VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES 

BÙI THỊ ÁNH TUYẾT
M.A. MINOR THESIS

CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES TO STIMULATE 10-FORM STUDENTS’ PRESENTATION IN ENGLISH SPEAKING LESSONS AT MARIE CURIE HIGH SCHOOL, HAI PHONG

(Các hoạt động trong lớp học để khuyến khích khả năng trình bày tiếng Anh của học sinh lớp 10 trường THPT Marie Curie, Hải Phòng)

Field: English teaching methodology Code: Cohort:
60 14 10

MA 15

Supervisor: Lê Thế Nghiệp, M.A

Hanoi, 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...................................................................................................ii ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................iii INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................1 1. RATIONALE.................................................................................................................1 2. OBJECTS OF STUDY...................................................................................................2 3. AIMS OF STUDY........................................................................................................2 4. SCOPE OF STUDY......................................................................................................2 5. METHODOLOGY OF STUDY....................................................................................3 6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES........................................................................................3 7. DESIGN OF THE STUDY............................................................................................3 PART II: DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................................7 CHAPTER I: LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................7 1.1. SOME DEFINITIONS................................................................................................7 1.2. FACTORS PREVENT STUDENTS FROM PRESENTING A TOPIC....................7 1.2.1. Factors of Foreign Language Anxiety..................................................................7 1.2.2. Factors associated with Learner’s own sense of ‘self’ and ‘language classroom environment’................................................................................................................10 1.2.3. Classroom procedure..........................................................................................12 1.3. Socio-cultural factors................................................................................................13 1.3.1. Social environment for L2/FL acquisition.........................................................13 1.3.2. Errors in social setting........................................................................................14 1.4. COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES................................................14 1.4.1. Purpose...............................................................................................................14 1.4.2. Requirements......................................................................................................15 1.4.3. Types of communicative classroom activities....................................................16 1.5. INTEGRATING SKILLS AND PRESENTATION.................................................18 1.5.1. Important of integrating skills............................................................................18 1.5.2. Presentation through reading activities..............................................................19 1.5.3. Presentation through writing activities...............................................................19 1.5.4. Presentation through listening activities.............................................................19 CHAPTER II........................................................................................................................21 THE STUDY........................................................................................................................21 2.1. Aims..........................................................................................................................21 2.2. Informants.................................................................................................................21 2.3. Hypotheses: Remarks on some problems of English learning and teaching at Marie Curie High school, Hai Phong city...................................................................................21 2. 3.1. Materials............................................................................................................21 2.3.2. Teachers’ method...............................................................................................22 2.3.3. Students’ motivation..........................................................................................22 2.4. Methods.....................................................................................................................23 2.5. Data collection ..........................................................................................................24 2.6. Data analysis .............................................................................................................24 2.6.1. Survey questionnaire for teachers .....................................................................24

......32 3......................................................................... Practical tips for teachers....1......................................7................2........45 3..........................................................................................................................................................................................................6.....................................................41 PART III .....................................31 3...................... Information sources........................27 2............................................ Suggestions for further study.........................................................................3................................................2..................I APPENDIX 2....................................... Activities in class................................... Survey questionnaire for students................ Limitations of the study.......................46 APPENDIX 1..........................V ..................................................................................................2.... Summary of the study..........................III APPENDIX 3..................................................................................... Discussion of the findings...................................................31 3...........................................................................44 1..........................................44 2..........44 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................45 REFERENCES..................................................29 CHAPTER III:......................................................................................................................

. a survey will be taken on teachers of English and 10form students at Marie Curie High school in Hai Phong city to consider how English speaking lessons are conducted and how students respond to English speaking lessons. The thesis also study students’ difficulties when participating in English speaking lessons. Specifically.i ABSTRACT This thesis is concerned with stimulating 10-form students’ presentation in English speaking classroom. This thesis also recommends some practical tips and typical classroom activities which were applied by the author and suggested by teachers of English at Marie Curie High school to improve quality of teaching and learning presentation in English.

ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor. I would also like to acknowledge the advice. comments I have received from my colleagues at Marie Curie High school in Haiphong. Finally. Le The Nghiep for his guidance and inspiration while I was working on this study.College of Foreign Languages – Hanoi National University with encouragements and permissions. Mr. . I would like to thank my family for their special care and support. Research for this paper was supported by the Post-graduate Department . My thanks also go to 10 teachers and 100 students at Marie Curie High school in Haiphong who provided me with valuable data for the study so that I can have a better view of activities in presentation task in English speaking classes at Marie Curie High school in Haiphong.

iii ABBREVIATIONS CA: Communication Apprehension CLT: Communicative Language Teaching EFL: English as Foreign Language ELT: English Language Teaching ESL: English as Second Language FL: L1: L2: Foreign Language First Language Second Language .

teaching and learning conditions at Vietnamese secondary schools are face with some drawbacks. This research is motivated by both subjective and objective reasons. Littlewood also states: “One of the most characteristic features of Communicative Language Teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language”. the purpose of language teaching and learning is to develop communicative competence in the target language. this leads to some problems. job interviews and their future work life – it is the most transferable of all their skills. However. Whatever the subjects they study. presentation will bring them success in English speaking classes. They do not pay adequate attention to speaking and listening skills. while the present English teaching at Vietnam’s high schools seems to face with an obstacle in improving learners’ communicative competence. Besides. Therefore. their English is not good enough to use in real communicating situations. and a critical part of their professional development. grammar. the importance of English in communication is increasingly emphasized. especially on teaching speaking is very useful for a teacher of English. Subjectively. Most teachers focus on teaching vocabulary. doing a research on Methodology. A class of 45 to 50 learners is not appropriate for language teaching and learning. Objectively. in which students are required to present their ideas in a short and simple way. academic work. According to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). a suggested solution is . RATIONALE As English has been an international language. As a result. reading and writing skills. Moreover. the ability to present a topic is clearly valuable at every stage of students’ lives. Learners can be good at written English but they have difficulty in using it in oral communication.1 PART I INTRODUCTION 1. the traditional method applied at Vietnamese secondary schools does not comply with the textbook at all. Presentation is also an important part in an English speaking class at high school.

this study is conducted to emphasize the importance of presentation skill in learning English. it can only focus on the 10 th form Marie Curie high school students. . SCOPE OF STUDY Due to the limit of the thesis. Hopefully. 4.2 that teachers should apply suitable classroom activities to stimulate learners’ speaking ability right from the beginning. the study can not cover all techniques to stimulate students’ speaking ability in a language class. Therefore. AIMS OF STUDY Fist of all. the subjects of the study will be the high school students who use 7-year English textbooks. 3. 2. this study will make a small contribution to the application of communicative language teaching approach in developing the 10th form learners’ ability in presentation at Vietnamese secondary schools in general and at Marie Curie high school in Haiphong in particular. it will focus on some typical classroom activities which may produce a stimulus for the 10th form Marie Curie High school students’ presentation. For the limitation of the study. Secondly. so far the most widely used English textbooks at Vietnamese high schools have been applied to 7-year English course. Thus. this study will suggest some classroom activities to stimulate the 10th form Marie Curie High school students in presentation tasks in an English speaking class. Finally. it provides suggestions for teachers of English to prepare English lessons at Marie Curie High school. OBJECTS OF STUDY Due to actual English teaching and learning conditions.

