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The activities of the 116th PVI require authentic and accurate uniforms, accouterments, and equipment of the civilwar era. Nearly all of the items listed below are available commercially from various suttlers throughout the nation. It is important to choose authentic goods of the correct pattern and of high quality. A significant percentage of these items sold by suttlers, unfortunately, are of poor quality and/or incorrect pattern. Be sure to ask experienced members concerning high quality suttlers and items if you are unsure; otherwise, use one of the recommended sources located at the end of this specific section of the handbook. Some items can be made at home given that the correct patterns, materials, and construction methods are used. It may be worthwhile to seek out the advice of those members who make their own garments. The cost of the outfit may seem high, however, if high quality goods are purchased then the whole outfit should last many years of hard campaigning.
ARTICLE I. Authenticity Standards
All uniforms, clothing, shoes, and equipment must be of civilwar period materials, design, and equipment. Infantry weapons must be representative of types that were issued to Union troops during the Civil War: .69 caliber Springfield “buckandball” smoothbore musket, 1847 pattern, or 1816 “conversion” musket (used by the 116th PVI during their first two years of service); .58 caliber Springfield rifle, 1861 pattern (used by the 116th PVI during their last year of service); .577 caliber Enfield rifle, 1853 pattern. All weapons must be of the three (3) band type, not the two (2) band type. No shotguns, carbines, hawken rifles, flintlocks, or any other long arm, other than those recommended above, are to be used for 116th PVI activities. All “farb” (non civilwar era) materials and equipment, including packages, clothing, and food, must be hidden and kept from sight during those times when the public is present. All reasonable efforts should be employed to preserve an authentic environment at all times, even when the public is not present. Eye wear should conform to period styles and types. NOTE: This does not prohibit the use of contact lenses.
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ARTICLE II. Required Military Uniform & Equipment Infantry
Members have one (1) year in which to purchase their own, personal required basic uniform. The company Quartermaster has a limited number of basic uniforms that new members may borrow on a singleevent basis but, due to their limited availability, the items under Section B listed below (which only constitute a portion of the required basic uniform) should be purchased first. Initial expenditures of the required basic uniform U. S. issue: IIB(1). Forage cap or bummer (not a Kepi), darkblue wool; IIB(2). Hat insignia: Regimental number 116 stamped brass, 3/4inch; IIB(3). Hat insignia: Company letter B stamped brass, 1inch; IIB(4). Hat insignia: Infantry bugle, stamped brass; IIB(5). Fourbutton sack coat, darkblue wool; IIB(6). Trousers, skyblue foot pattern, kersey wool; IIB(7). Shirt, period cut and style; IIB(8). Braces (suspenders), linen or cotton, no elastic; IIB(9). Brogans, squaretoed, roughout army booties; and IIB(10). Boot socks, gray wool.
The following comprise the remaining items of the required basic uniform and should be acquired as soon as possible (U. S. issue): IIC(1). Weapon (see Article I, Section B) with leather sling; IIC(2). Bayonet and scabbard for specific weapon; IIC(3). Waist belt, black leather, with optional brass keeper; IIC(4). Waist belt plate, oval U. S. pattern; IIC(5). Cap box, U. S. pattern; IIC(6). Cartridge box, U. S. 1855 pattern; IIC(7). Cartridge box plate, oval U. S. pattern; IIC(8). Cartridge box sling; IIC(9). Cartridge box sling plate, round eagle pattern; IIC(10). Tin plate, period style; IIC(11) Tin cup, period style, leadfree if possible; IIC(12). Haversack, black canvas, U. S. pattern; and IIC(13). Canteen, U. S. bullseye pattern, dark blue.
The following items are considered optional yet would be used frequently at most activities: IID(1). Poncho, rubber coated fabric;
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IID(2). IID(3). IID(4). IID(5). IID(6). IID(7). Section E:
U. S. issue wool blanket, gray with black end stripes; Waistcoat (vest), military cut, nine (9) button, darkblue wool; Canvas military Astyle tent, weatherproof, poles and stakes; Frock coat, darkblue wool dress coat, nine (9) button, skyblue piping; Great coat, skyblue foot pattern; and Knapsack, early 1851 canvas doublebag.
