Chess | World Chess Championships | Chess


1 Std: IX A
Social Science project 2010-1 1 BCEM School July-2010

Miss. Kavitha K Department of history, teacher BCEM School


This is to certify that the project entitled in the ³Research In Chess´ in the IXth standard, BCEM School, is a record of project carried out by Adarsh Udayan under my guidance and supervision.

Miss. Kavitha K Department of history, teacher BCEM School

Gurupuram July 2010


I Adarsh Udayan (IX A) to here by declared that the project entitled ³Research InChess´ is a work done by me under the supervision of miss. Kavitha K, department of history BCEM School Gurupuram.

Adarsh Udayan IX A BCEM School Gurupuram

Gurupuram July 2010


I express all glory and thanks to good the almighty whose strengthened till now to complete my project.

I would like to express my thanks and sincere gratitude to my esteemed teacher Miss.Kavitha.k,department of history, BCEM School.

I express my sentimentence of gratitude to Miss.Mini head of the department of history BCEM School.Without whose valuable guidance and encourage it would not have been possible for me to bring out the project.

I express my thanks to the liberarian miss.Usha, who generously lend me suifficent books and periodicals which helped me a lot in the preparation of this work.

I¶ am also fortunate to have help and assistant from my close relative and classmates and I thanked them all.

CONTENTS Sl no. 1 2 Topic Introduction Characteristics of the game a. Algebraic notation b. Moves i. King ii. Rook iii. Bishop iv. Queen v. Knight vi. Capturing vii. Pawns viii. Castling c. Relative piece values d. Object of the game e. Game notation f. Conduct of the game History a. Origin of chess b. Ancient precursors and related games c. Introduction to Europe d. Standardization of rules e. Set design f. The world championship and FIDE g. Women in chess Development of Theory a. Philidor and the birth of chess theory b. Morphy and the theory of attack c. Steinitz and the theory of equilibrium d. The Fischer clock Chess and artificial intelligence a. heuristics b. Computer chess c. Computer extension of chess theory Chess composition a. Studies about chess ANNEXTURE BIBLIOGRAPHY pg no.




6 7 8


studies about chess etc. recent years and this years chess players. some moves of the chess. This research is concentrated mainly with the origin of chess. like love. like music.INTRODUCTION This is a research about the chess. has the power to make men happy. . The chess master Siegbert Tarrasch declared that ³chess. Victory depends on concentration and intuitive vision. each of whom moves 16 figures according to fixed rules across a board consisting of an eight-by-eight pattern of squares. Chess is a game of skill for two players. . old chess players of the world.´ It is often called the royal game.

f2..Characteristics of the game Chess is played on a board of 64 squares arranged in eight vertical rows called files and eight horizontal rows called ranks. and the other dark. Rook Each player has two rooks (formerly also known as castles). Moves The board represents a battlefield in which two armies fight to capture each other s king. the pieces are distinguished by appearance and by how they move. and files e through h as the kingside. King White s king begins the game on e1. knight. beige. Each square has a name consisting of its letter and number. e2. e. such as black or green. or yellow. d2. a8 and h8 for Black. queen. The board is set between the two opponents so that each player has a light-coloured square at the right-hand corner. The eight ranks are numbered 1 through 8 beginning with the rank closest to White. such as white. By far the most widely used form. called White. White s king can move from e1 to d1. algebraic (or coordinate) notation. Algebraic notation Individual moves and entire games can be recorded using one of several forms of notation. The files are labeled a through h beginning with the file at White s left hand. The players alternate moves. files a through d are referred to as the queenside. There are six different types of pieces: king. which begin the game on the corner squares a1 and h1 for White. identifies each square from the point of view of the player with the light-coloured pieces. Black s king is opposite at e8. These squares alternate between two colours: one light. such as b3 or g8.. bishop. Each king can move one square in any direction. and pawn. or f1. A player s army consists of 16 pieces . rook. . A rook can move vertically or horizontally to any unobstructed square along the file or rank on which it is placed. White going first. Additionally.g.

and knight capture enemy pieces in the same manner that they move. a White queen on d3 can capture a Black rook at h7 by moving to h7 and removing the enemy piece from the board. queen. b2. then one square like a bishop. while Black s pawns start at a7. The White queen begins at d1. Therefore. and they begin the game at c1 and f1 for White. White s pawns start at a2. or d2. b7. bishop. g5. The knight has the unique ability to jump over any other piece to reach its destination. It moves differently than it captures. c5.e. The pawns are unique in several ways. which begin the game on the second rank closest to each player. f6.g. Knight Each player has two knights. at b1 and g1 for White and b8 and g8 for Black. It always moves to a square of a different colour. c8 and f8 for Black. each player has one bishop that travels only on light-coloured squares and one bishop that travels only on dark-coloured squares. A pawn moves to the square directly ahead of it but captures on the squares diagonally in front of it. A pawn can move only forward.. A bishop can move to any unobstructed square on the diagonal on which it is placed. and so on. an L-shape of two steps: first one square like a rook. and they begin the game on the squares between their rooks and bishops i. rook. c2.e. the Black queen at d8.. c7. For example. A knight at e4 could move to f2. but always in a direction away from the starting square. i. The knight has the trickiest move. Capturing The king. which combines the powers of the rook and bishop and is thus the most mobile and powerful piece. e.Bishop Each player has two bishops. Queen Each player has one queen. and so on. g3. Pawns Each player has eight pawns.. d6. Pieces can capture only enemy pieces. c3. it can never retreat. a .

called en passant that is. The last unique feature of the pawn occurs if it reaches the end of a file. Castling The one exception to the rule that a player may move only one piece at a time is a compound move of king and rook called castlin g. White can castle kingside by moving the king from e1 to g1 and the rook from h1 to f1. An en passant capture must be made then or not at all. An unmoved pawn has the option of moving one or two squares forward. crosses. For example.White pawn at f5 can move to f6 but can capture only on g6 or e6. Material concerns are secondary to winning. Also. as if it had advanced only one square. and queen 9. The relative values of knights and bishops vary with different pawn structures. which is then placed on the square the king has crossed. The game is won when one king is in check and . rook. This is the reason for another peculiar option. castling is not legal if the square the king starts on. Relative piece values Assigning the pawn a value of 1. the values of the other pieces are approximately as follows: knight 3. exchanged for a queen. A player castles by shifting the king two squares in the direction of a rook. tactical considerations may temporarily override the pieces usual relative values. it must then be promoted to that is. Object of the game When a player moves a piece to a square on which it attacks the enemy king that is. or knight. Castling is permitted only once in a game and is prohibited if the king or rook has previously moved or if any of the squares between them is occupied. a square from which it could capture the king if the king is not shielded or moved. The first pawn can take the advancing pawn en passant. Only pawns can be captured en passant. Additionally. in passing available to a pawn when an enemy pawn on an adjoining file advances two squares on its initial move and could have been captured had it moved only one square. bishop. rook 5. bishop 3. or finishes on is attacked by an enemy piece.