3 5. The study will also be conducted on teachers’ techniques to raise students’ ability of presentation. METHODOLOGY OF STUDY The theoretical background of the study is mainly based on the books and documents written by a number of scholars on foreign language teaching. The questions to be dealt with are: How important is presentation to foreign language learning? What should be done to stimulate the 10th form Marie Curie High school students in presentation tasks in an English speaking class? 7. remarks. objects. experience. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Perhaps one of the obvious problems is the lack of students’ interest and active participation in learning activities. This problem is probably caused by less exciting and practical activities of teachers. their problems in English presentation tasks. suggestions and conclusions are based on actual researches. aims and scope of the study as well as the methodology of the study. books are used as reference. This study is conducted based on qualitative and quantitative methods. Situational survey will be conducted on the students’ learning style and motivation. Besides. DESIGN OF THE STUDY The study is intended to consist of three parts: 1. 6. 2. Part 1 – Introduction: give reasons for choosing the thesis. and discussions. Questionnaires will be given to analyze learners’ attitude towards presentation tasks as well as teachers’ techniques in speaking classes and needs in foreign language teaching and learning. Part 2 – Development: will be divided into three chapters: . Traditional methods of teaching in English classrooms have focused on passive learning. Comments.

writing and listening.4 Chapter 1: Literature Review focus on some definitions of presentation. 3. Some factors that prevent students from presenting a topic and communicative classroom activities are also mentioned as the basis of the thesis. Chapter 3: indicates some typical activities and practical tips for teacher to stimulate 10-form students’ presentation in an English speaking lesson and examples for illustration. Chapter 2: The study gives the data analysis from the survey of 10 teachers of English and 100 students at Marie Curie High school to make the foundation for the activities in chapter 3. limitations of the study and suggestions for further study. types of presentation. Part 3 – Conclusion: summarizes the study. the thesis discuss the important of integrating skills. Finally. . the relation between presentation and other skills including reading.

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2. Task 3: From the ideas collected from discussion task.2. The lesson is normally built up with three tasks: Task 1: Students practice sample dialogues to have a general understanding about the topic. According to Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia.7 PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER I: LITERATURE REVIEW 1. FACTORS PREVENT STUDENTS FROM PRESENTING A TOPIC 1. For 10-form students. Task 2: Students participate in group discussion. presentation is simplified and limited in a given topic. Factors of Foreign Language Anxiety Anxiety has been found to interfere with many types of learning but when it is associated with learning a second or foreign language. students are asked to make small presentations based on a given topic. students integrate the ideas to make a presentation. It is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon (Young. it is termed as ‘second/foreign language anxiety’. SOME DEFINITIONS Presentation is generally defined in different dictionaries is to show and to explain the content of a topic to an audience or to audiences. apprehension.1. In a typical 10-form English speaking lesson. 1991) and can be defined as a subjective feeling of tension. in which students express their ideas and get to know the others’ ideas on the given topic. and worry associated . This presentation will be presented by a student on behalf of his/her group.1. 1. The same definition is also recognized by Longman Language Activator (1998: 1017) – To present is to be the person who tells the people watching or listening about the different things what will happen or are happening. presentation is the process of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience. nervousness.

(2) test anxiety. McCroskey and Bond (1980) found seven factors that could result in a quiet child (this can equally offer explanation of adult CA). Is has been found that the feeling of tension and nervousness center on two basic task requirement of foreign language learning: listening and speaking because both the skills can not be separated. Horwitz et al. Communication anxiety may be specific to just a few settings (e. public speaking) or may exist in most everyday communication situations. 1977). quietness. One of the most studied topics in the field of speech communication is the tendency on the part of some people to avoid. the construct of communication apprehension is also relevant to the conceptualization of foreign language anxiety (McCroskey. (1986: 128) define communication apprehension (CA) as “a type of shyness characterized by fear or anxiety about communicating with people”.8 with an arousal of the automatic nervous system. These feelings of shyness vary greatly from individual to individual. the embarrassment suffered from exposing our language imperfections in front of others. or may even be part of a general anxiety trait that arises in many facets of an individual’s life (Fiedman. communicating orally. The description of these components will lay the foundations for the concept of second/foreign language anxiety. and from situation to situation. This anxiety comes in part from a lack of confidence in our general linguistic knowledge but if only this factor were involved. (3) fear of negative evaluation. (3) voluntary social introversion. (1986: 127). Communicative Apprehension (CA) The speaking skill is so central to our thinking about language learning that when we refer to speaking a language we often mean knowing a language. fear. providing an insight to comprehend the sources or causes it can originate from.g. 1980). and reticence are considered to frequently precipitate CA. and even. Learners’ personality traits such as shyness.. (2) speech skill deficiencies. (1) low intellectual skills. MacIntyre and Garder (1991) points out that the skill which produces most anxiety is speaking. there are three related performance anxieties: (1) communication apprehension (CA). What distinguishes speaking is the public nature of the skill. . (4) social alienation. all skills would be affected equally. According to Horwitz et al. Due to its emphasis on interaction.

(1986). This apprehension is explained in relation to the learner’s negative self-perceptions caused by the inability to understand others and make himself understood.9 (5) communication anxiety. (6) low social self-esteem. While communication apprehension is one of these factors. for highly anxious students. refers to a type of anxiety stemming from a fear of failure. People who are apprehensive speaking groups are likely to be ever in more trouble when doing so in a second/foreign language class. it may occur in any social. such as interviewing for a job or speaking in second/foreign language class. 2006: 4) labels this kind of apprehension – which Neer refers to as “apprehension about classroom participation” – as classroom communication apprehension. second/foreign languages. Test anxiety An understanding of test anxiety is also important to the discussion of foreign language anxiety. McCroskey (in Apaibanditkul. It is also broader in the sense that it pertains not only to the teacher’s evaluation of the students but also to the perceived reaction of other students as . Unfortunately. Text anxiety. as explained by Horwitz et al. evaluative situation. (7) ethnic/cultural divergence in communication norms. It is also important to note that oral testing has the potential to provoke both test and oral communication anxiety. they also may feel that their attempts at oral work are constantly being monitored. where in addition to feeling less in control of the communicative situation. more than any other academic subject. require continual evaluation by the teacher – the only fluent speaker in the class. Test anxiety is quite common in language classroom at any levels. rather. Communication apprehension obviously plays a large role in second/foreign language anxiety. Fear of Negative Evaluation Fear of negative evaluation is an extension of the second component (test anxiety) of second/foreign language anxiety because it is not limited to test-taking situations. the others can lead to communication apprehension.

attitudes and values having reference to himself as object. This self-concept forms the basis of the distinction between language anxiety and other forms of academic anxieties. This section reviews literature on language anxiety related to learners’ sense of ‘self’ and ‘language classroom environment’. which may lead to embarrassment.10 well. Factors associated with Learner’s own sense of ‘self’ and ‘language classroom environment’ As mentioned above. students. Laine (1987: 15) indicates that self-concept is the totality of an individual’s thoughts. perceptions. may be anxious due to their in sufficient background knowledge on the topic discussed. when making presentations.2. beliefs. (1986: 128). it is more than just the conglomeration of these three components. and behaviors related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process. What makes language learning a distinct and unique process is its interaction with the concept of ‘self’. . All the three components are strongly linked with learners’ sense of ‘self’. as it is learners’ ‘self’ which is at risk of failure or being negatively evaluated in any test-like situation or a situation which requires communication in front of others. In spite communication apprehension. They believe that any performance in L2 in likely to challenge an individual’s self-concept as a competent communicator. Self perceptions According to Horwitz et al. The importance of the disparity between the ‘true’ or ‘actual’ self as known to the language learner and the more limited self as can be presented at any given moment in the foreign language would seem to distinguish foreign language anxiety from other academic anxieties such as those associated with mathematics or science. Besides. the language anxiety is related to three components. This risk to one’s sense of ‘self’ frequently occurs in a L2/FL classroom. beliefs. test anxiety. 1. feelings. and fear of negative evaluation provide useful conceptual building blocks for a description of second/foreign language anxiety. perhaps no other field of study poses as much of a threat to self-concept as language study does.2. We conceive foreign language anxiety as a distinct complex of self-perception.

