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May/June 2011 www.thebigpicturemgazine.


Cinema of the
contents Issue Fourteen. May/June 2011

0 6 | Spotlight
Lost In Transition:
Cinema of the Non-Place

1 4 | Art & Film

Bruce Almighty:

directory of The Kung-Fu King as

Cultural Icon

24 | Widescreen
MOMI Dearest:
The World's Leading
Museum of the Moving


3 0 | 1000 Words
A New Frontier:
The Legacy of 2001: A
Space Odyssey

0 4 | Reel World
'There's no reason to Grizzly Man
become alarmed, and we 1 8 | One Sheet
hope you'll enjoy the rest Lost In Space
of your flight. By the way, is
there anyone on board who 2 8 | Four Frames
knows how to fly a plane?' Paperhouse
Elaine Dickinson 3 4 | On Location

experience global culture

London, UK

3 8 | Screengem
Stairway To Heaven

through the magic of film

4 2 | Parting Shot
One In The Eye

4 6 | Listings
The Directory of World Cinema aims to play a part in moving intelligent, scholarly criticism beyond the
academy. Each volume of the Directory provides a culturally representative insight into a national or regional
cinema through a collection of reviews, essays, resources, and film stills highlighting significant films and
cover image the terminal (KOBAL)
34 A roundup of this issue's
featured films

players. Over time, new editions will be published for each volume, gradually building a comprehensive
guide to the cinema of each region. To contribute to the project or purchase copies please visit the website. The Big Picture ISSN 1759-0922 © 2011 intellect Ltd. Published by Intellect Ltd. The Mill, Parnall Road. Bristol BS16 3JG /
Editorial office Tel. 0117 9589910 / E: Publisher Masoud Yazdani Senior Editor & Art Direction Gabriel Solomons Editor Scott Jordan Harris
Design Assistant Persephone Coelho Contributors Jez Conolly, Daniel Steadman, Calvin Mcmillin, Neil Mitchell, Nicola Balkind, Scott Jordan Harris, Gabriel Solomons
Please send all email enquiries to: / l The Big Picture magazine is published six times a year

www . worldcinemadirectory. org Published by intellect |

May/June 2011 3
To view our catalogue or order our books and journals visit Intellect, The Mill, Parnall Road, Fishponds, Bristol, BS16 3JG. | Tel: +44 (0) 117 9589910
Image Courtesy

reel world
f i l m b e yo n d t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e s c r e e n

When Timothy Treadwell headed into the
Alaskan wilderness to document grizzly bears,
he initiated events that would lead to a tragedy
– and a remarkable movie. Neil Mitchell
leaves civilization behind.
Herzog’s film takes
T h e u n s p oi l ed a nd
its subject matter and
untamed beauty of the Alaskan
Katmai National Park and
expands on it to become
Preserve forms the stunning
backdrop to Werner Herzog’s
awareness of the problems
facing the animals, and these
a philosophical tract on
extraordinary documentary recordings are showcased as
Herzog muses on Treadwell’s
identity, film-making,
Grizzly Man (2005). Focus-
ing on the life and early death ultimately fatal obsession and spiritual nourishment,
the wider questions his pio-
of bear enthusiast Timothy
Treadwell, Herzog’s film takes neering attitude provoked. and the clash between
its left-of-centre subject matter
and expands on it to become a
Treadwell, a troubled, ideal-
istic and naïve soul split public civilisation and nature.
philosophical tract on identity, opinion, with many warming
film-making, spiritual nourish- to his childlike enthusiasm
ment, and the clash between and rejection of much of con-
civilisation and nature. temporary society’s trappings;
Treadwell, a self-appointed while others dismissed him as
‘kind warrior’ and ‘spirit in being foolhardy, disrespect-
the wilderness,’ spent thir- ful and guilty of an invasion
teen summers studying and of territory. Herzog, rather
living with the grizzlies of the than sitting in judgement, is
Katmai Park before he and his transfixed by Treadwell’s call-
girlfriend, Amie Huguenard, ing, of his need to return to a
met their untimely deaths dur- simpler but harsher world. The
ing a frenzied attack by one of unstaged, unexpected moments
the bears. Treadwell kept a vast captured by Treadwell’s video
video diary of his years raising camera represent ‘the inex-
plicable magic of cinema’ for
Herzog, and highlight both the
beauty and savagery of the wild
that the grizzlies so memorably
symbolise. [tbp]

left Timothy Treadwell and Amie Huguenard / above Timothy Treadwell among grizzlies

gofurther [web ] Arrange to view Alaskan grizzly bears by visiting

4 May/June 2011 5

Lost in
Y c i n e m a ' s t h e m at i c s t r a n d s

Film characters moving from one place to another
often become stranded in the non-place between.
Jez C on olly and N i c ol a B a lk i n d follow six
examples, and try not to get lost along the way.

Brief Encounter
Dir. David Lean

The tearoom at Milford Junction

railway station provides the
transitory environment for middle-
class housewife Laura Jesson (Celia
Johnson) and married doctor
Alec Harvey (Trevor Howard)
to conduct their fleeting and
ultimately doomed romance. Based
on Noel Coward’s 1936 short play,
Still Life, we see Laura and Alec’s
liaison compressed from April
through to the following March
(as in the theatrical version) to six
successive Thursdays in the film.
Each time, the tearoom is
unchanged, emphasising the
temporal stasis that allows the
relationship to grow. Within this
space the characters maintain a
buttoned-down stillness; much of
Johnson’s contribution is delivered
through internalised monologue
as she wrestles with her marital
deceit, matched to close-ups as
she attempts to remain unmoved
before the curious gaze of the
tearoom manageress (Joyce
Carey), her staff and customers.
The tearoom is The tearoom is a dream space
a dream space through which the would-be
through which the lovers are able to explore their
shared repressed desire.
would-be lovers [Jez Conolly]
are able to explore
their shared
repressed desire. ➜

montgomery clift
Kobal (2)

