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❑ Defining management ❑ Identifying management levels and functions ❑ Evaluating managers’ many roles ❑ Describing different management skills
Management The process of using organizational resources to achieve organizational objectives through planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and controlling.
Levels o f Management
Middle-level managers Managers who are neither executives nor first-level supervisors. A branch manager in a large firm might be responsible for over 100 workers. Top-level managers Managers at the top one or two levels in the organization. In contrast. for example. Quite often the middle-level manager conducts research on the Internet to gather ideas for new ventures. Other important tasks for many middle-level managers include helping the company undertake profitable new ventures and finding creative ways to reach goals. a general supervisor in a small manufacturing firm might have 20 people reporting to him or her. would have the authority to purchase another company. Top-level managers are empowered to make major decisions affecting the present and future of the firm. they decide where it is going and how it will get there. . First-level managers Managers who supervise operatives (also known as first-line managers or supervisors). Top-level managers are the people who give the organization its general direction. Only a top-level manager.Manager A person responsible for the work performance of group members. The terms executive and top-level manager can be used interchangeably. initiate a new product line. The jobs of middle-level managers vary substantially in terms of responsibility and income. and they disseminate information to upper and lower levels. Middle-level managers conduct most of the coordination activities within the firm. but who serve as a link between the two groups. or hire hundreds of employees.
however. for example. Like most employees in entry-level positions. _ Organizing: After a plan is in place. . These necessary steps are developed into a plan. maintenance supervisor. the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales. and controlling. store. Such a manager might be supervisor of newspaper carriers. To understand the work performed by first-level managers. _ Planning: This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal. A dramatic shift has taken place in recent years. The current emphasis on productivity and quality has elevated the status of many supervisors. _ Staffing: After a manager discerns his area’s needs. you probably reported to a first-level manager. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing. new workers who dislike and disrespect their first supervisor tend to leave the firm early. Newcomers who like and respect their first level manager tend to stay with the firm longer. staffing. training. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. Functions of Managers Managers just don’t go out and haphazardly perform their responsibilities. a manager needs to organize her team and materials according to her plan. A manager in a large organization often works with the company’s human resources department to accomplish this goal. Many of today’s first level managers are career school graduates who are familiar with modern management techniques. These steps may include increasing advertising. inventory. he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting. service station in a manager. reflect back on your first job. and developing employees. When the plan is in place.Historically. Conversely. organizing. first level managers were promoted from production or clerical positions into supervisory positions. selecting. and sales staff. dining or room manager. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: planning. Say. department manager retail Supervisors help shape the attitudes of new employees toward the firm. leading. Rarely did they have formal education beyond high school. that the organization’s goal is to improve company sales.
Roles performed by managers Table contains a more in-depth look at each category of roles that help managers carry out . and staff her team to achieve a goal. It requires the manager to coach. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area’s plans remain on track._ Leading: A manager needs to do more than just plan. Leading involves motivating. but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization. assist. organize. and encouraging. communicating. guiding. She must also lead. a manager’s job is not finished. _ Controlling: After the other elements are in place. and problem solve with employees. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions.
market researchers. or abilities to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance.Table: Mintzberg’s Set of Ten Roles A manager wears many hats. and decision maker — all rolled into one. Whether they’re busy with employee meetings. organizer. or strategy sessions. are required to help other employees become more productive. Certain skills. engineers. In addition. but he or he is also a planner. possess technical skills. unexpected problems. Accountants. as examples. (And that doesn’t even include responding to e-mail!) Skills needed by managers Not everyone can be a manager. problem solver. and computer scientists. These skills fall under the following categories: _ Technical: This skill requires the ability to use a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks. managers often find little spare time on their calendars. . Not only is a manager a team leader. cheerleader. managers’ schedules are usually jam-packed. coach. And these are just a few of a manger’s roles.
_ Human: This skill demonstrates the ability to work well in cooperation with others. A manager with good human skills has a high degree of self-awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize with the feelings of others. Analytical skills enable managers to break down problems into smaller parts. managers may acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them by training and job experience. _ Leadership — ability to influence others to perform tasks _ Self-objectivity — ability to evaluate yourself realistically _ Analytic thinking — ability to interpret and explain patterns in information _ Behavioral flexibility —ability to modify personal behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to accomplish organizational goals. or specialized skills that contribute to high performance in a management job. and develop specific competencies. to see the relations among the parts. and conceptual skills. No matter how human skills are acquired. Again. and genuine involvement in interpersonal relationships. The higher the management level. enthusiasm. As managers assume ever higher responsibilities in organizations. and to recognize the implications of any one problem for others. Business and management educators are increasingly interested in helping people acquire technical. _ Oral communication — ability to express ideas clearly in words _ Written communication — ability to express ideas clearly in writing . the more important conceptual skills become. Some managers are naturally born with great human skills. Technical skills are most important at lower levels of management. they’re critical for all managers because of the highly interpersonal nature of managerial work. Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of trust. while others improve their skills through classes or experience. they must deal with more ambiguous problems that have long-term consequences. human. _ Conceptual: This skill calls for the ability to think analytically. Although all three categories contain skills essential for managers. Following are some of the skills and personal characteristics that the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is urging business schools to help their students develop. their relative importance tends to vary by level of managerial responsibility.Managers acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them through training and job experience.
decisional. a. and entrepreneur d. conceptual. planning. top management consists of ______. interpersonal. and liaison b. interpersonal. disseminator. monitor. decisional. leading. planning. The management functions are ______. accounting. the president. a. and decisional 4. and controlling 3. and human c. the chief executive officer only d. the chief executive officer and the president only 2. a. and controlling c. and planning d. informational. and controlling b. selling. and organizing d._ Personal impact — ability to create a good impression and instill confidence _ Resistance to stress —ability to perform under stressful conditions _ Tolerance for uncertainty — ability to perform in ambiguous situations Chapter Checkout Q&A 1. organizing. planning. figurehead. and spokesperson c. selling. and controlling b. leading. and his or her vice presidents c. organizing. The categories of management roles are ______. and informational . The skills that all managers need are ______. interpersonal. leading. staffing. any manager above the level of foreman b. the chief executive officer. accounting. technical. For most organizations. a. effectiveness. organizing. leader. organizing. planning. efficiency. controlling. leading.
A manager’s job is less a science than an art. c. a 3. Answers: 1. d 4. Which of the following is a reality of a manager’s job? a. b.. self-directing. Managers are self-starting. Managers are reflective and systematic planners. b 2. a ______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________SMILE_____________________________________ Fundamentals of Management Chapter 2 THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Chapter Check-In ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Discovering the different schools of management Introducing human resource approaches Identifying the role of quantitative analysis Understanding contingency thinking Focusing on quality Looking forward to the future of management BE CONTINUED IN NEXT (TO SESSION……………………………………………………. d.) . and autonomous. Managers have no regular duties to perform.5. b 5.
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