I’ll never be able to learn Russian enough to go to Russia and talk to people”. 1986: 123). 5) Some view that two years are sufficient in order to gain fluency in the target language. a number of beliefs derived from learner’s irrational and unrealistic conceptions about language learning. In Ohata (2005: 138). 6) Some believe that language learning is a special gift not possessed by all. in response learners may generate some particular beliefs about language learning and its use.” (Horwitz et al. These unrealistic perceptions or beliefs on language learning and achievement can lead to frustration or anger towards students’ own poor performance in a second/foreign language. . Certain beliefs about language learning also contribute to the student’s tension and frustration in the class.11 Learners’ belief about language learning As language learning poses a threat to learners’ self-concept. 4) Some hold that language learning is basically an act of translating from English or any second/foreign language. 3) Others believe that it is not ok to guess an unfamiliar second/foreign language word. “Russian is too hard. 2) Some attach great importance to speaking with excellent native (L1)-like accent. such as 1) Some students believe that accuracy must be sought before saying anything in the foreign language. (Tittle. For example. 1997: 15) Such beliefs have been found to cast a considerable influence upon the ultimate achievement and performance in the target language. the followings are such reported beliefs: “I just know I have some kind of disability: I can’t learn a foreign language no matter how hard I try.

rather than if they are given choice to respond voluntarily. particularly those that demand students to speak in front of the whole class. Onwuegbuzie (1999: 220) asserted instructors’ belief that their role is to correct rather than to facilitate students when they make mistakes. oral skits and discussions in large groups are the most anxiety-producing activities. In addition. and that their role is more like a drill sergeant’s than a facilitator’s. Further. how errors are corrected. which makes the classroom environment more formal and stressful for the learners. Koch and Terrell (1991) found that more than half of their subjects in their Natural Approach classes – a language teaching method specifically designed to reduce learner’s anxiety – expressed that giving a presentation in the class. is essential for effective reduce of language anxiety in learners. as well as the teachers. some instructor’s beliefs about language learning and teaching have also been found to be a source of anxiety. Young (1991: 429) mentioned the view that the problem for the student is not necessarily error correction but the manner of error correction – when. Recognition or awareness of these beliefs by both the learners. he stated that the majority of instructors considered their role to be less a counselor and friend and objected to a too friendly and inauthoritative student-teacher relationship.2. have been found to be the most anxiety provoking. how often. Classroom procedure Giving a short talk or presentation in the class has also been reported to be highly anxiety inducing. 1. some instructors have been reported not to promote pair or group work in fear that the class may get out of control. For instance. 1991: 428). students were found to be more .3. They also found that students get more anxious when called upon to respond individually. and most importantly. In addition to error correction. These beliefs have been found to contribute to learner’s language anxiety (Young. The researcher also reported that students realize that some error corrections are necessary but they consistently report anxiety over responding incorrectly and looking or sounding ‘dumb’ or ‘inept’. and think that a teacher should be doing most of the talking and teaching.12 Instructors’ beliefs about language teaching Just like learners’ beliefs about language learning. Different activities in the classroom procedure.

I am so afraid I feel like hiding behind my chair. The limited exposure to the target language and lack of opportunities to practice speaking in such environments result into embarrassment or stress for them when they are required to speak both in and out of the class. When I am in my Spanish class I just freeze! I can’t think of any thing when my teacher calls on me. Earlier.” This suggests that any measure to treat language anxiety should not fail to exploit learning environments where students feel free of anxiety. However. 1. Similarly.3.1. My mind goes blank. Social environment for L2/FL acquisition Environment. Learners in such environments are exposed to the language only in the classroom where they spend less time in contact with the language. provides L2/FL learners only limited and sometimes faulty input.3. The following parts will review the literature on language anxiety from a socio-cultural perspective of language learning and its use. . (1986: 123) reported the same: “Sometimes when I speak English in class. Socio-cultural factors In the previous parts. the only input is teachers’ or classmates’ talk – both do not speak L2 well. 1. For such learners. Horwitz et al.13 relaxed speaking the target language when paired with a classmate or put into small groups of three to six than into larger groups of seven to fifteen students. For this. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approaches are often recommended by the researchers to provide such and unthreatening environment where students talk to one another and not exclusively to the teacher. language anxiety may also be an outcome of social and communicative aspects of language learning. Young (1991: 429) added that more than sixty-eight percent of her subjects reported feeling more comfortable when they did not have to get in front of the class to speak. it has been viewed that difficulties in learning L2/FL can explain the potential causes of language anxiety at the output stage of language learning within the classroom setting. where the target language is not used as L1 in the community.

1. Their motivation to learn is to be sustained if they can see how their classroom learning is related to this objective and helps them to achieve it with increasing success.3. Purpose Communicative activities are those which exhibit the characteristics at the communicative end of our continuum. Errors in social settings are mostly overlooked if they do not interfere with meaning because people consider it impolite to interrupt and correct somebody who is trying to have a conversation with them.1.4. Learners are somehow involved in activities that give them both the desire to communicate and a purpose which involves them in a varied use of the target language. Interlocutors only react to an error if they cannot understand the speech and try to adjust their speech with the speaker in their effort to negotiate for meaning. this leads many learners to frustration and embarrassment by making them conscious of their deficiencies. In foreign language learning. 2002: 562). Errors in social setting Although it is clear that language learning cannot be without errors.4. The learners’ ultimate objective is to take part in communication with others. . structured in order to suit the learners’ level of ability. Such activities are vital in a language class since the learners can do their best to use the language as individuals. 1989: cited in Horwitz & Gregersen. COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. arriving at a degree of language autonomy. It is only in the classroom environment that feedback on errors is provided frequently. • They improve motivation.14 1. errors can be a source of anxiety in some individuals because they draw attention to the difficulty of making positive social impressions when speaking a new language (MacIntyre & Gardner. Littlewood (1981) favored the opinion that it is quite necessary to consider the following purposes of communicative activities: • They provide ‘whole-task practice’. our means for providing learners with whole-task practice in the classroom is through various kinds of communicative activities.2.

as teachers know to their frustration. and to create an environment that supports the individual in his effort to learn. which operate when a person is involved in using the language for communication. As much as possible of the period of time allotted to the activity is in fact occupied by learner talk. many aspects of it are beyond their pedagogical control. but often most time is taken up with teacher talk or pauses.2. as communicative activities are operated mainly through oral communication. . Communicative activity provides opportunities for positive personal relationship to develop among learners and between learners and teacher. If this is so. or because they want to contribute to achieving a task objective. and of an acceptable level of language accuracy. It is likely. These relationships can help to ‘humanize’ the classroom. Languages takes place inside the learners and. in fact. • They can create a context which supports learning. Requirements In order to get involved in activities in an English speaking class. • Motivation is high. • Language is of an acceptable level. Learners are eager to speak: because they are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it. 1996: 120): • Learners talk a lot. that many aspects of language can take place only through natural processes. teachers of English should pay attention to the following requirements (Ur. 1.4. This may seem obvious. easily comprehensible to each other. Learners express themselves in utterances that are relevant.15 • They allow natural learning. Classroom discussion is not dominated by a minority of talkative participants: all get a chance to speak. communicative activity (inside or outside the classroom) is an important part of the total learning process. • Participation is even. and contributions are evenly distributed. Oral communicative activities apply the same purposes.

and because of the wide variety of classroom activities and exercise types. However. • Structural activities Structural activities focus on the grammatical system. • Quasi. These quasi-communicative . Types of communicative classroom activities Because communicative principles can be applied to the teaching of any skill. and provide the learners with opportunities to practice them separately. but others are closer to dialogues. describing ways in which language elements can be combined. vocabulary and structure practice. description of typical classroom procedures used in a lesson based on CLT principles is not feasible.communicative activities Quasi-communicative activities consist of one or more typical conversational exchanges. at any level.3. These activities consist of pronunciation. most practitioners of CLT accept the general procedure with the following communicative activities in their materials and language class provided by Littlewood (1981). This first kind of activities is sub-divided into structural activities and quasi-communicative activities.16 1. Pre-communicative activities: Structural activities Quasi-communicative activities Communicative activities: Functional communication activities Social interaction activities Pre-communicative activities These activities are ones to prepare for the communicative activities which learners are required to do. Some resemble drills. In pre-communicative activities. the teacher isolates specific elements of knowledge and skills which compose communicative ability.4.