deborah kerr and montgomery clift

6 May/June 2011 7

Kobal (2) spotlight lost in transition

Alive (1993)
Dir. Frank Marshall
Speed (1994)
Previously filmed for the exploita- Dir. Jan de Bont
tion market as Supervivientes de los
Andes/Survive! (Cardona, 1976),
Keanu Reeves and Sandra Bullock
the story of Uruguayan Air Force
feel the need for Speed in this
Flight 571 and the fate of its 45
1994 action thriller. After retiree
passengers and crew were har-
terrorist Howard Payne’s (Dennis
rowingly yet sensitively told in
Marshall’s film. When the plane The story of Uruguayan Hopper) failed plot is stomped
out by ballsy cop Jack Traven
crashes in the Andes the survivors
are left with no source of heat, Air Force Flight 571 (Reeves), Payne plants a bomb
on an LA city bus. The device
little food and only the slenderest
hope of rescue. The eventual col- and the fate of its 45 is armed at 50mph and set to
detonate should the speedometer
lective decision to eat the flesh of
those who died in the crash (their
passengers and crew drop lower, and so the passengers’
race across the city and against
bodies having been preserved by
the Andean snow) illustrates stark-
were harrowingly yet death takes place in a place-
ly the choices that a predicament sensitively told in within-a-place.
Moving with the unyielding
of this nature presents.
The film itself spent twenty years Marshall’s film. charge of a wrecking ball, Bus
2525 houses a group of Angelenos
in Hollywood limbo: studio execu-
on their morning commute. As
tives doubted whether a mass audi-
they hunker down for their long
ence was ready for people eating
the dead to survive. Ultimately,
Keanu Reeves and Sandra Bullock The passengers’ race journey, crosswords and newspa-
pers in hand, their lives and those
Marshall shows very little cannibal-
ism on-screen, focusing instead
top left
survivors of flight 571 across the city and against of their travel-mates are pulled
on the psychological effects of the
survivors’ seemingly inescapable
death takes place in a apart and smashed back together
in a transitory home barrelling
circumstances and their strength of place-within-a-place. straight and fast like a metaphor
for the brevity of life.
will to endure.
[Nicola Balkind]
[Jez Conolly]

8 May/June 2011 9

Image courtesy kobal spotlight lost in transition

Their will to
carry on is
Ice Cold in Alex
tested as they
(1958) inch agonizingly
Dir. J. Lee Thompson up a punishing
The desert provides an ideal escarpment.
non-place for the drama to play ➜
out in Thompson’s wartime tale
of a British Army ambulance
crew’s long, hot retreat across
North Africa between Tobruk
and Alexandria. For long periods
Captain Anson (John Mills)
and his team are effectively
immobilised due to mechanical
problems with the vehicle. Their
will to carry on is tested across
minefields, against the advancing
Airplane! is not set in Airplane! (1980)
Dir. Jim Abrahams, David
Afrika Corps, and especially
as they inch agonizingly up a
either its characters’ Zucker and Jerry Zucker punishing escarpment.
The harsh environment proves
home or target cities, but Spoof-master Jim Abrahams and
to be the undoing of Nazi spy
Captain van der Poel (Anthony
on the aircraft moving co’s razor-sharp comedy Airplane!
brims with rapid references, fusing
Quayle) when quicksand
hampers his attempts to hide his
between them...It’s an American cultural pastiche with
linguistic delights. Now a cult clas-
incriminating radio set. It is during
entirely different type of sic, the film follows jilted ex-pilot
Ted Striker (Robert Hays) on-
this slow grind over the dunes
that truths are revealed, and pluck
location altogether. board a flight from LAX to Chi-
and character emerge. Thoughts
of home, and in Anson’s case the
cago in pursuit of his ex-girlfriend
supping of an ice-cold lager at
Elaine (Julie Hagerty). Piloted by
the end of the trek, motivate the
poser Roger Murdock (basketball
characters to carry on against the
legend Kareem Abdul-Jabaar) the
odds. [Jez Conolly]
madcap crew transport an even
more eccentric set of passengers on
the ill-fated flight. above left
Airplane! is not set in either its Airplane!
characters’ home or target cit- opposite
ies, but on the aircraft moving ice cold in alex
between them. Much of the film
takes place in the memories of
our star-crossed lovers, amidst
war and genre-riffic romantic mo-
ments, where Ted must confront
his painful past and recapture
the moments of beach-lain kisses
with his lady. The plane contains a
cross-section of mercenaries and
misfits, the sum of its parts greater
than its referential whole. It’s an
entirely different type of location
altogether. [Nicola Balkind]

10 May/June 2011 11

The story is c i n e m a ' s t h e m at i c s t r a n d s
based on the fate of
Iranian refugee Mehran
Karimi Nasseri, who
lived in the departure
lounge of Terminal One
at Charles de Gaulle
The Terminal (2004) Airport between August
Dir. Steven Spielberg 1988 and July 2006.
The lounges, concourses and
retail outlets of New York’s JFK
Airport offer a temporary refuge
for immigrant Viktor Navorski
(Tom Hanks), when the sudden
outbreak of revolution and
civil war in his (fictional) home
country of Krakozhia leave
him stranded, neither able to
return nor claim US citizenship.
In typical Spielberg style,
Viktor’s story is one of hope
and resourcefulness against the
odds; his geographical inertia
could have taken on Kafkaesque
overtones, but instead he makes
do, assembling a living area at an
unfinished gate, learning English
from Fodor’s guides purchased
from the airport bookshop,
and collecting luggage carts to
retrieve money.
In the process he earns the
respect of the airport’s legions
of underpaid, overqualified, put-
upon service workers. The story
is based on the fate of Iranian
refugee Mehran Karimi Nasseri,
who was similarly caught in a
legal loophole and lived in the
departure lounge of Terminal
One at Charles de Gaulle Airport
between August 1988 and July
2006. [Jez Conolly]

tom hanks in the terminal

also see... [book ] Read 'Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors' by Piers Paul Read [book ] Read 'The Terminal Man' by Mehran Karimi Nasseri and Andrew Donkin

12 May/June 2011 13

visual art inspired by film

How a statue of the Kung-Fu master helps
to tap into ideas of national identity. ★
text by C a lvi n McMi l l i n

