Internal assessment resource reference number English/3/7B – version 2

Level Three
Achievement Standard 3.7 Complete independent research on a language or literature topic and present findings in written form Credits: 3 Internal assessment resource reference number: English/3/7 – B version 2 “In Search Of”

Date version published: Ministry of Education quality assurance status

30 October 2003 For use in internal assessment.

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Internal assessment resource reference number English/3/7B – version 2

Teacher Guidelines:
The following guidelines are supplied to enable teachers to carry out valid and consistent assessment using this internal assessment resource. Context/setting: This investigation is integrated with themes that the class explores as part of the study of one or more texts. Students then complete their own independent research based on themes they select. They focus on formulating effective key questions, then select and read other relevant texts and present a written report. As well as examining the theme in each text they investigate connections between texts and develop judgements about those connections. Conditions: This activity requires a combination of class and homework time. Students can collect information and develop their reports in and out of class time. Teachers will need careful checkpoint procedures to ensure authenticity of student output. Headings and examples have been suggested for aspects of the research process and reports. Students should follow these. Explanatory Note 6 requires that a written bibliography is provided. Resource requirements: Access to information sources to model the research process should be given during class time. Possible Local Adaptation: Where local adaptations are made, teachers and schools should ensure that they have: • checked that the adapted assessment validly assesses the achievement standard; • checked the copyright status of any material imported into the assessment resource; • complied with all internal and external quality assurance requirements.

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Internal assessment resource reference number English/3/7B – version 2

2004 ENGLISH Level Three
Achievement Standard 3.7 Complete independent research on a language or literature topic and present findings in written form Credits: 3 Internal assessment resource reference number: Eng/3/7 – B version 2

“In Search Of”
Student Instructions Sheet

Part of your English programme will focus on one or more texts featuring themes that are important to writers and directors. Using text(s) studied in class as a starting point, complete your own investigation into one of these themes based on several texts you have chosen. As suggested by the title of this activity, you will develop key questions that expand understandings of your topic. You will select relevant information from a range of referenced resources. The report on your findings will make connections between the texts and develop judgements about the importance or significance of your chosen theme. In this way you will have gone ‘in search of’ how texts have explored your theme, then presented your findings. An essential step in the research process involves formulating effective key questions that are central to you expanding your understanding of your chosen theme and developing judgements. As you read texts as part of your research you will be encouraged to keep your key questions under review. You may decide to adapt your questions to make them more effective and relevant. Your teacher will introduce you to the research process using a range of sample materials You will complete work in class and for homework. Your teacher will guide you on how much time you have to prepare the task. Your research will be presented in written form. You will be assessed on how well you: • propose research questions which expand understandings of your topic • select relevant information from a range of referenced resources • present well supported findings that develop judgements

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Task 1: In search of … themes and texts a) As a class discuss significant themes in texts which are part of your English programme this year. A range of themes in New Zealand texts read in an English programme might include: • the development of a New Zealand identity • freedom versus conformity • race relations in New Zealand • New Zealanders’ relationship with the environment • spiritual and/or personal growth Add other themes to this list. This activity uses texts drawn from a New Zealand setting. You can approach your selected theme using texts from other backgrounds. b) Write the themes linked to texts from your English programme on the board. With your teacher’s input list other texts linked to that theme. You could set your ideas out in this way for each theme: Other texts which are student selected and could link to this theme from outside the class programme Texts studied in class

‘Wife to Husband’, ‘Advice to a Discarded Lover’ – Fleur Adcock ‘

THEME: Relationships in New Zealand Literature

The Piano – Jane Campion Once Were Warriors – Alan Duff

‘At the Bay’, ‘Prelude’ – Katherine Mansfield Thoughts of Remuera Housewife’, ‘Calvary Street’ - James K. Baxter c) Having considered a range of possible themes and texts as a class, select one theme. You must gain teacher approval for your theme before beginning research. You can complete research on ‘relationships in NZ Literature’ (from tasks 1(a) and (b)), or other themes shown in the exemplars. d) Expand your initial list to include other possible texts that could be linked to your selected theme. You could include: • written texts, such as fiction, drama, biography / autobiography, short story collections, and poetry anthologies. • visual texts, such as film, television, and theatre. • oral texts, such as discussions, interviews, radio documentaries and readings. You must gain teacher approval for the texts you intending using for your research. You should also examine any critical readings and commentaries available on these texts.
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Task 2: In search of … key questions a) Your key questions must allow you to expand understandings of your theme. To gain achievement you must be able to present findings (draw conclusions) about the information you have found. At excellence level those findings will include perceptive judgements. Consider these key questions developed to explore the ‘relationships in New Zealand literature’ theme. Effective questions can lead you to interpret and make judgements about your information.

Key questions
1. Through whose eyes do we witness the relationship presented in each text? How influential is their perspective in portraying the relationship?

and where they can lead:

‘How’ is the critical word here which will lead you towards making judgement statements.

2. To what extent does the context (time, place, social conditions, other people) influence the relationship? 3. How can I connect the portrayal of key relationships in each text to other texts?

‘To what extent’ will lead you towards making evaluative comments about the role the context has.

Making perceptive connections between texts means synthesising judgements across more than one source.

