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Elya B. Joffe, Senior Member, IEEE K.T.M. Project Eng., Ltd Dr. Alex Axelrod, Member, IEEE EMI Teat Lab., Ltd. Moshav-Hanid, D.N.Lev Hasharon, 42865 Israel
P O Box 264, KfaFSava 44102 ..
An empirical investigation of the effect of cable twisting on the radiated emissions from cables was performed and is presented in the Paper.
.. l Common Mode Emlsslons
Simplified expressions for common mode and differential mode emissions from cables were developed in . Radiated Emissions from Differential Mode Radiating Loop The expression for radiated emissions from a cable canying a differential mode signal is:
It is well known that cable twisting is beneficial for reducing the low frequency emissions from, and coupling to cables. However, many misconceptions have evolved with respect to the actual contribution of the cable twisting at high frequencies (e.g., at frequencies higher than several MHz), in particular with respect to the electric-field and electromagnetic field emission from and coupling to cables. In fact, in certain text books, the “pair-balance’’is attributed to twisted pairs, contributing a rejection of 20 dB and more. In this Paper, the actual effect of cable twisting on the reduction of radiated emissions due to common-mode and differential-mode fed signals is presented and discussed. Tests were conducted by the Authors of this Paper, in order to investigate the effect of pair twisting on the interference coupling to cables. Due to the duality between emission from- and coupling to cables, the results obtained by means of measurement of the field emission from the cables for common-mode and differential mode feed to the culprit cable can be applied for the estimation of the effect of twisting on the coupling to the cables of the system. It is clearly shown that for high frequency common mode emissions, absolutely no reduction in radiated emissions may be expected due to the pair-twisting. Results are also compared to the those obtained by the shielding of cables, with the shield grounded at one and both sides. The effect of shielding will, however, be more thoroughly investigated in a further paper.
E,,,,, f A I r 8
= = = = = =
= 131.6.10-16. ~ 1 1 1 ) . (
1 (-).sine T
Differential Mode E-Field emissions [V/m] Frequency of radiated field [Hz] Loop area of radiating loop [m] Differential Mode current canied on the loop [Amp] Distance from loop to observation point [m] Observation angle from radiating loop [Rad]
Radiated Emissions from Common Mode Radi8ting Cable The expression for radiated emissions from a cable canying a common mode signal is:
= = = =
* . E,, f I I r
Common Mode E-Field emissions [V/m] Frequency of radiated field Length of radiating cable [m] Differential Mode current carried on the loop [Amp] Distance from loop to observation point [m] Observation angle from radiating loop [Rad]
Figure 1 depicts the above equations for the configuration of the test to be described herein, as in the Figure 2. Cables typically consist the primary source of radiated emissions from- and coupling to a properly shielded electronic system. In fact, in the frequency band of 30 MHz to 200 MHz, approximately, the cable emissions and coupling dominate the radiation and coupling from and into the system under test. At low frequencies, e.g., power frequencies, emissions from cables are typically due to the low frequency (differential mode) signals, for instance - the power frequency emissions, etc. At these frequencies, the common mode currents are small, due to the negligible capacitance of the parasitic capacitances between the cables (and other system components) to ground. In this case, radiated emissions are typically attributed to the differential mode currents in the circuit. At higher frequencies, however, common mode currents become dominant, and the radiated emissions at those frequencies are primarily attributed to the common mode currents flowing on the cables, and “terminated”by parasitic capacitances.
E-Fkld MJa fnrm C.bk
Figure 1 Radiated Emissions from Cable in Setup Depicted in : Figure 2.
