90% Farrowing Rate – The Methods and Materials Used to Achieve Normal Reproduction.

Dr. Gustavo Pizarro1 & Dr. Gordon D. Spronk2 1 Pig Improvement Company 2 Pipestone Veterinary Clinic Pipestone System Pipestone, Minnesota, USA
INTRODUCTION This paper will focus on the various tools and administrative methods that we use on our farms to improve reproductive performance. These tools also enhance animal flow since high reproductive statistics imply less animal movement. Previous authors have described the importance of high Farrowing Rate4,5,6,7 (FR) on both the reproductive efficiency (Table 1) of the sow farm and its relative importance to the cost of producing a weaned pig. Table 1: Relative importance (%) of different components of breeding herd efficiency for achieving a uniform weaned pig flow to the nursery1,2. Factor Percentage Number of sow served 60 Farrowing rate 30 Number of born alive per litter 5 Mortality of pigs born alive 5 We have set a target of 90% or higher farrowing rates on our farms, this paper will describe how we achieve that target. This is not meant to be an academic reproductive review, but rather a practical summary of on-farm methods we use to improve reproductive performance on our farms. In our observations, we find two common problems; a clear “lack of reproductive knowledge” in the breeding barn and a distinct gap between known successful reproduction techniques/protocols and procedures that are actually being used on the farm. This observation in the farm staff and gap in implementation of successful reproduction protocols are the challenges to achieving 90% FR. DEFINING CONCEPTION RATE AND FARROWING RATE In a normal sow farm, in order to achieve a 90% farrowing rate, a slightly higher conception rate target will need to be set and achieved. On most farms, we establish this target conception rate (CR) to be 93%. Conception rate by definition is: Sows and gilts pregnancy checked positive divided by all sows and gilts bred, expressed in a % (Sows and gilts confirmed pregnant/sows and gilts bred) Occasionally, an error is made when performing this calculation by not counting the sows that have; • Already been removed prior to mechanical pregnancy checking. • Returned to heat normally prior to mechanical pregnancy checking. • Died prior to mechanical pregnancy checking. The mathematical formula to determine FR is straightforward: It is the number of sows farrowed divided by the number of sows bred in the cohort breeding group, expressed in a %. (Sows farrowed/sows bred)3


c.0% > 11. This implies a high gilt inventory. In some cases. Litters per sow per year will go down due to higher sow inventory. Parameters other than farrowing rate are also included since they influence FR and are so closely associated with normal or abnormal reproduction numbers that they may provide insight into why a farm is underperforming. f.0 < 9% < 8. It is important to establish clear targets for farm personnel so that they understand what can be expected of a herd under normal conditions. mature and established herd (Table 2). pregnancy checking and moving of sows. • Using sows farrowed this week divided by sows bred this week. mated and then only retaining in the herd if they are pregnancy checked positive (i.e. Non productive sow days will increase due to open sow days and retention of poor quality sows. Since low farrowing rate means more sows have to be bred. they are put into the numerator not the denominator). everyone needs to work harder.8 <>7% < 10.8. WHY IS FARROWING RATE SO IMPORTANT? Farrowing rate is important since low farrowing rate has serious operational and economic implications1. Table 2: Expected performance and intervention levels9.This is important to understand since there are some farms that may use different denominators to calculate FR. GOOD Farrowing Rate % % Bred by 7 days Total Born Stillborn Born Alive % litters less than 7 Born Alive Prewean Mortality % Pigs/Sow/Year (PSY) Sow Mortality % (annualized) % Sows in P3-P6 (Adapted from PIC.0% > 24 < 7% > 53% INTERVENTION LEVEL < 85% < 88% < 11. Sow mortality may rise due to retention of poor quality and old sows. sow inventory needs to go up. low producing sows. Low farrowing rate implies that more sows need to be bred in order to meet the same number of pigs weaned per week target. which may 2 . a. This commonly results in overstocking of a barn which in turn lowers all the efficiencies of a barn. Such as: • Failure to count the sows that were removed due to death loss or other removal reasons.0 < 5. More sows need to be moved and rebred after found open which requires more labor. etc. In short. less efficient sow care. b. EXPECTED RESULTS IN A NORMAL FARM The following table outlines results that can be expected in a normal. d. more sows retained in the herd that should have been culled. They may be summarized as follows. • Various other methods not described here. old sows. Litter size (LS) in most cases will be adversely affected since low LS is related to low FR.7 >12% >10% < 22 >10% < 50% The intervention levels are also given to determine the level when a herd needs specific attention and an action plan needs to be developed and/or implemented. • Not counting sows bred and then culled within a short period of time after mating. 2005) > 90% > 92% > 12. • Not counting sows that were in heat. farm personnel may have low expectations. e.