On November 27th, 2005, that it took over thirty years to

a monument in honor of create a public monument in
Bruce Lee was erected at the honor of Bruce Lee in Hong
Avenue of Stars, a Hong Kong Kong is—to say the least—
tourist attraction located at peculiar, considering the
the Tsimshatsui Promenade actor’s enduring fame. What
along the Victoria Harbor is perhaps even more peculiar
waterfront. Modeled after is that another country had
the Hollywood Walk of Fame already beaten Hong Kong
and created, according to its to it—and in Bosnia and
official website, “to pay tribute Herzegovina, no less.
to outstanding professionals Only a day before the
of [the] Hong Kong’s film unveiling of the statue
industry, to promote [the] in Hong Kong, the city
tourism industry, and to of Mostar in Bosnia and
consolidate Hong Kong’s Herzegovina unveiled a
position as Asia’s World City,” similar statue of Bruce Lee,
the Avenue of Stars was, quite making it the first public
possibly, the ideal location to monument in the world to the
unveil a 2.5-meter tall, 600 kg international icon. This gold-
bronze statue honoring the plated bronze statue captures
industry’s all-time biggest star. Lee in a familiar action pose
The inscription at the base of –left arm raised with his palm
the statue says it all: “Bruce facing outward, while his
Lee: Star of the Century.” right hand grips his signature
The tribute, however, was a weapon, a pair of nunchaku.
long time in coming. When At first glance, a Bruce
repeated attempts to urge the Lee statue in Hong Kong
government to find a way to makes a bit more sense than
pay homage to Bruce Lee it does in Mostar. After all,
stalled, members of the locally the ethnically Chinese Bruce
based Bruce Lee Club took Lee was raised in Hong Kong
it upon themselves to raise and found international
upwards of US $100,000 to superstardom via the local
commission a sculpture. This film industry. Bruce Lee’s
long-awaited tribute finally rooted and routed connection
occurred on what would to Hong Kong is well-
have been the martial arts documented, but the actor ➜
superstar’s 65th birthday had has no evident tie to Bosnia
he not died in 1973. The fact and Herzegovina. What, then, ➜
the bruce lee statue, created by Cao Chongen,
at the Avenue of the stars in hong kong

14 May/June 2011 15

art&film WORLD
visual art inspired by film

was the rationale behind the attempts to cash-in on Lee’s
Mostar officials’ seemingly popularity, each bearing titles
incongruous choice of Bruce like Exit the Dragon, Enter the
Lee as a local icon? The city Tiger (1976), Clones of Bruce
was ravaged by bitter, bloody Lee (1977), and Bruce Lee
conflicts amongst rival ethnic Fights back from the Grave
factions during the Bosnian (1976). So prolific were Exploring The City Onscreen
War of 1992-1995. According these films that many casual
to Alexander Zaitchik, the viewers who believe they
creators of the monument have seen a Bruce Lee film
viewed it as a “sly rebuke to in their lifetime may likely
the ongoing use of public have only seen one of these
spaces to glorify the country’s pale imitations. Lee’s “absent
competing nationalisms.” presence” even had a strong
Bruce Lee, then, was chosen affect on his contemporaries
as a symbol of solidarity and successors. Even future
meant to cross these divisive superstar Jackie Chan found
ethnic borderlands. “We will himself pressured in his
always be Muslims, Serbs or early films to imitate Lee’s
Croats,” one of the organizers persona before finding his
remarked to the BBC, “But niche as a more comedic,
one thing we all have in Buster Keatonesque kung
common is Bruce Lee.” fu star. Further, Lee’s
This statement—absurd impact on martial arts
to some, perhaps inspiring cinema internationally was
to others—confirms much so dramatic that it would
of what Jachinson Chan has be impossible to elaborate
already said about the world upon it here. Despite being
famous martial artist in his known for only a handful of
World Film Locations World Film Locations World Film Locations World Film Locations
2001 book, Chinese American films, Bruce Lee has gained
London New York Tokyo Los Angeles
Masculinities: From Fu Manchu enough recognition to be
to Bruce Lee. He writes, chosen as one of Time’s Edited by Neil Mitchell Edited by Scott Jordan Harris Edited by Chris Magee Edited by Gabriel Solomons
“Bruce Lee’s popularity “100 Heroes and Icons of ISBN 9781841504841 ISBN 9781841504827 ISBN 9781841504834 ISBN 9781841504858
crosses cultural boundaries in the Twentieth Century” Paperback | UK £9.95 | US $18 Paperback | UK £9.95 | US $18 Paperback | UK £9.95 | US $18 Paperback | UK £9.95 | US $18
terms of race, class, gender, alongside such figures as Che
sexuality, and nationality. He Guevara, Harvey Milk, and An exciting and visually focused Be they period films, cult clas- From Tokyo Story to Godzilla, The heart of Hollywood’s star-
was an international hero”. Mother Teresa. This recent tour of the diverse range sics, or elaborate directorial You Only Live Twice to Enter studded film industry for more
And he still is, if the statue honor speaks directly to the of films shot on location in love letters, New York City has the Void, World Film Locations: than a century, Los Angeles and
in Mostar is any indication. man’s prolific afterlife in London, World Film Locations: played – and continues to play Tokyo presents a kaleidoscopic its abundant and ever-changing
Bruce Lee, the man, may have the realm of cinema, DVDs, London presents contributions – a central role in the imagina- view of one of the world’s most locales – from the Santa
been snuffed out in the prime books, video games, t-shirts, spanning the Victorian era, tions of film-makers and movie- exciting cities through the lens Monica Pier to the infamous
of his life, but his image, if posters, and numerous other the swinging 1960s, and the
Only a day before the unveiling of not his “spirit” endures. In cultural artifacts. As Stephan
politically charged atmosphere
goers worldwide. The stomping
ground of King Kong, it is also
of cinema. Illustrated through-
out with dynamic screen shots,
and now-defunct Ambassador
Hotel – have set the scene for
the statue in Hong Kong, the city of Hong Kong alone, numerous
pretenders-to-the-throne with
Hammond and Mike Wilkins
write, “What Elvis Presley
following the 2007 underground the place where young Jakie Ra- this volume in Intellect’s World a wide variety of cinematic
bombings. Essays exploring key
Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina stage names like Bruce Le,
Bruce Li, and Dragon Lee
was to rock ‘n’ roll, Bruce Lee
was to celluloid kung fu”. So directors, themes, and historical
binowitz of The Jazz Singer real-
izes his Broadway dream. Later,
Film Location series spotlights
fifty key scenes from classic
treasures, from Chinatown to
Forrest Gump, Falling Down to
unveiled a similar statue of Bruce Lee, sought to fill the void in the popular is Bruce Lee that one periods are complemented by it is the backdrop against which and contemporary films shot the coming-of-age classic Boyz
reviews of important scenes taxi driver Travis Bickle exacts in Tokyo, accompanied by n the Hood. This volume marks
making it the first public monument in wake of Lee’s death, starring
in dozens of unofficial sequels,
need not to have ever seen a
Bruce Lee film to be familiar that offer particular insight a grisly revenge. The inaugural insightful essays that take us an engaging citywide tour of the
the world to the international icon. heartfelt homages, and crass with who he is. [tbp] into London’s relationship to volume in an exciting new series from the wooden streets of pre- many films shot on location in
cinema. From Terror on the from Intellect, World Film Loca- nineteenth-century Edo to the this birthplace of cinema and
above the statue of bruce lee at mostar created by Croatian sculptor Ivan Fijolić This an abridged version of an Underground to Thames Tales tions: New York pairs incisive sprawling ‘what-if’ megalopolis the screen spectacle.
article that first appeared on the to Richard Curtis’s affectionate profiles of quintessential New of science fiction and fantasy World Film Locations: Los Ange-
Ronin on Empty blog hosted by portrayal of the city in Love York film-makers – among them anime. For the film scholar, or les demonstrates how motion in May 2009. Actually, this user-friendly Woody Allen, Martin Scorsese, for all those who love Japanese pictures have contributed to the
To read the full article visit the guide explores the diversity and Sidney Lumet, and Spike Lee – cinema and want to learn more, multifarious role of the city in website distinctiveness of films shot on with essays on key features of World Film Locations: Tokyo will our collective consciousness.
location in London. the city’s landscape that have be an essential guide.
appeared on the big screen.
gofurther [magazine ] Parting Shot: Bruce lee's Game of Death jumpsuit in The Big Picture issue 7
For more information and to pre-order copies simply visit
one sheet
deconstructing film posters

