Health and Safety

Guidance Note No 26 Revised (June 2006)

THIS GUIDANCE NOTE IS TO INFORM YOU ABOUT THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RISK ASSESSMENT It is recognised that in order to be considered competent to carry out risk assessment training will be necessary. Regulation 3(1) of the Management of Health and Safety at work Regulations 1999, requires that a suitable and sufficient risk assessment is carried out. The general principles are to: • identify the hazards • decide who might be harmed • evaluate the risks • decide whether existing controls are adequate • record findings • review assessment and revise if necessary Definitions: Hazard Something with the potential to cause harm. (this can include substances or machines, methods of work and other aspects of work organisation). Risk The likelihood that the harm from a particular hazard is realised. The extent of risk covers the population which might be affected by a risk and that risk therefore reflects both the likelihood that harm will be caused and its severity. The risk assessment process needs to take account of the views of those involved in the activity being assessed. A risk assessment should: • ensure significant risks and hazards are addressed • ensure all aspects of the work activity are reviewed • take account of non - routine operations e.g. maintenance, cleaning operations etc. • be systematic identifying hazards and looking at risks
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• take account of the way work is being organised and the effects this can have on health • take account of the risks to visitors and contractors • account should be taken of women of child bearing age when carrying out risk assessments and identify the preventive and protective measures that are required. Control Measures When considering what control measures are required the following steps can be used in ranking order: • eliminate the risk • substitution (replacing existing chemical/substance with a safer alternative) • prevention (the use of fixed guards etc.) • safe system of work • written working procedures • information, instruction and training • supervision • PPE (personal protective equipment) It may be necessary to combined several control methods in order to reduce the risks to an acceptable level. Note: PPE should only be used as a last resort after considering all other control methods. PPE can also be used to protect against any residual risks that remain after other control methods have been employed. Attached is revised General Risk Assessment Form. For further information about risk assessment and risk assessment procedures contact the University Health and Safety Advisor on ext.6103 or email

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Guidance for use with general risk assessment form This guidance relates to the boxes that make up the general risk assessment form. Each box is numbered Box 1 • The Identification code is assigned by the person completing the form and is simply an identification code to improve record keeping. • The review date should be set immediately after the first additional control measure should have been completed. If there are no additional control measures the review date should be between 6-18 months after the last one. Frequency will depend on the risk level and likelihood that a task will change. Box 2 • A description should be as comprehensive as possible. A comprehensive description will cut down the need to repeat the risk assessment for different conditions and prompt the assessor when identifying risks. A description should include the following: o People involved o Equipment used o Time and place, including any foreseeable variations in conditions e.g. weather, light level, physical environment o Substances used o Substances generated, including waste products • Descriptions can be narrative or bullet point • They should reflect what actually happens rather than what should happen if everything is perfect. Box 3 A comprehensive description in box 2 will have highlighted the hazards and risk. They should be summarised here. • A hazard is something with the potential to do harm i.e. working at height, electricity, radiation, and deep water. • A risk is the likelihood of that harm occurring. The matrix below can be used to determine the level of risk and guide required actions. • If there is more than one significant hazard there will probably be more than one risk rating, this should be indicated in the second column Box 4 • Existing controls should be listed. They should be considered when assessing the risks involved in carrying out a task. • If a control measure is in place but is not effective it should be noted here. Control measures might be ineffective for a number of reasons for example; o They might be awkward and therefore ignored by staff, often true of PPE. o They might make the job more complicated and time consuming o Staff supervision is poor and the enforcement of control measures lacking.

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When a control measure has been identified it is a requirement that people follow them not a choice. If a control measure proves to be unworkable or it is possible to improve a control measure then they can be changed, preferably in consultation with staff. • If control measures are adequate and follow the principles of protection there is probably no reason for changing them or imposing additional measures. If they aren’t additional control measures are required. If, even with the introduction of additional control measures the task is still too risky it should not be carried out. • Box 5 • Risk rating is quite subjective, the scoring matrix, (see below) is for guidance only as are the time frames for action. If the risk assessment results in additional control measures the change in risk level should be assessed. This should be done before the changes are made to illustrate the benefits of changing existing control measures or introducing new ones. If there are no changes to be made the re-scoring won’t be necessary and this should be indicated in this box. • The risk rating should reflect the highest risk rating from box 3. Box 6 • Additional control measures will be required if the risks are not adequately controlled or if the existing control measures are at the lower end of the principles of protection i.e. training and PPE and alternative control measures nearer the top of the principles of protection are practicable. • If additional control measures cannot reduce the risk to an acceptable level the task should not be carried out. Box 7 • It is important to let people responsible for applying control measures know that this required of them. • A safe system of work is almost always necessary • The risk assessment must be accepted by the manager of the area. The person signing off the assessment shouldn’t change the assessment or conclusion unless they are factually incorrect.