Non-reproductive failures are the females that either die or are culled after mating. 0 2 dp ro lo Irregular Returns (IR)* <1. A leat 5v b t s ia le E b o fo es g mry s r tro en Table 3: Classification Reproductive failures and intervention level.5% (A a tedf 1 (RR1) e . p d ctio .5% Discharges 1% Open 1.negatively influence the reproductive outcomes on the farm. or Non-Rep Rep. Failure Good Intervention Level > 0. r rna 2 o etu t 6 2d P n reg s nl ig a 2 8 CLASSIFICATION TARGETS FOR REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE A target of 90% farrowing rate implies the remaining 10% do not farrow. This is an important key point.5% - .5% > 0. if the FR target is 90%. REVIEW OF MAJOR REPRODUCTIVE AND MANAGEMENT EVENTS IN SOWS The normal reproductive timeline in the sow is summarized in the Figure 1. reproductive and non-reproductive failures. This failure to conceive is defined as a reproductive failure. a basic understanding of the reproductive sequence of events will permit a better classification and analysis of the reproductive failures listed because each one occurs a different stage of the gestation cycle. in returns toin Fbenchmarks r in Wan g re g G ta es tio must be classified properly and then analyzed to determine the cause of the failure.0% > 1. (See Figure 2) Figure 1: Sequence of reproductive and management events in sow3 F r ation e tiliz Rc e y e ov r F u ollic lar Gow r t h A leat 5v b t s ia le emry s fo es ro enp b o r t g ro if n t.05% > 6% > 2% > 1% > 0. 1st P eg r s nl ig a On-farm personnel must understand that in order to achieve normal (90%) FR and other normal reproductivear ow g (see table e every female that B e d heat or is pregnancy checked negative n 3). A careful analysis may reveal why sows or gilts that are mated do not conceive. the first step is to believe that it is achievable.2 dy ( 5 asR Classification Reproductive Reproductive Reproductive Reproductive Reproductive Reproductive Reproductive Rep.5% > 8. or Non-Rep Non-Reproductive Non-Reproductive Reproductive - 0% Early Returns (ER) Regular ReturnsmF w rs 2 0 )<4.0% Culls 0.5% Aborts < 0.5% NIP Total Non-Farrowing Rate 10% 3 .5% Deaths / Destroy 0. if n t r rna 1 ro u n o etu t 8 These targets are recorded in the table below.0% Total Returns 0. This 10% subset may be -22 -4 0 1 2 1 7 classified and analyzed into two broad categories.5% 0% Regular Returns 2 (RR2) 0% Late Returns (LR) 6.5% > 1% > 2% > 1% > 0.

