CURS PRACTIC DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

VERBUL
1. CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE 2. LECŢIA 1 - TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 3. LECŢIA 2 - CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR 4. LECŢIA 3 - MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE 5. LECŢIA 4 - VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ 6. LECŢIA 5 - DIATEZA PASIVĂ 7. LECŢIA 6 - VERBELE MODALE 8. LECŢIA 7 - MODUL SUBJONCTIV 9. LECŢIA 8 - MODURILE NEPERSONALE ŞI CONSTRUCŢIILE VERBALE 10. LECŢIA 9 - CHEIA EXERCIŢIILOR 10.1 Timpurile modului 10.2. Exerciţii cu concordanţa timpurilor 10.3. Exerciţii cu fraze condiţionale 10.4. Exerciţii cu vorbirea directă şi indirectă 10.5. Exerciţii cu diateza pasivă 10.6. Exerciţii cu verbe modale 10.7. Exerciţii cu modul subjonctiv 10.8. Exerciţii cu construcţii verbale 11. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE
Verbul constituie coloana vertebrală a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleză – verbul” (cu exerciţii şi cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretică – prezentarea clară şi sistematică a modurilor, timpurilor, concordanţei timpurilor, verbelor modale şi a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple şi traducere), precum şi o parte practică cu exerciţii la fiecare capitol şi la sfârşitul cărţii au fost incluse cheia exerciţiilor şi lista verbelor neregulate întâlnite în cadrul exemplelor şi exerciţiilor. Prezentarea teoretică a problemelor este făcută în limba română.

LECŢIA 1
TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV
Există două aspecte în limba engleză: simplu şi continuu. În general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe acţiunea propriu-zisă, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata acţiunii, pe perioada de timp în care aceasta are loc. În explicarea întrebuinţării timpurilor continue se va întâlni formularea „acţiune în plină desfăşurare”. Aceasta înseamnă că acţiunea a început înainte de momentul la care se face referire şi va continua după acel moment. Există un număr de verbe în limba engleză care nu se folosesc la forma continuă, deoarece ideea de durată e inclusă în conţinutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know.

A. Present Tense Simple
Afirmativ I work. You work. He/she/it works. We work. You work. They work. I You He/she/it We You They Negativ do not (don’t) do not (don’t) does not (doesn’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) work. work. work. work. work. work.

Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work?

Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune regulată, obişnuită, în perioada prezentă. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?)

I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjugă verbul „to be” la timpul prezent şi se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working. You are working. He/she/it is working. We are working. You are working. They are working. Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working?

Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune în plină desfăşurare în momentul prezent. Where are you going? I am going to school.
De asemenea, poate arăta o acţiune care se desfăşoară pe timp limitat în perioada prezentă. I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arăta o acţiune repetată. În acest caz, există o conotaţie afectivă (nemulţumire) sau acţiunea respectivă este caracteristică pentru acea persoană. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen.

. You (dream) at night? Yes. I am having a walk. 6. It is raining. I always (write) to him on his birthday. In England it often (rain). 5. He remembers my phone number. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. I understand you. formează negativul şi interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do”. ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast. They are swimming in the river. 6. 2. They live in Bucharest. 7. to have a party). 3. 10. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. a poseda”. 12. The child is learning to play the piano. 10. 9. 11. 3. My friend is wearing a new dress. We are studying English. I (not like) that boy. You (write) to John now? Yes. 4. I (be). She talks too much. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). I (dream) every night. 5. 3. Ann is knitting. I have lunch at one o’clock. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Continuous) la negativ şi interogativ: 1. 8. 5. 9. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. 6. 2. 7. 7. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. I love my brother. He is telling the truth. 10. I trust my friend. My mother is resting. to have a shower. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Simple) la interogativ şi negativ: 1. 4. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). He has a hot bath every day. 9. Notă: Verbul „to have”.EXERCIŢII cu Present Simple şi Present Continuous: 1. You play the piano very well. 4. 2. atunci când nu înseamnă „a avea. I always believe you. 8. 2. You (like) this book? 8. You are typing a letter.

De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. Dacă verbul este neregulat. as I (not want) to miss the first act. 4. Clientul tocmai îşi alege o pereche de pantofi. but he is late. Adesea citesc cărţi englezeşti. 9. Ce faci? Citeşti sau priveşti la televizor? 5.Paste Tense. forma III – participiul trecut to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ . La ce oră se scoală John dimineaţa? 11. 19. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. 6. merge pe jos. Ce faci tu în zilele libere? 12. 14. Cât de des le scrii părinţilor tăi? 18. I always (have) a rest after lunch. 16. 14. 15. Ce carte citeşti? 10. Iarna ninge. 8. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. You (go) to work every day? Yes. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 18. Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de bază ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Nu-mi place cafeaua. El nu merge la şcoală cu metroul. except Saturdays and Sundays. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. Ea merge la cumpărături sâmbăta. 17.You (know) what time is it? 4. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate: to work – worked. 2. 7. Acum îmi fac temele la engleză. Duminica el nu se scoală devreme. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. 3. as usual. of course.13. Ea îşi face bagajul. 19. forma II . Why you (smoke) so much? 17. Eu nu studiez seara. Când merg la mare îmi place să înot mult. Cui îi telefonezi? 13. Secretara tocmai bate la maşină un referat. 20. B. 16.

cu perfectul compus. You were working.work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. Negativ I was not working. You were not working. Se traduce. terminată. Interogativ Was I working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were we working? Were you working? Were they working? . We were not working. (Ieri am mers la plimbare.) Last year I travelled to England. Afirmativ I was working. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută. terminată. Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia. You were working. de obicei. Este timpul de naraţiune. He/she/it was working. They were not working.) Past Tense Continuous Se formează prin conjugarea verbului „to be” la trecut (Past Tense) şi adăugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. They were working. He/she/it was not working. We were working. You were not working. Yesterday I went for a walk. were not – weren’t They weren’t working.

sora lui privea la televizor. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. 6. 7.I always make cakes on Sundays. We worked very hard. He forbade her to do this. They drank all the wine. That sounds interesting. este posibil să apară un verb folosit la Past Continuous şi un verb folosit la Past Simple. When I first (meet) him. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. În acest caz. He meets John on Sundays. You drink too much. Se traduce. he (work) in a bank. When you (come in). Puneţi verbele din urmatoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple: 1.) EXERCIŢII cu Past Tense Simple şi Continuous: 1. 9. 5.Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment din trecut. He translated the text. I met John. în aceeaşi frază. 10. reprezintă fundalul de timp pe care se petrece acţiunea exprimată de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). 5. 8. He thought about you. I sold my car. ele arătând acţiuni paralele. his sister was watching TV. 2. I enjoyed travelling. posibil să apară într-o frază timpul Past Continuous în mod repetat. în plină desfăşurare. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). He changed his library book every day.) Adesea. I own two umbrellas. cu imperfectul. 4. 7. În această situaţie. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii la negativ şi interogativ: 1. You speak English well. 3. While I was crossing the street. I was watching TV. într-un moment trecut. . 8. 3. 10. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 2. Este. (În timp ce John citea. This time yesterday. I like to have a coffee in the morning. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. He came home late. 3. I hated him. 2. 9. I play football. While John was reading. 4. I talk on the phone. 6. 2. de obicei. You ask too many questions. de asemenea.

We have worked. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. 4. Bătea un vânt puternic când am ieşit din casă. 15. When I (arrive). Cine a câştigat meciul alaltăieri? 22. someone (ring up). În timp ce ploua. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. eu conduceam maşina spre Sinaia. Unde ţi-ai petrecut concediul vara trecută? 17. he (have) an accident. C. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Ieri pe vremea asta plouă. 4. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. 4. They have worked. 9. You have worked. 18. Ei au ascuns imediat cărţile şi şi-au scos manualele de şcoală. Ieri mi-am pierdut mănuşile. . Ai dormit bine noaptea trecută? 3. Mă pregăteam să merg la facultate. He/she/it has worked. În timp ce îmi căutam paşaportul am găsit această fotografie veche. Săptămâna trecută am fost bolnav şi nu am mers la şcoală. As I (write). Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de înot. 2. 19. 5. Băieţii jucau cărţi când l-au auzit pe tatăl lor intrând în casă. El a dat primul examen săptămâna trecută. You have worked. Afirmativ I have worked. 11.He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 10. 10. 5.3. 8. Ce făceai marţea trecută la ora 7 dimineaţa? 8. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineaţă. I (watch) a film on TV. 20. 9. mi-am luat micul dejun şi apoi am plecat la şcoală. 6. Când te-ai întors de la munte? 13. This time last Sunday. Acum două zile am căzut şi mi-am rupt piciorul. While he (learn) to drive. she (have) dinner. 7. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseară. 16. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 21. Duminica trecută prietenii mei au jucat şah. When I (enter) the classroom. Când ai cumpărat acest televizor? 14. 12.

) Traducerea celor două propoziţii în limba română este identică. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai văzut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp neterminată. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepoziţiile since (din.) • Dacă adverbul de timp este „this morning”. dacă aceasta este în cursul dimineţii (până la ora 12) sau după amiază. terminată. I have seen two films this week. (Nu l-am văzut pe John de două luni.) I haven’t seen John since September. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relaţie. I lost my umbrella yesterday. În acest caz. arată o acţiune trecută. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseşte în următoarele situaţii: arată o acţiune începută în trecut care continuă până în prezent. I must buy a new one. this month.Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. dintr-un motiv sau altul. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. (Nu l-am văzut pe John din septembrie. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. I haven’t got up early this morning. this year. El arată o legătură între trecut şi momentul prezent. I haven’t seen John for two months. Trebuie să-mi cumpăr una nouă. (Îl cunosc pe John din 1990. • .) I didn’t get up early this morning. dacă se menţionează momentul trecut în care a avut loc acţiunea care interesează în prezent sau care are rezultate în prezent.) • arată o acţiune trecută. care are rezultate în prezent sau care. (Am văzut două filme săptămâna aceasta. I must buy a new one. folosirea lui este însoţită de adverbe precum: today.) I have known John for two years. dacă se pune o întrebare referitoare la trecut care începe cu „when”. întrucât „when” reprezintă un moment precizat în trecut. interesează în prezent.) I have known John since 1990. începând din) şi for (de. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. se foloseşte Past Simple. timp de). De asemenea. (Îl cunosc pe John de doi ani.) Trebuie precizat faptul că. folosirea timpului verbal este condiţionată de momentul în care se face afirmaţia. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. Se foloseşte cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leagă trecutul de prezent. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. În acest caz. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat în trecut. this week.