The following items are required, in addition to the basic uniform, for Fourth California Volunteer Infantry (4th CVI) events and activities: IIE(1). Wool slouch hat, rounded top, black; IIE(2). Hat insignia: Regimental number 4 stamped brass, 3/4inch; IIE(3). Hat insignia: Company letter D stamped brass, 1inch; IIE(4). Hat insignia: Infantry bugle, stamped brass; and IIE(5). Hat chord with tassels, skyblue.
ARTICLE III. Required Military Uniform & Equipment Field Musician
Musicians have one (1) year in which to purchase their own, personnel required basic uniform. The company Quartermaster has a limited number of basic uniforms that new members may borrow on a singleevent basis. Uniform and equipment for the field musician is similar to the infantry foot soldier with the exception of most of the leather items and, of course, an instrument instead of a weapon. Note that musician buttons (harp design) and a musicians belt buckle (twopiece type) may be obtained by some uniform suppliers. Initial expenditures of the required basic uniform U. S. issue: IIIB(1). Forage cap or bummer (not a Kepi), darkblue wool; IIIB(2). Hat insignia: Regimental number 116 stamped brass, 3/4inch; IIIB(3). Hat insignia: Company letter B stamped brass, 1inch; IIIB(4). Hat insignia: Infantry bugle, stamped brass; IIIB(5). Fourbutton sack coat, darkblue wool, with musician's lyrepattern buttons; IIIB(6). Trousers, skyblue foot pattern, kersey wool; IIIB(7). Shirt, period cut and style; IIIB(8). Braces (suspenders), linen or cotton, no elastic; IIIB(9). Brogans, squaretoed, roughout army booties; and IIIB(10). Boot socks, gray wool.
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The following comprise the remaining items of the required basic uniform for musicians and should be acquired as soon as possible (U. S. issue): IIIC(1). Waist belt plate, oval U. S. pattern or musician's lyre pattern; IIIC(2). Waist belt, black leather, with optional brass keeper; IIIC(3). Tin plate, period style; IIIC(4). Tin cup, period style, leadfree if possible; IIIC(5). Musicians haversack, white canvas; and IIIC(6). Canteen, U. S. bullseye pattern, dark blue.
The following items are considered optional yet would be used frequently at most activities: IIID(1). Poncho, rubber coated fabric; IIID(2). U. S. issue wool blanket, gray with black end stripes; IIID(3). Waistcoat (vest), military cut, nine (9) button, darkblue wool; IIID(4). Canvas military Astyle tent, weatherproof, poles and stakes; IIID(5). Frock coat, darkblue wool dress coat, nine (9) button (musician's lyre pattern buttons), skyblue piping with herringbone musicians front tape; IIID(6). Great coat, skyblue foot pattern; and IIID(7). Knapsack, early 1851 canvas doublebag.
The following items are required, in addition to the basic uniform, for Fourth California Volunteer Infantry (4th CVI) events and activities: IIIE(1). IIIE(2). IIIE(3). IIIE(4). IIIE(5). Wool slouch hat, rounded top, black; Hat insignia: Regimental number 4 stamped brass, 3/4inch; Hat insignia: Company letter D stamped brass, 1inch; Hat insignia: Infantry bugle, stamped brass; and Hat chord with tassels, skyblue.
Instruments are to be of civilwar period design and construction. Fifes must be made of maple, cocobolo, grenadilla, persimmon, or (preferably) rosewood. Plastic fifes should be avoided for public events. Specifically, the fife should be a onepiece, six (6) hole, Bflat model, with brass ferrules. Other fife accessories include a Murphy stick for cleaning, bore oil, and a leather fife holder that attaches to the waist belt. All inquiries should be directed to the chief musician for obtaining proper equipment. Field drums, including snare drums and bass drums, are to be of civilwar period design and construction. All drums are to be of the ropetension type. All will be adorned with the proper military insignia on the front of the drum or, in the case of bass drums, on the drum heads. Field drum sticks should be made of
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persimmon while bass drum beaters should be made of maple. Field drum slings should be made of white cotton webbing with adjustable leather strap and frontpiece. All inquiries should be directed to the chief musician and/or principal drummer for obtaining proper equipment. Section H: Bugles are to be of civilwar period design and construction. All bugles must be made of polished brass and pitched in the appropriate key as determined by the battalion’s principal bugler. All inquiries should be directed to the chief musician and/or principal bugler for obtaining proper equipment. All miscellaneous instruments for providing camp music, including guitars, banjos, harmonicas, tin whistles, and fiddles must be of civilwar era design and construction or earlier. All music for military (field) use will be determined by the battalion chief musician and disseminated to the company chief musicians. Music will be authentic of the civilwar era and will function in a similar manner to that of military music performed circa 18611865. All camp music and other non military music must be authentic and accurately represent the music of popular American culture, including the folk music of people of migration to America, circa 1865 and before.