It is very important to have a clear understanding of the reasons for any return.3 understand that in almost every case. 4 .2(RR1) and females that return38 . regular returns and irregular returns (Table 4). • Late returns (LR) are classified as those females that return to estrus 47 days or greater after mating. RR2 or IR period. We consider two periods as normal or regular: Regular Return 1 (RR1) Returns between 18 and 25 days after breeding. It usually signals a problem 14 to 28 days after mating. The ratio between RR and IR should be ≤ 35%. failure to implant etc. It is best describede a fertilization D ays of G as station ( P failureeck ~ some cases. if the ratio is higher than 35% it could indicate a low grade uterine infection4. the first pregnancy signal was received. chor in3 d ys ( p high 0 a o en were never pregnant or lost all the embryos prior to receiving any pregnancy signal. • Regular returns (RR) are defined as those females that return to normal estrus between 18 and 25 days after18 . In most cases.11.(*) IR:RR ratio ≤ 35% CLASSIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF REPRODUCTIVE FAILURES It is very important have a accurate. This is summarized in the table below. Since they *) reg . Careful analysis will determine when and why this may be occurring. timely diagnosis and then to make the correct management change on the basis of that diagnosis. these females return to estrus normally. In most cases these females were missed in their normal RR1.12 Early Return (ER) All the sows with a heat before 18 days after the breed. • Early returns (ER) are defined as those females which return to service at day 17 or less after mating. It may be a loss of embryos. these females were pregnant and then lost the pregnancy. embryonic death. Figure 2: Chronological Classification sequence of reproductive failures in sow C s /D aths ull e A ts bor IR R2 R Dsc ar s i h ge Returns: Are the most common reproductive failure on any sow farm. In these females. E R R1 R * LT AE Table 4: Returns classification10. these animals failed to conceive and were never pregnant.4 38 and 46 days after mating 5 between 26 7 6 A I mating (RR2). The risk factors and corrective procedures needed to keep returns at a normal level (6% in total) make it necessary to differentiate between two broad categories. the female was simply missed in E normal RR1 timeU ES AL I R the R YFAL period. easy to use and timely classification and recording system in order to achieve the proper. In the case of an RR2. but then something starts to go wrong. s) embryonic loss in the first 14 days after mating. It is important for farm staff to . • Irregular returns (IRR) are defined as those females that return to heat 26 to 37 days after mating. Regular Return (RR) All the sows with a heat according to normal cycling period (21 +/3 days).

it is rare to confirm any infectious agent in the fetal material or placenta. it is a tool to identify open sows and infertility problems early and with more precision. Careful analysis must be done to distinguish between.7. While by definition this is straightforward. In these cases.Regular Return 2 (RR2) Returns between 38 and 46 days after breeding. o Culled before showing any signs of heat. For example in our records. reproductive discharge which is a primary reproductive failure. a reproductive tract discharge and a urinary tract discharge.35 days of pregnancy and helps determine a very important calculation. but known to be not pregnant. We accept a 1% as “normal” (see Table 3). Table 5: Factors that may lead to abortions in the sow7 Infectious Agents and Other Causes Conditions Parasite burdens Stress Toxoplasma Lameness Viral infections Contaminated water Bacterial Infections Poor hygiene Cystitis. Previous authors have described the difference 5. Opens or Pregnancy Check Negative This is NOT a reproductive failure. record as RR2. they are confirmed as a reproductive failure only when the sow returns to estrus4. o Return between 36 – 46 days post-service. Irregular Returns(IR) All the returns between 26 and 37 days after breeding. When fetuses are submitted to a diagnostic laboratory. This leads to erroneous investigation and may lead to mistaken changes to management if this classification error is not noted and changed. Nephritis No boar contact Individual Illness Vaccine reaction Toxic substances Poisonous plants Moldy feeds Mycotoxins Management Factors Low temperatures Chilling. but must be reviewed since something is going wrong on the farm. pregnancy checked negative on day 30 has five possible classifications describe below o Return before day 35 post service. Most of these animals are removed from the herd. Discharges are defined as those females with a vaginal discharge 7 to 24 days after mating. the discharge occurs just prior to estrus (two or three days). For purpose of this discussion. This tool helps to improve reproduction efficiency and