4. What do these key relationships shown in texts reveal about NZ literature or society?

Being able to assess the importance or significance of an idea in a wider context (like the significance of a theme raised in a text to NZ society) leads to evaluation.

b) Read the research reports in Exemplar A (p11, 12) and Exemplar B (p 14, 15) focusing especially on how the key questions are addressed. Using the annotations on the right of each report as a guide, underline several sections where students make judgements. Note that these judgements are sustained across the report to gain excellence or merit.
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Read this extract from a research report on New Zealanders’ Relationship with their Environment. Complete your analysis of the reports in Exemplars A and B in the same way:

Sample of student comments and underlinings highlighting judgements /evaluations made:

What relationship do New Zealanders have with the environment? In the poem, `The Mountains' the persona is terrified of the rugged landscape that surrounds his hometown. To him the

Supporting evidence: Several judgements made - and developed.

mountains seem predatory and dangerous "like tigers". He gives the example that the shape and conditions of the landscape have more influence on where we build our cities and run our communities than anything else. He feels that nature has some sort of control over humans and it is this control that he fears. This power turns the environment into a spiritual presence. The persona senses freedom in nature but is too scared of its power to grasp this freedom. However, in the song `Nature' by Wayne Mason the persona craves this freedom. It seems that he is troubled by his life
Develops perceptive original judgements.

Supporting evidence: Judgements on ‘Nature’ linked to ‘The Mountains’’ Evaluation assesses significance of previous comments in a wider NZ context

and so turns to nature for "some thoughts that are new", that is a new start. There is no fear apparent in this text though which suggests that it is up to the individual whether they are afraid of nature’s power or not. In some respects these two texts embody the ambivalent attitude New Zealanders have towards the environment: on the one hand fearful, on the other having a real desire to be immersed in it.
Makes effective links back to this hypothesis throughout the report.

It is important that you keep your research report stage in mind as you select and record information from your texts. The information you assemble at this stage will be the basis of the judgements you will make in your report. c) Develop at least three key questions. It is essential that your key questions allow you to make judgements. You can use or adapt the questions shown in task 2 and in the exemplars for your own research, but you may not repeat any information, findings or judgements. As you find new texts, keep your key questions under review as you may decide to adapt the questions to make them more effective and relevant.

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Task 3: In search of … relevant information a) You need to select information from a range of referenced sources. As you consider each text you need to scan it to determine its usefulness and relevance. When you have determined if a source is potentially useful, skim read it keeping your key questions in mind. b) Look over this sample log entry based on a text studied in class: Title Director/ Author Date of entry Wife to Husband Fleur Adcock 9/5/2003

Key questions from task 2 2:

1. Through whose eyes do we witness the relationship presented in each text? The narrator is a married woman. She is still awake after an argument with her husband – he seems less concerned: “into the pit of sleep/ You go with a sudden skid.” She is more troubled: “On me/ Stillness falls gradually . . . twitching nerves”. We see the gulf between the characters through the woman’s eyes and because of this we sympathise with her. 2.How does the context (time, place, social conditions, other people) influence the relationship? The context here is the marital bed and the troubles of marriage. After the argument, the husband’s head is turned away but her face is “hidden.” This might suggest that she hides (or has to hide) her true feelings but he doesn’t feel the need to mask his views. The husband seems to be the dominant character. 3. Connections with other texts? Some connections between narrator and Beth in Once Were Warriors. Marriage sustained on a physical level but lovemaking appears to only paper over deeper cracks in marriage. Some connections on same idea to The Piano. Interesting that the portrayal of male insensitivity is consistent over these three texts despite time difference and setting and both male and female authors. (N.B. Must check Baxter out for counter to this.) Perhaps, here both characters share some of the blame: “Do we dare, now, to open our eyes?”

b) Use your key questions as headings as you record information. c) You may include texts studied in class as part of the introductory stages to the research process, but the emphasis of your research will be on texts you have selected.

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Task 4: Completing your research report a) Before you begin your research, read the research reports in Exemplars A - D and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. b) Follow the format of exemplars A to C (Excellence to Achievement). To meet the criteria for this achievement standard, you must: • include your key questions which expand understandings of your topic. You may use or adapt key questions from this activity or the exemplars. • show evidence that you have selected relevant information from a range of referenced resources. You must have a research log for each text. You must have researched at least FOUR TEXTS, ONE OF WHICH MUST BE A WRITTEN TEXT. (This may include one text studied in class but you must complete a research log for it). present well supported findings that develop judgements in a written report. Your report will be approximately 700 words long, and include a bibliography. Your report should include: • an introduction outlining the focus of your research • a number of sections integrating findings and judgements. Points should be well supported by appropriate quotations. You may not repeat any findings or judgements from the exemplars used in this activity.

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Exemplar A:

Excellence

In search of: ‘Representations of Masculinity’ as explored in Foreskin’s Lament, Man Alone, What Becomes of the Broken Hearted?, Once Were Warriors, ‘The Farmhand’.
Proposes research questions which expand

Key Questions 1. How significant is the central character’s masculinity and how does it help shape his role in each text? 2. How important is masculinity to the society portrayed in each text? 3. What similarities are there between the texts in how masculinity is portrayed? Resources:

understandings of the topic.

Title: Foreskin's Lament Author: Greg McGee Date: 7/4/2003 QU 1: The central figure in the text is Seymour known to his friends as "Foreskin." The university educated man is unlike his rugby teammates who are rural Kiwi `hard' men . Masculinity puts more important things, like life, into perspective for him as it is shown when one of the men tries to play through the pain barrier (an attempt to appear strong and manly) but suffers further injuries, which prove to be fatal.

Selects information from a range of referenced sources.