Lost i�
A long standing ambition of 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
Original US
mankind has been to conquer Art by Frank McCall
space, and our fascination with The iconic 'Starchild' poster
designed for Stanley Kubrick's
this 'great unknown' has fuelled epic space opera was one in a
the imaginations of film directors series of posters issued by MGM
after the initial release of 2001:
for over a century. We look at a A Space Odyssey in 1968. The
original campaign for the film
few of the posters that tapped into featured illustrations by Frank
both our fears and expectations. McCall along with an alternate
set of posters that incorporated
Images: The Reel Poster Gallery, London photographic stills from the
film itself. This arresting image,
with its tagline, "The Ultimate
Trip", was designed by Mike
Kaplan and issued by MGM to
capitalize on what the company
came to realise was a growing
phenomenon -- people showing
up to see the film while tripping
on LSD and other psychedelic
'stimulants'. Although Stanley
Kubrick was an avid fan of the
font Futura Extra Bold - which
he used on posters for both 2001
and Eyes Wide Shut - the font
used by Mike Kaplan on this
poster is actually Gill Sans.

Dark Star (1975)
Original US Style B
Art by Jim Evans
John Carpenter's directorial
debut is a low-budget, sci-fi
satire which focuses on a group
of scientists whose mission is
to destroy unstable planets.
Jim Evans artwork combines
the more comedic undertones
of the header text with the
fairly creepy and nightmarish
central image to great effect
- referencing earlier science
fiction film posters (such as
2001: A Space Oddysey) with
the addition of a clever and
witty use of language.

Alien (1979)
Original US
Art by Bill Gold
Made at the tail end of the
70s, Alien like many of the
best science fiction films
tapped into popular anxieties,
fears and concerns prevalent
at the time including
feminism, militarisation,
corporate power and gender
relations. Famed poster
deigner Bill Gold created this
teaser poster which focused
on our human reaction to
fear and isolation, rather than
opting for the shock approach
used by sci-fi movies in the
past. The repeated use of type,
negative space and an isolated
illustration of the astronauts
all combine to convey the
idea of 'death from above'. A
Jim Evans' artwork combines similar approach was used on
the poster for Duncan Jones'
the more comedic undertones recent film Moon.

of the header text with the

creepy and nightmarish central
image to great effect.

one sheet lost in space

Star Wars (1977)

Original British
Art by Tom William Chantrell
Not so much a poster that broke the
mold as a poster that would become
a bedroom wall favourite following
the huge success of the film in 1977.
Tom William Chantrell's poster is
one of those rare examples whereby
characters, plot and location are all
included in an attempt to 'sell' the
film in its entirety. Chanelling the
adventurous and swashbuckling films
of the 1920s and 30s, the poster is a
fine example of marketing savvy in
knowing exactly what is being sold to
a very precise demographic.

Star Trek
Original US
Art by Bob Peak
Considered to be the father of the
modern Hollywood movie poster,
Bob Peak carved out a prolific
career painting some of the most
memorable posters for films of the
1960s, 70s and 80s including My
Fair Lady, Rollerball, Apocalypse Now
and Superman. The poster opposite
for Star Trek displays his mastery
for flamboyant artistic illustrations
and imaginative use of colour and
composition, a technique which
totally transformed the approach
to movie advertising from basic
collages of film stills or head shots.
Among his many awards and
accolades, Peak received the Key
Art Lifetime Achievement Award
from The Hollywood Reporter in
1992 for 30 years of outstanding
contributions to the film industry.
He was only the second person to
Robert Peak totally receive this honor; the first, just the

transformed the approach year before, was another legendary

film poster designer, Saul Bass.
to movie advertising from
basic collages of film stills
or head shots to flamboyant
artistic illustrations.

gofurther [artist ] [book ] Life and Art of Bob Peak (due out Fall 2011)

