Mark Scheme (RESULTS) June 2008


GCE Biology (6106/02)

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The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions: Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets Crossed out work If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so. Spelling and clarity In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not • candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners

• a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an
answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored.

Question Number 1(a)

Answer Opening angle / degrees Lightly shaded Heavily shaded habitat habitat 75.75 70.75 80.50 65.33 68.17 68.50 82.33 52.00 69.25 72.25 74.00 66.50 79.00 71.75 78.50 66.67 81.75 75.17 73.33 58.25 66.72 76.26


Stalk number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean

1. table of values with correct headings and units ; 2. correct calculations of degrees ; 3. correct overall means calculated from those in each habitat ; OR (using ranked data) Opening angle / degrees Stalk Lightly shaded Heavily shaded number habitat habitat 68.17 52.00 1 69.25 2 58.25 73.33 65.33 3 74.00 66.50 4 75.75 66.67 5 78.50 68.50 6 79.00 70.75 7 80.50 71.75 8 81.75 72.25 9 82.33 75.17 10 Mean 66.72 76.26 (3)

Question Number 1(b)

Answer A F axes correct orientation and scale with units and labels ; bar chart with key and points plotted correctly ;



Question Number 1(c)

Answer there is no significant difference between the opening angle of leaves in lightly and heavily shaded habitats ;



Question Number 1(d)

Answer 1. 2. calculated value (3.62) is greater than the critical value at 5% level 2.10) ;


(therefore) there is a significant difference between the opening angle of the leaflets in lightly and heavily (2) shaded habitats ;

Question Number 1(e)

Answer 1. difficult to read the angle of special protractor against the standard (protractor) ; 2. likely that protractor will cause displacement of leaflet ; 3. not all leaflets will be measured at exactly 20 minutes / eq ; 4. reference to any suitable difference between leaflets on same stalk ; 5. effect may be different in lab conditions compared to field ;


max (3)

Question Number 2(a)

Answer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. use one site ; two equal areas ; one stated method of standardising ploughing (e.g. depth, time) ; at least two named abiotic variables considered ; sample(s) of earthworms / casts collected before ploughing /eq ; stated time for sampling after ploughing (minimum of 1 day) ; suitable method of randomising sampling ; number of samples (minimum 10) in each area ; technique of collecting casts or earthworms ;


10. in stated area ; 11. dry mass of casts determined ; 12. collect specimen material {in the same season / at same time of year / at same time of day} ; 13. repeat investigation a minimum of three times ; SPG Account is concise and well-organised, there is good use of technical vocabulary and almost no spelling errors – 2 marks There is some lack of organisation, limited vocabulary and a number of spelling errors – 1 mark The account lacks organisation, there is little or no technical vocabulary and many spelling errors – 0 marks up to (2) Total (10) max (8)

Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. table of raw data (to match the method) with accurately labelled rows and columns with units ; 2. reference to calculation of means ; 3. suitable graphical format that matches table and allows comparison ; 4. correctly labelled and orientated axes with units ; 5. reference to suitable type of statistical test ; 6. use of stated null hypothesis ;


max (6)

Question Number 2(c)

Answer Limitations: 1. hard to collect all {earthworms / casts} (at each site) ; 2. difficult to ensure same abiotic conditions for all collections / before and after ploughing / eq ; 3. not all earthworms produce worm casts / can be extracted ; 4. different types / species of earthworm in different parts of the field; 5. birds / other predators may remove earthworms ; Further work: 6. investigate numbers of earthworms in two sites {in different seasons / over a number of years / eq} ; 7. investigate numbers of earthworms with no ploughing ; 8. {numbers / proportion} of juveniles (to assess future populations) ; 9. survival of {types /species} of earthworm to (two) ploughing techniques ; 10. investigate earthworm numbers / populations with another named human intervention (e.g. direct drilling, land with and without animal dung);


up to (4)

up to (4) max (5)

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