reduce NPD. record as LR. a normal discharge. Conception Rate (CR). Over 60% of all abortions may be due to reasons unrelated to any infectious agent. record as IR. It is used at 25 . It is important to classify the primary failure in the pregnancy checked negative animals. o Still open without heat. While the investigation is ongoing. droughts Excessive fan speeds Wet pens Poor insulation Ultra violet radiation Decreasing daylight length Poor lighting Shadows Poor nutrition Low feed intake 5 . o Return over 47 days. For purposes of this classification. review of the weaning procedure along with breeding barn cleanliness and an investigation of the actual mating procedure may in most cases reveal the causes of the infection and subsequent discharge. record as open. some farm personnel may be classifying females that return to service 32 to 45 days after mating as an abortion rather than correctly classifying them as a IR or RR2. the sows and gilts with discharges will need to be removed from the herd since response to treatment is poor to nonexistent. It is important for farm staff to understand there are numerous reasons other than bacterial or viral infection that will disrupt a normal pregnancy. we will focus on the vaginal. record as open. Careful review of the farrowing house procedures for cleanliness. Abortions are defined as those females that were pregnant and there is expulsion of the fetuses from the sow before 111 days. We use CR to predict FR and the number of sows that should farrow 12 weeks after. These are summarized below (this list is merely a summary and does not contain every reason a sow or gilt will abort). Late Return (LR) Any Return after 46 days after breeding. The difference between CR and FR should be no more than 2-3%. abundant in volume and signals a severe reproductive tract bacterial infection. is severe in nature.

 Keep away of feed and watering time at breed.  Check every service to ensure it is properly done. • High rebreeds.  Maximize feed intake from days 3 to 14 of • Low feed intake in lactation.  Maintain boar exposure for 30 days after breed.  Doses carrier to the breed barn. For example. It’s very important to classify and record this correctly.Deaths are animals that were mated and then either died while in gestation or were euthanized after mating. Body condition management and legs structure are described as the more important factors to control death rate on many sow farms. lactation. They are a non-reproductive failure. but careful investigation needs to be performed at the farm if the death rate in sows is too high.  Check body condition.  Increase surface.  Improve introduction of gilts. Once there is a clear understanding of the reasons for reproductive failure and a plan is formulated. it is a non-reproductive failure. • Short lactation length. “Semen flow”. • High level of energy after breed. reproduction. and according with our protocol we run a check list to find the reason for the failure. • Excess stress at weaning or at  Do not wean in pens. Culls would include all mated sows that for any reason are culled pregnant before farrowing. • High stocking density. feed for 3 days after service). it may become clear that the hurdle to achieve normal reproductive performance is simply a failure to train the staff and execute protocols on the farm. After the above classification is completed and understood.  Reduce feed intake after breed (2 kg. This classification needs to be included because they have been mated. a female that has returned to estrus two times should be culled. This is a common classification and recording error on many farms. it is possible to approach a farm with low farrowing rate and begin to formulate a plan to improve the reproductive performance. 6 . • High weaning to service interval.13.  Cooler temperature.  Check AI techniques. • Bad semen management. mating. may have been pregnant and will affect FR. In our system we observe that regular returns are the most common reproductive failure. Cull repeat breeders.  Feed ad libitum wean sows. • Loss of body weight in lactation. • Poor artificial insemination techniques. but she could be classified as a return (RR1 or RR2).  Reduce stress at and after weaning. This will also affect FR if not classified properly. Key factors involve in regular Actions to reduce return rate returns  Check all the procedures related with • Bad management procedures.  Keep away of short lactation.  Check feed intake in lactation.  Check boar exposure at weaning.  Control of breed target.  Skip heat if it’s possible. Many times this failure is incorrectly classified. • Lack of boar contact post-service. • Failure to acclimatize gilts. Table 6 summarizes some of the key factors and corrective actions to reduce regular returns: Table 6: Key factors and action to reduce regular returns8.  Check all the process. Many authors describe control points for each reproductive failure.