QU 2: The rural, rugby orientated society is seemingly the epitome of masculinity. The society has little tolerance or respect for gays (poofs) or women (fluff). Rugby is seen to be the epitome of masculinity; a hard, no nonsense man's game that ultimately separates the men from the boys. QU 3: There is a definite attitude towards physical weakness and lack of power which is seen as unmanly. This is also the case with homosexuality which can also be observed in Once Were Warriors when Jake’s son is labelled a ‘poof’ for not displaying `masculine' behaviour. Title: Once Were Warriors Director: Lee Tamahori Date: 10/5/2003 QU 1: Jake Heke is an arrogant, explosive man who is easily provoked. His excessive drinking and knack of getting into fights makes him a dangerous and deadly character. He often uses his fists to prove his masculinity. Jake also shows no emotion when his wife tells him that their son is to be sent to social welfare: “Anybody would've thought he's dead the way you lot are carrying on. It'll toughen him up, he's too soft anyway.” QU 2: There is a certain expectancy from the men in the society of the degrading urban ghettos to act manly and display their toughness. Fighting serves as a warning, earns respect of others. Jake enforces himself as the sole decisionmaker and head of the household. Beth told to "just do what you're told!" There is a strong sense of male superiority.

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QU 3: It reinforces the belief that strength and physical toughness are the most important attributes contributing to masculinity. These ideas are evident in Eoreskin's Lament but are conveyed through actions on the rugby field. Title: What Becomes of the Broken Hearted? Director: Ian Mune Date: 19/5/2003 QU 1: Jake changes as the film progresses. He attempts to come to terms with his marriage break up and the deaths of two children. He is still violent though, but becomes aware that this loses respect. He starts to portray masculinity by protecting those he has hurt (eg Sonny) QU 2: They live in a poverty stricken area. Gangs, unemployment feature. When Jake makes different friends, gets a job he no longer gets involved in meaningless violence. He shows his masculinity in a more positive way. QU 3: Connections with Warriors but a more positive view of masculinity here. Title: Man Alone Author: John Mulgan Date: 22/5/2003 QU 1: Farm work conveys masculinity through the rural nature of the job. Johnson goes out to `do it alone' in the big, wide world. A modest income with hard work appears give him an air of masculinity. “There isn't any better country than this, not where a man can go about and get work, and stop when he wants to, and make money when he needs it and take a holiday when he feels ready for one." QU 2: The society is very farm and rural orientated and there is an impression of `every man for himself.' QU3: Foreskin's Lament is a text with similar notions of the classic kiwi bloke. The other texts also suggest masculinity displayed through an emotionless, staunch and tough exterior. Title: Farmhand Poet: James K Baxter Date: 24/5/2003 QU 1: Portrayal is shown through working on the land. Very shy of women but at home with the farm work he undertakes. QU 2: He is single and working on the farm - it is his life. Isolated but not lonely. Content with the lifestyle. QU 3: Obvious connections with Man Alone. Both characters work hard on the land. Both are quiet ‘no frills’ type of men.
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Report: Representations of Masculinity in Literature Masculinity is a theme that features prominently in New Zealand literature. In selecting the texts Once Were Warriors and What Becomes of the Broken Hearted (films directed by Lee Tamahori and Ian Mune), Foreskin's Lament by Greg McGee, Man Alone by John Mulgan, and ‘Farmhand’ by James K Baxter, I am aware that my selection portrays a somewhat stereotypical view of men in a Kiwi society The texts I have used in my investigation tend to associate masculinity with a rural or lower class lifestyle, violence or alcohol consumption. Portrayals of masculinity have changed between texts set in the 1930 - 50s and those with more contemporary settings. The central characters all must deal with masculinity and the pressures related to it which ultimately shape their roles in the texts. How masculinity shapes the character As shown in Once re Warriors to be a ‘real’ man and to be considered masculine is to inflict violence. Warriors contains numerous scenes of Jake Heke, the central character, using his fists to prove his masculinity. The arrogant and explosive character singlehandedly beats a man unconscious in front of an awe struck pub crowd. The attribute of physical potency is a concept that is strongly associated with masculinity. Tough and `masculine' behaviour as shown in the film appears to warrant respect and admiration from others. This belief is also obvious in Foreskin's Lament. Instead of continuous confrontations however, this physical toughness is exposed through rugby, the sport that is "more than just a game." Seymour, affectionately known to his friends as Foreskin witnesses the lengths Ken will go to is order to appear `fine' when his life was in grave danger before a rugby match. The `she'll be right' attitude is often employed to avoid the so-called `unmanly' act of exposing true beliefs or feelings. The team mentality is seemingly an epitome of masculinity in Foreskin's Lament, and also in Warriors in a more perverse form of ‘team’ through the gang associations when Jake's son Nig turns to Toa Aotearoa after becoming disillusioned with family life. This could be put down to a desire to express extreme macho behaviour, a substitute for family life and a ‘team’ in which maleness is valued. It is worth noting another softer side to masculinity in What Becomes of the Broken Hearted though. The reformed Jake helps his son Sonny in times of need. Jake feels proud of what he is doing and feels that he is conducting himself in a masculine way, which is far removed from Jake, the vicious pub brawler in Warriors. On the flipside as shown in the novel Man Alone and the poem ‘Farmhand’, to be masculine one has to work on the land, to work and provide for oneself, to be a ‘no frills’ independent man. Johnson the main character in Man Alone, lives “mainly on the birds he could shoot” working often in rugged conditions in the Waikato and central North Island. There is a sense of satisfaction from this masculine lifestyle which is contrast to the violent and alcohol dominated maleness of Warriors or Foreskin’s Lament. When Johnson says that “there isn’t any country better than this”, he shares a satisfied oneness with nature also evident in Baxter’s poem ‘Farmhand’: “But ah in harvest watch him; Forking stooks, effortless and strong-“ The farmhand is unsure and uncomfortable with the opposite sex in one aspect of his masculinity. On the other hand he is totally secure and content with his life on the land, where he “listens like a lover to the song…of a new tractor engine.” Masculinity’s place in society Homophobia and misogyny are rampant in Foreskin's Lament. Women and homosexuals are mocked, ridiculed and thought of as inferior. Women are known as ‘fluff' and the homosexual Larry is constantly taunted about being a ‘poof.’ The women in the text are apparently corruptive of a `pure' male world for which rugby stands. Even the university educated Seymour is seen as too much brains and not enough brawn. The disrespect
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Excellence • Consistently develops original insightful judgements that are integrated with supporting evidence throughout the report.