a draw as half a point. En passant captures are designated by e. and 1 . For example. acknowledges defeat by resigning. this is called checkmate. (2) when neither player has enough pieces to deliver checkmate. There are two exceptions: a knight is identified by N. (4) when a player who is not in check has no legal move (stalemate). Be5 means a bishop has moved to e5. believing the situation to be hopeless. castling kingside is indicated by 0-0. . . For both White and Black. A game also can end when a player. Captures are indicated by inserting an x or : between the piece moving and the square it moves to. (5) when an identical position occurs three times with the same player having the right to move. There are six ways a draw can come about: (1) by mutual consent. this means dxe5 indicates a White pawn on d4 captures a piece on e5. a victory is scored as one point. . and checkmate is often indicated by adding # or ++ at the end of the move. and a loss as no points. For example. two question marks indicate a blunder. lose. while castling queenside is notated by 0-0-0. (3) when one player can check the enemy king endlessly (perpetual check). There are three possible results in chess: win. Game notation A move can be recorded by designating the initial of the piece moved and the square to which it moves. two exclamation marks are occasionally used to indicate an extremely good move. an appended exclamation mark means a very good move. or draw. 1 e4 means White s first move is a two-square advance of a pawn on the e-file.p.cannot avoid capture on the next move. and (6) when no piece has been captured and no pawn has been moved within a period of 50 moves. In competitive events. For pawn moves. Notation is used to record games as they are played and to analyze them in print afterward. and no initials are used for pawn moves. In annotating (commenting) on a game. and the combination of an exclamation mark and a question mark on the same move indicates a double-edged or somewhat dubious move. a question mark indicates a bad move. Checks are indicated by adding ch or + at the end of the move. Nf6 means Black s response is to bring a knight from g8 to f6.

Muslims brought chess to North Africa. The players also are obligated to record their moves. Tournament and match chess is distinguished from casual games by the strict provisions for completing a move. usually by depressing a device on the chess clock used in competitive play.. Only after making a move can they stop their allotted time from elapsing. . Eastern Slavs spread it to Kievan Rus about the same time. . If the illegality is discovered after the game is completed. Any player who realizes during a game that an illegal move has been made may demand that the position before the infraction be reinstated and that play proceed from there.Conduct of the game Competitive chess is played according to a set of rules that supplement the basic laws governing how the pieces move. a piece touched must be moved or captured (if legally possible). There are many interesting legends pertaining to its origin. The Vikings carried the game as far as Iceland and England and are believed responsible for the most famous collection of chessmen. or for distracting the opponent. Unless preceded by the warning I adjust (French: j adoube ). and penalties for illegal moves and other infractions. for consulting another player or any recorded material during the game. and Spain by the 10th century. Among the more important rules are those governing completion of a move. for analyzing the game on another board. A player can be penalized in a variety of ways. including forfeiture of the game. the result stands without penalty. Sicily. 78 walrus-ivory pieces of various sets that were found on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides in 1831 and date from the 11th or 12th century. time controls (see The time element and competition). and a completed move may not be retracted. History Origin Of Chess Internationally famous mind game and it is believed to have originated from the Indian soil. recording of games.

in his work titled A History of Chess. Wilhelm Steinitz.S. Chaturanga. claimed his title in 1886. Chess existed in India before it was known to have been played anywhere else. a Sanskrit word. One of the goals of early computer scientists was to create a chess-playing machine. and is led by the FIDE. its now- . Aspects of art are found in chess composition. in clubs. The first official World Chess Champion. It is the view of some historians that this game was also used in the allocation of land among different members of a clan when a new settlement was being established. played by millions of people worldwide at home. R. the current World Champion is Viswanathan Anand. horses. J. The tradition of organized competitive chess started in the 16th century. In 1997 Deep Blue became the first computer to beat a reigning World Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov.) to be elephants. chariots and foot soldiers.One of the legend states that the wife of King Ravana (a character from the Indian epic of Ramayana) invented the game 4000-5000 years ago. which are said in the Amarakosha (an ancient Indian Dictionary . Today. each of whom moves 16 pieces according to fixed rules across the board and tries to capture or immobilize (checkmate) the opponent s king. chess is one of the world's most popular games. by correspondence. has concluded that chess is a descendant of an Indian game played in the 7th century AD. though it continued to evolve as it spread into Europe in Byzantine times. H. refers to the four branches of the army. Chaturanga was played on a board of 64 squares consisting of four opposing players. Theoreticians have developed extensive chess strategies and tactics since the game's inception. online. Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee. There is also a reference in the Bhavishya Purana about the game. Murry. and in tournaments. The current form of the game emerged in Europe during the second half of the 15th century after evolving from an older game (Shatranj) of Indian origin. Checkerboard game for two players. Chess is now deeply influenced by the abilities of chess programs and the opportunity for online play.B. The game might have originated from the ancient game of Chaturanga in India. The game may have originated in Asia about the 6th century.

Organized chess tournaments. a maneuver known as castling can be done in which the king is shifted two squares toward that rook and the rook is placed directly on the other side of the king. of capturing an enemy pawn that has just made a first move of two squares to avoid being captured by moving only one. and Internet chess now attract men. start with their pieces arranged on opposite ends of the board. Kings move one square in any direction but not into attack (check). A draw.standard rules first became generally accepted in Europe in the 16th century. . Pawns capture only one diagonal square forward of them. Since at least the 15th century. Chess first appeared in India about the 6th century ad and by the 10th century had spread from Asia to the Middle East and Europe. any number of unobstructed squares. postal correspondence games. The players. occurs if a player is not in check but any move he could make would place him in check. women. known as en passant. the capture occurs as though the pawn had moved only one square. and rooks horizontally or vertically. chess went through an explosive growth in interest during the 20th century as professional and state-sponsored players competed for an officially recognized world championship title and increasingly lucrative tournament prizes. designated white or black. Queens move like either bishops or rooks. Once an intellectual diversion favoured by the upper classes. For one turn only. When the first row between a king and either rook is clear. Kings cannot castle when in check or through any square in which they would be in check. a pawn has the option. A draw also occurs if the same position occurs three times (such as through perpetual check ). Rules and set design slowly evolved until both reached today s standard in the early 19th century. Bishops move diagonally. Pawns move forward one square (except one or two on their first move) and are promoted to any non-king piece if they eventually reach the last row. chess has been known as the royal game because of its popularity among the nobility. and as long as the king and that rook have not moved. known as a stalemate. and children around the world. Knights move to the nearest nonadjacent square of the opposite colour (an L shape) and ignore intervening chessmen. Pieces capture by moving to an enemy-occupied square.