acceptability may mean little more than a reasonable degree of accuracy in pronunciation and grammar. In short. role-plays. . • Functional communication activities Functional communication activities are those which emphasize the functional aspect of communication – the ability to find language which convey in intended meaning effectively in a specific situation. role-plays. interview based on a text. Learners must still aim to convey meanings effectively. • Social interaction activities Social interaction activities are those which place emphasis on social as well as functional aspects of communication. Some examples of these activities are questions and answers. openended responses. Success is now measured not only in terms of functional effectiveness of the language but also in terms of the acceptability of the forms that are used. Success is measured primarily according to whether they cope with the communicative demands of the immediate situation. etc. but must also pay greater attention to the social context in which the interaction takes place. and social context. and discussions. In discussing the various examples of communicative activities.17 activities are intended to help the learners relate forms and structures to communicative function. specific meaning. In the early stages of learning. Littlewood proposes to distinguish between two main categories: functional communication activities and social interaction activities. information-gap activities. Examples of these activities are pair/group-work activities such as simulations. Later. • Communicative activities These activities require the learners to integrate his pre-communicative meanings. The main purpose of the activity is that learners should use the language they know in order to get meanings across as effectively as possible. the aim of pre-communicative activities is to practice using acceptable language fluently. without being concerned to communicate meanings effectively. it will increasingly come to include producing language which is appropriate to specific kinds of social situation.

and the view taken of the optimum ordering of the skills. This consumption can be supported by the importance of integrated skills activities as follows (Donn Bryne. Important of integrating skills The term “integrated skills” is frequently used as if it was almost synonymous with reinforcement.has almost become the classical model for the organization of learning materials into “lesson” or “units”. 1987) 1. sometimes simultaneously in order to involve all the learners. because this is what happens in real life.5. however. We are not of course suggesting that single-skill activities are not effective: there will in fact be many occasions when we shall ask the learners just to talk or read or write. we should be looking for opportunities to knit together. this kind of skill linking is regarded as pedagogically sound. this pattern-oral work leading to reading and writing. the process of integrating language skills involves linking them together in such a way that what has been learnt and practices through the tasks of one skill is reinforced and perhaps extended through further language activities which bring one or more of the other skills into use. in the form of teaching materials will be influenced by such factors as the level of the course. The extent to which this is done and the way in which it is implemented. but overall. Equally. INTEGRATING SKILLS AND PRESENTATION 1. . They provide opportunities for using language naturally. Therefore. Many pair. not just practicing it. will be followed by relating writing activities. a piece of spoken language. typically.1.18 1. in the form of a dialogue. 3.5. the relative importance of skills for the learners.and group work activities call for a variety of skills. Viewed in this way. Indeed. Learners seem to learn better when they are engaged in activities which involve more than one skill. because this is appropriate. 2.

5. They can write to arrange ideas and memorize words and expressions as well. learners prefer to note down solutions to speak fluently and logically. where they are. Learners will. the use of one skill leads quite naturally to the use of another. A writing activity. which will help them to speak more easily and confidently.3. often because the ideas are presented more directly. Presentation through reading activities It is clear that. Presentation through listening activities Like reading and writing activities. More specifically. what they are . need dialogues as conversational models but these are not necessarily the best stimuli for talk. For example. writing activities are sources of talk. it is apparent that many of these come from reading activities. which provides very few clues as to what the speakers are talking about. 1.4. the writing activities before presenting a topic are very beneficial.5. if we read an advertisement for a job in the newspaper. integrating skills is useful to create or to prepare contexts for practicing and using the intended language item or skill.solving activities. To give simple example. students hear a short conversation (or an extract from a long conversation). In additions. listening activities do create a stimulus for speaking activities. It is the same in problem. There are many other speaking activities necessarily prepared by writing activities in advance. reading is likely to lead to speaking. Presentation through writing activities Similarly. especially in the often area of vocabulary. to prepare for a discussion. if we are looking for sources of talk. of course. A reading text on an interesting or relevant topic may be much more productive. For example. especially for language students at elementary level. Generally.5. whether guided or free. Through reading the learners can also greatly expand their receptive knowledge of the language.2. we may discuss it with someone else or ring up and enquire the advertising company about the job. The learners themselves have to decide who the speakers are. As a result.19 1. done collaboratively in pairs or small groups. 1. in the classroom. learners in pairs or groups take notes of their ideas and arguments. will be accompanied by a good deal of talk-talk that is needed to “get something done”.

This type of listening then. activities for which the background information is made available in the recorded form.) in the form of a talk or conversation.20 talking about and possibly what will happen next. for example about a town (places of interest. making choices between places. In another listening activity. it is necessary for learners to do simple listening activities right from the beginning of the course and then they can gradually do oral communicative activities effectively based on listening comprehension. . The planning involves discussion and decision-making activities. etc. events. leads on naturally to discussion. However. facilities. oral communicative activities through listening comprehension require learners to have a comparatively good listening ability so that learners can catch information and ideas for speaking activities afterwards. Therefore. learners are given some information. on the basis of which they have to plan a visit.

21 CHAPTER II THE STUDY 2. The learners also find it hard to get access to the real “language”. Hypotheses: Remarks on some problems of English learning and teaching at Marie Curie High school. They are almost only the textbooks compiled by Vietnamese teachers. their English lessons are less exciting.1. it will recommend some implications for applying classroom activities to motivate students to present their ideas. . This means that they were beginners in speaking English when they entered high school. Aims The survey is aimed to investigate the current situation of teaching and learning the speaking skill in general and learning how to make presentation in English in particular. Second.2.3. 3. Few of them can talk about topics required in the English text book. 2. Besides. the survey is to study both teachers’ and students’ views of the important factors that effect students’ ability of presentation. and their preference to those given by the teachers. the survey will help to see what the difficulties of both teachers and students are when they deal with presentation task in an English speaking class. Finally. only few students could express intelligibly in English. 2. Materials The English materials used in Marie Curie High school language classes are very limited. the specific objectives are to search for the attitudes of students and teachers towards the speaking skill and to find out how presentation is taught. visual and audio aids. They almost come from Hai Phong city. Therefore. First. However. Informants The informants participating in the survey are 100 grade 10th students of two English classes at Marie Curie High school. 2. It is hard for students to have authentic materials such as English newspapers and magazines. Most of them have been learning English for four years at lower secondary school. Hai Phong city.1.

they hardly have opportunities to develop speaking skill in English learning. visual aids and audio aids are not always available due to inadequate investment in language teaching and learning in Vietnam.3. The second reason.3. and writing skill. the students have little interest in English lessons and their learning is passive and unsuccessful. during the lesson. is the names of characters and scenes in the text book. memorizing activities. vocabulary. for example. not only at Marie Curie High school. giving questions for students to answers. They do not have . the learners do most repetition. Due to this method. they tend to apply traditional techniques of the traditional method. the major aim of Marie Curie High school students in learning English is still aimed at passing school written examinations. 2. substitution. Teachers’ method Most teachers of English. or answering questions based on texts and so on. In fact. Therefore. vocabulary.22 2. their speaking ability is not practiced and improved. reading comprehension. Students’ motivation So far. these examinations are mostly based on grammatical structures. in my opinion. Most of the classroom activities concentrate on teaching and practicing language structures. textbook seems to be the only source of learning for students and teachers. repeating dialogues in the textbooks. Consequently. but also in other high schools. The last but not least.3. Students may not be interested in the book since learning English with Vietnamese names and Vietnamese scenes seem not to make an impression that they are learning “real English” in “English speaking environment” but learning English with the Vietnamese in Vietnam’s situations. tend to focus on teaching grammatical structures. one of the clearly seem features of the high classroom atmosphere is the lack of interest. As a result. Besides. In general. Moreover. Consequently. they would rather study the above mentioned language components and skills.2. despite their interest in developing speaking and listening skills for communication. reading and writing skills to help their students get good scores in examinations.