4. Many people are able to perform the mating process with assistance from various devices such as breeding belts. • They simply do not know that it is occurring. Check returns by parity. OBSERVATIONS ON WHY FARMS FAIL TO ACHIEVE A 90% FARROWING RATE 1. this may not be possible. On our farms. few people are exceptional at heat detection but many are able to mate a sow. • Poor quality sows are mated because the culling protocol is not being followed. In our observations. A common management mistake on farms that have underperformance in regards to reproductive performance is to have too many people making the decisions of when to breed or not breed a sow or gilt. if later found open or she returns to heat. it is necessary. The reason that farm managers make this mistake is summarized below. Careful record analysis and observation of staff usually leads to the conclusion that there is a clear difference in reproductive performance between technicians 3. weights. “Is she in heat?” is the critical question in regards to the mating process. In these cases. • Ensure proper growth rates to ensure gilts are 300 pounds or greater at first mating. 3.• High repeat in old parities. but on larger farms. FAILURE TO SEPARATE THE CRITICAL ACTIVITES OF HEAT DETECTION AND MATING On our farms. • Ensure proper puberty induction via space and boar exposure so that all gilts are mated on the second estrus or greater. POOR ANIMAL HUSBANDRY OF ANIMALS IN GESTATION 7 . • Provide proper nutrition so that gilts have greater than 16mm of back fat at first mating. Cull older sows that repeat. The simple remedy to this mistake is to make a clear distinction as to who has the authority to decide when a female is to be mated and to restrict it to as few people as possible. etc. Some common failures to implement known successful reproduction protocols are summarized in the following discussion. we feel it is necessary to separate the activities of heat detection and the mating process itself. POOR GILT MANAGEMENT Many previous authors have described the necessary steps to maximize the reproductive performance of the gilt. 2000) The failure to implement the protocols is the challenge that we face every day on our farms and continue to emphasize with our on-farm staff. 2. This may result in erroneous conclusion from any analysis of reproductive performance on the farm and requires careful observation in the barn to detect. This is common when the manager or supervisor does not follow through to be certain that the established cull protocols are being followed. (Adapted from Muirhead and Alexander. On farms smaller than 1500 sows that have a smaller staff. • Sows that should be culled are bred to meet the breeding target established by others. • Sows that should be culled are bred because the gilts did not come into heat or there was an inability to accurately predict the number of gilts that needed to come into heat in order to meet established breed targets. we feel the key to normal reproductive performance is to restrict the heat detection decisions to one or two people on a farm. • Provide a proper recording system so that both individual animal analyses may be performed in the barn and in depth population farm analysis may be performed. • In some cases. MATE TOO MANY POOR QUALITY SOWS This is a common mistake on many farms and will directly impact the FR by 2 to 5%. FR may be overstated when there is a predetermined decision to mate poor quality sows and only record the mating if there is no return to service. The steps to be sure that gilts are performing at normal levels are straightforward. she is simply culled.