A game of shatranj could be won either by eliminating all an opponent s pieces (baring the king) or by ensuring the capture of the king. gradually transformed into shatranj (or chatrang). and elsewhere that have been determined to be older than that are now regarded as coming from earlier distantly related board games. Pakistan. often involving dice and sometimes using playing boards of 100 or more squares. . between the 5th and 6th ranks that limits access to the enemy camp and makes the game slower than its Western cousin. The game spread to the east. One of those earlier games developed into a four-player war game called chaturanga. north. Shatranj resembled chaturanga but added a new piece. a Sanskrit name for a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata. and others. and southern parts of Central Asia after 600 ce. perhaps played with dice on a 64-square board. About 750 ce chess reached China. but there were considerable regional and temporal variations for the other pieces. taking on sharply different characteristics. the most popular version of the Eastern game. the king of modern chess. has 9 files and 10 ranks as well as a boundary the river. Central Asia. Game pieces found in Russia. a firz n (counselor). How chaturanga evolved is unclear. Pakistan. There is no credible evidence that chess existed in a form approaching the modern game before the 6th century ce. Chaturanga was flourishing in northwestern India by the 7th century and is regarded as the earliest precursor of modern chess because it had two key features found in all later chess variants different pieces had different powers (unlike checkers and go). and by the 11th century it had come to Japan and Korea. and victory was based on one piece. Silk Road traders. China.The two-player game popular in northern India. Some historians say chaturanga. The initial positions of the pawns and knights have not changed. which had nothing to do with any troop formation. India. and west. it was transformed into a game with inscribed disks that were often placed on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares. carried by Buddhist pilgrims.Ancient precursors and related games The origin of chess remains a matter of controversy. Chinese chess. In the East. Afghanistan.

Introduction to Europe A form of chaturanga or shatranj made its way to Europe by way of Persia. Alexander Botvinnik. the expanding Arabian empire. The Vikings carried the game as far as Iceland and England and are believed responsible for the most famous collection of chessmen. the Byzantine Empire. However. the game s popularity was helped by its social cachet: a chess set was often associated with wealth. It was known as the royal game as early as the 15th century. Chess and dice games were periodically banned by kings and religious leaders. of Philip II and Alfonso X (the Wise) of Spain. It was a favourite of Kings Henry I. believed to be a favourite of three successive caliphs. For example. Muslims brought chess to North Africa. Alexander 1935 37 Euwe. Henry II. Mikhail 1958 60 Moiseyevich 1960 61 Tal.. and power. John. Wilhelm 1894 1921 Lasker. Mikhail 1948 57 Moiseyevich 1957 58 Smyslov. knowledge. World chess champions Championship Name region 1866 94 Steinitz. Mikhail Nekhemyevich Nationality Austrian German Cuban Russian-French Dutch Russian-French Russian Russian Russian Latvian . perhaps most important of all. The oldest recorded game. and. Sicily. Emanuel 1921 27 Capablanca. 78 walrus-ivory pieces of various sets that were found on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides in 1831 and date from the 11th or 12th century. and of Ivan IV (the Terrible) of Russia. King Louis IX forbade the game in France in 1254. and Richard I of England. Max 1937 46 Alekhine. and a pupil. and Spain by the 10th century. Vasily Botvinnik. José Raúl 1927 35 Alekhine. Eastern Slavs spread it to Kievan Rus about the same time. was played between a Baghdad historian. found in a 10thcentury manuscript.

Vladimir 2007 Anand. Chess made its greatest progress after two crucial rule changes that became popular after 1475. But this rule did not win general acceptance throughout Europe for more than 300 years. Tigran 1963 69 Vartanovich 1969 72 Spassky. Adolf Loyd. Richard Staunton. the pawn had acquired the ability to move two squares on its first turn. But under the new rules the counselor underwent a sex change and gained vastly increased mobility to become the most powerful piece on the board the modern queen.Botvinnik. Anatoly 1975 85 Yevgenyevich 1985 2000 Kasparov. Until then the counselor was limited to moving one square diagonally at a time. Sam Morphy. Howard 1961 63 Standardization of rules Russian Georgian Russian American Russian Russian Russian Indian The modern rules and appearance of pieces evolved slowly. pawn promotion was a relatively minor factor in the course of a game. By 1300. for example. This and the increased value of pawn promotion added a dynamic new element to chess. Aron Philidor. Also. the . because a pawn that reached the eighth rank could become only a counselor. Garry 2000 07 Kramnik. And. François-André Réti. Paul Nimzowitsch. Mikhail Moiseyevich Petrosyan. Robert (Bobby) Karpov. with widespread regional variation. Vishwanathan Other notable chess personalities: Anderssen. rather than only one at a time as it did in shatranj. Boris Vasilyevich 1972 75 Fischer.

The simple design of pieces before 600 ce gradually led to figurative sets depicting animals. Both rules were known in the 15th century but had limited usage until the 18th century. Minor variations in other rules continued until the late 19th century./script&gt. squares by 1000 ce and were often made of fine wood or marble. With the new queen and bishop powers. it was not acceptable in many parts of Europe as late as the mid-19th century to promote a pawn to a queen if a player still had the original queen. Until these changes occurred. Stylized ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=96022/quantSegs=D"&gt. became the bishop.&lt. The last two major changes in the rules castling and the en passant capture took longer to win acceptance. checkmate was relatively rare.script src="http://eb. which had monochromatic squares in the Muslim world. and more often a game was decided by baring the king. warriors. Set design The appearance of the pieces has alternated between simple and ornate since chaturanga times. Peter I (the Great) of Russia had special campaign boards made of soft leather that he carried . or red and white. But Muslim sets of the 9th 12th centuries were often nonrepresentational and made of simple clay or carved stone following the Islamic prohibition of images of living creatures. The return to simpler. began to have alternating black and white. the trench warfare of medieval chess was replaced by a game in which checkmate could be delivered in as few as two moves. returned to fashion as the game spread to Europe and Russia. which had been limited to a twosquare diagonal jump in shatranj. and noblemen. Playing boards. more than doubling its range. often adorned with precious and semi-precious stones.chaturanga piece called the elephant.adbureau. for example. symbolic shatranj pieces is believed to have spurred the game s popularity by making sets easier&lt. to make and by redirecting the players attention from the intricate pieces to the game itself.

For the first time. he was succeeded by Staunton after another match that gained international attention. The pawn. The queen grew in size after 1475. This match also helped introduce the idea of stakes competition. In Russia it was usually represented as a sailing ship until the 20th century. but widespread spectator interest in the game began more than 50 years earlier. usually in the form of two-player matches. Elsewhere it was a warrior in a chariot or a castle turret. because of Staunton s extensive promotion. as the lowest in power and social standing. Nathaniel Cook. Only sets based on the Staunton design are allowed in international competition today. . for example and was not universally recognized by a distinctive mitre until the 19th century. has traditionally been the smallest and least representational of the pieces. a major chess event was reported extensively in newspapers and analyzed in books. After it was patented in 1849. Staunton s defeat of Pierre-Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant of France in 1843. it subsequently became known as the Staunton pattern. The standard for modern sets was established about 1835 with a simple design by an Englishman. Depiction of the rook also varied considerably. LouisCharles de la Bourdonnais of Paris and Alexander McDonnell of London. for the title of world champion. when its powers expanded. The first major international event was a series of six matches held in 1834 between the leading French and British players. and changed from a male counselor to the king s female consort. The title was an unofficial one until 1886. the design was endorsed by Howard Staunton.during military efforts. The knight s close identification with the horse dates back to chaturanga. since Staunton won the £100 put up by supporters of the two players. The bishop was known by different names fool in French and elephant in Russian. then the world s best player. The world championship and FIDE The popularity of chess has for the past two centuries been closely tied to competition. The king became the largest piece and acquired a crown and sometimes an elaborate throne and mace. which ended with Bourdonnais s victory. Following Bourdonnais s death in 1840.

