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Let F be a vector field. Let W be a closed surface, and let e be the region inside of W . Then:

( ( F † . A œ ( ( ( divaFb .Z

W e

W

SOLUTION We could parameterize the surface and evaluate the surface integral, but it is much faster to

use the divergence theorem. Since:

` ` `

`B `C `D

W e

W

" Ÿ B Ÿ ", " Ÿ C Ÿ ", and ! Ÿ D Ÿ #.

SOLUTION Since:

` # ` $ `

`B `C `D

( ( ˆC D i C j BD k‰ † . A œ ( ( ( ˆ$C B‰ .Z

# $ #

W e

œ ( ( ( ˆ$C # B‰ .B .C .D

# " "

! " "

"

œ #( 'C # .C œ ) è

"

EXAMPLE 3 Let e be the region in ‘$ bounded by the paraboloid D œ B# C # and the plane D œ ",

and let W be the boundary of the region e. Evaluate ( ( ˆC i Bj D # k‰ † . A.

W

z

z=1 (1, 1)

2

z=r

Since:

divˆC i Bj D # k‰ œ aC b aB b ˆD ‰ œ #D

` ` ` #

`B `C `D

( ( D k † . A œ ( ( ( #D .Z

#

W e

#1 " "

( ( ( #D .Z œ ( ( ( #D < .D .< . )

e ! ! <#

"

œ #1 ( ’D # <“

"

.<

! Dœ<#

"

œ #1 Œ œ

" " #1

è

# ' $

In general, you should probably use the divergence theorem whenever you wish to evaluate a vector

surface integral over a closed surface.

The divergence theorem can also be used to evaluate triple integrals by turning them into surface

integrals. This depends on finding a vector field whose divergence is equal to the given function.

EXAMPLE 4 Find a vector field F whose divergence is the given function 0 aBb.

(a) 0 aBb œ " (b) 0 aBb œ B# C (c) 0 aBb œ ÈB# D #

SOLUTION The formula for the divergence is:

divaFb œ f † F œ

`JB `JC `JD

`B `C `D

We get to choose JB , JC , and JD , so there are several possible vector fields with a given divergence.

(This is similar to the freedom enjoyed when finding a vector field with a given rotation.)

(a) F œ Bi works, as does F œ C j, F œ D k, and so forth.

" $ " # #

(b) Three possible solutions are F œ B C i, Fœ B C j, and F œ B# CD k.

$ #

(c) It is difficult to integrate ÈB# D # with respect to B or D , but we can integrate with respect to C

to get F œ C ÈB# D # j. è

EXAMPLE 5 Let e be the region defined by B# C # D # Ÿ ". Use the divergence theorem to

evaluate ( ( ( D # .Z .

e

( ( ( D .Z œ ( ( F † . A

#

e W

" $

where F is any vector field whose divergence is D # . One possible choice is F œ D k:

$

( ( ( D .Z œ ( (

# " $

D k † .A

e W $

" $

D k † . A.

W $

We have parameterized the sphere many times by now:

z

< œ cos ? so C œ cos ? sin >

r

D œ sin ? D œ sin ?

1 1

! Ÿ > Ÿ #1 and Ÿ?Ÿ

# #

This gives:

â â â â

â i k â â â

â â â â

j i j k

â `B â â â

. A œ â `> â â â .> .?

`C `D

â â â â

.> .? œ cos ? sin > cos ? cos > !

â `B `D â â sin ? cos > sin ? sin > cos ? â

`> `>

â `? â â â

`C

`? `?

so:

" #1 1Î#

(( ( (

" $

D k † . A œ

W $ $ ! 1Î#

#1 1Î#

œ ( sin% ? cos ? .?

$ 1Î#

1Î#

” sin ?•

#1 " &

œ

$ & 1Î#

%1

œ è

"&

Of course, in the last example it would have been faster to simply compute the triple integral. In reality,

the divergence theorem is only used to compute triple integrals that would otherwise be difficult to set

up:

< œ cos ? 1 1

Ÿ?Ÿ

D œ sin #? # #

Use the divergence theorem to find the volume of the region inside of W .

SOLUTION We wish to evaluate the integral ( ( ( .Z , where e is the region inside of W . By the

e

divergence theorem:

( ( ( .Z œ ( ( F † . A

e W

where F is any vector field whose divergence is ". Because of the cylindrical symmetry, Bi and C j are

poor choices for F. We therefore let F œ D k:

( ( ( .Z œ ( ( D k † . A

e W

W

We were essentially given the parameterization of the surface:

z

< œ cos ? so C œ cos ? sin >

r

D œ sin #? D œ sin #?

1 1

! Ÿ > Ÿ #1 and Ÿ?Ÿ

# #

Thus:

â â â â

â i k â â â

â â â â

j i j k

â `D â â â

. A œ â `B â â â .> .?

`C

â `> â â â

.> .? œ cos ? sin > cos ? cos > !

â `B `D â â sin ? cos > sin ? sin > # cos #? â

`> `>

â `? â â â

`C

`? `?

œ a# cos ? cos #? cos >ß # cos ? cos #? sin >ß cos ? sin ?b .> .?

so:

#1 1Î#

( ( D k † .A œ ( (

W ! 1Î#

1Î#

œ #1 ( sin #? cos ? sin ? .?

1Î#

1Î#

œ #1 ” a%? sin %?b•

"

(according to my calculator)

"' 1Î#

1#

œ è

#

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