Addresses the third key question effectively (similarities between texts) throughout the report by synthesising judgements based on findings drawn from more than one source.

Findings are integrated with perceptive judgements based on more than one source.

Develops a perceptive judgement, contrasting with comments about previous texts.

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towards homosexuals and women is evident in Once Were Warriors, where a boy is branded a `poofter' for not conforming to the so called manly and criminal behaviour of his peers, while Jake frequently orders his wife to ‘just to what you're told’. Failure to comply means violence, as witnessed by Jake’s vicious attack on Beth when she refuses to cook some eggs for one of the men at the party. The belief that failure to live up to masculine expectations merits such humiliations is the accepted norm in these texts, but these homophobic and misogynist attitudes are seen as less than acceptable in New Zealand society today. It is interesting to note the time frames in which texts were set and how this relates to different aspects of masculinity as seen in the society they portray. Man Alone is the text set in the oldest time period of the texts in my investigation. Set in the 1930s it depicts masculinity through the main character's encounters with a demanding rural lifestyle. Johnson is a hard working man with modest earnings but is prepared to `do it alone'. These ideas are undoubtedly related to what would have been the typical way of life for many New Zealand men in the early 1930s. This rugged self sufficient masculinity is similar to that suggested in ‘The Farmhand’, but the negative side is that both characters experience isolation. This contrasts with the ‘team’ masculinity seen in Foreskin's Lament, a text set in the 1980s. The ‘pack’ approach concentrates more on the concepts of mateship and the stereotypical bloke who conforms to the kiwi identity of playing rugby,consuming alcohol and being one of the boys. Ironically it is the solitary individuals like Johnson or Baxter’s farmhand who are more content with their isolated versions of maleness, than the lonely and disconnected Foreskin who reveals how he lacks a sense of identity in the play’s closing words: “When they really ask you whaddarya but really, really you don’t know.” The most recently produced of the texts Once Were Warriors (1994) and What Becomes of the Broken Hearted? (1999) feature modern day poor urban settings, characterised by alcohol, crime and unemployment. Against this backdrop Jake proves his masculinity often through alcohol fueled violence in Warriors, but a more positive helping aspect of his masculinity is revealed by a reformed Jake in Broken Hearted. Conclusion The way masculinity is portrayed hinges on social climate, setting and circumstance surrounding the central male characters. In all texts there is a strong trend towards physical authority and an emotionless staunch manner which all contribute to the view of a stereotypical ‘Kiwi bloke.’ These concepts appear frequently in New Zealand literature, perhaps in an attempt to describe kiwi masculinity as false or shallow, to suggest that New Zealand men ‘once were warriors’ but that the nobility and mana that traditionally entailed is now lost. The aspect of masculinity involving violence, particularly in Once Were Warriors and the deliberate parallels drawn to the warrior like personalities of Maori could perhaps be traced back to colonial clashes with Pakeha men. Texts such as Foreskin’s Lament, Man Alone and ‘Farmhand’ present masculinity as rural, isolated and rugby obsessed. Apart from Seymour's character in Foreskin's Lament, masculinity is scarcely portrayed beyond the uncompromising exterior that many people have become accustomed to associating masculinity with in New Zealand. Bibliography

Develops perceptive original judgement. Continues to synthesise judgements based on findings across several sources.

Presents well supported findings. Findings are integrated with perceptive judgements based on more than one source .

Conclusion synthesises and summarises findings. Original perceptive insights included.

Selects information from a range of referenced sources.

Baxter James K. (1979) ‘Farmhand’ in Collected Poems. Oxford University Press, Wellington McGee, Greg. (1981) Foreskin's Lament Currency Press Ltd, Sydney Mulgan, John. (1949) Man Alone. AH and W Reed, Auckland Tamahori, Lee. (1994) Once Were Warriors. Communicado, Auckland Mune, Ian. (1999) What Becomes of the Broken Hearted? Universal Pictures International
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Exemplar B

Merit

In search of: Masculinity in New Zealand Literature as explored in Hang On A Minute Mate, Once Were Warriors, The Book of Fame, ‘The Tomcat’.
Selects information from a range of referenced sources.

Key Questions
1. How is masculinity presented in the society portrayed? 2. How important is the main character’s sense of masculinity? 3. What connections can be made between the portrayal of masculinity between texts and our society?

Resource Log

Selects information from a range of referenced sources.

Title: Once Were Warriors Director: Lee Tamahori Date of Entry: 20 May 2003 1. Masculinity is portrayed as being physically tough, feared by others and therefore respected. This is because the society in this film is mostly urban, working class Maori. They often spend time at the local pub, where Jake shows his physical toughness by brawling with other people. The patrons at the pub congratulate Jake whenever he does this. 2. Jake feels that it is very important for him to "be the man", and he believes he does this through his physical, violent nature. "Our people, once were warriors ...they had mana" this statement by Beth suggests that although Jake may be feared, he does not command mana and respect.