9. He took long periods. inspired American players to organize the first national championship. Emanuel Lasker of Germany (see Games 7. the British and German. to promote a uniform set of rules. and he won the London tournament and with it recognition as unofficial champion. held in London in 1851. The winner.Staunton used his position as unofficial world champion to popularize the Staunton-pattern set. The world championship became more formalized after Morphy retired and Anderssen was defeated by Wilhelm Steinitz of Prague in a match in 1866. any player who met certain<script . The controversy over the championship was eased when José Raúl Capablanca of Cuba defeated Lasker in 1921 and won the agreement. was inspired by the Bourdonnais-McDonnell match to turn from problem composing to tournament competition. proved a more demanding champion than Steinitz in arranging matches. Steinitz was the first to claim the authority to determine how a title match should be held. in turn. without defending his title. Steinitz s successor. Paul Morphy of New Orleans. the momentum for an independent international authority began to grow. Steinitz reserved the right to determine whose challenge he would accept and when and how often he would defend his title. which set off the first chess craze in the Western Hemisphere. was recognized as unofficial world champion after defeating Anderssen in 1858. (See Game 4. at a tournament in London in 1922. a German schoolteacher. and 10). of the world s other leading players to a written set of rules for championship challenges. 8. failed to arrange a match between Lasker and any of his leading challengers on the eve of World War I. in New York City in 1857. Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen. and to organize the first international tournament. and in 1886 he agreed to play Johann Zukertort of Austria in the first match specifically designated as being for the world championship. (See Game 6.) The London tournament. from 1897 to 1907 and later from 1910 to 1921. the First American Chess Congress. After the leading national chess federations. Under those rules.) He set down a series of rules and financial conditions under which he would defend his status as the world s foremost player.

The champion no longer had a veto power over opponents and was required to defend the title every three years. It also created a system for recognizing top players by arithmetic rating and by titles based on tournament performance. representatives of 15 countries met in Paris in 1924 to organize the first permanent international chess federation. and when he died in 1946 FIDE assumed the authority to organize world championship matches. The easing and eventual end of the Cold War spurred international chess by reducing barriers. of whom there are now more than 500 in the world.000 stake) could challenge the World Champion. the first Russianborn champion. the federation developed new championship titles.src="http://eb. Amateur chess expanded sharply. By the mid-1990s.000 tournaments registered with FIDE were held each year more than 50 times the number during the 1950s. close to 2. known as FIDE. Alekhine was widely criticized for manipulating the rules.adbureau. From 1948. particularly for junior players in various age groups. The international federation organized three-year cycles of regional and international competitions to determine the challengers for the World Champion and solicited bids for match sites. guaranteeing a $10. is International Grandmaster. While the top players were trying to adhere to the London Rules. when FIDE organized a match tournament to fill the vacancy created by Alekhine s death. The London Rules worked smoothly in 1927 when Capablanca was dethroned by Alexander Alekhine (see Game 14).net/jnserver/acc_random=1770561198/site= DARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10 9655/pos=bot/pageid=44223/quantSegs=D"></script> financial conditions (in particular. its French acronym for Fédération Internationale des Échecs. after World Champion. FIDE also took over the Women s World Championship and biennial Olympiad team championships. which originated in the 1920s. The highest title. FIDE s attempts to intervene failed. In addition. . but then proved to be a financial obstacle in Capablanca s bid for a rematch. until 1975 the FIDE format worked without major problems.

and Tehr n. Alexander Khalifman of Russia won the first tournament. won by Karpov. he and Kasparov decided instead to play the match under the auspices of a new organization. In 2000 the tournament venue was split between New Delhi. he objected to a rule. In particular. which recognized Kramnik as the classical world chess champion. FIDE disqualified Kasparov and organized its own world championship match. the Professional Chess Association (PCA). the Bulgarian grandmaster Veselin . Nevada. which was held in Las Vegas.) Before Kasparov defeated Short in London in late 1993 in the first PCA championship. Fischer insisted on a greater say in match rules than had any previous champion in the FIDE era. he agreed to a unification match in 2006 with FIDE s challenger. Garry Kasparov. In the end he refused to defend his title. India.000 in 1973.100 in 1957 to more than 70. Fischer s successor. that limited championship matches to 24 games. The victory of Robert J. reigned for 10 years but was dethroned in 1985 by a countryman and bitter rival. when Nigel Short of England won the right to challenge Kasparov for the championship in 1993. After winning the highly publicized match. Meanwhile. but Fischer demanded further concessions. FIDE dropped the rule. and was won by Viswanathan Anand of India. (See Game 23. However. in 1975 he became the first champion to lose it by default. winning each time. (See Game 20.) Kasparov then clashed repeatedly with FIDE over the rules governing the championship. He reluctantly agreed to defend his title under the federation s rules three times during 1986 90. Kasparov lost a title match to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia in 2000. used by FIDE since 1951. Chess Federation jumped from 2.Membership in the U. FIDE began holding annual knockout tournaments in 1999 to determine its championship.S. and all the championship matches were held in Moscow with small prizes and limited international publicity. Iran.000 a sum greater than all previous title matches combined. Following negotiations with FIDE.) Fischer s demands spurred an increase in the prize fund to $250. Anatoly Karpov of the Soviet Union. (See Game 22. All World Champions and challengers from 1951 to 1969 were Soviet citizens. (Bobby) Fischer of the United States in 1972 was an abrupt change.