ARTICLE IV. Required Military Uniform & Equipment Other Military Personnel
Uniforms and equipment for all other military personnel (noncivilian), including surgeons, stewards, aides, stretcherbearers, etceteras, must bear historical authenticity of the civilwar era. All members in this category should use the company commander or other veteran members as resources for these materials.
ARTICLE V. Civilian Guidelines Clothing
Membership in the 116th PVI is open to families, and all members are encouraged to participate in the various activities. Since the organization is an infantry unit of the U. S. Army, some events will be open to soldiers only. Many events, however, will offer ample, various civilian impressions (nonmilitary) for men, women, and children. For those members who plan to portray a civilian, there are two methods in which to prepare: First, to plan and research the specific impression you wish to portray. There are many roles that would be appropriate in connection with a military unit or period
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community. Plan and research your role carefully. Make sure the role you plan is not already being played, i.e., two Abraham Lincolns at an event would not be authentic. Dress according to the role you are portraying based on your research, i.e., low, upper, or middle class; lifestyle and livelihood, etceteras. Follow the basic civilian guidelines for clothing and equipment which are listed further below. Second, since most members do not know what role they wish to portray until they’ve been in the unit for awhile, dress according to the clothing and equipment guidelines below and begin your research at that point. Start with a work dress for women, as it will always be functional dress, and a civilian vest for men. Once dressed in correct basic clothing, you will be comfortable in the reenacting circle, asking questions, listening, learning, and making decisions for your own role. Civilian dress may be a little more difficult than military as there is much more variety possible and, therefore, more chance of error. Research publications listed and consult with veteran fellow members who do similar portrayals. Remember that the same high standards that apply to the military in uniforms and equipment also apply to civilians. The following suggestions are not to discourage participation but rather to assist civilian members in achieving a high standard of accuracy in portraying the nineteenth century. Section A: Be sure to dress appropriately for the role, i.e., do not wear a ball gown when helping in the field hospital. Period undergarments are essential to ensure the correct 1860’s appearance. All items must be made of the correct period style materials and with period construction details following correct patterns. As for all reenactors and living historians, correct period eyeglasses are vital. Original or reproduction eyeglass frames are now available for virtually any lens requirement, and contacts are always acceptable. Modern eyeglasses and sunglasses are not acceptable. Hairstyles for women should be with a center part. Nineteenthcentury hairstyles did not include bangs so they should be hidden. Makeup should not be obvious, if it is worn at all. Head coverings must be correct styles made of periodtype materials. Modern jewelry items, including wrist watches and stud and post earrings, are not acceptable. Reproduction or periodstyle boots and shoes with opaque cotton stockings are the only accepted footwear.
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Section B: Section C:
Basic outfit for women includes: Day or work dress of the style up to 1865; Drawers, chemise, petticoats, hoops or cage crinoline; Appropriate head covering (refer to Section E above); and Stockings and periodstyle footwear.
VH(1). VH(2). VH(3). VH(4). Section I:
Basic outfit for men includes: VI(1). VI(2). VI(3). VI(4). VI(5). VI(6). Civilian frock coat or sack coat; Civilian trousers; Civilian vest; White or patterned period shirt; Civilian or military boots or shoes; and Civilian hat.