3. Very different to Hang on a Minute Mate, where masculinity is sharing a relationship with
nature and the land. This may be due to the different cultures of the main characters (Maori and Pakeha) or different time periods (1950s -1960s and 1980s - 1990s). Title: Hang on a Minute Mate Author: Barry Crump Date of Entry: 15 May 2003 1. Masculinity is portrayed as being a "jack of all trades", someone who shares a relationship with the land. This is because the society of this novel is working class rural pakeha New Zealand, where the "typical kiwi bloke" is a drifter, who does odd jobs in order to make a living. 2. The main character of Sam Cash is made out to be the epitome of masculinity. However in this novel, Sam doesn't care what others think of him nor does he try to be the definition of masculinity - a drifter who uses his many skills to make a living, it is simply in his nature to do so.

3. The type of employment that Sam and Jack do throughout this novel are similar to the positions
held by the All Blacks in The Book Of Fame. Both Sam, plus Jake from Once Were Warriors, have a similar derogatory attitude towards women. Title: The Book of Fame Author: Lloyd Jones Date of Entry: 12 May 2003 1. A group of New Zealand rugby players are touring the United Kingdom, France and America. Within this society masculinity is portrayed as being a great rugby player, a belief
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held by the New Zealand public in this novel, who took great pride in the numerous successes of the national team. 2. Although not specifically defined as masculinity, in New Zealand in the 1900s playing rugby was a manly thing to do. A sense of masculinity is not necessarily that important to the characters in this novel, but playing rugby is important to them.

3. Rugby in New Zealand is regarded as a tough game, where the players were staunch.
This is similar to Jake in Once Were Warriors where he is portrayed to be extremely tough. Title: 'The Tomcat' Poet: James K Baxter Date of Entry: 22 May 2003 1. The society of this text is middle-class New Zealand, the conformity of which Baxter despises. The "tight-furred scrotum" is symbolic of the tomcat keeping his masculinity, and not being "doctored". 2. For Baxter, a sense of masculinity is extremely important. He believes that the middle class conformist society of New Zealand is destroying men's masculinity. By letting the tomcat be, he is keeping its sense of masculinity intact.

3. In Once Were Warriors fighting is an important part of how masculinity is defined, this is
to the tomcat as he has “badges of bouts and fights.” However Baxter is saying that masculinity is being destroyed as opposed to stating what he believes masculinity is, which is a contrast to the other texts. Merit
• Forms several judgements linked to a range of findings, but further development required for excellence. • Does not present a sufficient level of perceptive judgements needed for excellence. Limited exploration of the ‘wider links to society’ aspect of key question 3.

Report
MASCULINITY IN NEW ZEALAND LITERATURE In New Zealand literature, masculinity is portrayed and defined in a number of ways. I selected a range of texts including ‘The Tomcat’ by James K Baxter, Once Were Warriors, a film by Lee Tamahori, Hang on a Minute Mate, a novel by Barry Crump, and The Book of Fame, a novel by Lloyd Jones. These texts brought up a number of issues which I explore in my report below.

How is masculinity presented in the society portrayed? In both Hang on a Minute Mate and The Book of Fame, New Zealand is made out to be a largely rural country. In Hang on a Minute Mate, set in the late 1960s, the main characters of Sam and Jack travel the length of New Zealand doing odd jobs in rural areas. They make out a real man as a bloke who is a "jack of all trades", in effect living off his ability to perform rural duties. This same image of masculinity is also alluded to in The Book of Fame, where the jobs held by the touring team are mostly rural positions. This adds to the portrayal of the New Zealand man being rurally inclined. In both of these texts the characters share a despising attitude towards city life. It is ironic that in Once Were Warriors, the Heke family becomes disillusioned with the city and return to their tribal roots in rural New Zealand. Part of being a man in Once Were Warriors and Hang on a Minute Mate is consuming beer at the local pub. The local pub in Once Were Warriors is like a second home to Jake, a place where he can drink with his mates, proving his masculinity. In Hang on a Minute Mate, Jack and Sam spend most of their free time at various pubs and inns, where they "spin yarns over a pint" with local males. This is portrayed as a key occurrence for kiwi males. In Once Were Warriors, director Lee Tamahori argues that alcohol is destroying New Zealand society. He does this by showing the violence and
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Forms judgements based on findings.

Presents well supported findings. Develops several judgements across report integrating more than one source.

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destruction caused by Jake whilst under the influence of alcohol, and Bully's rape of young Gracie when drunk after a party at Jake's. The portrayal of over-indulgence of alcohol is very common in New Zealand literature. This powerful depiction provides us with a truth about New Zealand society; that maybe we rely on alcohol too much. How important is the main character’s sense of masculinity? In Once Were Warriors and Hang on a Minute Mate, part of the main character’s respective definitions of masculinity is having a derogatory attitude towards women. In Once Were Warriors, Jake beats his wife frequently. This shows Jake's extremely negative attitude towards women. He thinks of Beth as something he owns and he undervalues her. In Hang on a Minute Mate Sam describes women as "a waste of time and a nuisance". He speaks of his previous girlfriends with a tone of bitterness and says, "a man's better off without a woman to keep you down". Through these texts comes the idea that New Zealand is a pioneer, male dominated society. One of the key issues of masculinity brought forward in Once Were Warriors, ‘The Tomcat’, a poem by James K Baxter and The Book of Fame is fighting, being tough and the macho attitudes involved. In Once Were Warriors, Jake is considered "the man" because of his very physical and violent nature. This sense of masculinity is very important to Jake. However, when Beth says "Our people Jake, once were warriors... they had mana", she suggests that having mana and respect is what masculinity is, and that drunken brawls and wife beating will not bring this about. Similarly in ‘The Tomcat’ Baxter implies that fighting and violence is an important part of masculinity. Baxter uses the tomcat to be symbolic of masculinity with "badges of bouts and fights". The touring rugby team in The Book of Fame are treated as heroes, because of their rugby ability. Rugby at that time in New Zealand was considered a real man's game because of its toughness and its brutality. Because of New Zealand's tough colonial past, macho attitudes are frequent in both literature and society today. In conclusion, I have found many issues relating to masculinity were raised in the texts I studied. From alcohol's role in New Zealand through to macho attitudes to sport and violence, the way masculinity was explored in these is still a disturbingly accurate reflection of aspects of New Zealand society today. Our society's weaknesses – the violence, the anger, the alcohol - rather than our strengths have been the inspiration for the way our authors and directors have presented masculinity.