in particular with respect to the electric-field and electromagnetic field emission from and coupling to cables. and second. A Twisted Pair. This. The feed point of the cables was not "floating" due to the interface between the coaxial output of the signal generator and the cable under test. The height of the cables above the ground plane was 5 cm. the contribution of the twisting to the radiated E-field emissions at high frequencies is negligible.05 meters. In fact. the actual mechanism of the twisting effect on common mode radiation remained a "mystery". on the one hand. at these frequencies. This could be improved by means of a BALUN. due to the fact that the radiation is now dominated by the common-mode signals. At higher frequencies. using different definitions. the effect of pair twisting on the emissions. with equal length. these provided no actual solution to the problem. the actual mechanisms for the reduction of radiation due to the twisting of cables. for a while. primarily due to the common mode signals would be similar to that in the problem of coupling of fields to cables. the common mode emissions dominate. the twisting ceases to provide effective radiated emission reduction. it enables the radiation from two adjacent twists to cancel out [l. shielding of the cables appears to be relatively ineffective for controlling the low frequency (often magnetic) field emissions from the cables (although often used for reduction of coupling of external high frequency interference to the cables). and possibly. in fact. in  it is clearly shown that the capacitive (or electrical. . The cable conductors were terminated by a 120 R differetial (ungrounded) load. twisting effectiveness is reduced to zero . Measurement Methodolow Test Setup A test was conducted by the Authors. common mode emissions are to be the primary source of concern. and others. the "cable decoupling" factor is introduced. or 0. f l s It is well known that low frequency radiated emissions. and therefore. However.g. however. at fiequencies higher than several MHZ). for the reduction of field coupling to and from cables. shielded pair) contributes approximately 10% (-20 dB) to the coupling reduction. Several technical papers and even text books still quote. in . . "terminating" in the reference ground via the parasitic capacitances.. as would be expected. broadband balancing techniques. it is thus typically acceptable to use cable shields. with a twist rate of 10 twists per meter. serving as the reference for measurements. for reduction of the coupled interference adverse effects on the victim circuit. The observation point (and measurement biconical antenna) Problem Formulation Although. The following notes should be mentioned: 1. primarily attributed to (low impedance) power circuits. Cables Under Test The following cables were tested: 1. many misconceptions have evolved with respect to the actual contribution of the cable twisting at high frequencies (e. The twisting has a double effect on the emission from the cable: First. These results could likewise be applied to the coupling of E-fields to cables. due to the balancing of the load. is not expected to severely degrade the results of the test. and the fact that E-field coupling to cables is. it is expected that resonances would occur in multiples of 150 M H z (h/2). This "works" only due to the fact that the radiated emissions are primarily due to the differential "loop" currents. it is well known that cable twisting is beneficial for reducing the low frequency emissions from. We have even developed "theories". Results were also compared to the those obtained for a shielded twisted pair. and coupling to cables. and therefore. Therefore. 2. dominated by the area of the radiating loop. Figure 2 above depicts the configuration and test set-up A reference cable. was investigated. 2. due to the duality in the emission and coupling problems. the authors decided to empirically investigate the actual effect of the twisting effect on cable radiation at high frequencies. leading to the conclusion that in this case. and the radiated emissions were measured and recorded. the twisting contribution is zero! At these frequencies. The Authors of this Paper have been considering. where it is assumed that ordinary low cost TSP (twisted. etc. the contribution of twisted pairs. Therefore. and the object of the greatest efforts for controlling emissions. 5 . For instance. (TWF'). a non-twisted streight wire pair (SWP). allowing real common mode and differential mode signals to flow on the wires. due to the reduced capacitive impedance between the cable and the ground plane. or common mode) coupling to a twisted wire pair is essentially the same as that of the untwistedpair. which may be applied in a future test. a 475 was located 3 meters from the cables under test.good quality twinax offers 3% (approximately -30 dB). it is generally understood that at these frequencies. including the effective common mode choke generated by the tightly coupled wires. or parallel (non-twisted) wires cable. This factor must not be confused with the shield decoupling defined separately in or with the balancing effect of the victim circuit (if it is a balanced circuit). whereas. when common mode signals appear to be the radiation source. 4. 3. where a cable was excited in the common mode and differential mode feed configurations. 41. for reduction of emissions. and not in the return line of the circuit. however. also at multiples of 75 M H Z (h/4). a common mode coupling mechanism."1 CW I 1 Load(120Ohms) Scm Figure 2: Setup of Measurement System From Figure 1 it is evident that as the frequency increases. A Streight Wire Pair (SWP). are effectively controlled by twisting the cables. as desribed above. This clearly demonstrates that at high frequency. therefore. In fact. it reduces the loop area of the "antennae" made by the "differential mode" circuit. The objective of this paper is to empirically establish the fact that in practice. inducing common mode interference currents. The length of the cables under test was 1 meter.