We have been working. You have been working. Yes. (Plouă de 3 ore. seldom. (El nu s-a întors încă acasă.) După cum se poate observa.) De asemenea. cu accent pe durată. always. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodată în Anglia?) No. I am tired because I have been working all day. (Nu l-am văzut în ultimul timp. ever. we shall have floods. să continue şi în viitor. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce în româneşte fie cu prezentul. If it doesn’t stop soon. already. He/she/it has been working. între un moment trecut şi prezent. poate arăta probabilitatea ca acţiunea începută în trecut.Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aşează între auxiliar şi verb: often. I have never been to England. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare. Present Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. It has been raining for three hours. yet (în propoziţii negative).) I haven’t seen him lately. never. . Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârşitul propoziţiei: lately. You have been working. care continuă în prezent. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. vom avea inundaţii. just.) Ca şi Present Perfect Simple. (Sunt obosit pentru că am muncit toată ziua. He has not (hasn’t) been working. They have been working. fie cu perfectul compus. Afirmativ I have been working. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba română. în funcţie de context. I have often been to England. Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. Dacă nu se opreşte în curând. He hasn’t returned home yet.

I (water) the flowers. 12. You must come and see it. I (cook) all the morning. 21. The radio (play) since 7 a. I just (have) one. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple în locul infinitivelor: 1. I’m tired of it.He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 15. 9.You ever (eat) caviar? 14. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9.I (live) here for one year. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. 10. 16. When are you going to do it? 12. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. 5. 11. You (water) the flowers? 3.You (visit) the Village Museum? 13.It (not rain) since December. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. When you (use) it last? . 4. 3. 11. Would you like a cake? 7.You ever (drive) a car? 17. thank you. 2. It’s time we woke him up. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days.I (not be) to the seaside this year. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. 7. He (not come) home yet. 5. I already (see) this film.EXERCIŢII cu Present Perfect Simple şi Continuous: 1. You (not see) it anywhere? No.I (not write) to my friend for three months. 2. No.m. 8.How long you (live) here? 22. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. 3.He always (rely on) his friend. 2. Ever since that woman came to work here. 18. I (buy) a new house. I (lose) my pen. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1.He (not go) to bed yet. she (try) to make trouble. 10. I (lend) him some money today. 4. We (know) each other for several years. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. I haven’t. 6.You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. He just (leave) home. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now.

Ai mai fost în acest oraş? 24. 4. Past Perfect Simple Se formează cu verbul „to have” la Past Tense Simple.Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. D. 11. 8. 6. De când mi-am cumpărat maşina. 12. 11. El a scris numai două scrisori de când a plecat în străinătate. Unde ţi-ai petrecut vacanţa anul acesta? 3. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. You (see) your mother this week? No. Ninge de două ore. 25. Cine te-a învăţat să vorbeşti engleza atât de bine? 2. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. Nu am mers la vot. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl.La ce te-ai uitat? 15. 7. 4. la care se adaugă forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I had worked. Vremea s-a încălzit în ultimul timp. De cât timp înveţi engleza? 5. Trebuie să-l înlocuim. I (try) last year but I (not 3. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. 10. 13. 9. am mers arareori pe jos la slujbă. a plecat acum o oră. 9.A fost un accident. Am mers pe jos 10 km până acum. You (be) out of work long? 5. 10. I (get) a job last month. Da. 6. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). 4. 2. . 8. 14. Un copil a spart geamul. Ei lucrează la această casă de un an şi nu au terminat-o încă. I am not out of work now. 16. A plecat John? 20. acum doi ani. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. Am stat acasă şi nu am regretat nici o clipă. Da. 23. Ai văzut ziarul de azi? 19. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. l-am luat la ora 8. Traduc un text de două ore şi nu l-am terminat încă.It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. El este ministru de doi ani.succeed). Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. 21. M-am gândit adesea să-mi iau carnet de conducere. 7.Da. 18. am petrecut o lună aici. Ţi-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22.

Afirmativ I had been working.) .) Ca sens. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente trecute. (El a spus că plouă de 3 zile.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. echivalentul în limba română al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se păstrează la toate persoanele. he got bored. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.) When you rang me up. când în aceeaşi frază în propoziţia principală se află un verb la Past Tense. Arată o acţiune trecută care a avut loc înaintea unei alte acţiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. terminasem de scris temele. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. ea bătea la maşină de o oră. s-a plictisit. (După ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. I had finished writing my homework. When he entered the room. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. în acest caz. ca şi Present Perfect. (Când el a intrat în cameră. un verb de relaţie. Past Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”.Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. (Când mi-ai telefonat. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua funcţiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous în propoziţia secundară. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun.) He said it had been raining for three days. este vorba de o relaţie între două momente trecute. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeaşi formă la toate persoanele. Este. dar. she had been typing for one hour. De asemenea.

they drank some coffee. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. She said she already (be) to England. 4. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. I (return) from school. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. 6. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 8.When we arrived at Sinaia. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba română. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. I realized she (have) a party. 2. 8. El mi-a mulţumit pentru ceea ce făcusem pentru el. After they (finish) dinner. 9. 9. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. it (rain) for one hour. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. 4. 3. When I rang her up. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. we (climb) for 7 hours. 5. 2. 7.When I (find out) he (get married). After Jane (swim) for half an hour.The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). At 3 o’clock on Friday. After John (leave).După cum se observă. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. 6. 10. . 5. Mi-a părut rău că îl jignisem. When I called on her unexpectedly. 3. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. 8. Puneţi verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. EXERCIŢII cu Past Simple şi Continuous: 1. When I arrived home. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. 6. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. 4. When we met them. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. 2. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. When she sat for the exam. 2. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 3. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. 10. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. 2. After we (walked) for an hour. 5. 4. 7. she (study) the subject for a week. When we reached the top. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. she felt chilly. When she decided to have a rest. When I left home. 9. she (write) letters for one hour. mother (cook) for two hours. 7. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. 10. we (realize) we (lose) our way. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. 3.Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1.

a înmânat-o profesorului. iar pentru „will not” este won’t. We (shall) will not go. 5. acasă. De îndată ce au plecat musafirii. You will go. 9. Forma scurtă pentru „shall not” este shan’t.3. (Îl voi întâlni săptămâna viitoare. They will not go. You will go. E. Nu ţi-am telefonat pentru că am crezut că plecaseşi în străinătate. will la persoana II şi III. 8. Future Tense Simple Se formează cu shall sau will la persoana I. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumătate de oră. am mers la culcare. 4. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. Ei mi-au spus că locuiau în Franţa din 1980. 10. se foloseşte numai „shall”. You will not go. 6. Ei au călătorit în multe ţări după ce s-au căsătorit. He/she/it will go. Interogativ Shall I go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul că la interogativ persoana I. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. They will go. I (shall) will meet him next week. We (shall) will go. He/she/it will not go. El nu făcuse nimic înainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul.) Future Continuous . Acest timp arată o acţiune viitoare obişnuită. Când am ajuns la staţia de autobuz. mi-am dat seama că îmi lăsasem poşeta 7. De îndată ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. Negativ I (shall) will not go. You will not go. Afirmativ I (shall) will go.

Negativ I (shall) will not be going. You will not be going. We (shall) will be going. You will have gone. He/she/it will be going.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. You will be going. We (shall) will not be going. They will have gone. He/she/it will not be going. You will be going. I will be travelling to England. They will not be going.Se formează cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be”. Interogativ Shall I be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. You will have gone. He/she/it will have gone. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. We (shall) will have gone. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. . At three o’clock. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. (have + forma III). la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. (Mâine la ora 3 voi călători spre Anglia. You will not be going. Future Perfect Simple Se formează cu shall sau will. They will be going.

voi studia (voi fi studiat) de 3 ore. We (should) would go. You would not go. We (should) would not go. You will not have gone. Afirmativ I (should) would go. I (shall) will have been going. Este un timp rar folosit. By three o’clock tomorrow. They will not have gone.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be”. Când vei veni tu acasă. You would go. I will have been studying for three hours. We (shall) will not have gone. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba română.You will not have gone. You would go. They would go. He/she/it would go. He/she/it will not have gone. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formează cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). When you come home. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arată o acţiune anterioară unei alte acţiuni sau unui moment viitor. Negativ I (should) would not go. You would not go. Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente viitoare. I will have reached Predeal. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. . (Mâine până la ora 3 voi fi ajuns la Predeal. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba română. He/she/it would not go.

3. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine.) It is going to rain.) • Expresia „to be going to” + infinitiv. Arată o intenţie. . Arată de asemenea o intenţie sau o probabilitate. I am meeting John this morning. I am sure you (like) this book. 6. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth.) • Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. 10. atunci când în principală se află un verb la trecut. Acest timp este folosit în concordanţa timpurilor pentru a arăta o acţiune posterioară unui moment sau unei acţiuni din trecut.) Întrucât nu poate fi întâlnit decât în propoziţii secundare (după un verb la timpul trecut în propoziţia principală). (El a spus că în ziua următoare. I should (would) be going. He said that at 3 o’clock. He said he would be late. I am sure I (succeed). iar cea de la „would not” este wouldn’t. (Voi citi/am de gând să citesc această carte. arată un program precis. (Îl întâlnesc/îl voi întâlni pe John în dimineaţa aceasta. I leave for London tomorrow. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. I (know) the results in three days’ time. bine stabilit. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. he would be travelling to England. Forma scurtă de la „should not” este shouldn’t. la ora 3. I (remember) this day all my life. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât în întrebări disjunctive. I am going to read this book. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Preia funcţiile lui Future Tense Continuous într-o propoziţie secundară. He (be) pleased if you invite him. You (be) in London tomorrow.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formează cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be”. 2. (El a spus că va întârzia.They would not go. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. 8. I hope I (pass) the exam. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. 5. • EXERCIŢII cu timpurile „Future”: 1. Într-un astfel de context. Este un timp destul de rar folosit. va călători spre Anglia. 7. the next day.

The sun (rise) in 10 minutes.2. Trenul va fi plecat înainte de a ajunge noi la gară. I (work) at the office till late at night. 4. 10.By the end of the month. voi fi economisit 5 milioane. 3. When you reach Sinaia. 9. 2. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. She (watch) TV. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. it probably (rain). 4. 8. Din cauza grevei şoferilor de autobuze multă lume va merge pe jos la slujbă.m. If we don’t hurry. Let’s hurry to the beach. 2.Don’t expect me home for dinner. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. By 5 o’clock. 3. 4. ei vor avea ultima oră de engleză. Next year. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. In a week’s time. voi fi văzut acest film de 5 ori. Până anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. 7. I (pay off) all my debts. Unde îl vei pune? mâine. He (study) all day tomorrow. Până la sfârşitul lunii. 2. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. ea va fi terminat curăţenia în casă. El va studia în bibliotecă luni de la ora 1 la 5. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. By the time you come home. Ce faci mâine dimineaţă la ora 11? 3. 5. 4. 7. I (work) on this paper for a month. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 6. 11. When I take the exam. By the end of the season. E un obiect frumos. we (climb) the mountain. Vineri. 6. This time next day. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. Până la ora 1. they (be married) for 25 years. 7. 9. I (have) breakfast. Am cumpărat o maşină de scris şi voi învăţa să bat. 5. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. . the baby (cry). 8. 10. 3. 9. 8. 6. I (swim) in the sea. I am sure when I arrive home. între orele 12 şi 1. By the beginning of next week. we (take) our exam. Uite ce am cumpărat la o licitaţie! 12. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. Voi vizita târgul internaţional. This time next month. 10. I (cook) for two hours.