George Gossip. defeated a strong English amateur. Edith Winter-Wood composed more than 2. The ABC of Chess. Her good results against men in British events led to invitations to some of the strongest pre-World War II tournaments. Women players achieved distinction separately from men by the middle of the ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=16205/quantSegs=D"></script> Netherlands in 1847. Anand won the tournament and successfully defended the title against Kramnik in a 12-game match in 2008 Women in chess Separation of the sexes in chess is a relatively recent phenomenon. a tournament organized by FIDE in 1927. by A Lady (H. The first chess book written by a woman. The first woman player to gain attention in over-the-board competition with men was Vera Menchik (1906 44) of Great Britain. and the next six women s championship tournaments. (For example. As part of the unification contract.000 problems. 700 of which appeared in a book published in 1902. the winner agreed to risk the consolidated title in FIDE s 2007 World Championship Tournament. Kramnik won the match. Literature abounds with examples of men and women playing one another before 1800.adbureau. The first chess clubs specifically for women were organized in The<script src="http://eb. who had won the 2005 FIDE World Championship Tournament. Cooke). Shakespeare s only chess scene depicts Miranda playing Ferdinand in the last act of The Tempest. twice in an international correspondence match in 1879 announcing checkmate in 21 moves in one game and in 35 moves in the other. Women also gained distinction in postal and problem chess during this period. in 1930 39. The first women s tournament was sponsored in 1884 by the Sussex Chess Association.Topalov. She won the first Women s World Championship.I. including Carlsbad 1929 .) But women were often barred from the coffeehouses and taverns where chess clubs developed in the 19th century. appeared in England in 1860 and went into 10 editions. An American woman. Ellen Gilbert.

) Gaprindashvili was succeeded by another Georgian. Soviet women took the top four places. Among the strong male masters who lost to her were the world champion Max Euwe. After Menchik s death the next three champions were Ludmilla Rudenko of Ukraine and Elizaveta Bykova and Olga Rubtsova of Russia. Edgar Colle. 1981. They also distinguished . for example. larger than anything open to either sex in the West. Sultan Khan. Gaprindashvili held the title for 16 years and became the first woman to earn the title of International Grandmaster. Maya Chiburdanidze. with the victory of Nona Gaprindashvili in 1962. of China. Soviet domination of women s chess ended with the defeat of Chiburdanidze by Xie Jun. Samuel Reshevsky. Susan. Georgians also won the right to challenge the champions in 1975. After Menchik s death. Zsófia. an era of supremacy by Georgian players began. But. The Polgárs of Budapest were the most impressive women prodigies ever. and Judit. followed. Massive events.) Women s chess received a major boost when the Soviet Union endorsed separate women s tournaments as part of a general encouragement of the game. and 1988. She was also one of the first women chess professionals. (FIDE established separate titles of International Woman Master in 1950 and International Woman Grandmaster in 1977. The Women s World Championship has been decided by matches or elimination match tournaments organized by FIDE since 1953. and Frederick Yates. FIDE held a 16-player tournament in Moscow during the winter of 1949 50 to fill the vacancy. Improvements in playing strength ensued and led to Soviet domination of women s chess for more than 30 years. in 1991 and the rise of the three Polgár sisters.000 women took part in the preliminary sections of the 1936 Soviet women s championship. The 1924 women s championship of Leningrad was the first women s tournament sponsored by any government. (See Game 15. each had achieved grandmaster-level performances by age 15. Jacques Mieses. nearly 5. in 1978.(tournaments are identified by venue and year) and Moscow 1935.

Nona Chiburdanidze. The 2004 tournament was won by Antoaneta Stefanova of Bulgaria. In the 1990s a series of men-versus-women events were organized as the difference in playing strength narrowed. the women s championship was won in 2006 by Xu Yuhua of China and in 2008 by Alexandra Kosteniuk of Russia. Among the women was Judit Polgár. Maya Xie Jun Polgar. FIDE had difficulty funding further events in the series. In 1995 a team of five senior male grandmasters. Back on a regular two-year cycle. until Susan Polgar defeated Xie for the women s championship in 1996. so the next tournament did not take place until 2004. Susan** Xie Jun Nationality Russian Ukrainian Russian Russian Russian Georgian Georgian Chinese Hungarian Chinese . Women s world chess champions Championship reign name 1927-44 1950-53 1953-56 1956-58 1958-62 1962-78 1978-91 1991-96 1996-99 1999-2001 Menchik-Stevenson. Olga Bykova. Elizaveta Gaprindashvili. Zhu Chen of China won the 2001 FIDE Women s World Championship Tournament. Vera Francevna* Rudenko. Ludmilla Bykova.themselves by generally avoiding women-only competitions. ranked eighth in the world on the international rating lists issued in July and October 2005 by FIDE. the highest level any woman had ever achieved. including the former world champions Boris Spassky and Vasily Smyslov. Elizaveta Rubtsova. was beaten 26 1/2 to 23 1/2 in a match against five leading women.

Books analyzing a few basic opening moves. where maneuvering in defense and attack against the opponent s king or weaknesses occurs. a middlegame stage. elementary middlegame combinations. where piece development and control of the centre predominate. when a player develops the pieces from their starting squares.2001-2004 2004-2006 2006-2008 2008- Zhu Chen Antoaneta Stefanova Xu Yuhua Alexandra Kosteniuk Chinese Bulgarian Chinese Russian Development of Theory There are three recognized phases in a chess game: the opening.adbureau. pawn promotion becomes the dominant theme. positional analysis (particularly pawn structures). Chess theory consists of opening knowledge. Those games pit a material- . in which the player with<script src="http://eb. generally after several piece exchanges. Gioacchino Greco. and an endgame stage. in which plans are conceived and carried out. following several exchanges and captures. tactics (or combinations). Philidor and the birth of chess theory Early chess players recognized that a typical game could be divided into three parts. each with its own character and priorities: the opening stage. strategy. About 1620 an Italian master. where. wrote an analysis of a series of composed games that illustrated two contrasting approaches to chess. the ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=37007/quantSegs=D"></script> the superior chances tries to convert an advantage into victory. and simple elements of endgame technique appeared as early as the 15th century. and the endgame.

an enormously influential book that appeared in more than 100 editions. against an opponent who sacrifices material in pursuit of checkmate and usually wins. Philidor believed that a mobile mass of pawns is the most important positional factor in the middlegame and that an attack will fail unless the pawns to sustain it are properly supported. that player should try to form an overall goal. rook. His games were filled with pretty combinations made possible by poor defensive play. a composer of music. His most famous comment that pawns are the very life of the game is often cited without his explanation of why they are important: because. such as kingside attack. Greco. Philidor also placed a premium on anticipating enemy threats rather than merely concentrating on one s own attack. battle. unguarded by another pawn and incapable of being safely advanced. pawns alone form the basis for attack. doubled on the same file. But Philidor believed that the significance of the pawns had been overlooked and drew particular attention to their weaknesses and strengths. The first coordinated explanation of how chess games are won came in the 18th century from François-André Philidor of France. In Analyze Philidor used apparently fictitious games to illustrate his principles for conducting a strategic. They had considerable influence in popularizing chess and in showing that there were different theories about how it should be played. regarded as the first chess professional. His comments on certain 1 e4 e5 openings were copied for decades by other masters. or made backward that is. and bishop against king and rook was the first extensive examination of a particular endgame. and his analysis of king.He warned against allowing pawns to be isolated from one another. rather than tactical. emphasized tactics. In 1749 Philidor wrote and published L Analyze des échecs (Chess Analyzed). Greco and previous writers had explored the tactical interplay of two or three pieces. He linked the qualities of pawns to other pieces . Philidor. But it was Philidor s middlegame advice that was his greatest legacy. he said. was regarded as the world s best chess player for nearly 50 years. He emphasized the role of planning: Once all a player s pieces are developed. who attempts to win as many of the opponent s pieces as possible. that coordinates the forces.minded player.