Children must wear appropriate dress for the period. Acceptable substitutes for period shoes are allowed. Long dresses, petticoats, stockings, booties, caps or trimmed bonnets, and shawls are appropriate for infants up to age two (2). Children two (2) to three (3) years of age, wear shorter dresses with calflength drawers. Boys age four (4) to ten (10), should wear straightlegged pants with a jacket or tunic. Boys age ten (10) and up, dress similar to that of civilian men (or according to military dress code if applicable). Girls age four (4) to eight (8) wear skirts to midcalf; by age twelve (12) to boot top; by age fourteen (14) to ankle length. Girls age fourteen (14) and up, dress similar to that of civilian women. ARTICLE VI. Civilian Guidelines Equipment
A civilian impression may often require the use of numerous items of equipment, including tents, furniture, supplies, etceteras. It is very important that these items be of the same high quality and authenticity as clothing and uniforms. Period materials, design, pattern, construction methods, and finishing are important. It is also important that a great deal of consideration be given to the appropriateness of the item itself. Would the item in question actually have been in camp? How would it have gotten there? Consider also the amount of camp baggage and gear you bring. Would it be a realistic amount for the situation you portray? By keeping these guidelines in mind and seeking help from veteran members of the organization, your civilian impression should become a rewarding and significant asset to the group.
ARTICLE VII. Uniform and Equipment Suppliers
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The following commercial suppliers have been found to consistently provide highquality and authentic goods, and at reasonable prices. Nevertheless, it is important to judge each item purchased, as to authenticity and quality. This is by no means a complete listing of all suppliers of reproduction military and civilian goods. A catalog can be obtained from each supplier for a nominal price.
C & D JARNAGIN CO. Route 3 Box 217 Corinth, MS 38834 (601) 2874977 tinware, leather goods, and uniforms
THE QUARTERMASTER SHOP 5565 Griswold Road Kimball, MI 48074 (313) 3676702 custom and readymade high quality uniforms
GRAND ILLUSIONS 90 East Main Street Newark, DE 19711 (302) 3660300 tinware, leather goods, and uniforms
FALL CREEK SUTTLERY P.O. Box 530 Freedom, CA 95019 (408) 7281888 uniforms, civilian clothing, and general goods
DIXIE LEATHER WORKS P.O. Box 8221 Paducah, KY 42002 (502) 4421058 misc. leather goods and printed materials
RICHMONDVILLE Jim Richmond Aurora, OR 97002 (503) 6781675 high quality custom tinware
THE REGIMENTAL QUARTERMASTER P.O. Box 553 Hatboro, PA 19040 (215) 6729020 general goods, buckles, musket parts
SULLIVAN PRESS P.O. Box 1711 West Chester, PA 19380 (610) 8732631 misc. printed material and hand books
S & S FIREARMS 7411 Myrtle Avenue Glendale, NY 11385 gun parts, insignia, and books
PANTHER LODGES P.O. Box 32F6 Normantown, WV 25267 wall tents and special purpose tents
YAKIMA TENT & AWNING P. O. Box 391 Yakima, WA 98907 (509) 4576169 A tents and shelter halves (dog tents)
“WEE, THE PEOPLE…” 125 Mountain Street Willimantic, CT 06226 (860) 4561864 Civil War clothing, books, games, etc., for children
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C & C SUTTLERY HC33 Box 3330 Boise, ID 83706 (208) 3880973 uniforms, leather goods, and general goods
MILK CREEK MERCANTILE CO. P.O. Box 898 Mulino, OR 97042 (503) 8293678 military & civilian clothing, leather and misc. goods
COOPERMAN Essex Industrial Park P.O. Box 276 Centerbrook, CT 064090276 (860) 7671779 fife , drums, and music
NAUGATUCK NOVELTY CO. 291 Newton Road Northfield, CT 06778 hard to find items and special insignia
GENTEEL ARTS ACADEMY P.O. Box 3014 Gettysburg, PA 17325 quality period fabrics and trim
MRS. MARTIN’S MERCANTILE & MILLINERY 4566 Oakhurst Sylvania, OH 43560 womens clothing, underpinnings, & millinery
AMAZON DRY GOODS 2218 East 11th Street Davenport, IA 528039978 general merchandise
LAVENDER ’S GREEN HISTORICAL CLOTHING 337 NE 2nd Avenue Hillsboro, OR 97124 womens clothing, underpinnings, & millinery
VICTORIA’S TREASURES (AND ALBERT’S TOO) 16045 South Sandalwood Oregon City, OR 97045 civilian clothes, Victorian jewelry & antiques
HEIDI MARSH 810 Caminito Livermore, CA 94550 ladies fashions and patterns
PERIOD IMPRESSIONS 1320 Dale Drive Lexington, KY 40517 19thcentury clothing patterns
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