7) The difficulties when doing presentation activities in the speaking class (questions 8.23 much time to use English in oral communication. 6. Methods The survey questionnaires were used in the research as the main source of information. Besides. “mothertongue used”. the classroom atmosphere at Vietnamese high schools does not seem to create an appropriate environment and stimulus for the students to present their ideas. the teaching and learning process focusing much on grammar. In short.cultural knowledge in conversation classes (question 7) The useful activities in the conversation class (questions 5. 9) The survey questionnaire for students consisting of nine questions was designed to elicit their views on the aspects as follows (Appendix 2): The role of presentation in English learning (questions 1. 4) The difficulties when teaching cross. 3) The way they obtain information for presentation task (question 4) The motivating activities in the English speaking class (questions 5. 2. 9) . 2. they often cope with such problems as “inhibition”. 3. “nothing to say”. They can be tired of difficult grammatical exercises and boring writing practice. 6) The classroom interaction mode in a presentation task (questions 8. 2. Therefore. reading and writing skills can cause tension to learners. It was conducted with two sets of survey questionnaires for 10 teachers and 100 students at Marie Curie High school. The survey questionnaire for teachers consisting of nine questions was designed to elicit their views on the following aspects (Appendix 1): The role of presentation in English teaching (questions 1. when doing speaking activities.4.

Survey questionnaire for teachers The survey questionnaire for teachers was conducted with 10 teachers of English at Marie Curie High school.4. Data collected from the survey was analyzed according to the four aspects listed in 2. . Data analysis 2. Data collection Table 1: Data collected from survey questionnaire for teachers Choices (Percent) Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A (%) 0 80 30 60 80 30 60 0 0 B (%) 0 10 70 0 90 50 10 0 0 C (%) 60 10 0 40 20 10 10 10 0 D (%) 30 0 0 10 10 90 100 E (%) 10 10 F (%) (Questions 7 has more than one answer) Table 2: Data collected from survey questionnaire for students Choices (Percent) Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A (%) 20 10 37 4 0 10 9 46 52 B (%) 50 60 63 2 72 30 27 31 32 C (%) 20 20 0 3 28 60 62 23 4 D (%) 10 10 0 2 0 3 30 E (%) F (%) G (%) 20 0 80 10 (Questions 4 has more than one answer) 2.24 2.5.6.1.6.

10% of the teachers rarely do and the other 10% never do. the time they spend on presentation task is rather short: 70% of the teachers spend 10-20 minutes for their students discussing and do presentation task. Still. they do not think that students are interested and comprehensively understand the topics. There are various reasons that do not motivate the teachers to teach presentation in their speaking lessons: they lack of background knowledge about the topics. 20% spend 510 minutes and the rest 10% spend no time for this task.25 • Teachers’ attitudes towards the role of presentation in English teaching and learning (questions 1. they do not always have discussions about topics required in their lessons. Physics. For question 2 – “How often do you find yourself motivated enough to teach presentation in your speaking lessons?” 80% of the teachers say that they sometimes find themselves motivated enough to have presentation topics discussed in their lessons. In fact. etc. Perhaps. There were 50% of the teachers thinking that presentation teaching requires spending a lot of time reading materials before each lesson but students have to study so many other subjects. There are only 10% of the teachers think that it is not important at all. which make teachers exposed to the risk that they can not conduct a presentation task when students have no preparation. they do not feel well before class. does presentation teaching require spending a lot of time reading materials before each lesson?” could give an explanation to the problems raised in question 2 and 3. such as Mathematics. etc. This data indicates that though most teachers understand the important role of presenting task. answers for question 4 – “In your opinion. this is a matter of teachers’ background knowledge of discussed topics. 4) For question 1 – “How important is presentation to English learning and teaching?” almost teachers (60%) have positive attitudes towards the role of presentation to English learning and teaching. 3. Literature. 2. the percentage of those who suppose that not always do they make such kind of preparation is 40%.. • Their opinions of the useful presentation activities in the conversation class (questions 5 – which activities do you often carry out in a speaking lesson? And . Consequently. Chemistry.

In addition. such difficulties as the non-standard learning environment with too many students in a class. 20% in pairs.26 question 6 – If you have a presentation activity in the English speaking class. 10% individual work and there are still 10% of the teachers think that no activities can help their students in the speaking class. However. lack of visual aids. the efficiency of these activities is not very high: 50% of the teachers find their students working well in groups. and grammatical and vocabulary knowledge. what do you find most useful?) As described in table 1. group-work and pair-work are preferable activities that they usually carry out in the speaking class. the insufficiency of authentic materials leads to the fact that teachers cannot explain well about cross-cultural matters while they hardly have chance to contact with foreigners. for most of teachers. On the other hand. . This may be problems of the learning environment at Marie Curie High school where teachers have to deal with large English classes of 40 – 50 students while an ideal language class must have only 15 to 20 students. • Their opinions of difficulties when teaching presentation task in English speaking classes (question 7 – What are the difficulties when you teach your students presentation in your English classes?) 60% of the surveyed teachers agree that their biggest difficulty is students’ laziness and passiveness (60%) while some teachers (10%) recognize their lack of knowledge of the discussed topics or they can’t give satisfactory explanations to these topics (10%). students’ anxiety due to their lack of confidence. Individual work is still conducted in the speaking class but it only makes up 20%.

students will mislead the lesson plan because they lack of seriousness and teaching experience. 100% of the surveyed teachers agree that there must be an interaction between students and teachers (answers to question 9). However. there are students who see no role of presentation in learning English (10%).27 • Their opinions of classroom interaction mode in the English speaking class (question 8 – Whether students should design the teaching plan together with teachers or not? And question 9 – What do you think about the learner-teacher interaction?) The answers to question 8 show that all of the teachers believe that they must be the only one to design the teaching plan. However. • Students’ attitudes towards the role of presentation in English teaching and learning (question 1 – How important is presentation to English to English learning and teaching?.2. The data of the survey questionnaire was analyzed according to the four aspects listed in part 2. The only problem pending is that they do not know whether their students are well prepared before going to class or not.4. Survey questionnaire for students The survey questionnaire for students was conducted with 100 students at Marie Curie High school. they require their students to prepare the lesson and get all needed information at home. Therefore. A few students realize the importance of presentation (20%). . a majority of students believe that presentation is rather important (50%) while a small number of students have the opposite opinion (20%). There are several reasons explaining for this belief: the teachers believe that students do not have enough knowledge to get involved in planning lessons. question 2 – What is your opinion of presentation tasks in English speaking class? And question 3 – How much time do you usually spend on presentation task in a 45-minute English lesson?) For question 1.6. 2. and students will not like participating in preparing lesson plan.

However. Most of them want to spend from 10 to 20 minutes on this task (63%) while a few of them only spend from 5 to 10 minutes. listening lesson (20%). there are still 3% of students who don’t like any of these activities above. However. • Students’ opinions of motivating presentation activities in the English speaking class (question 5 – How often does your teacher give speaking activities so that you can build up a report in the presentation task?. internet occupies 3%. . the main sources of information for students to prepare their presentation task are reading lesson (80%). the time that students at Marie Curie High school need for discussion in presentation task is different. 10% of the students completely agree that it is very interesting. However. • Students’ ways of obtaining information for presentation task (question 4 – In what ways do you obtain information about your discussed topics?) According to answers to this question. compared to pair-work (27%). 20% think that it is not very interesting and 2% believe that it is not interesting at all. question 6 – How does your teacher organize these speaking activities?. it can be concluded that almost students appreciate the important role of presentation in their English learning. and writing (10%). Although the teacher organized speaking activities in different ways. 10% for individuals. and 60% of the students say that presenting a topic is interesting.28 For question 2 which deals with the interest of presentation to English learning and teaching. students find group-work motivating the most in presentation task and the percentage is very high (62%). And some of students collect information for their lesson through reference books or from their own personal experiences. most students join in speaking activities given by their teacher. individuals (9%). 73% do these activities usually and 27% often. and question 7 – What activities you like most in a presentation task?) According to answers to question 5. In addition. 30% for pair-work and 60% for group-work. A very small number of students find information in newspapers or through interviewing other people (2%). According to answers to questions 1 and 2. TV accounts for 4%.