the Modena school showed that games could be won in fewer than 20 moves through speedy piece mobilization. with the disappointing exception of Howard Staunton. and Domenico Ponziani criticized Philidor s ideas. Philidor illustrated the purely positional sacrifice in which a player obtains compensation such as superior piece mobility or pawn structure. The ideas of the Modena school were not fully appreciated until they appeared. called gambits. At the age of 22 Morphy retired from serious chess. in slightly different form. Morphy remains the only great chess thinker who left no written legacy. who evaded all attempts to arrange a match. He also advocated the exchange of an f-pawn for an enemy e-pawn because it would partially open the file for a castled rook at f1. While previous authors had shown how pawns or other pieces could be temporarily sacrificed in checkmating or material-gaining combinations. Italy Ercole del Rio. Morphy s contemporaries knew as much about the openings as he did. But . became the hallmark of many players of the 19th century. Morphy and the theory of attack From 1750 to 1769 a group of masters from Modena. They believed that he had exaggerated the importance of the pawns at the expense of the other pieces and had minimized the power of a direct attack on the enemy king. often with startling sacrifices in concluding combinations.and was the first to emphasize how a bishop could be bad or good depending on how restricted it was by a fixed pawn structure. and some of them could calculate combinations as well as he. By analyzing the play of 16thcentury Italian masters. in order to achieve rapid mobilization and open lines for an attack. Checkmating attacks. Morphy s chess career lasted less than three years and consisted of fewer than 75 serious games. See for one of the most celebrated examples of Romanticism. In 1858 59 he defeated all the leading European players. in the games of Paul Morphy. Giambattista Lolli. compared with Philidor s slow-developing pawn marches. the first American recognized as the world s best player. There followed a proliferation of speculative pawn sacrifices in the opening. These leading masters were described as members of the Romantic school of chess.

Steinitz began his career as a tactical. combinational player in the Morphy style. Pawns were often sacrificed so that the queen. as the centre or kingside became more open. The first priority for Morphy was the initiative. But Morphy rarely failed to bring an initiative to fruition. by a lopsided score of 7 2. the ability to force matters. pawns and knights played minor roles. Superior development in a position with few centre pawns conferred the initiative on one player. In the games of lesser players the initiative might pass back and forth as players err. Wilhelm Steinitz. Emanuel Lasker. particularly in closed or semiclosed positions. that the natural outcome of a game is a draw because of the inherent balance between the forces of White and Black and. This enabled him not only to win favourable positions but also to avoid loss in inferior positions. when he was 58. blocked pawn structures that Philidor had embraced. a supporter asked Anderssen why he had not sacrificed his pieces brilliantly against the American.adbureau. Steinitz and the theory of equilibrium Morphy s eventual successor. an advantage in development increased in value. Anderssen is reputed to have replied. In Morphy s best-known games. But.Morphy understood how and when to attack<script src="http://eb. as he had against other masters. reigned as world champion until ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=48999/quantSegs=D"></script> better than anyone else. Morphy appreciated that superior development getting pieces onto good squares in the first 10 to 15 moves was relatively unimportant in the semiclosed. second. that only his successor. and bishops could join the attack as soon as possible. But in his late thirties he developed insight into subtle positional characteristics that take precedence in positions in which the . Steinitz said his modern school was guided by two premises: first. The Prague-born Steinitz managed to retain his superiority for so long because he developed new principles of the middlegame. and Lasker s contemporaries fully appreciated. the greatest of the Romantics. that checkmate is the ultimate but not the first objective of the game. Morphy won t let me. rooks. After he defeated Adolf Anderssen.

Steinitz concluded that in a typical position each side has certain small advantages which tend to balance one another. He originated the term hole to mean a vulnerable square that has lost its pawn protection and can be occupied favourably by an enemy piece. Steinitz realized that the way to justify a decisive attack in the postMorphy era was to accumulate small. A failed attack. Steinitz tried to answer the mystery of why some attacks succeed. either by the player s mistakes or the opponent s good moves. A pawn with no friendly pawns on adjoining files is called an isolated pawn. it became harder and harder to obtain a lead in development against an unwilling opponent. could be nurtured into the endgame. For example. or having greater maneuvering space. such as a superior pawn structure. Steinitz said. regardless of how skillful the defender. Morphy s advantage in development was one way of upsetting the balance. While a lead in development may be transient. particularly with knights. having an entrenched knight at a fortified outpost. But by the 1870s. advantages for example. isolated pawns may confer middlegame compensation through control of important squares (if located in the centre) or by giving rooks adjoining open files along which to attack. often results in defeat for the attacker. often subtle. An attack is justified only when the balance has been upset. which tends to increase as pieces are exchanged. The following common pawn weaknesses are disadvantageous in direct proportion to their exploitability. In his games Steinitz showed how slow-evolving maneuvers in the opening. having two bishops when one s opponent has two knights. paid dividends in the middlegame if the centre was closed. Structural weaknesses generally involve pawns that are difficult to defend or squares (especially in the centre or around the king) that enemy pieces can occupy without being dislodged by pawn attacks. A pawn on an open file whose advance is restrained by an enemy pawn on . other advantages. regardless of how talented the attacker. while others fail.centre is fully or partially blocked by immobile pawns. a player may have weakened the opponent s pawns but at the expense of trading a bishop for a slightly less valuable knight. whose forces suddenly become poorly coordinated in the face of a counterattack. after Morphy s games became familiar to all masters. he added.

Some subtle advantages do not become significant until the endgame. Joseph Blackburne. The kingside pawns are often held back near or on their original squares for king protection. who relentlessly aimed for the enemy king. can create a powerful passed pawn that may prove decisive in the late middlegame or adjoining file and that is unguardable by any other pawn is termed a backward pawn. But. Two pawns that occupy the same file (through captures) are called doubled pawns. Even when playing the White pieces. In match play he consistently defeated the leading Romantics Adolf Anderssen. Steinitz argued that the nature of the position dictated<script src="http://eb. popularized the minority attack. The win of a mere pawn was in the large majority of cases fatal among first-class masters.adbureau. a player is often left with three pawns each on the kingside and queenside. one of Steinitz students. Steinitz left a legacy of both. after routine pawn captures and recaptures. he often invited his opponent to open the centre by exchanging pawns or to be the first to cross the fourth rank. and Mikhail Chigorin. On the other hand. while the opponent has four on the kingside and two on the queenside. He reasoned that such attacks must be premature if the equilibrium was in balance and so could be punished after patient defensive play. For example. He is regarded as the first player to take a scientific approach to chess. He added that a player who does not attack when in a position advantageous enough to justify it will lose the advantage. . While Philidor was known for his writings and Morphy for his games. Steinitz found. Unlike the Romantics. Steinitz was also the first master of defensive play. referred to as a queenside ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=57779/quantSegs=D"></script> whether to target the kingside or queenside. The small advantages could be converted at an appropriate moment to material by means of attack. advancing on the queenside where the player has a majority of the pawns. Johann Zukertort. Harry Nelson Pillsbury. in which the player with fewer queenside pawns advances them in certain positions in order to weaken his opponent s pawns.