etc. 6. fertilized and implanted. There are few key considerations that lead to important decisions on how animals will be handled in the gestation spaces. off feed. animal movement. • Provide proper nutrition in both quality and quantity. protocol established and properly implemented. They are summarized as follows. what new animal will occupy the newly created empty space? • At what stage are animals pregnancy checked and when are “found open” animals moved? • When animals are moved from gestation to farrowing and from farrowing to gestation. to point out the obvious. ALL ANIMALS ARE BRED THE SAME: Gilts. • Provide free choice. when will sows be moved into the space that they will occupy the rest of their gestation period if mating is successful? • After mating. or poor air quality. • Ensure that protocols are being implemented by holding people accountable to all the above. lameness. 8 . • Manage the body condition of the females – match body condition to stage of pregnancy and body type. The goal of gestation should be to reduce or even eliminate this attrition. will it be necessary to move any sows in order to maximize space utilization? • How are animals that are found open (normal return to service. but also animal throughput of the facility. illness. the sows and gilts will not get “more pregnant” – they already are. sows and returns to service. pregnancy checked negative. this administrative detail will improve reproductive performance on a farm. people movement and efficient facility use? If the above questions have been considered. POOR ORGANIZATION OF THE BARN One of the administrative details of how a barn is organized and “flows” is a key component to normal reproductive performance on a farm. will they go to a designated mating area or will they be placed in the area in the gestation barn that was just emptied of sows that were moved to farrowing? • After weaning and during the time period of heat detection. 5. The steps to reduce or eliminate fetal death are summarized as follows.The process of mating should be followed by successful fertilization and implantation. has space been designated to temporarily “store” animals to allow for normal. temperature swings. etc) handled? Do they remain in the stall with their breed week cohorts or are they moved to a new area housing all “found open” animals? • If open animals are moved. The following 16 weeks of gestation are simply fetal growth when viewed from the standpoint of reproduction. In other words. This is an administrative issue that is commonly overlooked in regards to not only animal care and reproductive performance. high quality water at all times. non-stressful animal movement? • Have all these questions been considered in light of time management. will they be housed with the rest of the sows bred that week or will they be housed separately? • When animals are weaned. • At what stage of puberty will gilts enter the gestation spaces? At the beginning of puberty or at the end? Will they enter with a recorded Heat No Service (HNS)? • When gilts are mated. irregular return to service. They also will not increase the number of developing fetuses – there will only be attrition from the number that were initially ovulated. • Provide a comfortable environment by assuring no stress due to drafts. • Provide daily basic animal husbandry care in regards to any treatments.

It is important for gestation barn technicians to understand the basic fundamental differences between gilt. • Any return to service – if a gilt. recording. This protocol may result in a lower than expected MM% and may adversely effect FR. FAILURE TO USE AND UNDERSTAND ON-FARM RECORDS An accurate classification and recording system is crucial to on-farm reproductive performance.). an animal in heat on the 4th day after weaning may not be mated until the following day and animals in heat on the 5 th and 6th day after weaning will be mated immediately. etc. • Some technicians change the definition of “in heat” after the first mating. why is it so difficult to implement an increase in MM% on many farms? Our observations would lead us to conclude the following.in general have a shorter estrus length and may or may not have completed a normal puberty. it may also result in a fundamental lack of understanding the importance of accurate classification. in some cases. In other words. depressed feed intake. • Sows – some sows are more difficult to detect in heat since external physical changes may or may not be readily apparent. Without control of reproduction. This problem is corrected by a review of the organization of the barn (see above discussion) and time management. etc. If a sow. the control of reproduction is only speculation. • • Without understanding and classification. In other words. there may be a predetermined decision to make the decision to breed animals differently based on the day they are recorded in heat after weaning.) and the classification is done automatically. • In some cases. analysis and follow-up detail of every individual sow or gilt that has 9 . If she fails to conceive again. If high MM% = high farrowing rate and high total born. In some sows. • Gilts . Almost all farms have some method of recording sow data into a computerized system (PigCHAMP. behavior changes may be more subtle and only detectable by a very experienced technician. The Mating/Service report in PigCHAMP is a simple report that may be requested on any farm with less than normal reproductive performance in order to begin your investigation. this may result in gilt removal rates that are too high – this cascades into high capitalized gilt costs since the remaining gilts need to bear the cost of the removed gilt. FAILURE TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF MULTIPLE MATINGS Previous authors have reported the correlation between high multiple mating (MM) and reproduction performance. 7. • Some farms do not spend enough time heat detecting. she will be removed regardless of age or reason for return (all opens are removed and not remated). While this allows for extensive and detailed analysis of farm performance. Some technicians may even restrict the second mating only to animals that “are in perfect heat”. These differences are summarized as follows. Administering record-keeping on the farm is important for employees to gain basic reproduction knowledge and to develop skills necessary to maintain reproductive performance. females need to be “more in heat” the second or third mating than the first. this is her last chance to stay in the herd. 8. red vulva) and behavior changes (vocalization. only the most experienced technician on the farm should be responsible for mating her since she is in danger of being removed from the herd if she fails again. Careful analysis may determine if this protocol is correct. This criteria change can be very subtle and requires careful observation in order to detect. Several datasets would confirm these observations and our own farm by farm analysis would validate these conclusions. a sow and any animal that returns to service. animal flow and profits will never be maximized5. Gilts may be easier to find in estrus due to the more dramatic physical changes (swollen.