Perceptive judgement which makes wider societal links, but needs to be more closely aligned to masculinity theme. Insufficient development of these judgements across the report for excellence.

Presents well supported findings. Develops several judgements across report integrating more than one source.

Conclusion makes thoughtful wider societal links. Insufficient development of these judgements across the report for excellence.

Selects information from a range of referenced sources.

Bibliography
Baxter, James K. (1979) ‘The Tomcat’ in Collected Poems. Oxford University Press, Wellington Crump, Barry. (1961) Hang on a Minute Mate. Holder Moa Beckett, Auckland Jones, Lloyd. (2000) The Book of Fame. Penguin Books, Auckland Tamahori, Lee. (1994) Once Were Warriors. Communicado, Auckland

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Internal assessment resource reference number English/3/7B – version 2

Exemplar C

Achievement

In search of: Race Relations in New Zealand Literature as explored in Sons for the Return Home, Once Were Warriors, Crooked Earth, ‘Clenched Fist’, ‘Sad Joke on a Marae’

Proposes research questions which expand understandings of the topic.

Key Questions
1. What race relation issues/problems do the characters of each text face? 2. What influence does the setting or context have on the race relations in each text? 3. What connections are there between the race relations in this and other texts?

Resource Log

Selects information from a range of referenced sources.

Once Were Warriors by Alan Duff (NOVEL) 4 May 03 1. The characters of this text try to deal with the affluence of the white man, and their own apathetic attitude to life, living from dole cheque to dole cheque. This is shown when Jake quits his job because "the government is stupid enough to pay him to do nothing". The Maori characters express their envy with violence "let’s get out of here before I find one of those white shits and punchim". 2. The relative squalor of the state housing in Pine Block perhaps fuels the apathy of the Maori who live there, and they envy the Tramberts, just over the back fence. The marae at Wainui with its depictions rich in history and culture perhaps persuades Beth to bring some of that back to her struggling people. 3. Negative stereotypes are also reflected in ‘Sad Joke on a Marae’. Sons For The Return Home by Albert Wendt (NOVEL) 11 May 2003 1. The Samoan main character is who this text focuses on. He is having a relationship with a papalagi (pakeha) woman, but the race relations in this text go deeper than that. He is also having a relationship with his adopted country, the one that he has come to love, and is torn between that and the ideals of Samoa, his country of birth. 2. The context is the most important part of the race relations in this text. At first, the main character refuses to become part of his adopted country, treating it as and over long holiday. He soon becomes involved against his will, and is drawn to love New Zealand. His trip around the North Island, and his wonder at its beauty is an example of this. 3. This text is not very similar to any of the others I have studied. It suggests the white man to be a cruel oppressor, ignorant of the ways of the people he is conquering (a la ‘Clenched First’, Crooked Earth, Once Were Warriors). It is more about a man finding his feet in a strange country. Clenched Fist by Witi Ihimaera (SHORT STORY) 14 May 2003 1. One character in this text is trying to convince the other that Maori should not bow down to the pakeha regime. This is at first the only conflict in this story, until the end when a black woman is almost run down by youths in a car who scream at her "Get back you black bitch". Api is also infuriated when photographed by a tourist, furious at being treated like a walking museum piece - "a real live Maori". 2. The context of this story gives an impression of two Maori with jobs, and doing fairly well for themselves.
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3. Maori nationalism is very similar to that in Crooked Earth. Alcoholism again "come to the
pub, brother, he said. Meet some of the boys". Crooked Earth directed by Sam Pillsbury (FILM) 20 May 2003 1. The characters of this text are trying to recover land stolen from them by white settlers, (now owned by the crown) who are now proposing a forestry deal. It also involves a rift between two groups of Maori, those who would rather their land returned to them in whatever state (they threaten to burn it to the ground) and those who would prefer to play along with the pakeha and deal with the minister. 2. The rural context of this text makes the relations seem more realistic. The land under dispute is a large section of forest at the foot of a sacred mountain. The group of Maori who want the land returned are growing pot under the cover of the trees. 3. The stereotypes of this text are evident in others, Once Were Warriors. Alcoholism, squalid living, ‘Clenched Fist’ – Poverty, Maori nationalism. ‘Sad Joke on a Marae’ by Apirana Taylor (POEM) 25 May 2003 1. This poem is about someone who has forgotten his heritage "In the only Maori I knew", he does not speak the language, and he quotes DB and the pub as his tribe and home. 2. The marae is the context of this text, and from the descriptions of the carvings and ghosts on the walls, "the tekoteko raged / He ripped his tongue from his mouth and threw it at my feet". 3. This poem is in ways similar in theme to Once Were Warriors - Maori loss of heritage. Again, the common stereotypes show through: alcoholism, violence.
Achievement Presents findings with a number of conclusions linked to key questions 1 and 2. More development of judgements linked to question 3 (connections between texts) required to achieve merit.