Widescreen DNA, how can you stuff it, label
Though nothing is adorned,
seeing film in a wider context it and stick it in a glass box?
The British Film Institute
gave it an honourable go in every surface is a potential
1988, opening the boldly ex-
perimental Museum of the
screen, as though the walls
Moving Image on Southbank,
London. However, whilst the
have surrendered their identity
wrangling of bureaucrats and
board members ensured that
to the institution’s purpose.
Europe’s MOMI lasted barely
ten years, its namesake in
America forged a far more suc-
cessful path.
Proudly nestled in the
grungy, multi-cultural neigh-
bourhood of Astoria in New
York City’s borough of Queens,
the surviving Museum of the
Moving Image presents an im-
pressive, unpretentious façade.
Uniform rows of high windows
suggest a building full of artists’
warehouse spaces, naturally lit
by the intermittent East Coast
sunshine. Only the main en-
trance, with its Cyrillic-styled,
pink-bordered lettering – the

Images Courtesy Peter Aaron/Museum of the Moving Image

first sign of MOMI’s recent,

Images Courtesy Momentum Pictures

two-year, $67 million makeover
– gives the passing pedestrian
any clue as to the contents of
35 Avenue at 36 Street.
Through the doors, the mu-
seum’s lobby then makes the
case for its vision. Upon first
entering, the eye struggles to
give this sea of white any kind
of form or shape. Slowly, the
surroundings reveal a play- around the vicinity reveals a
ground of architectural and video screen amphitheatre –
decorative imagination: from where punters sit or recline on
the undulating knee-high tables the floor – a 68-seat screening
above momi's main entrance
like punctured soccer balls to room and a polygonal 267-seat
the origami-esque benches, main theatre.
When Dr . Indiana Jones growls, ‘That Debuted in January 2011 and
belongs in a museum!’ in reference to which look like fractal images
swirling on computer screens. designed by Brooklyn-based
various relics plundered by various ne’er- architect Thomas Leeser, the
do-wells, we grasp the significance of Though nothing is adorned,

every surface is a potential newly conceived MOMI is, of
those words. By the wisdom of our swar- course, fundamentally driven
thy archaeologist action hero, a museum screen, as though the walls
have surrendered their identity by an obsessive love of cinema.
is a noble place: a place where history However, in addition to its obvi-
is preserved and short-sighted greed is to the institution’s purpose.

In addition to the entrance- ous activities (screenings, exhibi-
trumped by the sharing of knowledge. At tions, et cetera) it is the institu-
least according to Spielberg and Lucas, level projection, a quick stroll
tion’s educational programmes
museums are right on. that emphasise its commitment
How, then, do you create a museum for to furthering the whole scope of
an art form that, by definition, never stays what film can offer.
still? Whereas skeletons and stuffed ani- top
Like any museum, MOMI the redesigned lobby
mals tend to remain as they are, films often caters for school groups. above
New York’s is the world’s leading Museum change. A studio cut becomes a director’s Grades 4 to 6 (that’s children the main 267-seat theatre
cut; a box office failure becomes a video
of the Moving Image. Da ni el St e adman hit; and a nobody becomes a star. If con-
as young as 9) can learn such
abstract concepts as the nature
takes in the exhibits. stant transformation is written into film’s of motion, revealing the com-
plex science that underpins ➜

24 May/June 2011 25

cinema. Older students can take
a variety of intellectually rigor-
ous workshops, from ‘Video
Game Programming’ to ‘Making
As well as being lovingly
Political Campaign Ads.’ This displayed in situ, each artefact
political bent is mirrored in the
museum’s programme of pro- has been painstakingly digitized
fessional development for mid-
dle- and high-school teachers. and the whole collection is
Willing educators can learn how
to use film in sculpting their available on MOMI’s website.
classes’ historical understand-
ing, and how to contextualise
social subjects through the study

of media, such as televisual and
online presidential campaigns.

The core of the museum and
the majority of its permanent

collection is the exhibition ‘Be-
hind the Screen.’ This mighty Published as a bi-monthly, Film
assortment is made up of masses
of filmic ephemera, from arcane, International covers all aspects of film

Patrick Alvarado/Museum of the Moving Image

mechanical magniscopes to cos-
tumes from the latest HBO mini- culture in a visually dynamic way. This
series. As well as being lovingly
displayed in situ, each artefact *** new breed of film magazine brings
has been painstakingly digitized
and the whole collection is avail- together established film scholars with
able on MOMI’s website, which
has over 130,000 searchable renowned journalists to provide an
items in total.
With this progressive ap- informed and animated commentary on
proach to its collection and
its curriculum-based learning the spectacle of world cinema.
agenda, New York’s Museum
of the Moving Image acknowl-

Film international
edges the ever-expanding
popular importance of cinema.
Unlike some of the more staid
bastions of American film his-

tory, MOMI is not exclusively
in thrall to the great movies of
the past. Where others attempt
to mould the twentieth century’s
most explosive medium into a
narrative, the museum presents
it instead as a discipline, an
idea and a science; a concept
in which Melies’s La Voyage a la
Lune (1902) and Fincher’s The
Peter Aaron/Museum of the Moving Image
Social Network (2010) both play
a part. On the blank canvas of
MOMI’s sleek white walls the
history and tradition of film give
way to the innovation and won-
der of the moving image. [tbp]

top two costumes designed by ann roth from the hbo mini-series mildred pierce
above early projectors

go further... Visit MOMI’s website at

four frames
t h e a r t o f a b b r e v i at e d s t o r y t e l l i n g

imaginary worlds Paperhouse, Dir. Bernard Rose, 1988

1 2 The imagination is the

non-place in which
many of us spend most
of our time. J e z C o n o l ly
follows a little girl into
her own private world.

L o n g b e f o r e Guillermo del Toro

delved into the dark recesses of Pan’s
Labyrinth (2006) and Spike Jonze took
us to Where the Wild Things Are (2009),
director Bernard Rose allowed us to
explore a world created by a youngster’s
vivid imagination in his film Paperhouse
(1988). In adapting Catherine Storr’s
children’s story, Marianne Dreams, Rose
brought three dimensions to the drawings
and fever dreams of Anna, an adolescent
girl (Charlotte Burke).
The paper house of the film’s title
starts out as a scribble, but when illness
leads to prolonged bed rest the house
3 4 appears to Anna in a series of dreams. In
her waking hours she adds more detail
to the drawing, including a companion:
a young boy called Marc (Elliott Spiers)
who subsequently appears in the dream
house. He cannot walk – she didn’t draw
him any legs – and as her illness deepens
and her dream time at the house length-
ens, Anna realises she must save herself
and Marc from being trapped in this in-
creasingly sinister state of limbo.