) Nota 2: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii secundare cu acţiune posterioară celei din principală. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale că o va ajuta. nu în propoziţii. ci în fraze. (Ea a spus că uitase unde şi-a pus ochelarii. (El a spus că este bolnav. dintre care una este temporală sau condiţională. Propoziţia principală 1. un timp „past” Past Tense Simple.) She promised her mother she would help her.) c) Past Tense – acţiunea posterioară – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. Past Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice alt timp „past”. 2.) Nota 1: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. secundara cu acţiunea anterioară celei din principală. Futurein-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singură dată. (Am ajuns acasă după ce încetase ploaia. (El a spus că se întorsese acasă cu o săptămână înainte.LECŢIA 2 CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR Concordanţa timpurilor se aplică. Ce înseamnă „un timp adecvat” se va vedea în continuare. Present Tense Continuous. Past Perfect Simple. se poate folosi Past Perfect în mod repetat. un timp „present” Present Tense Simple. (El a spus că merge la şcoală. după care (în temporală sau condiţională) se întrebuinţează Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). .) b) Past Tense – acţiune anterioară – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. (El a spus că va pleca a doua zi.) He said he was going to school. Past Tense Continuous. desigur. Present Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Propoziţia principală Orice timp cerut de sens. Ea constă în aceea că folosirea unui anumit timp în propoziţia principală obligă la folosirea unui timp adecvat în propoziţia secundară. a) Past Tense – acţiune simultană – Past Tense He said he was ill. Present Perfect Simple.

Future – acţiune simultană – Present I will read this book when I have time.) b. (Voi citi această carte când voi avea timp. (El a spus că va cumpăra o maşină dacă va avea bani. Future – acţiune anterioară – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. (Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta.) Notă: În limba engleză contemporană. să ajungă regulă. Când propoziţia secundară este comparativă.) I will have finished studying when you come home. cu excepţia propoziţiilor temporale sau condiţionale.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinţă de a nu se respecta concordanţa timpurilor atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. Situaţiile cel mai des întâlnite sunt următoarele: a. Last year I worked more than I have done this year.) 3. cu timpul. (Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost dată de fratele meu. de exemplu. sfătuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleză să respecte regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor aşa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinţă.He said he would come to see me when he had time. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Pentru moment însă. (Voi merge în Anglia după ce voi obţine viza. (Profesorul le-a spus elevilor că apa fierbe la 100 oC. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasă. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me”.) Excepţii de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă când va avea timp. Când propoziţia secundară este atributivă. Când propoziţia secundară exprimă un adevăr general valabil. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă după ce va termina lucrul. Se poate întâlni.) 3. care nu pot include un verb la viitor.) 2.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. EXERCIŢII cu concordanţa timpurilor: . un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens.

he was tired because he (travel) for three days. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 2. Looking out of the window. 6. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 10. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. As wages had gone up. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 2. When he finally reached London. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. 9. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). I was not sure if you (speak) English. They didn’t know that I (play) football. we supposed prices (go up). 7. 9. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. He promised he (drive) me home. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. 5. 4. având în vedere simultaneitatea acţiunilor din propoziţia principală şi cea secundară: 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. . the concert already (begin). 3. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 10. 2. I understood you (be) a painter. 8. 3. I believed you (be) at the seaside. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 2. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. She told me his name after he (leave). 4. I congratulated him. It was clear they (talk) business again. 10. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. When it started to rain. When I arrived. 3. We all believed he (win) the competition. 9. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. 7. 8. 6. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. too. ţinând seama de relaţia de anterioritate exprimată de verbul din propoziţia principală sau din cea secundară: 1. When I heard the main actor was ill. 5. 5. After I (hear) the news.1. 4. având în vedere faptul că propoziţia secundară exprimă o acţiune posterioară celei din principală: 1. 3. 6. 8. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. 7. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper.

4. 11. you will feel better. As soon as the holidays (begin). You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. 8. 19. In 1998. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). 2. 9. He told me he never (see) the sea. ţinând seama de excepţiile de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. 10. 6. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. respectând toate regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. 7. 9. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 12. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. I shall have typed all the letters. After he (repair) the car. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). The train will have left before we (reach) the station. When I (finish) the book. 6. When their first baby (be born). 6. 4. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 20. 4. 18. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. 5. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. After you (drink) a coffee. she will take a job as a secretary. 3. 15. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. they will have been married for five years. 16. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. 2. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. precum şi excepţiile: 1. 3. 10. 13. 2. this beach will become very crowded. 7. 5. After she (learn) to type. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. 14. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. 5. 3. 17. he will drive to Sinaia. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 5. . I will lend it to you. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language.4. 8. By the time you (finish) translating the text.

6. When we (go) to see them last night, they were listening to music, they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. 7. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays, I (not decide) yet. 8. I will do it when I (want) to, not before. 9. He was very upset because I (be) late. 10. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. 11. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam, he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. 12. When I finally arrived home, I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 13. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 14. You will never know how much I (suffer). 15. A week ago, he decided he (change) his job. 16. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 17. After having visited Italy, my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. 18. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. 19. After we have finished dinner, we (drink) coffee and brandy. 20. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon.

7. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Nu mi-am amintit că ne cunoscusem cu un an înainte. 2. Nu am stat acasă să te aştept pentru că nu ştiam când vei veni. 3. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul este ocupat. 4. Ştiam că eşti în Bucureşti. 5. Era foarte supărat că îşi pierduse dicţionarul şi nu era sigur că va găsi unul nou în librării. 6. I-am promis că îi voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 7. Hoţul nu şi-a dat seama că poliţia îl urmărea de o săptămână. 8. Îţi voi spune adevărul după ce îl voi afla eu însămi. 9. Tata îmi va da un cadou după ce voi lua examenul. 10. Maşina pe care o voi cumpăra va fi importată din Germania. 11. M-a întrebat câte litere sunt în alfabetul chinez şi nu am putut să-i răspund. 12. Poliţistul mă va întreba ce am văzut în timpul accidentul.

LECŢIA 3
MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE Present Conditional (condiţional prezent)

Se formează cu should şi would la persoana I şi would la persoanele II şi III, la care se adaugă infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat.

Afirmativ I should/would go. You would go. He/she/it would go. We should/would go. You would go. They would not go. Negativ I should/would not go. You would not go. He/she/it would not go. We should/would not go. You would not go. They would not go. Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t, wouldn’t. Interogativ Should I go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Should we go? Would you go? Would they go? Se traduce cu condiţionalul prezent din limba română (aş merge, ai merge, ar merge etc.).

Past Conditional (condiţional trecut)
Se traduce cu should/would la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). Afirmativ I should/would have gone. You would have gone. He/she/it would have gone. We should/would have gone. You would have gone. They would have gone. Negativ I should/would not have gone. You would not have gone. He/she/it would not have gone. We should/would not have gone. You would not have gone.

They would not have gone. Interogativ Should I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu condiţionalul trecut din limba română (aş fi mers, ai fi mers, ar fi mers etc.).

Frazele condiţionale (If-Clauses)
Există trei tipuri de fraze condiţionale:

Tipul 1:

Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. (Voi merge la mare dacă vremea va fi bună.) I will stay at home if it rains. (Voi sta acasă dacă va ploua.) Tipul 2:

Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. (Aş merge la mare dacă vremea ar fi bună.) I would stay at home if it rained. (Aş sta acasă dacă ar ploua.)
Nota 1: Trebuie să se ţină seama că subjonctivul folosit în propoziţia secundară are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele, cu excepţia verbului „to be”, unde se întâlneşte forma „were” la toate persoanele.

Tipul 3:

Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. (Aş fi mers la mare dacă vremea ar fi fost bună.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. (Aş fi stat acasă dacă ar fi plouat.)
Nota 2: – if poate fi înlocuit de provided (that), providing, supposing, suppose,

in case.

What shall we do, supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând că el întârzie?)

If the police should find out the truth. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. you (not pass) the exam. If you don’t hurry. 7. I would ring him up. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come EXERCIŢII cu fraze condiţionale: 1.if not poate fi înlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. you (be) late. If I (move) to the country-side. he (take) a pill. If she finds out what has happened. would you visit me? 3. (În caz că poliţia ar afla adevărul/Dacă s-ar întâmpla ca poliţia să afle adevărul. If I won the lottery. you will have to look after it. had. you (not find) me at home. he (not make) so many mistakes. If it (go on) raining. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. tell her I am out. Unless you study more. şi în acest caz se inversează ordinea subiect – auxiliar. în loc de Present Simple. În acest caz. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. she (be) very angry. 5. If she should ring up. 2. spune-i că nu sunt acasă. I (buy) it. 8. noi am fi amendaţi. If I (give up) smoking. 9. If you (take) a dog. If I see him. 5. atunci când acţiunea din secundară este posibilă. should). 7. 2. dar improbabilă.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 1: 1. I (buy) a car. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. (În caz că telefonează. este posibilă omiterea lui if. 4. If I tell you something. 2. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. 3. should poate fi folosit în secundară la tipul 2 de fraza condiţională. Unless you come at 6. If I (know) his phone-number. 10. should se traduce cu: în caz că. Should he have a headache. If he were more careful. Acest tip de secundară este adesea combinat cu imperativul. dacă s-ar întâmpla ca. 8. I would be nervous. were. . we shall have floods. If I like the dress. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect.. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1.) De asemenea. I (greet) him. we would be fined. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 2: 1.