Parallel wirs cable (SWP) and b. With the conductors terminated by a 120 R load. W Although not a predetermined objective of the test it was considered beneficial to measure the effect of the single vs. The primary reason for this was the well known fact that cable shielding does. as described herein. 478 . Common Mode feed. twisted wires).M. Two cables were examined: a. The results are presented in dBuV. 2.o ~ b Frequency IMHzl Figure 4: E-Field Radiation from SWP (Parallel Pair) and TWP (Twisted Pair) Cables Common-Mode-Fed It can be seen that the emissions form the cables are identical. at a power level of +13 dBm. between the conductors.M. Emissions from Differentially Fed Wire Pairs Figure 4 below presents the measurement results of the emitted fields from common mode-fed cables. where the shielded cable conductors were fed differentially (DM) and common mode (CM). A biconical antenna was used as the E-field sensor. . Emissions from Differentially Fed Wire Pairs Figure 3 below presents the measurement results of the emitted fields from dfferentiallyged cables. twisted wires). Twisted wires (TWP) (10 turndmeter) E-Field Emission from Various Cable Types and Feeds 100 1 Presentab of R e s u l ~ 'on The following Figures depict the E-field measured in the test. and without the load. > Twisted Wires @ C. The induced current on the cable (common mode) was mnonitored continously by a current probe installed on both wires simultaneously. . both end grounding of the shield. in spite of the cable types (streight wires vs. ~ o"'A"o"YI'r m o 0"A'"' a m ' m ' ' ~ ~ Frequency IMHzl Figure 3: &Field Radiation from SWP (Parallel Pair)and TWP (Twisted Pair) Cables Differentially Fed It can be seen that the emissions form the cables do not differ significantly. and was located 3 meters from the cables under test.4. The results of the measurement are presented in Figure 6. Two cables were examined: a. O' . -. Figure 5: Comparison between &Field Radiation from SWP (Parallel Pair) and TWP (Twisted Pair) Cables in CommonMode-and Differential Feed From Figure 5 we may conclude that the emission from twisted and streight cbales at high frequencies are similar. @ D. With the shield grounded at one and both ends. as required for the setup.M. This is although the wires were fed dfferentially.5]. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The cables under test were fed in two distinct methods: a. A Shielded Pair. Parallel wirs cable (SWP) and b. Common Mode Fed Wire Pairs Figure 5 below presents a comparison between the emitted fields from common modeyed cables and dfferentially fed cables Two cables were examined: a. Emissions from Shielded and Non-Shielded Cables For the sake of comparison.. m b m m h m m---. 0 m2 3 8 " % Frequency [MHzl -- Twisted Wires @ C.M. ensuring that only common mode currents be measured. regardless of the cable configuration (twisted or parallel).M. Twisted wires (TWP) (10 turndmeter) E-Field Radlatlon from Cable for Common Mode The shielded pair was testes in two specific conditions: 1. in fact.M. in spite of the cable types (streight wires vs. Cable Feed Method Feed (Central Pin) Parallel Wires @ C.-- Twisted Wires @ D. a shielded twisted cable was examined as well.0. Twisted wires (TWP) (10 turnsheter) E-Field Radiation from Cable for Differential Mode Feed (Between Leads) 100 1 Parallel Wires @ D. Differential feed. Emissions from Differentially Fed vs.'m. Parallel wirs cable (SWP) and b. namely the voltage level of the emitted signal at the measured at the input of the Spectrum Analyzer. The cables were fed from a signal generator. contribute to the attenuation of radiated Efield emissions at high frequencies [1. in order to generate primarily a differential mode current. . b. The measurements were conducted in an approved open area test site. with the frequency of the generator varied from 30 MHz to 200 MHz.-cy a m o .3. The shield of the cable under test was initially grounded one end (the signal source end) only (in contrast to all acceptable practices for high frequency shielding). The length of the coaxial cable to the input of the cables under test was minimal. between both wires (in parallel) to ground to generate primarily a common mode current. Measurement System A Spectrum Analyzer was used for monitoring the emitted fields and currents measured by the current probe.