In one of the games the players begin with four minutes and receive 10 seconds for each move played. the Melody Amber held in Monaco since 1992. As chess promoters moved toward organizing tournaments with spectators in particular. in a speed game. the match rules gave each player an additional 40 minutes to play 20 moves but also added an extra minute for each move played. In the second they play without sight of the board so-called blindfold chess beginning with four minutes and receiving 20 seconds for each move.Time elements & controls The Fischer clock Quick chess took a new turn in the 1990s with a variation on Staunton s single-move principle and Lasa s time-budget idea. One of the most interesting annual tournaments.adbureau. The Fischer clock gained international attention after the expatriate American briefly came out of retirement in 1992 to play a nonsanctioned world championship match with Boris Spassky in the cities of Belgrade and Sveti Stefan in Yugoslavia. a player could begin with five minutes and receive an additional 10 or 15 seconds<script src="http://eb. television audiences in mind. For ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=32903/quantSegs=D"></script> after making each move. features top grandmasters playing a pair of games using the Fischer clock. who had not played a public game since winning the world championship in 1972. the shorter time limits became a way of life for professional players. patented a chess clock in 1988 that added an increment of time after a player completed a move and hit the button on top. The rules of the match stipulated that each player begin with 111 minutes on his clock and receive one minute for each move played. This meant that after 40 moves each player had been allotted 151 minutes. or one minute more than the 40-in-2 1/2-hours format used when Fischer won the championship title from Spassky in 1972. For the second control. Fischer. .

introduced an electromagnetic device composed of wire. the Turk was a cleverly constructed cabinet that concealed a human master. who ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=28665/quantSegs=D"></script> analyzing one ply (one side s move) ahead. As a scientific toy. Eng. the first of the pseudoautomatons. king and rook versus king. wrote a program capable of solving mate-in-two-move problems but not actually playing chess. before it was dismantled following World War I. Prinz. when the Turk.adbureau. The machine did not always play the best moves and sometimes took 50 moves to perform a task that an average human player could complete in fewer than 20. by remote control.G. switch. D. Mephisto. it gained attention for his belief in the capability of machines to be programmed to follow certain rules. Se Heuristics The ability of a machine to play chess well has taken on symbolic meaning since the first precomputer devices more than a century ago.. In 1890 a Spanish scientist. began a triumphal exhibition tour of Europe. however. Four years later a Manchester colleague. But it could recognize illegal moves and always delivered eventual checkmate. About 1947 Alan Turing of the University of Manchester. including Harry Nelson Pillsbury. who was Ajeeb during part of the 1890s. Like its 19thcentury successor Ajeeb. and circuit that was capable of checkmating a human opponent in a simple endgame. No significant progress in this area was made until the development of the electronic digital machine after World War II.Chess and artificial intelligence Machines capable of playing chess have fascinated people since the latter half of the 18th century. Leonardo Torres y Quevado. developed the first simple program capable of<script src="http://eb. Several world-class players were employed to operate the pseudo-automatons. and Isidor Gunsberg and Jean Taubenhaus. The mystery of the Turk was the subject of more than a dozen books and a widely discussed article written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1836. the last of the pseudo-automatons. . Torres y Quevado acknowledged that the apparatus had no practical purpose.

including the condition of pawns and their control of the centre squares. a human master can quickly evaluate the mobility of bishops or the relative safety of the king. a Black reply. Early programs performed the same evaluation by counting the number of legal bishop moves or the squares under control around a player s king. he said. Therefore. to machines that could translate from language to language or make strategic military decisions.J. by evaluating future positions that were not checkmates. This evaluation function is crucial because even a rudimentary program would have to determine the relative differences between thousands of different positions. and a White response to that would mean 30 × 30 × 30. Shannon.. But Shannon suggested that each position could be weighed using positional criteria.) Turing s evaluation function was dominated by determining which side had more pieces in various future positions. or 27. and specific cases of well-placed pieces. U. Shannon s paper set down criteria for evaluating each position a program would consider. presented a paper that influenced all future programmers. A three-ply search an initial move by White. In a typical position White may have 30 legal moves. positions resulting from Black s reply. This means that a machine considering White s best move may have to examine 30 × 30.000. a two-ply search.. (It has been estimated that humans examine only about 50 positions before choosing a move. such as a rook on an open (pawnless) file or on the seventh rank. For example. stressed that progress in developing a chess-playing program would have a wider application and could lead. not merely legal. and to each of those moves Black may have 30 possible replies. . or 900. Shannon appreciated that a computer conducting an entire game would have to make decisions using incomplete information because it could not examine all the positions leading to checkmate. All criteria had to be quantified. it would have to select moves that were good.A breakthrough came in 1948.S. like Torres y Quevada and Turing. Other criteria were used by later programmers to refine and improve the evaluation function. different final positions to be considered. when the research scientist Claude Shannon of Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill. N. the mobility of the other pieces. which might lie 40 or 50 moves ahead.

was introduced in 1996. a program written by Richard Greenblatt.) Also helping computer progress was the availability of microprocessors in the late 1970s. improved on HiTech with a custom-designed chip. it saw as far as six moves ahead. When Deep Blue. Sharp increases in computing power enabled computers to see much further. Chess Federation tournament. a program powerful enough to consider 700. drew one game and lost four in a U. By the late 1980s the strongest machines were capable of beating more than 90 percent of the world s serious players. Its results improved markedly. developed at Carnegie Mellon University.0. This was borne out by a steady improvement by the best programs until Deep Thought played above the 2700 level in 1988. one for each square on the board. won the North American Computer Championship in 1987 and evolved into Deep Thought. HiTech. Bent Larsen. (Gary Kasparov said he normally looks only three to five moves ahead. and was capable of considering up to 175. Computers of the 1960s could evaluate positions no more than two moves ahead. Chiptest. from a performance equivalent to a USCF rating of 1243 to reach 1640 by April 1967. a program devised by a team of Northwestern University researchers that dominated computer chess in the 1970s. Technical advances accelerated progress in computer chess during the 1970s and 80s. an MIT undergraduate. . In the same year another Carnegie Mellon program. FengHsiung Hsu. about the average for a USCF member.Computer chess Computers began to compete against humans in the late 1960s. Arnold Denker. defeated a top-notch grandmaster. The first American computer championship was held in New York City in 1970 and was won by Chess 3. In 1988 a computer.000 positions per second. in a short match. This allowed programmers unattached to universities to develop commercial microcomputers that by the 1990s were nearly as strong as programs running on mainframes. in a tournament game. adding that for humans more are not needed. The result. Deep Thought.000 positions a second.S. its successor. but authorities estimated that each additional half-move of search would increase a program s performance level by 250 rating points. defeated a grandmaster. a Carnegie Mellon student. HiTech used 64 computer chips. In February 1967 MacHack VI.