I would have succeeded. he would never have known. 10. Ce-ai face dacă l-ai întâlni pe John? 12. If he had written a letter to me. 4. I (answer) the phone. 2. 10. 7. I (answer) it. 3. străzile ar fi fost ude. 4. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. . 5. 9. If I (not tell) him. I would speak to him. 5. If I (see) him. 9. he (get) a bar of chocolate. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 3: 1. I would go home immediately. Ce vei face dacă îl vei întâlni pe John? 11. 6. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 8. Dacă va ploua. 2. 4. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 3. If you (drive) more carefully. If I (work) harder. Îl vei vedea dacă îl vei aştepta. If you had taken my advice. If I (be) you. he would have gone home. If you had known English. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Ce-ai fi făcut dacă l-ai fi întâlnit pe John? 6. I (answer) your question if I can. Vei prinde trenul dacă vei lua un taxi. 10. 6. you wouldn’t have an accident. 3. Te-ai fi supărat dacă ţi-aş fi luat creionul? 10. Were I in your place. Te-ai supăra dacă ţi-aş lua creionul? 9. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. If the child is good. Had I been at home. 2. 7. 8. It (be) better if you had waited. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. 5. He (tell) you if you had asked him. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect.9. If he (realize) it was so late. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. 4. 3. You (be) sick if you eat so much. Ai fi prins trenul dacă ai fi luat un taxi. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. ţinând seama că se poate întâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze condiţionale: 1. Ai prinde trenul dacă ai lua un taxi. Dacă ar fi plouat. If I (know) you had no driving licence. 7. you (not get) into trouble. 5. Dacă ar ploua. 6. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Te vei supăra dacă îţi voi lua creionul? 8. străzile vor fi ude. străzile ar fi ude. I (not do) this. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. Had I learned English grammar.

Dacă un cerşetor ţi-ar cere bani. 3. Atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. Dacă cina nu va fi gata la timp. i-ai da? Ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă ai fi condus cu viteză mare? Nu vom merge la plimbare dacă nu va sta ploaia. Vorbirea indirectă: John said she was not at home. voi mânca la un restaurant. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanţă dacă n-ar fi atât de mulţi oameni 10. He said „I have been working hard. în funcţie de sens. He said she had given him a book. Mi-ar plăcea mai mult piesa dacă ar fi mai scurtă. He said: „She gave me a book”. 6. He said he was ill. He said „I will do the exercise”. 9. mi-ar fi fost frig. 1. LECŢIA 4 VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ Vorbirea directă: John said: „She is not at home”. 4. Se schimbă o serie de cuvinte în funcţie de sens. Pentru a trece o propoziţie de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă. He said „I was ill”. He said he had been working hard. 7. acolo. 5. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. Voi fi dezamăgit dacă nu voi afla adevărul. 1. 2. He said he had been ill. He said he would do the exercise. în propoziţia secundară se schimbă timpurile după cum urmează: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past He said „I am ill”. ceea ce se întâmplă în majoritatea cazurilor. 8.2. Se schimbă pronumele. Dacă n-ai fi închis fereastra. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week . Aş mai croşeta un pulover dacă aş mai avea lână.

He asked me if I liked music. Afirmaţii: cu that (care se poate omite) He said: „I am ill”. Verbele modale would. on holiday.” He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. He said (that) he was ill. ceea ce este o greşeală. I would have stayed at home. Întrebările generale se introduc cu if sau whether (dacă). He said he would be at home on that day. should. Întrebările speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv.” He said if itrained he would stay at home. He said: „I might be late”.two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there He said: „I’ll be at home today”. trebuie acordată atenţie ordinei cuvintelor din propoziţia secundară. ought to. Modalităţi de introducere a propoziţiilor secundare în vorbirea indirectă: 1. Întrebările generale sunt cele care încep cu un verb. Where have you been? I’ve been away. He asked me: „What is the time?” Corect: He asked me what the time was. Întrebări: există două tipuri de întrebări: generale şi speciale. might rămân neschimbate la vorbirea indirectă. 2. could. I would stay at home. . Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) He said „Go out”. o tipurile 2 şi 3 nu se schimbă: „If it rained. „If it had rained. He told me to go out.” He said if it rained he would stay at home. He told me not to go out. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. există tentaţia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propoziţiile interogative. Frazele condiţionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirectă în modul următor: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: „If it rains. 3. Întrucât această propoziţie începe cu un cuvânt interogativ. He said „Don’t go out”. În cazul întrebărilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirectă. iar răspunsul poate fi da sau nu. I will stay at home.He said he might be late. He said he was going to do that translation the next day. 3. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow”. He asked me where I had been.

Don’t drive so fast! 2. Do you live in London for a long time? . Treceţi următoarele afirmaţii de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow”. 2. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 6. 2. 8. Read the text. 3.I am going to have a nap this afternoon. please! 3. Was your mother at home? 6. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. Take this pill! 9. 1. Can you come to tea this afternoon? 3. Open the door. Has the train left? 4. I saw this film a week ago. 1. If I had been at home. Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. If I have enough money. Be careful with my books! 7. I will go shopping right now. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. I would have answered the phone. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. ordered) me to come in. I went to England two years ago. please! 4. Don’t cross the street on a red light! 6. The weather was fine yesterday. 1.EXERCIŢII cu vorbirea directă şi vorbirea indirectă: 1. I am very busy today. Don’t smoke so much! 8. 10. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. Will you help me. 12. Do you know what this word means? 5. 4. Did you buy this book yesterday? 7. Treceţi următoarele întrebări generale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?” He asked me if I would be at home the next day. Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! 10. 5. Did you drink coffee every day? 8. Were you at the library yesterday? 9. I will buy a car next year. Treceţi următoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „Come in!” He told (asked. please? 2. Write me a letter when you get to England! 5. 7. 11. 9.

1. Unde complementul direct este a book. iar complementul indirect este him.Can you speak English? 11. Activ: I gave him a book. Why is it so dark in this room? 8. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte în cazul trecerii la pasiv. trecerea de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă se face prin transformarea complementului direct în subiect. How long have you been learning English? 2. I have been asked. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book.How did you travel? LECŢIA 5 Pasivul se formează conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Desigur. În limba română. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. Who is this man? 7. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. I am asked. please? 4. I was asked. există trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect în transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. I had been asked. I will be asked. Where will you spend your weekend? 6. How long does it take you to reach your office? 4. la care se adaugă forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Would you like a cake? 12. When did the rain stop? 9. Treceţi următoarele întrebări speciale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?” He asked me when I had come back. În limba engleză. What are you going to do tomorrow? 3. în unele cazuri. complementul prepoziţional. (by me) . When will you be back? 5. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ.Could you lend me a book.10. Which of these cakes do you prefer? 10. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. complementul indirect şi.

6. 3. when I passed by. de asemenea. 2. se omite formularea by. În multe cazuri. 3. 8. In this office punctuality is insisted on. They will finish the work today. pasivul se foloseşte atunci când nu este important cine face acţiunea. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. The policeman will show us the way. They are building a new house round the corner. 7. poate deveni subiect în cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). 10. They have given me a nice present. 2. 5. Notă: Se poate folosi aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense şi Past Tense. 4. While I am in hospital. 5. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 2. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). While I was in hospital. Activ: She looked after the child. În aceste situaţii. transformând atât complementul direct cât şi cel indirect în subiecte: 1. 6. I will invite my friend to a party. 7. The teacher asked me a difficult question. punctuality este un complement prepoziţional. Treceţi la pasiv următoarele propoziţii care cuprind combinaţii verb + prepoziţie: . EXERCIŢII cu diateza pasivă: 1. 9. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. Un alt exemplu de complement prepoziţional care poate deveni subiect. The noise frightened me. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă în două feluri. 10. 3. They will give me a reward. care. A specialist will repair my TV set. His coworkers must do something for him. 4. de la sfârşitul propoziţiei. 8. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. Someone has found the missing child.În propoziţia: In this office they insist on punctuality. I have lent John two of my books. my flat is being painted. my flat was being painted. People play football all over the world. 9. He has found your bag. I teach them English.

Când a ajuns acasă şi-a dat seama că i se furase portofelul. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. Burglars broke into the house. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinţă. 4. The pupils will be told where to sit. 2. 8. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. 3. This house has been built out of stone and cement. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 9. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie căutate în dicţionar. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. I was recommended a very good doctor. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii de la diateza pasivă la diateza activă. 3. Scrisoarea va fi pusă la poştă cât mai curând posibil. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. 5. Ni s-a cerut să arătăm paşapoartele. This book will soon be forgotten. We objected to his proposal. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. 6. 9. English is spoken all over the world. În acest hotel se vorbesc limbi străine. 5. They didn’t look after the children properly. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanţa. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. These books mustn’t be taken away. They set fire to the shed. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. 7. 8. 4.1. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. We called for the doctor. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Will someone tell him the details? 6. 2. A reception was held in his honour. He hasn’t slept in his bed. Această informaţie treuie tratată confidenţial. 2. 3. 6. 10. We laughed at John. 8. 7. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. 6. 7. Găsiţi subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. 10. . This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. 9. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10.He hates being made fun of. Have you fed the dog? 7. 5. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toţi studenţii. 4. 6. 4.

) Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseşte înlocuitorul to be able to. Are sensul de a putea. condiţional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I? Could you? etc. He can speak English.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. Se traduce cu a şti să. I will be able to come to you tomorrow.) I can speak English. America a fost descoperită la sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea. (Ştiu să vorbesc engleza. (Voi putea veni la tine mâine. prezent Negativ: cannot.) Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. Muzeul a fost închis pentru reparaţii. can’t I cannot (can’t) make this translation. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. will.) 2. (Ar fi putut să fie aici în timp. I can swim. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense şi condiţionalul prezent. Se folosesc înlocuitori. Ni se vor da instrucţiuni detaliate în privinţa referatului. (Ştiu să înot. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi în cartierul nostru. . would Caracteristici generale • • • • Nu primesc to înaintea lor şi după ele: Can is a model verb.11. should.) I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. ought to. Nu au toate timpurile. He cannot (can’t) speak English. Can = infinitiv. shall.) I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons.Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. înlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri.) În vorbirea familiară. 15. Arată o anumită abilitate fizică sau intelectuală. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea”. 12. (N-am putut să-ţi telefonez săptămâna aceasta. a fi în stare: I can make this traslation. (Vreau să fac aceasta. must. I can do this. Can you make this translation? Could Past Tense. Nu formează negativul şi interogativul cu „to do”. (Pot să fac aceasta. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. 13. could. may.) Could you help me? (Ai putea să mă ajuţi?) Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseşte could + infinitivul trecut He could have been here in time. need. LECŢIA 6 VERBELE MODALE can. (Voi şti să conduc maşina după ce voi lua câteva lecţii. Can 1. might. prezent.) Cu acest sens. 14. (N-am putut să vin la tine ieri.

poţi. .) 3. The sun hasn’t set yet. Se foloseşte înlocuitorul to have to. to be permitted to. (S-a făcut târziu. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. May/Might – s-ar putea să: Take your umbrella. A trebui: It’s got late. (Ia-ţi umbrela.) 2. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. (Nu se poate să fie ora 9. nu e posibil să. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. He said I might smoke in that room. Trebuie să plec acasă. May/might pot exprima un reproş.) Ring up John. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. I must go home. prezent Cu acest sens există timpul might care redă ideea de trecut. (De ce nu ţi-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut să răceşti. S-ar putea să fie acasă acum.) Negativ: must not. se adaugă infinitivul trecut.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. Are sensul de a putea. pot/am permisiunea să iau maşina ta?) 3. (Da.) May 1. (Voi putea/mi se va permite să fumez în camera aceea. dar se foloseşte numai după un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirectă). can I take your car? (Tată. It may/might rain. (Nu se poate să-l fi văzut pe John pe stradă. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room.) Cu acest sens. a avea permisiunea: May I smoke in this room? (Pot/am permisiunea să fumez în această cameră?) Yes. Soarele nu a apus încă. (Telefonează-i lui John.) Negativ: may not.) I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room.) Must 1.) Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. you may. se foloseşte infinitivul trecut. (Ai putea să mă ajuţi când sunt la nevoie. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate să. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc înlocuitorii: to be allowed to. (Am putut/mi s-a permis să fumez în cameră aceea.Father. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. (Ai fi putut să îmi scrii o scrisoare când erai în Anglia. You may/might help me when I am in need. s-ar putea să plouă. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. He may/might be at home now. El e în străinătate. ideea de trecut este redată prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. He is abroad.