2005.com. 4. • Recognize trends in each breeding week and react with management changes.. WILLIAMS. Looking for Pregnancy Losses. MUIRHEAD G. BRADLEY F. Expected performance and service intervention level for PIC sows. pp 19-33. • Establish clear reproductive targets and monitor progress against that predetermined target. E. Careful review of the entire reproductive cycle of the animals on your farm may reveal deficiencies that are having a negative impact on reproductive performance. PATTERSON. Pig Production Problems. Using Reproductive Biology to Improve Suboptimal Reproductive Performance. 1 pp 43-48. 43-98. Managing Pig Health and the Treatment of Disease. The application of improved gilts pool management: an Industry perspective. Practical tips from ThePigSite. SUMMARY The methods of classification and the materials used to analyze reasons for failures that have been discussed in this paper review and summarize the techniques used to obtain normal reproductive performance in our sow herds. BELSTRA. 10. ALEXANDER T. SPORKE. (1990). 12. 3. Applying new technologies to optimize reproduction. Seminar 8. (2002). DIAL G. Parity associated changes in reproductive performance: physiological basis or record keeping artifact? North Carolina State University Annual Swine Report. (2000). ROKER J. 181-195. (2004). http://www. Vol. J. 5.. (2005). PIC. pp. pp143-152. References: 1. Leman Pre-Conference Reproduction Workshop. we have implemented an on-farm classification and recording method that allows the manager and all breeding technicians the ability to review and analyze every sow or gilt that experiences a reproductive or non-reproductive failure. W. (2001).A. Volume 12. B. The PigSite. On our farms. FLOWERS. J. (2005). Once these deficiencies are recognized and corrective changes are properly implemented. FOXCROFT. • Understand and recognize the basic fundamental reasons for reproductive failures. 36 th AASV Annual Meeting Toronto. (2003). normal reproduction can be expected. it is in the simplicity of the details of education. N. • Adjust and plan animal flow in a more accurate and timely fashion. (1997). Customer’s memo. http://mark. BELTRANENA. Internal publish PSS. This on-farm tool enables the staff to.. 10 . G.ncsu. pp. 13.edu/SwineReports/2003/belstra. ALEXANDER T. Recognizing and Treating Pig Infertility. Canada. The biological basis for implementing effective replacement gilts management. Chapter 6. Advance in Pork Production. The complexity of attaining this performance is not in obtaining new knowledge or a new technology. 7. G. Common Problems with Records.asci. • Change management and administrative techniques to improve performance and monitor the response to the change. MUIRHEAD G. 9. • Perform an initial on-farm analysis on a female by female basis of reproductive failure and non-reproductive failure. (2004). Section 4. 17th Congress of IPVS. • Allow on-farm staff educational opportunities through their own reproductive success and failures. 11. 544 6. implementation and execution of procedures known to be successful that are outlined above. Personal Communication.com. GADD J. • Allow staff “ownership” of the results. PigCHAMP (2005).a reproductive failure after mating. PigCHAMP Database Applications Manual Managing the Numbers. LEVIS D.thepigsite. • Be able to properly classify the reasons for reproductive failure. pp 165-189 8. (2003).htm 2. PIZARRO.. • Be able to alert other management team members of ongoing reproductive performance in the gestation barn. pp 525.

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