23% starts speaking when their classmates talk to them and most of them (46%) speak English only when their teacher ask them. the results of the questionnaires have shown that learning and teaching presentation is considered important by most teachers and students. And a few students find no interest in their teachers’ task.29 • Students’ opinions of the difficulties when they deal with presentation activities in the speaking class (question 8 – When do you speak in English in the English speaking class?. but it has remained sporadic in most language classrooms even in the English speaking class. Discussion of the findings Though the survey has been conducted on a small group of students and teachers. 2. the shortage of time in class and students’ anxiety when conducting their presentation in front of class. by these activities. We can also see that the presentation activities by which teachers and students are most motivated are group-work type. students are eager to give their ideas for the presentation at the end of the lesson. question 9 – What prevents you from speaking in the class time?) According to the students’ answers. Some of students say that the problem is they are afraid of making mistakes in class (30%).7. First of all. the major difficulty when they do presentation activities is the lack of knowledge of discussed topics which is proved by such percentage of 52%. it can provide the author with a deeper insight into the situation of English learning and teaching in general in English speaking class in particular. only 31% of students are willing to talk in class with the reason of interesting lesson. it can be explained by their preference . Another difficulty is that the students are shy and cannot do these activities well with the percentage of 32%. Secondly. This is caused by various reasons including the lack of information about the topics discussed. the author has discovered some interesting things about the English teaching and learning in the English speaking class. In fact. both teachers and students prefer group-work and pair-work to do the presentation task. As can be seen through the data. As for the students. the shortage of authentic materials. As a result.

so the teachers choose that kind of activity. such a learning environment with big classes and inadequate modern teaching facilities has caused many problems to the teachers. he or she may not be confident enough to speak about these topics as well as giving satisfactory explanations to the topics. This type of activity. it is not able to expect that students can make a good presentation at the first time or in short time since there are a lot of difficulties for both teachers and students to prepare for a presentation task. The biggest difficulty is students’ laziness and passiveness which make it difficult to carry out their intended activities. If a teacher does not have any background knowledge of the discussed topics. In addition. However. it will be easier for them to manage such a big class of 50 students. Another difficulty that is worth mentioning here is the teachers’ knowledge of discussed topics. will not be interested in the topics. On the other hand. presentation tasks are obviously good to improve students’ speaking and presentation skills which are not only important for them at school but also in real life. should always encourage students to study the discussed topics and to get rid of their anxiety when making presentation.30 to speak freely with confidence when talking in their own groups. As for teachers. consequently. To sum up. . in fact. brings good effects to transmit knowledge to students in a limited class time. Students. it is shown that teachers have many difficulties when they teach presentation task in an English speaking class. particularly when they teach in speaking classes. The primary goal for each presentation task is not to judge the students’ presentation as right or wrong but to let them express themselves as they are. Teachers. as a partner.

1. Partial lessons in the English 10 textbook (reading. 3. Internet 6. The list below shows some possible sources of information which can be used as materials for teaching presentation. CDs 5. By using a combination of visual. Newspapers 7. listening. some techniques are suggested to stimulate students’ presentation in an English speaking class as follows. Students own information . Stories 8. audio and tactile materials. TV 3. Information sources In order to get a comprehensive picture of the target language.31 CHAPTER III: SUGGESTIONS FOR APPLICATION OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES TO STIMULATE THE 10TH FORM MARIE CURIE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PRESENTATION IN AN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS Based on the results of the survey questionnaires and my personal experience. we need to present our students with different kinds of information.1. we are also likely to succeed in addressing the different learning styles of our students. writing lessons) 2. Videos/ Movies 4. speaking.

32 9. Interviews 10. Guest speakers 11. Photographs 12. Illustration 3.2. Activities in class Most standard EFL activities can be easily adapted for use in the speaking classroom. The most important point is to ensure that the students are actively engaged in the target language. Some of the favorite activities are discussed below.  Information gaps One type of speaking activity involves the so-called “information gap” – where two speakers have different parts of information making up a whole. Because they have different information, there is a ‘gap’ between them. To my experience, students are willing to ask and answer to fulfill the missed information. Of course, they will follow given examples and information in the textbook such as: Task 1. Quan is a tenth-grade student. He goes to school every morning. Below is his weekly timetable. Ask and answer questions with a partner, using the information from the timetable. Examples: A: What time does Quan have a Civic Education lesson on Monday? B: (He has a Civic Education lesson) at 7:15 a.m. A: What lesson does Quan have at 7: 15 a.m on Monday? B: (At 7: 15 a.m on Monday he has) a Civic Education lesson.

33

7: 15 8: 05 8: 55 9: 55 10: 40

Monday Civic Education Information Technology Math Math

Tuesday Physics Literature Biology Chemistry

Wednesday Physical Education Literature Literature Physics

Thursday English Geography History Physical Education Chemistry

Friday Math Information Technology English Physics

Saturday Literature English Math Math Class Meeting

Aims: To practice saying about Quan’s timetable, asking and answering with “Wh” questions. Level: Time: Materials: In class: elementary 5 minutes English textbook 10, page 14. 1. Teacher asks his/her students to work in pairs asking and answering questions about Quan’s timetable as mentioned in the example. 2. Teacher walks around to make sure the continuance of all pairs and help his/ her students if necessary. 3. After 5 minutes, teacher calls some pairs to practice making dialogue to be sure that all students in class understand and practice in a right way. Source: English Textbook 10, Education Press, 2006. Teacher can ask his students to fill missed information in the handouts. With topics such as football or the World Cup, students are interested in finding out information that they miss in their handouts. Task 2 (Unit 14, English textbook for 10-form students,), for example, can go in following stages:

34 Teacher introduces some scores in football (0 – 0: Nil – nil, 1 – 0: One – nil, 2 – 2: Two all, Penalty kick shoot out). Then he gives his students handout and ask them to work in pairs to fill in missed information by making dialogue as follow: A: Where was the first World Cup held? B: It was held in Uruguay. A: Which teams played in the final match? B: Uruguay and Argentina. A: Which team became the champion? B: Uruguay. A: What was the score of the match? B: 4 – 2. Handout A: RUNNERUP Argentina HOST COUNTRY France

TIMES 1 3 4 5 8 11 13 15 16 17 Handout B

YEAR 1930 1938 1950 1954 1966 1978 1986 1994 1998 2002

WINNER Uruguay Uruguay England Argentina Brazil France Brazil

SCORE 4 2 3

SCORE 2 2

West Germany Netherlands 3 0 Brazil Germany 2 0 0

England Argentina The USA

TIMES 1 3 4

YEAR 1930 1938 1950

WINNER Italy

SCORE 4 2

RUNNER-UP Hungary Brazil

SCORE 2 1

HOST COUNTRY Uruguay Brazil

students can get information and use their answers to talk about the World Cup winners in task 3 later.35 5 8 11 13 15 16 17 1954 1966 1978 1986 1994 1998 2002 West Germany Argentina 4 3 Hungary 2 1 West Germany Italy 3 2 0 0 Switzerland Mexico France Korea & Japan Teacher goes round for help (if necessary). In the following example. After ten minutes. Task 2. Information gap activity is preferred by most teachers of English at Marie Curie High school because they can base on given information in tasks to make sub-table or handouts as the example above before get students involved in the presentation part at the end of the speaking lessons. we ask students to imagine. By these stages. students will make an interview to ask their partners about their background. When we do role play. Change the roles when you have finished. Imagine you are a journalist. Use the cues below to interview a classmate about his/her background or that of a person he/she knows well. teacher asks some pairs to practice ask making dialogue before class. It provides students with the ability to hopefully "get in character" with the role that they must portray (if it is carried out well).  Role – play Role-play is the way of bringing situations from real life into the classroom. • • • • Greeting date of birth place of birth home • • • • primary school secondary school schoolwork favorite subject(s) .

Which secondary school did you go to? .Hello. The teacher introduce some special expression for students to do the natural conversation: . Level: Time: Materials: In class: Elementary 10 minutes English textbook 10.What is your address? .How many brothers do you have?/ What do they do?/ How old are they? . for example: . Nice to meet you! .36 • • • Aims: parents brother(s) sister(s) • • experience thanking To encourage students to find out information related to their friends’ background for their presentation next task. .How do you work at school? Do you join all school activities? .Where were you born? . The teacher elicit situation and ask students to make questions basing on given information. I’m Lan.Hello.What is your favorite subject?/ What subject do you like best? 2. 1.When were you born? . page 35.Which primary school did you go to? .Could you tell me about your parents? What do your father/ mother do? .