You needn’t have watered the flowers. dar a fost făcută. ar fi cazul să. ideea de trecut se redă prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie”. cu sensul de a fi nevoie: Ca verb modal. Profesorul ne-a spus că e prea uşor pentru noi.) Cu acest sens. Hai să-l vizităm. (A trebuit să termin traducerea ieri. need se foloseşte numai la interogativ şi negativ. there is a speed limit here. cu sensul de a avea nevoie: He doesn’t need this book. (Nu. (Nu trebuie să conduci atât de repede. poate avea sensul probabil că: It must be late. (Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseară. se foloseşte verbul must. De asemenea. (Probabil că John e acasă acum.) Need Există două verbe: • To need: verb obişnuit. 2. o obligaţie morală.) Pentru a răspunde afirmativ la întrebarea de mai sus. Let’s go home. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. Se traduc cu: ar trebui să. I was asleep when you arrived home last night.) You mustn’t drive so fast. Let’s call on him. N-ai văzut că urma să plouă? • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară şi nu a fost făcută. se foloseşte needn’t + infinitivul trecut.) Trebuie menţionat faptul că înlocuitorul lui must. You needn’t drive so fast. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. . Nu a fost nevoie să facem acest exerciţiu. (Nu e nevoie să conduci atât de repede. you must! (Da. Ought to Ambele verbe indică o acţiune corectă.) Should. (El nu are nevoie de această carte. you needn’t.) • Need: verb modal. (Probabil că e târziu. noţional. Hai să mergem acasă. (Va trebui să termin traducerea mâine. to have to formează interogativul şi negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. nu e nevoie. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie să uzi florile. Probabil că era târziu. o recomandare. aici e limita de viteză.I had to finish the traslation yesterday. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. există 2 posibilităţi: • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară. Notă: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. It must have been late. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes.) John must be at home now.) I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Need I be here at one o’clock? (E nevoie să fiu aici la ora 1?) No. we have enough time. ar fi bine să. avem destul timp. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie”. se foloseşte didn’t need + infinitivul We didn’t need to do this exercise.

o obligaţie sau o ameninţare care provin de la cel care vorbeşte. (Nu ar fi trebuit să fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. (O fi sora ei. cerere politicoasă: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation.) Shall Folosit cu persoana I.) • Presupunere: se traduce în limba română cu o fi. (Ar trebui să o ajuţi pe mama ta la treburile casei.) Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. shall poate arăta o promisiune. Would • Formula de politeţe. This girl looks very much like Jane. my mother used to read me fairy tales. poate indica.în trecut When I was a child. (Acest copil nu vrea să facă ce-i spun. în timp ce la interogativ şi negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obişnuit cât şi ca modal. (Mama mea obişnuieşte să stea ore întregi privind la televizor.) Notă: În afară de „would”.) She will be her sister. my mother would read me fairy tales. shall indică viitorul. interogativ. Will. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him.You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Folosit cu persoana I. ideea de acţiune repetată în trecut se poate exprima cu „used to”.) . (Această fată seamănă foarte bine cu Jane. de asemenea. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar dacă nu vei lua examenul. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam.) This radio won’t work. please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. mama obişnuia să-mi citească poveşti.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. solicitarea unui sfat. When I was a child. (Când eram copil. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicletă dacă vei lua examenul. o ofertă sau o sugestie. Which dress shall I buy? (Ce rochie să cumpăr?) Shall I wait for you? (Să te aştept?) Shall we meet at one o’clock? (Să ne întâlnim la ora 1?) Folosit cu persoanele II şi III.în perioada prezentă My mother will sit for hours watching TV. care are numai formă de trecut. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a îndrăzni) care se conjugă la afirmativ ca un verb obişnuit. . • Acţiune repetată: . (O fi ajuns la Paris până acum.

2. You might write to me more often. 4. 9. He must be delayed at the office. You might pay more attention to your work. acolo unde este necesar: 1. You might change your mind about that. Everybody may borrow books from this library. 16. 6. Redaţi ideea de trecut în următoarele propoziţii folosind infinitivul trecut în loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 8. 10. there is plenty in the fridge. It can’t be too late. 14. She can play the piano very well. 12. She can lend you that book. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. You needn’t do this.EXERCIŢII cu verbe modale: 1. 15. She can read and write at the age of five. 15. You may not smoke in this room. 3. 10. 14. He can swim very well. It might rain. He needn’t buy milk. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 2. Can you speak Chinese? 18. 2. You mustn’t do this . 4. This child may have another cake. 11. Can Jane type very quickly? 17. 5. I must look up the words in the dictionary. You may not speak to your mother like that. May I walk on the grass? 11. 6. 12. You may leave earlier. folosind înlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. 5. 13. 19. . 3. He may be at home. 17. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple şi Future Tense Simple. I must go soon. 16. Must you be so rude? 20. He should go to school everyday. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. I must learn English. 8. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. 7. Can you help me? 9. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. John must be ill. 13. I cannot translate ten pages a day. He may not come in wearing dirty boots. 7. He ought to tell me the truth.

It may/might have snowed in the mountains. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains.18. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. He …reach the Moon and walk there. He was probably late. Take your umbrella. He probably thinks I am wrong. He …even drive on its surface. 6. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. Don’t wait. He must speak English well. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. 6. He probably came home very early. 2. holidays will be very different. 4. perhaps it is a good one. 5. perhaps it will rain. 8.John could be a winner. 3. I have bought his latest book. 4. It is possible that I come home early. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. I think she was angry with you. You must have forgotten to lock the door. 8. 5. 7. 3. but I doubt it. 3. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 2. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. 20. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 4. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains. You probably forgot to lock the door. 3. 10. 1. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. It may/might snow in the mountains. else. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. It is possible for her to be very late. It must be difficult to climb this mountain.You have probably forgotten his address. 19. 5. 2. He is probably older than he looks. She is probably a very good doctor. 9. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. 4. 7. Man …travel through space now. 1. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone . 5. 9.

The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. I’ll give you as much as you want. think the weather will change. 3. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu should sau would: 1. You …not expect everybody to obey you. I 8. believe it was his fault. 7. I 5. 4. 9. believe she has got so fat. 2. I …wear my hair long. 6. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 5. I 6. 7. 2. He …read for hours on end. 8. You…water the flowers. You … worry about money. When I was young. I 3. 9. You can’t be right. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 10. 1. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. I 4. 6. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. believe she has learnt English in two months. You … take sleeping pills too often. I 7. People … speak during the concert. I 10. think he is at the office so late at night. 5. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. You … take an umbrella. please? 7. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. I 9. The sky is clear. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t: 1. 10. I …read one book a day.10. 9. I don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t believe it is his fault. . I … return the books before the 1st of September. think this is a true story. believe that he has passed the exam. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 8. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. 4. it will soon start raining. When I was a teenager. think you will miss the train if you hurry. I 2. I don’t believe you were right. 6. 8. … you help me solve this problem? 3. believe she has married that awful man. You can’t have been right. they are addictive. You …not go to bed so late at night.

You …do this whether you like it or not. I locked the door and took the key with me. . 7. but I forgot it was Sunday. please? 10. I wrote him a letter. 9. 2. This door … not unlock. 5. I …(get up) so early today. This letter is full of mistakes. It …(rain) here. You …(wait) for me. If you win the contest.” 13. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. 5. he is a very poor swimmer. 7. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul 1. 8. I …(see) him for that. 4. 6. Go to sleep.2. the road is dry. I haven’t got my bag with me.” „Yes. you…get a nice present. I didn’t hear the phone. you …re-type it. I …(be) in the garden. Încercaţi să gasiţi un sens următorului dialog: „Do you think he will?” „I think he might. 5. You …(see) Anna yesterday. You …(buy) so much bread. 8. he will never read them all. 6. 11. She is away.” „His family consider he should. She …write an article for this magazine every week. 6. Traduceţi în limba engleză. 10. I promise you not …be disturbed. We …(wait) too long. 2. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. This …be John’s house. I …(answer) the questions. John …(do) such a thing. which would have saved me a lot of work. The child … (leave) home. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. … you correct my exercise. 2. 8. He …(be) at home. 9. which was very convenient. 10. 4. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu must. You…(lend) him your text – book. He …(swim) across the Danube. he was back soon. I …(answer) the questions. 9. 4. 3. It’ll get stale. for once? 3. I …(leave) it on the bus. folosind verbe modale sau înlocuitori ai acestora: 1. 10. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. The student …(write) such a long composition. 3. Toţi studenţii pot şi trebuie să scrie această lucrare. You …(lend) him so many books. …you tell me the truth. trecut: 12. he is a nice boy. 7. but he himself believes he needn’t. The light was on in his room. He has one of his own. I am sorry you wasted your time. Va trebui să mă ajuţi mai mult astăzi.