000 positions per second. had one microprocessor and no extra chips. In that year a Fritz 3 program. would soon be playing at the equivalent of a 3000 rating (compared with Kasparov s 2800). but Kasparov modified his style and turned the later games into strategic.S.adbureau.000 prize fund and IBM s live game coverage at their World Wide Web site attracted worldwide media attention. Later in the year Kasparov was eliminated from a game/25 tournament in London after losing a two-game match against Genius running on a Pentium personal computer. At faster speeds even personal computers were able to defeat the world s best humans by 1994. rather than tactical. to predict the weather) that employed 32 microprocessors. a sophisticated new multiprocessing system (later used at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. a rate that was about a thousand times faster than Deep Thought s. Ger. by comparison. but this proved excessively optimistic. The $500. and used chess to test. ahead of 16 other grandmasters. at a five-minute tournament in Munich. each with six programmable chips designed specifically for ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=11111/quantSegs=D"></script> an effort to defeat the world s best player by the mid-1990s in a traditional time limit. The new hardware enabled Deep Blue to consider as many as 50 billion positions in three minutes. tied for first place with Kasparov.Although its evaluation skills were not as well developed as HiTech s and far below that of a human grandmaster Deep Thought was sponsored by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in<script src="http://eb. Deep Blue made its debut in a six-game match with PCA champion Kasparov in February 1996. battles in which evaluation was more important than . U.. The main improvement was in the computer running the chess program. IBM developed. examining 100. renamed Deep Blue. Deep Thought. In 1991 Deep Thought s team said the program. Deep Blue won the first game. The Kasparov Deep Blue match in Philadelphia was the first time a world champion had played a program at a slow (40 moves in two hours) time format. Ga..

in New York City. In 1986 Kenneth Thompson of AT&T Bell Laboratories reported a series of discoveries in basic endgames. particularly in the analysis of adjourned games. the prepared idea was tested on a computer beforehand. In the 1995 PCA championship. and three draws. a king and two bishops can defeat a king and lone knight in 91. with no more than five pieces on the board.1 percent of the initial starting positions. in a position later found to be drawable. a king and queen can defeat a king and two bishops in 92. Because of their ability to store information. Kasparov forced Deep Blue out of much of its prematch preparation. Its algorithm for considering positions was also improved with advice from human grandmasters. After resigning the second game. Thompson s research proved that certain conclusions that had remained unchallenged in endgame books for decades were untrue. computers had become invaluable to professional players by the 1990s. By adopting a new set of conservative openings. He won three and drew two of the remaining games to win the match 4 2. Kasparov said he never recovered psychologically. an upgraded Deep Blue was able to consider an average of 200 million positions per second. computers have severe limits. (See Game 25. Deep Blue won the decisive final game in 19 moves. Also. with best play on both sides. one loss. Thompson was able to build up an enormous number of variations showing every possible way of reaching the final ones.) In a six-game rematch held May 3 11. With the match tied at one win.8 percent of situations despite human analysis that concluded the position was drawn. twice its previous speed. For example. By working backward from positions of checkmate. However. 1997. this endgame had been regarded as a hopeless drawn situation. and the .calculation. Thompson s research of some fivepiece endgames required considering more than 121 million positions. Computer extension of chess theory Computers have played a role in extending the knowledge of chess. According to his aides. This has been possible with only the most elementary endgames. Kasparov won the 10th game with a heavily analyzed opening based on the sacrifice of a rook.

The world chess . In problems. postal chess becomes computer chess. sharply reduces the quality of a composition. beauty. heterodox problems and related retrograde analysis. Under these and other criteria. Chess composition Chess compositions are created positions in which one side. if the use of computers is extended to finding the best moves in the middlegame or endgame.program evaluated the variation as being in the opponent s favour until it had reached the end of Kasparov s lengthy analysis. White is asked to force checkmate in a specific number of moves. Black is required to put up the best defense in the solutions of both studies and problems. In the third category. and the absence of extraneous pieces distinguish good compositions from great and poor ones. or ARWIN_C/area=ARTICLES/source=other/aamsz=300x250/topicid=10965 5/pos=bot/pageid=83973/quantSegs=D"></script> is required to perform a task. The reader is called upon to find the task s solution. There are three basic forms of composition depending on the type of task. The availability of top-notch microcomputers poses a major problem for postal chess. In studies. However. By the 1990s most serious postal players used a computer database containing thousands of games categorized by opening moves. usually White. in an indeterminate number of moves. criteria such as originality. A principal difference between over-the-board chess and all forms of correspondence chess is that in the latter players are permitted to analyze a position by moving the pieces and by consulting reference books. difficulty. either a clear winning or drawn position. In each case.adbureau. the existence of a second solution. composers of studies and problems have competed in organized tournaments since the middle of the 19th century. Also. moves first and<script src="http://eb. the reader is asked to perform unusual tasks. White is asked to reach a desired result. The International Correspondence Chess Federation said in 1993 that the existence of chess computers is a reality and for correspondence chess the use of chess computers cannot be controlled.

Such a won position is not necessarily one leading to immediate checkmate but one with a prohibitively large advantage of material for White. either White to play and win or White to play and draw. Vladimir Korolkov. called man b t and dating from Arabic and Persian manuscripts. Studies have also been based on arresting or unusual ideas. Some compositions beginning with a bare minimum of pieces involve a solution of more than 20 moves. . such as the ability to give perpetual check. were intended to instruct players on how to win endgames. including underpromotion. The first studies. such as two kings and only two or three pawns. Themes of instructional studies. The solution was illustrated by verses from Longfellow s poem Excelsior. such as the pursuit of more than one aim at a time.federation. that prevents Black from winning. Studies about chess Composed studies are usually positions with a small number of pieces and may resemble an endgame from actual play. or sacrifices. A position always is accompanied by a stipulation. Highly praised studies have been composed with a minimum of material. A drawn position may be one in which Black lacks enough material to win or in which White has created an impenetrable fortress for his pieces or has obtained some kind of positional advantage. awards the titles of International Master and International Grandmaster of Chess Composition based on having studies and problems published in the FIDE albums. stalemate. published a study entitled Excelsior in 1958 in which White wins only by making six consecutive captures by a pawn. are often used in practical play to turn what otherwise would be a draw or loss into a win. There is no time limit on achieving a position that is objectively won or drawn. a celebrated Russian composer. Solutions are often elaborate. FIDE.

as well as Paul Keres and Jan Timman. Many leading players were also accomplished study composers.Positions with practical application were known as early as the 9th century and were particularly popular in the 19th century. . including the world champions Max Euwe. and Vasily Smyslov. Mikhail Botvinnik.

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