Thank you very much. 4. students can collect information to talk about the friend they have interviewed for reporting at the end of the lesson. 3. Teacher walks around to encourage and help students if necessary. therefore. Most students are eager to do the task because they can do it in role of the interviewers. The following sequence. . Many find. Most teachers hope that they will be able to organize discussion sessions in their classroom.  Talks/discussions Discussion is a valuable form of learning a language. The first thing to remember is that people need time to assemble their thoughts before any discussion. The ability to give spontaneous and articulate opinions is challenging in our language. Thanks a lot. yes! / Oh. good! / Oh. however.Oh. . 5.I think it’s time to stop. stresses the need for discussion preparation and shows the teacher building the discussion up in stages. come on! . Students work in pairs to do the interview. After doing this task. That was very interesting. Source: English Textbook 10.How nice to see you! . . Teacher calls some pairs to do the interview before class. particularly of the exchange of opinions provokes spontaneous fluent language use. that discussion sessions are less successful than they had hoped..Thank you for giving me time. 2006.Since when have you studied at this school? ..Let me see.Could you tell me something about your parents? .37 . . let alone the language we are struggling to learn. Education Press.

In one group. with different opinions being freely exchanged. This kind of discussion can be formalized into a proper debate – speakers on different sides giving speeches. but at least the topic has been introduced and the students are enjoying thinking about movies. he encourages other students to ask questions about that opinion. Did they enjoy it? Was it funny? Serious? Violent? The replied he gets at this point will be fairly monosyllabic. students have to think of (and make notes about) ways of stopping the portrayal of violence in films. he can work on any language arising out of the activity. When a student has given it. is questioned. He then asks a different student to say what can be done about it. When students have had a chance to think of ideas (with the teacher going round to individual groups offering help where necessary). The teacher now says that the class is going to concentrate on the issue of violence in films. the students have to think (and make notes about) the level of violence in films and what effects it might have. 0 1 2 3 4 5 or by giving the class a number of different statements. e. when the activity has run out of steam. . In another group. students have to think up (and make notes about) reasons why the level of violence in films is quite justifiable and un-worrying. The teacher keeps prompting in this way until the conversation takes off. In another group. comments from ‘the floor’ and a vote at the end. It can also be provoked by giving pairs statements they have to assess on a 0 (=completely disagree) to 5 (=completely agree) scale for. Finally he asks a student from the ‘violence isn’t working’ group to disagree with the idea that violence in movies is a bad thing. Is there too much? Does it matter? Should anything be done about it? He puts the students into groups.38 The teacher starts by asking individual students to name the last film they saw. They have to choose one and defend it. he asks for an opinion about violence from one of the groups. There’s too much violence in movies. Later.g. and that student in turn.

after the discussion is over. He asks students close their books and answer his questions: 1. What trees in Van Mieu continue to flourish even now? The answers for these questions can be taken from the reading lesson of Unit 16. After students answer all questions. Quizzes can be used to test materials that you have previously taught.  Quizzes According to some teachers’ experience. With such a topic as historical places (Unit 16. When and when was Van Mieu – Quoc Tu Giam originally built? 2. Almost certainly. The important thing is that students need to be Engaged with the topic. plays such as quizzes are one of the successful activity types. for example) and move quickly to Activate stages – which include the discussion itself. short story or even Vietnamese story related to the topic. They then might do some Study (if there is a necessity for language input. What were their functions? 3. Therefore. facts or fingers through pictures. facts or fingers. What is special about the stele there? 5.39 There are many discussions possible. this kind of discussion is only successful if they have background knowledge of the discussed topics. In general. Where is President Ho Chi Minh’s Mausoleum situated? . but they are also useful in learning new information for their presentation later. Or teacher can use given information in Task 1 in the speaking lesson (Unit 16) as the warmer. teacher introduces new lesson: Today we will talk about some historical places in Vietnam. teacher can use quiz as a completion in which students will answer the questions as follow: 1. for example. it is necessary for the teacher to provide his students with language input. Textbook for 10-form students). however there will be feedback. including Study. Why is Van Mieu – Quoc Tu Giam a place of interest? 4.

Simulations general divide into three phases: firstly. and a simulated public meeting a third. shown her in Figure 1. It is not performed for an audience. Simulations do not as a category provides any basis for predicting the kinds of language skills that learners will use: it depends what kind of simulation is being considered. When did the construction of the Mausoleum finish? 4. and the participants work together within the constraints of the imaginary setting.40 2. quizzes will be more interested if teacher give students some small rewards like candies. the problem-solving discussion. a stage for giving the participants necessary information. Can we take photographs inside the Mausoleum? Quizzes are preferred by most of students. a simulated interview another. However. When did the construction of the Mausoleum start? 3.  Simulations Another kind of oral activity which can be used in the classroom is the simulation. once the nature of the simulation is known. When can we visit the Mausoleum? 5. a simulated committee meeting is likely to produce one kind of interaction. Indeed a single simulation often consists of several different kinds of interaction. and thirdly. in which the participants may act as themselves or in social roles. We will use the term here to denote an activity which involves decision-making. Herbert and Sturtridge (1979) illustrate this in their diagram. including the three just mentioned. It is however possible to make some predictions. For instance. pens or even good comments. notebooks. follow-up work. PHASE 1 Information Input Language work based on the task The role-cards (if any) The background to the task Technical data Linguistic Input Classroom practice of the language of discussion and essential lexis . secondly.

And as every language teacher knows. taking the one of Unit 10 (Conservation.41 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PHASE 2 Sub-group discussions Discussion of the task -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PHASE 3 Follow–up Further work arising from the discussion Follow-up Feedback and evaluation session Immediate remedial work Figure 1: The structure of simulation This kind of activity can be carried out during an English speaking lesson. Appendix 3). In this lesson. students will get information in reading part in task 1 and 2. Then they work in groups to find out advantages and disadvantages of zoos of the new kind in task 3. students love to talk about themselves. 3. . for example. It will be better for students to give their ideas and present it on their own way. After all.3. they make a report to share their views with the rest of the class. Practical tips for teachers  Personalization Only by personalizing activities and content can we hope to lead students to better understanding of the discussed topic.

They have more opportunities for using the target language. Students learn more in groups.  Pair work and group-work Pair –work and group-work are the most useful and preferable to students in the speaking class in general and in presentation task in particular. Specifically. students will have more language practice. but consistently using material or a way of speaking that is too difficult is a sure way to make students lose their interest in a target-culture. mistakes. for example. these organizations have many advantages. Although using pair work and group work has some problems.42  Suitable Level of Difficulty We are working with EFL students. and then presenting it before the class. discussing the target culture. it’s difficult to control the class. more involved in the language task. students can make noise. . It is not necessary that they understand every word and indeed a challenge is wonderful for learning. feel secure and help each other. so we must constantly remember that they probably will not understand everything that we say.

Some teachers who have a good relationship with their students can intervene appropriately during a speaking activity if they do it in a quiet non-obtrusive way. there are no hard and fast rules about correcting. the teacher gets students interested in the topic. To sump up. the students do the task while the teacher watches and listens and they then study any language issues that the teacher has identifies as being problems. The most important thing is that the speaking activities will help students be eager to do tasks in textbook and result in a confident presentation at the end of the speaking lesson. Of course. the speaking activities in this chapter tend to follow the same basic pattern: Engage-Activate-Study – that is. But it is a risky enterprise. The general principle of watching and listening so that teachers can give feedback later is usually much more appropriate.43  Mistake correction It is important for teachers to correct students’ mistakes made during speaking activities. However. . teachers should consider the suitable ways to correct otherwise they will destroy the purpose of the speaking activity.

in the process of international integration. In addition. Then. some hypotheses were put forward and examined by the survey data analysis afterward. Though the survey was conducted on a limited number of . The results of the survey have pointed out the positive attitudes of both teachers and students towards the important role of presentation to English teaching and learning. and role–plays. factors that prevent students from presenting. The study has indicated the presentation activities which students prefer and find them most motivating and useful in an English speaking class including discussions. In the study. the study is aimed to suggest some classroom activities to stimulate the presentation ability of the 10th form students at Marie Curie High school. the author knows that the biggest difficulties when students deal with presentation task are the lack of knowledge as for students and the lack of materials as for teachers. some possible implications to stimulate students’ presentation ability at Marie Curie High school are suggested. For these reasons. First of all. Moreover. English is still the most popular foreign language to connect people. both theory and practice are taken into consideration. The significant part of the study is the survey from which the author has discovered some findings as follows. In this chapter. 1. Therefore. through the study. the study reviewed some theoretical background including the definitions of presentation. the demand to present an idea in English is increasing.44 PART III CONCLUSION The previous chapters have provided answers to the research questions. Summary of the study Recently. countries together. Finally. I will give a summary of the important findings and some discussion about the limitations and suggestions for further study. and integrating skills needed to collect information in English speaking class. presentation in English is widely used in most fields.