Am cerut să vorbesc cu directorul. 17. Nu a fost nevoie să spun „mulţumesc” când am aflat ora exactă formând 958 întrucât ştiam că informaţia e înregistrată pe bandă. Nu. Nu aveţi voie să vorbiţi în timpul examenului. 3. Vreţi. may. o urare. 21. 7.noroi. dar el nu a vrut să vină la telefon. Nu ştiu să croşetez. Nu e nevoie să-ţi cari singură bagajul în gară. Come what may. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. Sunt sigur că voi putea găsi timp să te ajut. Probabil că eram încă la facultate.Unde mergem acum? 28. Ar fi trebuit să citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. might. Îţi promit că vei avea cartea mâine. 29. would + infinitiv. 8. 26. 18. Nu a fost nevoie să-i telefonez lui Jane ca să vorbesc cu ea pentru că urma să vină la mine peste o jumătate de oră. 5. 6. 22. Nu se poate ca profesorul să fi fost mulţumit de acest răspuns. LECŢIA 7 MODUL SUBJONCTIV În engleza contemporană. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. Fie ce-o fi. să aştepţi câteva minute? 30. Long live the king! Trăiască regele. 13. 1. o dorinţă sau un blestem. Nu se poate să fi găsit uşa deschisă. . 27. de Past Tense şi de Past Perfect. Nu era nevoie să-mi faci cafea. 24. E nevoie să urcăm la cabană pe jos? 15. Ştiam să cânt la pian când eram copil. Nu se poate să fi fost acasă aseară. Trebuie să-mi schimb pantofii când intru în casă pentru că sunt plini de 14. exprimând o lozincă. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. Toată lumea să fie prezentă la şedinţă. 12. 23. Profesorul mi-a spus că pot să lipsesc de la ora următoare. Apare în propoziţii exclamative. Ţi-am telefonat şi nu a răspuns nimeni. De asemenea. Mâine va trebui să pun scrisoarea la poştă. Ar fi trebuit să insişti. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. o încuiasem chiar eu. 9. 20. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv: a. vă rog. Ai putea să-mi telefonezi mai des când ştii că sunt bolnav. 10. există echivalenţi de subjonctiv care constau în verbele should. 4. 19. 11.De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. am băut deja două astăzi. 16. Ar trebui ca toţi copiii să facă treburi în casă. Va trebui să plec curând.

Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. I wish I were in England now. Cineva să-mi aducă un pahar cu apă. Este imposibil ca el să facă aceasta. 1. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect.God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul să te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemată fie această ceaţă! b. It is necessary that you be present. to demand. I wish (mi-as dori. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. ar fi înlocuit cu prezentul. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine: Everybody leave the hall. to insist. bine ar fi sa) • Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. Toată lumea să părăsească sala. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. d. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. it is likely that. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. to urge. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! . It is impossible that he do this. Poate fi întâlnit în poezia clasică. I wish it would stop raining. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Ex. I wish I had been born in England. Doctorul a insistat ca eu să stau acasă. în engleza contemporană. e. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui să fie acceptată. Ex. E necesar ca tu să fii prezent. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. După verbe ca: to propose. to suggest. to order. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. Este de dorit ca noi să terminăm întâi traducerea. se foloseste would. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. în situaţii în care. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. it is necessary that. După construcţii de tipul: it is impossible that. to recommend. Ex. apare ca were la toate persoanele. it is desirable that.

should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul.) Ex. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. 1. a. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta.) It is high time. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. Ex. • De asemenea. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. to demand. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. to suggest. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. You speak English as if you had lived in England. It is time the child went to bed. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. Ex. c) As . (Era de mult timpul. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. It is impossible that he should have done this. it is necessary that. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. to recommend. d)It is time. In exemplul de mai sus. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. to urge. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. It is impossible that he should do this. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. Ex. (E timpul. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. It is high time you began to study seriously. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. It is necessary that you should be present. Dupa cum se observa.if/though (ca si cum. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. Ex. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. I would sooner stay at home tonight. to insist.

I wish I could speak English. Oricine ai fi. in secundara se foloseste may.Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. It was possible that he might be here in time. I will ring you up. Ex. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. wherever. whenever. in order that Ex. • Dupa to hope. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. iti voi telefona. Ex. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. etc. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. in secundara se foloseste might. Oriunde as fi. fie in vorbirea indirecta. Ex. however. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. No matter who you may/might be. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. • Dupa whoever. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. a. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. • Dupa it is possible. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta.when. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. to be afraid Ex. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. fie in vorbirea direca. • Dupa so that. . Ex. I hope that he may pass the exam. Wherever I may/might be. it was possible Ex. whichever. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. you have no right to do this. where. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. you have no right to do this. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Whoever you may/might be. why. iar in aceste cazuri. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. Hurry up lest you miss the train. It is possible that he may be here in time. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. no matter when. may. • Intrebari introduse prin how.

I am sorry I was late for the party. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. 4. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. 4. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. 2. 10. 8. 1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I am sorry it rains so often. 1. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. 3. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 1. . 1. I wish the weather were fine. I regret I have no children. I was sorry you had got a fine. 7. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. 7. I regret I am not a student. 2. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. I was sorry you were out when I called. 7. 9. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 3. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. 3. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. 8. 9. 6. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. 6. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. 9. 10. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. 4. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 6. I regret I can’t go to the concert. I wish he would take my advice. I am sorry books are so expensive. 5. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. I regret I have only one child. 1. 2.I wish I might borrow your car. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I am sorry my friend is ill. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 8. I am sorry you had an accident. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. 5. I am sorry you live so far away. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 5. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine.

3. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. If only my telephone (work)! 11. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. 13. 7.10. 13. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. 17. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 12. As prefera sa merg la teatru.Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 2. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. la tara. 16. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. am putea merge la plaja! 6. 10. 20. . It’s time we (go) home. 20. 8. 16. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. 9. 14. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 5. I would rather you (close) that window. 12. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. 10. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 6. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. 11. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. 3. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. If only I (become) a millionaire. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 17. I am cold. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. You behave as if you (own) the place. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 14. 15. 2. 4. 1. 19. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. 18. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday.

6. 5. I wish my car (not break down) last week. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. 3. 2. 5. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 4. 9. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. 10. . nu ar trebui sa ma minti. 9. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. Oricând te vei intoarce. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. 7. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. 8. 8. 7. 7. 4. 9. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. 4. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. Oricât te-ai stradui. 1. 10. 5. 6. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. 8. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. 5. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa.6. Oricare ar fi motivul. 2. nu te pot crede. 2. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 8. 7. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. 3. Orice mi-ai spune. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. 3. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. 8. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 6. 6. 3. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). 2. you should remember your own phone number. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând.

The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. Diateza activa o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call o infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling o infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called o infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called o infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. 17. 16. Diateza activa o nedefinit: calling o perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o nedefinit: being called o perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 13. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. I wish I (find) another. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. . If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. I wish I (be) there when it happened. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). to wish. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. to like. diateza si timpuri.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. All success (attend) you! 18. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o to call – called – called o to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. in cazul verbelor neregulate. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. 19. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. to dislike. I have such a boring job. 15. 14. Ex. to hate. 12. I want you to go now. The road is wet.11. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town.

. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. to hear. to consider. to count upon/on .) d.) He ordered the door to be locked. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. to make. to feel. verbe exprimând un ordin. to cause. I’d like him to come with me. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor.) I expected him to come in time. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).) b. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. verbe declarative: to state. (Consider ca el este un bun student.) I let him go out and play. He is said to be a good writer.) f. to expect.) They declared him to be the man of the year. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. to understand. I saw him leave the room. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to believe. to order. I made him study English. I made him study English. to say. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa.Ex. He admitted the news to be false. I consider him to be a good student. He considered the news to be false.) I want John to do this. He is considered to be a good student. to know.) 1. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.) c. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. Ex. Ex. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. Ex. Ex. to suppose. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. to allow. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. I consider him to be a good student.) e. I rely on you to do this. to know. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. He was made to study English. to expect. to watch. Ex. to declare. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. to consider. to suppose. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. to hear. Ex. to believe. to admit. a.

She is sure to come in time. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este.) I happened to meet him in the street.) I left / found her crying. (E usor fac asta. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. ii voi spune unde esti. It is necessary that I (should) go there. b. to watch. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. I will tell him where you are. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". Ex.) It is necessary for me to go there.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. to leave. to prove. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. Ex. (Am auzit-o cântând. It is easy for sa me to . He was declared to be the man of the year. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see.) I heard her singing. de obicei. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. do this.) It is impossible for him to come. to seem. cu verbele: to happen. 1. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. He proved to be a good journalist. to turn out. to smell. It is impossible that I (should) come.) If I happen to meet him. a. precum si cu verbele to find. to hear. They declared him to be the man of the year. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuEx. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1.The news was considered to be false.) This remains for him to decide.

John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. vazut plecând. vom merge la plaja. Nominativ cu Este pasivul constructiei Ex: He was (El a fost She was (Ea a fost Participiu Acuzativ cu Participiu: seen leaving. . Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. we went home.) Weather permitting. 7. She had two sons killed in the war. auzita cântând.zisa. 6. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. Cred ca el e un sot bun. I had my bedroom window broken. 10. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. we shall go to the beach. 5. 3. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. I-am privit jucând fotbal. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. 4.) 3. (Daca vremea va permite. 9. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 12. 8.) I will have my hair done. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. 2. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. Ex: The classes being over. (Orele fiind terminate. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. 2. 13. 11.) heard singing. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. am mers acasa.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. Ex.

This translation is easy for me to make. This is a valuable piece of advice.14. You should bear it in mind. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 3. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. They heard him repeat it several times. 1. 2. I ordered a taxi. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. 4. It is sure they have had an argument. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. 3. 2. Expected that he would resign. This is the main thing. 6. 5. It’s time we met again. This fact is important. 9. You should read it. It was proved that she was a liar. 7. 2. It is possible that I might buy a car. The time has come. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 3. 1. They said she was ill. 10. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 6. 7. I thought she was unable to win the contest. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. I cam make it. This is a strange thing. It is necessary that he be present. 4. We should do it now. The people were impatient. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 15. 6. 4. I can’t solve it. 5. 1. 10. 8. It is advisable that you should resign. I don’t want you to catch a cold. 9. The match was about to begin. Everybody. 8. I can’t believe she said that. We should have a heart to heart talk. 9. It is important to know the truth. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. It is important that you should come to the office. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 7. 4. 2. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. 3. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. It is impossible that he should have said that. . It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. 5. You should take it. 10. She was thought to be a gifted child. 8. This is a good book. This problem is too difficult. at once. I have closed the window.

I went shopping. don’t understand. go. He doesn’t remember. the audience left the hali. Are they swimming? 6. 5. Everybody being at home. I saw the plane landing.5. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. 5. 2. 2. drinks. . 6. 9. Is Ann knitting? 10. 6. am. The sun having risen. 4. 11. CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. I don’t have. I stopped smoking. 4. They don’t live. Does he have? 9. Are you typing? 5. I went home relaxed. it is raining. Are we studying? 9. Is it raining? 2. 2. we were seared about having floods. Ann isn’t knitting. I don’t trust. I saw the peasants working in the field. I don’t always believe. is drinking. 1 don’t like. Do you usually get. She doesn’t talk. Do I understand? 4. It isn’t raining. do you do? 3. I heard the child breaking the vase. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. They aren’t swimming. Do you like? 8. Weather permitting. He isn’t telling. 3. 10. speaks. The rain having stopped. I saw her fainting. The river having risen in the night. 9. Is my friend wearing? 7. I am not having. The decision being taken in my favour. Do I always believe? 6. I had to change them. Does she talk? 3. The concert being over. I am not going. 7. Do I trust? 10. it often rains. l. Is he telling? 4. I found the boy breaking the window. She heard the baby crying. 5. 6. Am I having? 3. My friend isn’t wearing. We aren’t studying. The dog was heard barking. we hurried to the beach. 7. The plane having taken off. I found her digging in the garden. we sat down to dinner. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. I saw her lying on the beach. he is having. 8. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. 1 am cooking. The mud having ruined my shoes. 10. Are you writing. I went to post it. The child isn’t learning. 8. I don’t love. 6. 3. am taking. 4. He doesn’t have. Do I love? 2. 10. I could hear her typing. Does he remember? 7. Do you dream? I dream 9. Is my mother resting? 8. You don’t play. My mother isn’t resting. The letter being written. Do you play? 5. Do they live? 8. You aren’t typing. 12. She heard the hunters shooting. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. I don’t understand. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 7.

