-02 Unit 6 (W2) Mark Scheme

Question 2 (a) 1. stated total number of subjects (min 10) ;

Maximum Marks

2. subjects selected to minimise at least two basic variables e.g. age/sex/health / eq / academic ability / eq ; 3. control group with no music ; 4. tests to be conducted at same time of day ; 5. testing environment standardised e.g. lighting/heating/seating arrangement ; 6. accurate description of type of test to be administered e.g. random word/number list/objects shown on screen etc ; 7. standardised type of music described ; 8. details of music delivery e.g. headphones/speakers at fixed distance ; 9. stated time to memorise/learn test ; 10. standard time between learning and post-test ; 11. re-test at further intervals (to measure retention) ; 12. standard method of scoring test described ; Max 8 marks

SPG

account is concise and well-organised, there is good use of technical vocabulary and almost no spelling errors – 2 marks there is some lack of organisation, limited vocabulary and a number of spelling errors – 1 mark the account lacks organisation, there is little or no technical vocabulary and many spelling errors – 0 marks 2 marks

16

6106-02 January 2007

January 2007

6106-02 Unit 6 (W2) Mark Scheme

Question 2 continued (b)

Maximum Marks

table of raw data with suitable accurately labelled rows and columns with units ; reference to calculation of means ; suitable graphical format matching data and methods including correctly labelled axes ; reference to suitable statistical test (t or Mann-Whitney U) matched to data [accept from method] ; stated null hypothesis [accept from method] ; reference to use of 5% / p=0.05 confidence level ; 6 marks

(c)

Limitations

[sub-max 4 marks]

natural variability of human subjects makes standardising difficult / eq ; difficult to control level of motivation/ effort put into learning / conscious attitude to test by all subjects / eq ; response to standard type of music may vary between individuals ; type of test measures simple memorising only / learning more complex than simple memory / eq ; subjects previous experience may give them advantage / disadvantage in any one type of test / eq ;

Further work test responses to different types/volumes of music (if not in method) ; compare effects over short-term with long-term ; test for sex/age differences ; test at different times of day ; 5 marks Total 21 marks

17

6106-02 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

Unit 6 Synoptic paper (6106-03)
Question 1 (a) (i) (ii) condensation / polymerisation ; 1 mark glycosidic / covalent ; 1 mark (b) 1 2 3 4 ref. to (high) {blood pressure / hydrostatic pressure} in (glomerular) capillaries ; low RMM solutes /eq ; {forced out /eq} of capillaries ; ref. to (high) permeability of capillaries /eq ; 3 marks Maximum Marks

(c)

low RMM / only 5500 / RMM of 5500 / less than 70 000 / eq / small enough (to pass through capillary wall / pores) ; 1 mark

(d)

125 ; cm3 min-1 / eq ; 2 marks Total 8 marks

18

6106-03 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

Question 2 (a) 1 2 3 4

Maximum Marks (stem cuttings) are genetically uniform / same genotype / eq ; because they are produced by mitosis ; grow / established quickly / eq ; if high yielding, offspring will also be high yielding / reference to adapted to conditions /eq ; 2 marks

(b)

(i)

1 2 3 4

they eat {roots / shoots / leaves / sap / eq} ; reduce yield (of crop) ; may spread diseases /eq ; reduce value (of crop) / eq ; 3 marks

(ii)

1 2 3 4 5

ref. to specificity / no harm to non-target species / eq ; ref. to no residues (of chemical control) / no run off /eq ; no bioaccumulation / eq ; no need to re-apply / self-sustaining idea/ no pest resurgence ; pest unlikely to become resistant ; 3 marks

19

6106-03 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

Question 2 Continued

Maximum Marks

(c)

(i)

1 2 3 4

mites are ectothermic /eq ; temperature affects enzyme activity / eq ; temperature affects metabolism (of mites) ; may affect number of eggs they eat / eq ; 2 marks

(ii)

number of eggs eaten increases as number of eggs increases /eq ; credit a manipulated, quantitative comment ; 2 marks

(iii)

1 2 3 4

T. aripo ; eats more eggs (at high prey density) (than G. annectens) / eq; number of eggs eaten by G. annectens decreases at high prey density ; comparative quantitative reference ; 3 marks Total 15 marks