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Matrix Table explained
Multiple deaths Intolerable Intolerable Intolerable Substantial Significant Moderate Single death Intolerable Intolerable Substantial Significant Moderate Moderate Major injury Substantial Substantial Substantial Significant Moderate Acceptable Lost time Substantial Substantial Significant Significant Acceptable Trivial Minor injury Significant Significant Significant Acceptable Acceptable Trivial Delay Significant Moderate Moderate Acceptable Trivial Trivial

Certain Very likely Likely May happen Unlikely Very unlikely

A guide to relating damage to injury for the above matrix (taken from Croner risk assessment , may 2004) Multiple deaths Single death Major injury Lost time Minor injury Delay < £1000,000 damage < £100,000 damage < £10,000 damage < £ 1000 damage < £ 100 damage No damage

Action prioritisation table following a risk assessment (taken form Croner’s risk assessment) Risk Level Trivial Acceptable Moderate Action and timescale No action is required to deal with trivial risks, and no documentary records need be kept No further preventive action is necessary, but consideration should be given to more cost-effective solutions, or improvements that impose no additional cost burden. Monitoring is required to ensure that controls are maintained. Efforts should be made to reduce the risk, but the cost of prevention should be carefully measured and limited. Risk reduction measures should normally be implemented within three to six months, depending on the number of people exposed to the hazard If an extremely harmful situation may arise, even if highly unlikely, a specific reevaluation of the task should be undertaken to establish more stringent controls. Work should be closely monitored until the risk has been significantly reduced. This reduction in risk should be achieved in a short time period. Work should not be started until the risk has been reduced. Considerable resources may have to be allocated to reduce the risk. Where the risk involves critical work in progress, the problem should normally be remedied as soon as reasonably practicable but within one to three months, depending on the number of people exposed to the hazard. Work should not be started or continued until the risk level has been reduced. While the control measure selected should be cost-effective , legally there is an absolute duty to reduce the risk. This means that if it is not possible to reduce the risk even with unlimited resources, then the work must not begin or must remain prohibited.




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University of the Arts General Risk Assessment Form
1. College / Pro-Rectorate Name/s of Assessor/s Date of Assessment Risk Assessment of: University of the Arts London School / Dept. Arhie Sinclair Location Review Date Degree Show Installation Id. Code…… TBM Wimbledon

2. Description of task / activity / area Installation/de-install of degree show exhibition in the Sculpture department of Wimbledon school of art. Involving multi screen video, and some book works.

3. Identification of hazards and risks Identification of hazards and risks Trailing cables from electrical equipment present trip hazard Heavy lifting when building the walls and uninstalling from the exhibition space In haling dust from sanding down the paint on temporary walls Electrocution from power points

Risk rating moderate moderate significant significant

4. Existing Control Measures All cables neatly arranged in cable protectors or clipped to walls so trip hazard impossible All helpers were provided with adequate manual handling training before starting work All helpers provided with dust masks and regular hovering of the area All electrical equipment/ extension cables PAT tested. Are the control measures adequate? 5. Overall risk rating Likelihood Unlikely
Major injury Substantial Substantial Substantial Significant Moderate Acceptable




With current control measures With additional recommendations
Certain Very likely Likely May happen Unlikely Very unlikely Multiple deaths Intolerable Intolerable Intolerable Substantial Significant Moderate

Severity Acceptable
Lost time Substantial Substantial Significant Significant Acceptable Trivial

Total rating Acceptable
Minor injury Significant Significant Significant Acceptable Acceptable Trivial Delay Significant Moderate Moderate Acceptable Trivial Trivial

Single death Intolerable Intolerable Substantial Significant Moderate Moderate


Additional Control Measures Required

Will additional control measures reduce the risk to an acceptable level?



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