I entered. Did they drink? 3. 10. Did you sleep well last night? 3. 20. 4. 4. someone rang up. Yesterday. 8. 8. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. he walks. 10. 16. She is packing her luggage. 3. He didn’t think. Do you smoke? 17. 2. I was driving to Sinaia. he was working. 9. 14. are you thinking? I am thinking. 3. Did I sell? 6. 19. 16. I slept. 14. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. 4. Do you go? 16. 17. I like to swim a lot. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 13. 5. remembers. 14. 4. 19. Yesterday I got up early. 8. What book are you reading? 10. He has just left. I didn’t hate. 18. While it was raining. 1 liked. Whom are you ringing up? 13. 19. He sat for his first exam last week. I often read English books. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. What do you do on your free days? 12. I had breakfast and then I left for school. he realized. he wasn’t wearing. I have bought. When did you return from the mountains? 11. 5. He didn’t change. I don’t like coffee. 2. are you hurrying? I don’t want. 6. 10. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. You spoke. 15. 9. Last night. I got up late yesterday morning. 4. Exercitiul 2: 1. he doesn’t get up early. I was watching. 8. 2. 20. are you waiting? I am waiting. When I go to the seaside. Last Sunday. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. Why are you opening the window? I5. I have already seen. The secretary is just typing a report. He met. 6. That sounded. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. I owned. Did he think? 2. I didn’t sell. You drank. Have you watered? 3. He didn’t come. I was writing. Did I hate? 4. 2. Did he translate? 10. Have you been? I have been. 5. I was talking. How often do you write to your parents? 18. I have lent. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. always borrow/is always borrowing. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. He didn’t translate. 18. I always made. On Sundays. 1 first met. were you going. were you doing? 7. They didn’t drink. Have you visited? 12. Exercitiul 4: 1. 3. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. 2. 11 . You asked. Did we work? 7. This time yesterday it was raining.write. It snows in winter. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. He didn’t forbid. When did you buy this TV set? 12. I met. 5. I arrived. He hasn’t come. you came in. Did I enjoy? 9. I played. 8. Have you . What were you doing last Tuesday. 13. 7. We didn’t work. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. 7. I have just had. he had. my friends played chess. She goes shopping on Saturdays. 9. she was having. 6. 7. Did he come? 8. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 6. He doesn’t go to school by underground. I always have. 10. 6. Now I am doing my homework in English. 7. the teacher was writing. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. Did he change? 5. 9. While I was looking for my passport. 9. the engine – drivers have gone. Yesterday I lost my gloves. he was-learning. I didn’t enjoy. I haven’t been. 17. I found this old photo. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. I do not study in the evening.

6. Have you lived? I have lived. 9. 7. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. 1t hasn’t rained. I had met. 5. he had thought. I spent a month here. When I arrived at the bus stop. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. she had been studying. I got. I got up. 10. I have lost. I was sorry I had hurt him. he had visited. 8. We have known. We have walked 10 km so far. he told. 7. I rang him up. began.ever eaten? 13. 3. 2. He thanked me for what I had done for him. 7. had not told. she told. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. She has changed. 11. 3. He has been. 4. had left. she had been writing. 3. 9. 10. I had returned. 2. we realized. 20. 8. 10. 8. I didn’t succeed. She had just gone out. she had been cleaning and dusting. We have been walking since 3 o clock. I went to bed. Have you ever tried? I tried. 6. they had finished. Exercitiul 4: 1. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 2. 7. they had been. 9. he had been. 4. they had been waiting. Have you been to this town before? Yes. had spread. The radio has been playing. 14. He has been sleeping. had been swimming. 4. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. Have you been. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. I was. I returned. 5. he left an hour ago. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. congratulated. we asked. 9. I have seldom walked to my office. I saw. I have been wearing. Have you read? 18. 9. 5. I found out. 13. have you been. 3. he handed it to the teacher. Have you ever driven? 16. I haven’t written. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. two years ago. have you cooked? 7. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 5. he went. he had learned/he had been learning. he had got married. 2. I have been asking. I had it at 8 o’clock. had been speaking. 6. he had caught. I called. it had been raining. He has always relied. had listened. 8. I have been cooking. 10. had eaten. 7. 4. I have been doing. I realized I had left my bag at home. Exercitiul 4: 1. Exercitiul 2: l. it had been raining. 18. she had not passed. 9. Exercitiul 3: 1. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. It has been snowing for two hours. He has been a Minister for two years. 6. we left. 2. He hasn’t gone. it had been raining. 19. have you been wearing? 6. 5. I5. 8. 3. 3. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 6. Since I bought a car. I have been watering. He has been fishing. 10. A child has broken the window. We must replace it. 5. 6. It has been raining. Have you seen? she left. I have’ been shopping. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. Exercitiul 2: 1. 17. had been cooking. The . we had lost. As soon as the guests had left. she has been trying. 4. I entered. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. 4. 12. had been climbing. 10. The weather has got warmer lately. she had already been. Exercitiul 3: I. 20. How long have you been learning English? 5. had been having. he has caught. he went. 15. we had been walking. Have you paid? 19. Has John left? Yes. The child has been playing. 4. 14. 8. 7. What did you look at? It was an accident.

15. 8. 2. she notices you have broken. 6. 10. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. 7. You will be. 19. 7. 12. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. he wanted. 8. 5. you were. you have drunk. 7. they will have been married. I had not enjoyed. they were talking. 2. 10. You had to type. she has learnt. I shall/will have been cooking. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. I played/I was playing. 2. you were. On Friday. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. begin. he had left. you finish. 10. 9. 8. 7. 4. he would win. I had done. 5. she has changed. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. 6. 9. He will be studying. Exercitiul 3: 1. will/shall will be climbing. He will be. I shall/will be swimming. 3. 9. Will you be needing? 5. I usually read. will be crying. I have received. 3. 10. 6. 2. will have spent. 16. I shall/will have saved five million lei. I had read. 11. is born. 18. 4. 4. I shall/will have been working. he would finish. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. she looks. you have just told. Exercitiul 4: 1. he would drive. You will not/won’t find. You will like. 8. 7. he would give. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 4. it will probably be raining. I had heard. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 5. 2. I finish. I shall/will pass. wilt be rising. You will have seen. 9. he has repaired. I shall/will have read 8. I have. we reach. 3. . 3. 14. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. 20. 4. 6. 6. 8. I shall/will have finished. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. 5. you would soon have. 4. I shall/will succeed. Wil1 you remember? 9. 7. 3. 10. will have risen. I shall/will be working. We shall/will have taken. 2. 9. you spoke. he had just left. She will be watching. 9. I shall/will have paid off. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 9. 2. he had been travelling. would be cancelled. 6. 8. 8. did not remember. By this time next year. 3. 10. was shining. 7. he had stolen. I had lost. I shall/will know. 10. 13. Will you recognize? 4. 3. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. I shall/will remember. 9. between twelve and one o’clock. arrive. had already begun. 2. they will be having their last English class. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. 5. would end. 5.secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. he has arrived. Exercitiul 3: 1. he would pass. Exercitiul 2: 1. they have been. you have read. 3. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. Exercitiut 2: 1. 7. I shall/will be having. 6. 10. they would remain. you see. 10. he tells. we had been digging. you see. you see. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 8. I would remain. 4. prices would go up. 17. 5.

12. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. 8. 10. 7. you do. 3. had failed. I was. 3. he had eaten. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. you will not pass. 6. 8. I want. he would have. the streets would have been wet. I would have answered. I wouldn’t do. If it rained. 10. 3. 9. he leaves. 3. I finish. 4. 13. you take. 8. 5. 7. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. 9. 3. 10. 17. It would have been. I will greet 2. do not eat. 4. I had known. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. I would have answered. I would buy. 7. If it had rained. 11. 8. they had been listening. I had worked. 8. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. you had driven. 16. I moved. he had never seen. 5. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. 10. he would not make. 5. he would change. 4. is. he would not remember. 9. the streets will be wet. 9. you are reading. you had been wearing. it would not be raining when I arrived. 11. 14. 6. I had not decided. 4. 6. 3. If it rains. I had not eaten. I had not told. I have been reading. 5. 2. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. the streets would be wet. Exercitiul 6: 1. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. 10. 9. you had invited. he would have told. he had not expected. 7. he trusted. I was. 3. Would you buy? 4. you will be. I will lend. I knew. 18. you will not find. What will you do if you meet John? 11. is. I were. 6. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. Exercitiul 4: l. they have done. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. The secretary told me the manager was busy. I would not have made. Exercitiul 7: l. 2. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: . 9. I saw. he had to write. it goes on. I will earn/will be earning. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. I knew you were in Bucharest. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. he would take. he will get. I will answer. will soon move. 7. 8. 5. you were. 2. you wouldn’t have got. I would spend. would not go. will you promise? 6. 2. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. I will buy. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. 4. 15. 4.Exercitiul 5: 1. he had tried. 9. he had realized. 10. 6. I gave up. there are. I have suffered. she will be. 10. 5. What would you do if you meet John? 12. you would have read. 12. I work/I worked. 7. 4. we went. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. 2. 20. 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. 6. they had known. 19. 5. 8. is. melts. 2. Exercitiul 5: 1. 6. 7. 2. you will be. 7. 3. I read. we will drink. he hoped. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l.