20

6106-03 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

ESSAY MARK SCHEME Outline Scheme for Marking Essay Questions 3, 4B and 5H
Total maximum mark available: 15 11 available for Scientific content 2 available for Balance 2 available for Coherence Scientific content (S) Scientific content (S) Description The essay demonstrates a sound understanding of the topic, contains a significant amount of material relevant to two (or more) Units (including A2 units) of the specification, and includes suitable examples where appropriate. The candidate has clearly and coherently linked together information from different parts of the specification. An above average essay, with accurate content. The essay includes a good balance of material from two (or more) Units (including the A2 units), and examples where appropriate. There may be some minor factual errors. The essay includes relevant information from two (or more) Units (including A2 units), and the candidate links together some facts and principles. Some examples are included. There may be some minor factual errors.

11 (good)

9 (above average)

7 (average)

5 (below average)

The essay includes some generally factually accurate and relevant material, and there is some attempt to link material from more than one Unit. However, the discussion lacks details, particularly of A2 Units.

3 (poor) 1 (poor) 0 (poor)

There are some correct facts, but the essay lacks depth and accuracy. Little or no relevant information from A2 Units is included. There are very few correct facts. The essay is generally superficial and inaccurate. No correct, or relevant, information included.

Note: If a scientific content mark of 0, 1, or 3 is awarded, it is very unlikely that a balance mark of more than 1 is appropriate. S = 11 marks

21

6106-03 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

Balance (B) 2 Most of the main topic areas outlined are covered Some discussion of each of the areas chosen, illustrated with suitable examples where appropriate Material included is all relevant to the topic and the candidate has linked information from more than one area of the specification. Few, if any, errors Some of the main topic areas outlined are covered. Some discussion of each of the areas chosen. Some irrelevant material included. There are some examples which link together different areas of the specification. Some errors. Very limited account, possibly only one aspect chosen Material mostly irrelevant No examples of the candidate linking information from different topics Large number of errors

1

0

B = 2 marks

Coherence (C) 2 Material logically presented, with little or no repetition Essay has coherence, ideas are developed well; continuous prose used throughout Essay has an introduction and a conclusion, summing up the main points Technical terms have been used correctly Spelling, punctuation and grammar are sound Material is presented in an orderly way and some ideas developed Continuous prose used throughout The introduction and conclusion may be present, but brief Technical terms are used and generally in the correct context Spelling, punctuation and grammar are generally sound Essay style not used Material in note form or numbered points Very poor standard of spelling, punctuation and grammar

1

0

C = 2 marks

22

6106-03 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

Question 3 Introduction could include reference to liver cell as a eukaryotic cell and range of functions – Shape of cell – Surface membrane – Organelles: Nucleus + nuclear membrane Unit 1 Endoplasmic reticulum – Mitochondria – Lysosomes – Golgi apparatus – Functions: Deamination and urea synthesis – Glucose – glycogen metabolism – Credit other relevant functions Unit 4

Scientific content 11 marks Balance 2 marks Coherence 2 marks Total 15 marks

23

6106-03 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

Question 4B Introduction could include explanation of the term pigment and the range of functions of pigments in flowering plants – Structure of chloroplast and location of pigments – Detection of light by phytochrome – Roles of chloroplast pigments – Chlorophyll a and b – Carotenoids – Absorption spectra – Light dependent reactions – Ref. to pigments in flowers in relation to insect pollination – Unit 2B Unit 5B Units 1 and 5B Units 4 and 5B

Scientific content 11 marks Balance 2 marks Coherence 2 marks Total 15 marks

24

6106-03 January 2007

January 2007

6106-03 Unit 6 Synoptic Mark Scheme

Question 5H

Introduction could include reference to the significance of meiosis – Gamete formation involves meiosis – First and second divisions of meiosis – Chiasmata formation – Random fertilisation as a source of genetic variation – Non-disjunction – Polysomy and polyploidy – Specific reference to Down’s syndrome – Could also include detection of chromosome mutations and karyotypes – Unit 5H Unit 2H

Scientific content 11 marks Balance 2 marks Coherence 2 marks Total 15 marks

25

6106-03 January 2007

26

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com January 2007 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.org.uk/qualifications Alternatively, you can contact Customer Services at www.edexcel.org.uk/ask or on 0870 240 9800 Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

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