when grounded at one end and left open at the other. @ C. which terminate in the ground ant not in the retum conductor. when C O K ~ ~ Iapplied and Y implemented. regardless of the load of the conductors. : t : . it is evident that the single-end grounding of the shield degrades its performance to such an extent that at the high frequencies. E 60 5 2 m e 8 > ao 40. Shielding of the cables. and in fact. the emissions from the shielded cable exceeded those of the non-shielded twisted cable. did provide a significant improvement to the performance of the cable.Shdd Grounded Both Ends (P D. thus converting the differential mode signals to an effective common mode signal). The shielded cable was the objective of this test. however. compared to those from parallel wires. Frequency IMHzl End @ 0 . it was shown that even when the conductors were fed differentially. o o o o g m g g o o o o o o O ~ ( D ~ " m g --- h. with Differential mode feed.. Grounded at both ends.. Grounded at one end only (Source end). since that shield represents only a ?J4 transmission line.01. I I :::: .*6 From Figure 7 we may conclude that a significant improvement can be observed in the emission from the shielded cable where the shield was grounded at both ends. whereas the terminated twisted pair did not exhibit such a high Q resonance. the twisting should.E-Field Emissions from a Twisted vs a S Cable . . W/O 120 Ohm . with the conductors not loaded Figure 7 depicts the results of measurements in the above four configurations: Radiated Emissions from Shielded Cables In addition. some interesting results were obtained and are presented in this paragraph. Differentially Fed b. emission was not reduced by the twisting. Shielding of the conductors did provide additional reduction of the emissions from the cable.... the frequency where the 1 metex cable forms a U2 transmission line.M. the contribution of the shield in the reduction of radiated emissions at high frequencies dominates over the twisting. Shield Grounded One End @ C. when the conductors were fed dflerentidly. Summary of R s l s eut The measurement results have shown that for frequencies higher than 30 MHz (minimum frequency tested by us). However. Due to reciprocity. and resonances on the shield significantly degraded its performance. ' \\*.. and that was very similar to that obtained from the common mode feed. which we believe should be pointed out: It is clear that cable twisting has no effect whatsoever on the reduction of radiated emissions at high frequency. D180 MHz. as a by-product. grounded at both ends.M b e d WI120 Ohm 0 I .m~ k l IM Figure 7: Comparison between Rndiated Emissions from Shielded Cables at Various Termination Conditions 477 . Emissions from Shielded Cables .-_ . This should. serve as a basis for the recognition that since common mode currents terminate in the ground. This resonant is not observed on the shielded cable grounded at one end only. a shield grounded at one end only did not provide the expected protection. it was shown that a si@cant reduction in emission may be provided by electromagnetic shielding. but not on the feeding of the conductors or their termination. Conclusions General Conclusions In this Paper.e. Grounded at both ends. . has no signijcant eflect on the radiation from the wires. : I . a single resonance occured at the 150 region. However. twisting of the cable offers no reduction of the radiation from the cables.::. M Figure 6: Comparison between EField Radiation from TWP (Twisted Pair) Cables and Shielded Twisted Pair Cables in Common-Mode-and Differential Feed From Figure 6 we may conclude that in fact. twisting had absolutely -__-.M. Common Mode Fed c. with Differential mode feed. where a half wavelength standing wave is developed. (this could partially be attributed to the grounded source retum conductor. Shmld Grounded O m End @DM Shmld Groundsd Both Ends (P D. the objective of this paper aws not to examine the effect of shielding on attenuation of radiated fields.M. I I : . and it was tested in four distinct configurations: a. 70 1 -Shnld Grounded O m E d (PCM ___- This is due to the fact that the primary source of radiation at those frequencies are the common mode currents. no effect on the E-field radiated emissions.-' / - ---_I 20. once and for all. with the conductors loaded by a differential 120 Cl matched load d. it was shown that the performance of the shield depended on the termination of the shield. i. similar results should be applicable to the coupling of fields to cables. reducing the balancing of the system.Effect of Conductors Loading and Termination As mentioned above. however. obtained from the test results. Grounded at one end only (Source end).M.@ D. Resonances were also eliminated at the 75 h4Hz region and the 190 MHz region. we establish the fact that for high frequency common mode interference.. However. This can be attributed primarily to shield resonances. Specific Conclusions The following are some specific comments. Furthermore.
. 296 . White. pp. F. 593 . 470 . e.. R&B Enterprises. Applicability The results presented in this paper should be helpll to the EMC engineers in establishing EMC design and control techniques.34 1982.A. therefore.619. Ott. "Electromasmetic Compatibility bv Desie". References [ 11 Hartal. 6. all conclusions drawn with respect to elimination of emissions. New York. John Wiley & Sons. 1992. to cables and transmissions lines.or. Zurich.   . Clayton R. Pre-publication Edition.. "A Prediction Model for Interferences on Twisted-Wire Lines". maximum.S. 1992. pp. it should be noted that if the length of the cable approaches U2. Henry W.38.. and preferably.A. John Wiley & Sons. Proceedings of the 9th International Zurich Symposium and Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibilitv..1 . O. FFC. the shield should be grounded at midpoints. Canavero. J. in practice eliminating the effect of the shield at that fiequency. pp. at least. can similarly be applied to the control of co+g of extemal electromagnetic waves (particluarly E-Field coupling) at high frequencies. P r o c e c b $ +Don White Consultants.34.FFC-20. S. at points separated by no more than U10. R.. pp. "Introduction to Electromagetis Compatibility". correct and acceptable protection of the equipment and environment. 29 . however. in other words. Inc.  Paul. resonance conditions. pp. for adequate. Pignari. New York.305. The performance of the shielded cable can be optimized when grounded at both ends..6. The authors believe that due to duality and reciprocity. March 1991..d.S.. U. D. 1991.. a standing wave will develop on the shiled..  U. "Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Svstems".
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