Read the book Marianne’s Dreams by

Catherine Storr
Read More f o u r f r a m e s online at

28 May/June 2011 29

1000 words
m o m e n t s t h at c h a n g e d c i n e m a f o r e v e r

Jazz Singer (Crosland, 1927).

And it did not become the
first blockbuster, permanently
changing Hollywood’s business
model, as did Jaws (Spielberg,
1975). And yet it changed
cinema just as much as any of
those movies.
Firstly, it established outer
space as a viable setting for
intelligent, high-quality films.
Prior to the success of 2001,
films set in space were gener-
ally uninspired black-and-white
B-movies. 2001, with its awe-
some scenery and high-minded
themes, established space as

A New
2 0 0 1 : A S p a c e O d y ss e y potentially the most excit-
above is one of the few films that, al- ing and unlimited location in
2001: A Space Odyssey
most everyone agrees, changed which a film’s action could
cinema so much, and so obvi- occur. Nine years after its re-
ously, that the ways in which it lease came the unprecedented
did scarcely need to be named. box office success and colossal

And yet, when asked precisely cultural impact of Star Wars
how 2001 changed films for- (Lucas, 1977), the setting and
ever, few people can give a suc- visual scheme of which are so
cinct and immediate answer. clearly derived from those of
The reason is that, although 2001. Two years after that came
the influence of Kubrick’s clas- Alien (Scott, 1979), which –
sic is enormous, it is not always though a very different film
Set in the endless expanse of the ultimate non- obvious and is seldom simple. from Star Wars – shows many of
The film did not give film- the same similarities to 2001. ➜
place, Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 masterpiece 2001: makers a template plot that they Besides establishing space as
A Space Odyssey changed cinema in at least 2001 followed quickly and en masse a workable setting for serious
ways. Sco t t J o rdan Harris highlights a few. to establish a new subgenre, as science fiction films, 2001 also
did John Carpenter’s Halloween invigorated science fiction itself,
(1978). It did not bring sound leading to a slew of films – Ste-
to the feature film, as did The ven Spielberg’s Close Encoun-

30 May/June 2011 31

1000 words 2001: A Space odyssey image courtesy image courtesy
ters of the Third Kind (1977)
and E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial
(1982) most prominent among
them – that, though they were
not set in outer space, featured
sci-fi premises that would, pre-
Kubrick, have belonged only to
unambitious B-movies.
A key reason for 2001’s
elevation of science fiction film-
making was the quality of its
special effects – and, for these,
its visual effects artists Wally
Veevers and Douglas Trumbull
(who rightly won Oscars for
their efforts) deserve as much
credit as Kubrick. Their cre- not follow a single character or
ations proved, and continue to group of characters. Indeed,
prove, that science fiction films asked to name the main hu-
set in the future can live as long man character in 2001 – Keir who have not seen it can name
as any movie. Dullea’s David Bowman – few its chief non-human character:
A film set in the present nor- can. This is because the film’s the malign artificial intelligence
mally ages more quickly than subject is not a human, but HAL 9000. HAL is the most
a film set in the past, while a humankind. As Barry Norman imitated feature of the film.
film set in what someone in the wrote, ‘It traces man’s develop- Its – or rather, his – image of a
present imagines the future will ment, both past and future, technology so sophisticated it
look like normally ages at an from caveman to rebirth on becomes sentient, and is there-
astonishingly accelerated rate. some higher astral plain.’ after able to manipulate the
Subsequently, as a general rule, Because of this, it is an art humans who ostensibly operate
no film looks more dated than film. And because of its suc- it, has reappeared in innumer-
one made decades ago but set cess, it made intelligence, and able science fiction films, and
decades in the future. occasionally impenetrable intel- been a key plot point in movies
Space Odyssey is that rule’s lectual argument, feasible fea- as successful and, in their own
ultimate exception. The psy- tures of (relatively) mainstream way, iconic as Alien, The Termi-
chedelic ‘star gate’ sequence movies. No one could argue nator (Cameron, 1984), Star
aside, its special effects seem that today’s multiplexes are Trek: The Motion Picture (Wise,
ageless, and still impress even clogged with esoteric art films 1979) and WALL-E (Stan-

in the post-Avatar (Cameron, inspired by Space Odyssey, but ton, 2008). If HAL 9000 was
2009) age. (Indeed, when we its influence on contemporary the only feature of the movie
watch the film today, it is not its mainstream movie-making is anyone ever remembered,
special effects that date it most, nevertheless evident. 2001 would still be a film that
but rather its title. The use of the Films like Darren Aronof- changed films forever.

specific year, ‘2001’, ties a film sky’s Pi (1998) and, even When, in 1968, Stanley
that is so often timeless to a pe- more obviously, Christopher Kubrick released an improb-
riod when our past was a distant Nolan’s Inception (2010) owe ably plotted and intellectually
future. It should simply have clear debts to the complex and overwhelming science fiction
been called A Space Odyssey.) unapologetic plotting of Space film, he changed the way mov-
The film’s special effects are Odyssey. And the chances are ies were watched, and the way
still so effective because they slim indeed that a superstar movies were made. In a film
2001, with its awesome are so restrained. Certainly,
they stretched on-screen effects
like George Clooney would
have appeared in a remake of
that, miraculously, still aston-
ishes more than four decades
20-26 June
scenery and high-minded further then they had been
before, but they did not – as
Andrey Tarkovskiy’s Solaris
(1972) – which was itself in-
after the year it was made, and Activists, filmmakers and researchers
more than one decade after the consider the changing history of refugees
themes, established space so many effects-dependent fluenced by 2001 – without the year it was set, Kubrick proved
on film, from the 1950s onwards, during
success of Space Odyssey.
as potentially the most productions do – stretch film
visuals as far as they could go While few who have seen
that the modern American sci-
fi film was an arena in which Refugee Week Film Festival 2011.

exciting and unlimited simply for the sake of doing so.
Rather, they stretched special
2001 can name the film’s chief
human character, even those
high-profile film-makers could
hope to make timeless movies.
location in which a film’s effects as far as was needed to
showcase the story being told.
He presented not only a stag-
gering vision of the potential of
George Clooney in solaris
action could occur. And the story told in 2001 is
another of its most influential
the human race, but also of the
potential of film. [tbp]
elements. It is a story that does
BOX OFFICE 0141 332 6535
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on location left
t h e p l a c e s t h at m a k e t h e m o v i e s