Report Race Relations In New Zealand Literature My investigation examined race relations in New Zealand literature. The texts I chose gave a disturbing portrayal of this. A common theme of distrust, alcohol and violence carried through Once Were Warriors by Alan Duff, Crooked Earth directed by Sam Pillsbury and ‘Clenched Fist’ by Witi Ihimaera. Maori and Polynesians in my texts felt alienated. Racism fostered from childhood escalated to hatred as portrayed in Sons For The Return Home by Albert Wendt. Lastly, the theme of lost culture and heritage is featured in ‘Sad Joke On A Marae’ by Apirana Taylor. What race relation issues/problems do the characters of each text face? Pakeha are shown as the enemy of the characters in most of my texts. Beth Heke sits and sighs, wishing her family could be like the affluent white farmers who live across her back fence -The Tramberts. Jake Heke is unashamedly racist, and his violent nature leaks into his racism. He is angry when the family visits the posh area of Ainsbury Heights. Finally after begging from his wife, he leaves, with his comment "Let's get out of here before I find one of those white shits and punchim". In Crooked Earth a band of Maori cowboys shoot a white farmer who is farming on land they believe to be theirs, and burn his wool shed. They refuse to deal with the crown, and mount a pseudo uprising. They want their ancestral land back, and have given up on peaceful means. This portrayal of racism is in sharp contrast to that of ‘Clenched Fist’. This is the only one of my texts where racism was portrayed in the opposite way, pakeha violence or prejudice towards Maori. A white tourist snaps a picture of Api, as if capturing a native in his natural habitat - "I could have
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Presents well supported findings. Some brief judgements made across texts, but not developed as required for merit.

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mangled the white bastard. I tell you brother, we're just objects, caged animals in a zoo, entertainment for the tourists.” Another of my texts, Sons for the Return Home, highlighted a different problem. The main character is an immigrant from the Pacific islands. He does not fit into his adopted country, and refuses to make ties because he sees his stay there as temporary. His upbringing trains him to be racist, and asked why he doesn't like Maori, he can find no reply. He simply knows that "...the worst fights are between Islanders and Maoris". He falls in love with a papalagi (pakeha) girl, and when they decide to get married, his mother objects - she doesn't want her children to be half castes. What is portrayed is straightforward hatred and envy.

Presents well supported findings.

What influence does the setting or context have on the race relations in each text? Blood and bottles are the staples of Maori life in Pine Block, the home of the Heke family of Once Were Warriors. Jake Heke is unhappy without fresh blood on his fists and a cold beer in his belly. Beth Heke is a woman with dreams, but they are destroyed by her poverty and her husband's fists. She, like many others, drowns Presents well supported findings. her sorrow in alcohol. Their children are neglected, huddling close to one another as a violent drunken party smashes the downstairs of their home. They clean up the next day without a word. The eldest, Nig is a gang prospect, and the rest think that they have no other option but to follow in their parents' footsteps. The alcoholism and squalid living conditions also run into Crooked Earth a family of nearly twenty living in a dilapidated farmhouse decorated only by pictures of famous revolutionaries, spray painted to the walls. Violence is also evident in Crooked Earth. Even the title Once Were Warriors suggests that something is missing. Beth needs to go back to her cultural context to find what it is. The difference between Pine Block Maori and Wainui Maori, Beth's family, is marked, especially at Grace's funeral. Pine Block Maori do not speak their language, understand their culture or their customs. When Grace's funeral is over, Beth Heke mounts a crusade to enlighten her people. Race relations are also influenced by context in ‘Sad Joke on a Marae.’ Apirana Taylor writes "the tekoteko raged / He ripped his tongue from his mouth and threw it at my feet". "Tihei Mauriora! In the only Maori I knew". This shows us that the narrator does not know his past, and his lack of knowledge about his culture and the marae is shown when he speaks. Conclusion The portrayal of race relations in my texts was not a positive one. Stereotypes, racism, and loss of culture, alcohol and crime were at the forefront. Maori culture is shown as slowly decaying, taking the race with it. My texts were generally violent and angry, and I believe this is a sad reflection on race relations in our society.

Presents findings with brief links made to other texts.

Brief judgements included, but not developed sufficiently here or elsewhere as needed for merit.

Bibliography Duff, Alan. (1990) Once Were Warriors. Tandem Press, Auckland Ihimaera, Witi. (1972) Clenched Fist’ in Pounamu, Pounamu. Heinemann Educational, Auckland Pillsbury, Sam. (1995) Crooked Earth. Pandora and Communicado Taylor, Apirana. (1997) ‘Sad Joke On a Marae’ in An Anthology of New Zealand Poetry in English Oxford University Press, Auckland Wendt, Albert. (1973) Sons For The Return Home. Longman Paul , Auckland.
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Selects information from a range of referenced sources.

Internal assessment resource reference number English/3/7B – version 2

Exemplar D

Not achieved

In search of: A New Zealand Identity as explored in The Piano, ‘Whaling, ‘They Gave Her a Rise’, ‘The Making of a New Zealander’, ‘The Hole That Jack Dug’.

Key Questions

1. Is the society portrayed a New Zealand society? 2. Is the main character a stereotype? 3. What connections can I make with other texts and the NZ identity theme?