He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 5. 12. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 8. Exercitiul 2: 1. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He asked me if my mother had been at home. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. 7. 7. 9. 3. 2. 6. 3. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. 3. 5. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 10. LECTIA IV Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. The missing child has been found (by someone). He asked me when the rain had stopped. He told me to be careful with his books.English. He asked me how long I had been learning . 8. would you give him some? 3. 5. 11. Football is played all over the world. 4. 11. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. 7. 3. He told me to open the door. 6. He said she would go shopping right then. He told me to take that pill. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. 2. 8. He said he was very busy on that day. He told me not to smoke so much. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. He said he had seen that film a week before. 9. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. If dinner is not ready in time. 4. Your bag has been found (by him). 8. 7. 6. 4. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before.l. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He asked me if I could lend him a book. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. He told me to read that text. 10. 5. 5. 6. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. He asked me when I would be back. You will see him if you wait. 5. 10. 2. 3. If a beggar asked you for money. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. 4. 8. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. 8. 6. 4. 6. 12. He asked me if the train had left. Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. I will eat at a restaurant. He said the weather had been fine the day before. 10. The work will be finished today (by them). 9. 9. 2. He asked me if I would help him. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. I would like the play more if it were shorter. He asked me how I had travelled. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. Exercitiul 4: 1. 2. I was frightened by the . He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He said he had gone to England two years before. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. 9. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. He asked me who that man was. He asked me if I would like a cake. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). 2. 7. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before.

noise. . The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 10. They held a reception in his honour. A reward will be given to me (by them). 4. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. A nice present has been given to me (by them). 2. 10. English is taught to them (by me). 5. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. Many new blocks are being built in our district. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). The truth is not always told to me by my friend. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. 6. They have built this house out of stone and cement. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). 5. 9. They are taught English (by me). Has the dog been fed? 7. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. Were you told about the meeting? 9. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. Exercitiul 4: 1. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. 2. The museum was closed for repairs. 6. 10. Exercitiul 2: 1. 8.: 3. 7. 4. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 9. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). I have been given a nice present (by them). Fire was set to the shed (by them). John was laughed at (by us). 14. 2. I will be given a reward (by them). John has been lent two of my books (by me). 2. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). I’m not always told the truth by my friend. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). 3. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. People speak English all over the world. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. 3. 7. Exercitiul 3: 1. 8. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. 6. 7. 4. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). Exercitiul 6: l. 15. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. when I passed by. The house was broken into (by burglars). 5. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. The doctor was called for (by us). 3. 6. 5. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). 12. 8. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 9. His proposal was objected to (by us). We will be shown the way by the policeman. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. 8. 9. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. 10. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). People will soon forget this book. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 13. 7. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. 11. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. He hates people making fun of him. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. We were asked to show our passports. We were told very interesting things at the conference. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. People mustn’t take away these books. 9. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 4.

6. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. 3. You won’t have to do. can. You didn’t have to do. can. 20. She can’t have married. 6. It can t have been. 19. 8. You might have changed. 18. I will have to look up. 3. He must think. 10. He ought to have told. 10. It may/might rain. 8. He will be able to swim. She will be able to lend. Exercitiul 5: 1. 2. S. 7. 7. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. I had to look up. 10. 4. needn’t. 4. mustn’t. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. He should have gone. 5. can. needn’t. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. He may/might have done. 9. 11. He may/might have been right. 5. mustn’t. 5. 9. She may/might be very late. He must have been delayed. 8. It can’t have been. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 15. I couldn’t translate. You shouldn’t have gone. This must be the best. 3. You were allowed/permitted to leave. She may/might have been angry. John must have been. 3 It might have rained. I may/might come home. 2. She may/might have returned. 17. You needn’t have done. You should have visited. mustn’t. 14. Exercitiul 4: l. 10. The child was allowed/permitted to have. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. 2. It must have been. mustn’t. The weather can’t change. She could lend. 2. I will have to go. 14. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. She can’t have learned English. He was not allowed/permitted to come. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 2. 4. 16. He can’t have passed. It can’t be his fault. I won t be able to translate. 6. Exercitiul 8: . He must have been. 6. She will be able to read and write. He can’t be at the office. 7. 7. Exercitiul 3: 1. I had to learn. 7. 13. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 4. 5. She could play. 3. can’t. This can’t be a true story. I had to go. 8. 7. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. It can’t have been his fault. 2. She can’t have got. John could have been. 12. 13. 5. 4. You must have known the lesson. I will have to learn. He needn’t have bought. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. You can’t have seen. can. 6. 12. It may/might be a good one. needn’t. Exercitiul 7: 1. mustn’t. can’t. 3. 2. He could swim. needn’t. He must have come home. 9. You might have written. She may/might have been out. He could read and write.LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 9. 8. 4. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. 5. 16. You must have left your umbrella. You can’t have been. Exercitiul 6: 1. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. Exercitiul 2: 1. You might have paid. She will be able to play. 19. He must have been late. 5. 3. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. He must be older. 6. It must have taken a long time. 6. needn’t. 10. 9. You must have forgotten. 10. He may have been. You can’t miss the train. 15.

I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 7. 7. didn’t need to wait. 9. I could play the piano when I was a child. will. needn’t have written. You can’t have found the door open. I wish I could go to the concert. You may not speak during the exam. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. 8. I have already drunk two. 10. 12. would. 4. Exercitiul 12: 1. 3. 10. 7. 9. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. will. 2. needn’t have lent. 5. You will have to help me more today. didn’t need to buy. 8. 3. I promise you. 23. 6. Exercitiul 13: 1. No. 25. shall. shall. needn’t have waited. shall. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 4. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. can’t have left. 13. will. 24. wait for a few minutes? 30. 8. 6. 18. should. didn’t need to answer. 3. 26. will. shall. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 5. I rang you up and nobody answered. you shall have the book tomorrow. I had locked it myself 27. 5. 2. will. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 4. All the children ought to/should do some housework. 8. 21. 29. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. 7. 5. 7. 6. can’t have seen. 4. I wish my friend weren’t ill. Exercitiul 2: l. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. must have been. would. 5. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 5. 4. 3. I can’t knit. 2. can’t have swum. needn’t have answered. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 22. needn’t have got up. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. can’t have rained. I must have been still at the faculty. Will you. 1 wish I had children. I wish it didn’t rain so often. 19. You ought to/should have insisted. 9. Where shall we go now? 28. should. 6. would. 4. 10. will. 8. 7. I wish books weren’t so expensive. needn’t have lent. should. 4. 2. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. today. 16. would. All the students can and must write this paper. should. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. 9. 2. 11. can’t have done. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. 2. Exercitiul 9: 1. 20. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. would. needn’t have bought. a porter could help you. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. didn’t need to see. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". 9. 10. I wish you didn’t live so far away. must have been. 9. 10. I will have to leave soon. 10. 3. 3. I wish I were a student. Exercitiul 11: 1. 17. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 6. I wish I could pay the piano. please. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. 2. must have left. 14. 3. 8. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. 6.l. must have taken. Exercitiul 10: 1. You needn’t have made coffee for me. I wish I didn’t have only one child. would. I wished you had been .

6. 9. 9. I wish you had won the competition. 10. you were. 7. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. we could go to the beach. I wish you would take a driving licence. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. 18. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 4. watched. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. hadn’t caught a cold. I had entered. 2. I would rather you went to the theatre. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 2. too. 20. She looks as if she were a model. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. 9. 4. 13. He suggested that we . I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 5. 12. 20. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. 14. 19. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 3. 4. 17. he told. I hadn’t forgotten. you didn’t waste. you owned. 6. 18. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 19. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. I were. 2. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 7. you started. 8. he would have. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. 8. 10. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 8. 3. I wish I had won the Great Prize. 11. Exercitiul 5: l. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. 15. I wish I had money to buy that painting. my telephone worked. he took. 6. 2. S. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. I wish he would accept my proposal. 4. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. you closed. Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. I stayed. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us.able to come to me yesterday. his book would become. 16. 17. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 13. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 6. 16. 11. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I were. we went. 7. It is important that you (should) know English well. I would become. 10. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. 3. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. 9. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. Exercitiul 6: 1. 6. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. You speak as if you were angry with me. 10. 14. I wish they would sign the contract. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. I would rather you got up earlier. Exercitiul 4: 1. S. 6. 9. 3. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. I got. 5. 12. his daughter didn’t get married. 5. stopped. 8. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. 4.

2. 6. it might not get. 16. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. 8. you shouldn’t lie to me. 7. hadn’t broken down. Whatever you may/might tell me. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. may attend. 13. they (should) divorce. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. Whenever you may/might return. I insist that you (should) accept this job. This is a strange thing for her to have said. 11. 5. 15. we should take. you may/might understand. you shouldn’t have believed it. It is necessary for him to be present. It is possible that she might be away. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. she should have left. might prosper. 14. 7. 2. It is impossible for him to have said that. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. 9. 5. I saw him speaking to his friend. John admitted the fault to be his. 3. 10. It is advisable for you to resign. you may/might be. He was heard to repeat it several times. 9. He made me miss the train. I can’t believe you. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. He wanted me to help him. 3. 4. Whatever the reason may/might be. 4. 2. 4. 5. 10. you should have. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. Exercitiul 3: 1. She was said to be ill. we (should) leave. I heard her scold/scolding her child. She seemed to be satisfied with me. I would find. 17. 8. 3. 9. 2. Exercitiul 9: 1. This is a good book for you to read. I understand her to be a very good teacher. he were. (should) have. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. He was expected to resign. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 10. 3. 6. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. It’s time for us to meet again. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 3. 2. I will be at home waiting for you. 12. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 2. 9. 14. She (was) proved to be a liar. 4. Exercitiul 4: 1. 12. 8. The people were impatient for the match to begin. I watched them playing football. it should get. 15. 9. I rely on you to lend me some money. I think him to be a good husband. 8. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 6. It is recommendable for you to read this book.(should) buy this house. I saw some children playing in the park. 10. It is possible for me to buy a car. 6. 20. 5. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 7. you can’t win such a competition. 10. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 19. . 7. 3. No matter how hard you may/might try. 7. I expected you to come earlier. I had. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. 8. 10. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. 8. he were. 7. I had been. 9. They are sure to have had an argument. should have told. This is the main thing for us to do. She made me understand what had happened. 4. 11. 13. Exercitiul 8: 1. Exercitiul 2: 1. you retired. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 5. 4. 6. 6. 7. 5. 8. It is important for you to come to the office at once. 18.

The boy was found breaking the window. 9. She could be heard typing. 6. Intrucât soarele rasarise. The hunters were heard shooting. 2. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. 6. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. 4. 5. She was found digging in the garden. 10. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. am mers sa o pun la posta. a trebuit sa-i schimb. am plecat la cumparaturi. She was seen fainting. 7. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. 5. 10. The peasants were seen working in the field. The baby was heard crying. Daca vremea va permite. Exercitiul 6: 1. 8. Concertul fiind terminat. 9. ne-am grabit spre plaja. The plane was seen landing. 7. 4. Toata lumea fiind acasa. She was seen lying on the beach.Exercitiul 5: 1. 2. 3. The child was heard breaking the vase. . publicul a parasit sala. Intrucât ploaia incetase. 8. 3. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. am plecat acasa linistit. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. ne-am asezat la cina.

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