Jack Warner is held at gunpoint
The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog

The Lodger: A Story of

the London Fog (1927)
Dir. Alfred Hitchcock
UK, 74 minutes
Starring: Ivor Novello, June,
Malcolm Keen
Widely regarded as being the
first real ‘Hitchcock’ movie, The
Lodger: A Story of the London Fog
is an atmospheric, enduring and
technically innovative portrayal
of a London in the grip of a se-
rial killer. The historic crimes of
Jack the Ripper and the legendary
‘pea soupers’ that once engulfed
the city are evoked in The Master
of Suspense’s silent crime drama.
The mainly studio-shot film in-
cludes sequences filmed in Isling-
ton, as Ivor Novello’s mysterious
tenant is suspected of being the
notorious killer of women, The
Avenger. The Lodger is both an
essential part of Hitchcock’s oeu-
vre and of any discussion of films
representing London.

The Blue Lamp (1950)

Dir. Basil Dearden
UK, 84 minutes
Starring: Jack Warner, Jimmy
Hanley, Dirk Bogarde

The image of the bobby on the

beat is as quintessentially British
as fish ‘n’ chips and the Route-
master double-decker, and Basil
Dearden’s The Blue Lamp intro-
duced the world to ‘honest copper’
The Old Smoke is one of the world’s most cinematic PC George Dixon (Jack Warner).
Set in and around Paddington
cities, which is why it is the subject of Intellect’s Green Police Station, Dearden’s
forthcoming book, World Film Locations: London. The vision of London is romanticised
book’s editor, N ei l Mi tchel l , takes us on a tour. and parochial, but one brutal
incident shocked the period’s

audiences with a taboo-shattering
rom the birth of cinema, visions of London have been ever- sequence. When petty criminal
present on the silver screen. Directors, actors and audiences Tom Riley (Dirk Bogarde) guns
from all corners of the globe have been seduced by the city’s down and kills Dixon in the first
diverse architectural landmarks, equally eclectic population on-screen murder of a British po-
and often turbulent historical periods. An enduring collection liceman, The Blue Lamp takes the

of films from all genres, covering all eras, have evocatively home-grown crime genre into new
used the city’s distinctive spaces, from the instantly recognisable to less territory. Dearden’s seminal film
well known. Whether drawing from historic incidents, creating fantastical was a watershed moment for Brit-
visions or addressing contemporary city life, the films set in London have ish cinema and film portrayals of a
all used the city’s locations as an integral part of their overall narratives. changing, post-war London.

34 May/June 2011 35

on location left
Cillian Murphy in 28 Days Later
t h e p l a c e s t h at m a k e t h e m o v i e s
David Naughton is An American Werewolf in London

28 Days Later (2002)

Dir. Danny Boyle
UK, 113 minutes
Starring: Cillian Murphy, Naomie
Harris, Christopher Eccleston

Danny Boyle’s 28 Days Later, a

bleak vision of a world destroyed
by the contagious ‘rage’ virus,
thrillingly subverts traditional
portrayals of London as a thriv-
ing, modern metropolis. Cillian
Murphy’s Jim, freshly woken from
a coma, finds the city seemingly
deserted and eerily silent, which
is as shocking to him as it is to the
audience. Stripped of its popula-
tion, traffic and resultant noise the
city is rendered unbearably sinis-
ter. The normally bustling West-
minster Bridge, Piccadilly Circus,
Oxford Street and Horse Guards
Parade were briefly closed off at
selected early morning intervals
in order for Boyle to create the Jim, freshly woken from a An American Werewolf
in London (1981)
extended sequence that has since
become recognised as a major coma, finds the city seemingly Dir. John Landis
UK/USA, 97 minutes
stylistic achievement.
deserted and eerily silent, Starring: David Naughton, Jenny
Agutter, Griffin Dunne
which is as shocking to him as John Landis’ Anglo-American
it is to the audience. Stripped horror comedy, the winner of an
Academy Award for Outstanding
of its population, traffic and Achievement in Makeup, brought
terror into the heart of London,
resultant noise the city is both above and below ground.

rendered unbearably sinister. The love affair between the titular

lycanthrope David Kessler (David
Naughton) and nurse Alex Price
(Jenny Agutter) blossoms in the
city while David’s ferocious alter-
ego leaves a bloody trail of corpses
behind him. Landis gently pokes
fun at English attitudes, both rural
and urban, and through extensive
location shooting in London Zoo,
Trafalgar Square, Piccadilly Circus
and, most memorably, Tottenham
Court Road and Charing Cross
Underground Stations, he created
an unforgettable mix of folklore
kobal (2)

horror and contemporary city life.

go further... [book ] Pre-order your copy of World Film Locations: London Simply visit for further information | Follow World Film Locations on Facebook

36 May/June 2011 37


e vo c at i v e o b j e c t s o n s c r e e n

x to x
A Matter of Life and Death (1946)
Stretching between a Technicolor Earth and a
monochrome Heaven, the staircase in A Matter
of Life and Death (1946) is one of the most
emotionally resonant non-places in cinema.
S c ot t Jor da n H a r r i s climbs up it.

When David Niven’s Peter

Carter bails out of his ailing
Lancaster bomber without a
parachute, he is sure to die. mortal life below, rather non-
Indeed, he is scheduled to die – descript. It is the ultimate
but the angel sent to escort him non-place: it exists purely as a
skywards loses him in the fog transitional space between life
over the English Channel. In his and non-life. And yet it comes
extra time on Earth, Peter falls to have more significance, and
in love with Kim Hunter’s June more resonance, then either
and, when the aforementioned Heaven or Earth.
angel eventually locates him, It is here that the film’s
Peter demands to remain climax occurs, as members of a
among the living. heavenly court convene to hear
The Heaven to which he Peter’s appeal. Although it is
is assigned and the Earth on an escalator, ordinarily moving
which he wants to stay are ever upwards, its motions can
joined by an enormous escala- be paused or reversed, and this
tor, which is, in comparison to allows us, and June, to see its
the black-and-white afterlife crucial characteristic: it is not
above and the multi-coloured only a stairway to Heaven, but
also a stairway from it. When
this celestial escalator becomes
a simple staircase, it facilitates
one of film’s most romantic
moments. [tbp]

seemore Read ‘Recommended: Cameraman: The Life And Work Of Jack Cardiff’ exclusively on