Accordingly.45 teachers and students. Lastly. the findings may not be applied to a larger number of informants. the researcher has also suggested some activities based on her experience in teaching in an English speaking class at high school. Suggestions for further study Firstly. there should be more research into designing activities that help students understand more about presentation and give them some techniques for an effective presentation. Secondly. . the researcher hopes to work with other colleagues to combine and compile some more supplementary materials that are useful for students when they deal with presentation tasks. it will hopefully raise 10th form students’ ability of presenting discussed topics at Marie Curie High school. this study has focused on some activities to raise students’ presentation ability in the English speaking class. Limitations of the study The study has been conducted in a short time and the data have been attained from a small number of particular students at Marie Curie High school. It should be done in a more comprehensive way in the class of reading. listening. and writing. so the findings may hold true for the teaching and learning in Marie Curie context. 3. 2. Moreover.

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J. (1981). 79(1). (1992). P. (1991). Malaysia: Longman Harmer. (1991). & Young. Horwitz. Đỗ Tuấn Minh. London: NFER. K. 562-570. T. K.. K. Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Language anxiety and achievement.. Herbert. Longman. Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục.. Foreign language classroom anxiety. . Horwitz. (1986). Practical techniques for language teaching. 21. The Mordern Language Journal. & Cope. & Horwitz. MacIntyre. J.. Johnson. 125-132. Simulations. D and Sturtridge. G. J. Malaysia: Addition Wesley Longman Limited. 90-99. (1979). W. and Hill. Cambridge University Press. D. Hoàng Văn Vân. D. E. M. M. The Modern Language Journal... Communicative approach to language Teaching. Englewood Cliffs. Longman Horwitz. Oxford University Press. How does anxiety affect foreign language learning: A reply to Spark and Ganschow. J. Hoàng Thị Xuân Hoa. Harmer. The practice of language teaching. Johnson. Nguyễn Thu Phương. J.K. (1995). Tiếng Anh 10. England. Communicative language teaching. Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and non-anxious language learners’ reactions to their own oral performance. K. The Modern Language Journal. (1999). (2001). J. K and Morrow. Language Teaching Publications. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. A. How to teach English. and Brumfit (1983). Horwitz. K. (2001). 70(2). Nguyễn Quốc Tuấn (2006). How to teach English: An introduction to the practice of English language teaching. Lewis. (2002). Harmer. Communication in the classroom. NJ: Prentice Hall. E. Malaysia. 86(4).B. (1981). 112-126. Việt Nam.47 Gregersen. E. E. Littlewood.

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30-40 minutes . 5-10 minutes C. Sometimes B. never B. 1. very important D. not very important 3. Not always B. rarely C. 0 minute 4. You can be confident that you will not be identified in any discussions or data analysis. In your opinion. 20-30 minutes E. No C. does presentation teaching require spending a lot of time reading materials before each lesson? A. For some questions you can tick more than one answer. Thank you very much for your cooperation and assistance! Please tick the answer you think the most suitable. or write some words to some questions. not important at all 2. How important is presentation to English learning and teaching? A. How much time do you usually spend on teaching presentation in a 45-minute English lesson? A. 10-20 minutes D. rather important E.I APPENDIX 1 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE (FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH) This survey questionnaire is designed for the study on raising students’ presentation in English speaking classes at Marie Curie High school. Essential C. How often do you find yourself motivated enough to teach presentation in your speaking lessons? A. Yes B. Your assistance in completing the following questions is greatly appreciated.

receiver and giver C.…… 8. individually D. what do you find most useful? A. oppose . in groups C. agree D. in groups C. You can’t give satisfactory explanations to the issues discussed. strongly oppose 9. none of them 6. Which activities do you often carry out in a speaking lesson? A. What do you think about the learner-teacher interaction? A. What are the difficulties when you teach your students presentation in your English classes? A. C. strongly agree C. in pairs B. If you have a presentation activity in the English speaking class. in pairs B.…………………………………………………. customer and shopkeeper E. Whether students should design the teaching plan together with teachers or not. You are lack of knowledge of related topics. D. raw material and maker D. none of them 7.. individually D. Others: (please specify). Students are lazy and passive B. partners B. neutral B.II 5. my opinion is: A. explorer and director B.

1. not very important E. year(s) Please tick the answer you think the most suitable. Class: …………………………………………. How much time do you usually spend on presentation task in a 45-minute English lesson? . important C. rather important D. or write some words to some questions. interesting D. What is your opinion of presentation task in English speaking class? A. not very interesting B. essential B.III APPENDIX 2 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE (FOR STUDENTS OF ENGLISH) This survey questionnaire is designed for the study on raising students’ presentation in English speaking classes at Marie Curie High school. You can be confident that you will not be identified in any discussions or data analysis. Thank you very much for your cooperation and assistance! Please give your answers: Name: ………………………………………….. very interesting C. For some questions you can tick more than one answer. Your assistance in completing the following questions is greatly appreciated. not interesting at all 3. not important at all 2. Time of learning English: ………………. How important is presentation to English learning and teaching? A.

. Interviews G. How does your teacher organize these speaking activities? A.IV A. sometimes E. Your teacher’s task gives you no stimulus D. never B. B. TV D. Individuals B. Writing lesson H: Others (please specify): ……………………………………………………. What activities do you like most in a presentation task? A. 20-30 minutes B. You are afraid of making mistakes .. When do you speak English in the English speaking class? A. Pairs C. 5-10 minutes C. always B. often D. None of them 8. 5. Groups D. Pairs C. Listening lesson C. How often does your teacher give speaking activities so that you can build up a report in the presentation task? A. C. Groups D. Newspapers E. You feel shy in front of your classmates C. When the teacher ask you The lesson is interesting When your classmates talk to you 9. Individuals B. Reading lesson 6. 10-20 minutes D. You have nothing to say B. usually C. What prevents you from speaking English in the class time? A. In what ways do you obtain information about your discussed topics? A. None of them 7. 30-40 minutes 4. Internet F.

who is famous for his programme of breeding endangered animals and reintroducing them into the wild. 1. Instead. they want to be seen as places where endangered species can develop. Then share your ideas with a partner. Task 2. this can be risky. Yes No animals may have better food animals may suffer from dangerous diseases. They don’t want to be seen as places where animals are imprisoned against their will.V APPENDIX 3 Unit 10: CONSERVATION B. Put a tick (√) in the right box to show your agreement or disagreement. Read the paragraphs and answer the questions. . So there appears a new kind of zoo. The zoo has the largest gorillas in the world and its policy is to provide as natural an environment as possible for the animals. At times. animals may do what they want to In the zoo of the new kind animals may develop. SPEAKING Task 1. Howletts Zoo in Kent is owned by John Aspinall. They want to reconstruct the animals’ natural environment. Zoos are very sensitive about their image nowadays. For what purpose are zoos of the new king opened? 2. and some keepers have been injured and one has been killed. What are their main features? A. B. Work in pairs.

Task 3.VI animals may feel happier. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of zoos of the new kind. Make group reports. Work in groups. . Use the cues below: the conditions the animals are in the money spent on reconstructions of the animals’ natural environment the animals that people want to visit the dangers that keepers may have Task 4. sharing your views with the rest of the class.

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