Closed research questions 1 and 2 which do not allow the student to expand understandings of the topic.

Log
Title: The Making of a New Zealander Limited information selected from only three of the five named sources. Author: Frank Sargeson Date 26/4/03 1. It is a farming society. 2. Yes – a farm worker working on the land. Nick is a Dalmatian settler who becomes a New Zealander. 3. Connects with other texts where workers do not have many choices. Title: They Gave Her A Rise Author: Frank Sargeson Date 29/4/03 1. Very working class. 2. Main character is single mother. Daughter works at an ammunition factory. 3. Both working and struggling for money. Title: The Hole That Jack Dug Author: Frank Sargeson Date 30/4/03 1. Common NZ. Household. 2. Main character is uneducated, wife is educated. 3. Can be connected to ‘Whaling’ – not doing what he wants to do.
Does not meet the second criterion.

Not achieved Presents some information and attempts to draw conclusions. Findings are generally inadequate and unsubstantiated. The conclusions drawn are not convincing.

Report
Development of a New Zealand Identity

My report's focus is to see how the New Zealand identity is portrayed in New Zealand art and literature. The texts I chose come from the early nineteenth century - The Piano - to the 1940s -in Frank Sargeson's short stories. Even though these texts may not be very modern, you can still see that there are a number of different factors that are in them which link to my theme. New Zealand Society In the short story ‘The Hole that Jack Dug’ and in the song ‘Whaling’, the male belongs to the working class. In "The Hole that Jack Dug", Jack is a married man who a worker at a quarry. His wife doesn’t like that he does not get a better job, such as one in an office. Even though Jack has the ability to get a better job, he prefers labouring than anything else. In ‘Whaling’ this man is stuck as a whaler for a job, possibly because he lacks proper education. "But I'm whaling... Not where I want to be." This lack of education forced him into a job he didn't want, which might have been what men had to do at the time.
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Some attempts made to link resources, but superficial and unconvincing conclusions drawn. Findings do not adequately address key questions.

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This brings up another issue of women being better educated than men. This can be seen in ‘The Hole that Jack Dug’ where Jack's wife is educated in England. "... she'd been a governess ... read more than ten books by an author called Hugh Walpole." Because she is interested in literature and Jack isn't, their marriage isn’t a very good one. Jack shows rebellion against her and her interests, because of her resentment towards him. This can be seen as New Zealand not valuing education during the time which led to people like Jack having working class jobs. These working class jobs can be seen as a New Zealand tradition. Jack and the Whaler were both labourers, a line of work which has continued its way into our modern times. This is evident by the fact the New Zealand has a successful farming industry which requires a large amount of labour. It can also be linked to today's New Zealand men, who are do it yourself type people who like to fix things themselves. Men and women have not always got along well, as seen in Jane Campion's film The Piano. The Piano follows a widow and her daughter. The widow has been married by her father to a New Zealand settler. Because Ada is mute and the fact that she wasn't very willing to be married creates problems with her new husband. Ada enjoys playing the piano, an issue that her husband doesn't care too much about. Ada also has an affair with one of her husband's workers which makes him so angry that he cuts off her finger. This conflict between men and women can be seen today in the form of sexism and increasing divorce rates. This is also shown in ‘ The Hole that Jack Dug’ where Jack's wife convinces him that the hole was a bad idea and gets him to refill it. This is seen today as women overcome sexism. People like Helen Clark are elected in high positions in our society instead of men. Stereotypes In all of the short stories that I studied, one issue became clear: men don’t say much. This is shown in the ‘They Gave her a Rise’ and ‘The Making of a New Zealander’, both by Frank Sargeson. In ‘They Gave her a Rise’ the male in the story doesn’t say much. In ‘The Making of a New Zealander’, there is a young farmhand. Even though the story is centered around him, the narrator says very little- "Maybe there's nothing in it and maybe there is." This is often hard to understand, which is maybe why they didn't say much.

Unsubstantiated findings.

Unsubstantiated findings.

Findings not linked to key question.

It is clear that there are many different sides to the New Zealand identity and they are shown in great depth and detail in NZ literature, and that there are indeed many different viewpoints of it. In the majority of my texts the issue of working class was dealt with more than the other issues. The importance of working class is still seen in modern NZ society. I think it is a good thing that these issues have had the effect they have because if society keeps advancing, then so will our sense of identity.

Unsubstantiated conclusions.

Selects information from a range of referenced sources. Bibliography Campion, Jane. (1992) The Piano. Miramax Dobbyn, Dave. (1984) ‘Whaling’ in DD Smash Sargeson, Frank. (1936) ‘They Gave her a Rise’, ‘The Making of a New Zealander’, ‘The Hole that Jack Dug’ in Collected Stories (1964) Blackwood and Janet Paul, Auckland

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Assessment schedule: 3.7 Complete independent research on a language or literature topic and present findings in written form Descriptor Example Propose research questions that expand understandings of Refer exemplar C on page 16 a topic. -18. Select relevant information from a range of referenced sources. Present well supported findings. Propose research questions that expand understandings of Refer exemplar B on page 13 15. a topic. Select relevant information from a range of referenced sources. Present well supported findings that develop judgements. Propose research questions that expand understandings of Refer exemplar A on page 9 a topic. 12. Select relevant information from a range of referenced sources. Present well supported and integrated findings that consistently develop original, perceptive judgements.

Achievement

Merit

Excellence

Model the research process as a class using a shared topic. From here follow the same process having chosen©Crown 2003 from a selection of topics.

Maybe this uses John;s 21 material as a sample for the modelling process.

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