38 May/June 2011 39

Books & Journals
publishers of original thinking |


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‘I am an American’ Film, Fashion & Consumption Paperback | £24.95
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your new book or journal proposals, Paperback | 19.95 First published in 2012 | 3 issues per volume
please download a questionnaire
from: In ‘I am an American’ Weber set out on a Film, Fashion & Consumption is a an NEW
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of a deeper understanding of what it means students, practitioners and designers JouRNAl
to be an American today. This captivating interested in the connections, convergences
To view our catalogue or order our memoir gives a voice to ordinary citizens for and crossovers between the spheres of film
whom the terrorist attacks of 2001 live on in and fashion, and the way in which these
books and journals visit:
collective memory. Heart-rending first-person synergies affect consumer culture. We testimonials reveal how the ongoing fear welcome articles presenting research in any
Intellect, The Mill, Parnall Road, of terrorists and immigrants has betrayed of these areas.
Transnational Cinemas Studies in French Cinema Studies in European Cinema Journal of Scandinavian Cinema
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parting shot
i m i tat i o n i s t h e s i n c e r e s t f o r m o f f l at t e r y

from far left sniper/shooter/Saving Private Ryan

in the
One of the most astonishing achievements in
the history of sharpshooting quickly became
one of the most oft-repeated scenes in action
movies. S c ot t Jor da n H a r r i s zeroes in.

W h e n G u n n e r y Sergeant
Carlos Hathcock, perhaps
the American military’s most
celebrated sniper, noticed a when his enemy takes aim,
tiny glint of light in a distant imitates Hathcock’s famous
crevice of the Vietnamese feat. It’s the best scene in the
jungle, he realised he was in movie, and so it is astonish-
the worst possible position: the ing that it was removed from
sights of a Vietcong counter- the cut released in the UK. It
sniper sent to assassinate him. is not astonishing that it was
So fast were his reactions that soon and repeatedly imitated.
he fired first and so exquisite The scene reappeared
were his skills that his bullet in Eraser (Russell, 1996)
hit his opponent’s telescopic and in Saving Private Ryan
gun sight, travelling along it (Spielberg, 1997) as one of
and into his eye, killing him that film’s longest and tensest
instantly. episodes. In 2005, Æon
It was a moment made for Flux (dir. Karyn Kusama)
movies; and so it was unsur- featured a futuristic rendering
prising that when Sniper (dir. of the shot and, two years
Luis Llosa), a film inspired by later, Shooter (Fuqua, 2007)
Hathcock’s extraordinary ex- about yet another dead-eye
ploits, was released in 1993, a gunnery sergeant, showed
recreation of the shot was the a mountain-top staging of
centrepiece sequence. Stalked it most remarkable for its
by his former protégé, Tom brevity. In the 1990s, the
Berenger’s Gunnery Sergeant scope-shattering sniper shot
Thomas Beckett uses his was the scene by which to
sleeping spotter as bait and, remember a movie. By 2007
it was just another action
sequence. [tbp]

go further... [web ] Read ‘1000 Words: You talkin’ to me? A short history of the subjective point-of-view shot’ exclusively on

42 May/June 2011 43



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Film Index intellect

So you’ve read about the films, now go watch ‘em! Plublishers of this here magazine... 9;B;8H7J;I*,O;7HIE<9?D;C79EL;H7=;
Grizzly Man (2005)
Dir. Werner Herzog
Solaris (2002)
Dir. Steven Soderbergh
Each issue of The Big Picture is produced
by Bristol based publisher, intellect.
g see page 4/5

Brief Encounter (1945)

g see page 33

The Blue Lamp (1950)

Dir. David Lean Dir. Basil Dearden
g see page 6/7

Alive (1993)
g see page 34

The Lodger: A Story of the London publish original thinking

Dir. Frank Marshall Fog (1927)
g see page 8

Speed (1994)
Dir. Alfred Hitchcock
g see page 35 <_bcIeY_[joe\B_dYebd
Dir. Jan de Bont 28 Days Later (2002)
g see page 9

Airplane! (1980)
Dir. Danny Boyle
g see page 36
Intellect is an independent academic publisher
in the fields of creative practice and popular
Dir. Jim Abrahams, David Zucker An American Werewolf in London
culture, publishing scholarly books and journals
and Jerry Zucker
g see page 10
Dir. John Landis that exemplify their mission as publishers of fhel_Z[i]beXWbYel[hW][e\
g see page 37
Ice Cold in Alex (1958) original thinking. Theyaim to provide a vital
Dir. J. Lee Thompson
g see page 11
A Matter of Life and Death (1946)
Dir. Michael Powell, Emeric space for widening critical debate in new and Y_d[cW_dYbkZ_d][nYbki_l[
The Terminal (2004)
emerging subjects, and in this way they differ
Dir. Steven Spielberg
g see page 12/13
g see page 38/39

Sniper (1993)
from other publishers by campaigning for the _dj[hl_[mi"_d#Z[fj^h[l_[mi"
Dir. Luis Llosa author rather than producing a book or journal
Paperhouse (1988)
Dir. Bernard Rose
g see page 42/43 to fill a gap in the market.
g see page 28/29 Shooter (2007)
Dir. Antoine Fuqua Intellect publish in four distinct subject areas:
2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
Dir. Stanley Kubrick
g see page 42/43

Saving Private Ryan (1997)

visual arts, film studies, cultural and media WdZYbWii_YÒbci"Wkj^eh_jWj_l[
g see page 30/31
studies, and performing arts. These categories
Alien (1979)
Dir. Ridley Scott
g see page 32

The Big Picture Issue 15

Dir. Steven Spielberg
g see page 42/43 host Intellect’s ever-expanding topics of enquiry,
which include photography, drawing, curation,
community music, gaming and scenography.
Intellect titles are often multidisciplinary,
’’ fheÒb[iedbkc_dWh_[i_dj^[

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Available 15 July 2011 arts, media and creative practice. _dj^[Whje\ÒbccWa_d]$
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