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Comparison between Russian and Chinese revolutions

Russian - October Revolution (Октябрьская революция) 1917 Chinese – War of Liberation ( 解放战争) 1949
Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin won the revolution in less than The CCP led by Mao took power after a 22 year long brutal civil
eight months after the Provisional government had taken power war against the KMT (Kuomintang) after WW2. The revolution
during WW1. The revolution was carried out mainly by the was carried out mainly by peasants who at the time made up
proletariats (working class) of Russia’s rural areas. most of China’s largely agrarian country.
The new Soviet government had opposition internally and The CCP had large popular support from the peasants during the
externally. The Russian civil war broke out soon after their fight for the revolution. There was almost no opposition after
establishment lasting from 1917- 1923. they took power.
The newly established RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist The prolong revolution allowed the CCP to establish and develop
Republic) was the first of its kind and during its humble their own organizational forms and administrative structures.
beginnings was dependant on the bureaucratic methods of the This gave them experienced administrators and so were not
old government for the time being. dependant on the old regime bureaucratic apparatus.

When Soviet Russia was first established it was isolated by The newly born PRC was fortunate enough to have some sort of
foreign powers and had almost no aid from any other country. an ally. The powerful socialist USSR standing near its borders
The Allies of WW1 fought against the Bolsheviks in order to re- gave the new Chinese state some measure of security. As the
open the Eastern front but ultimately failed. historian Maurice Meisner said “Soviet economic and technical
aid which, while it was to prove far less than anticipated, was
nevertheless significant.”
The economy and industry of Russia during the time of the China after sustaining multiple wars during the 19th and 20th
revolution, while poor was nevertheless much more developed centuries was marked by a tremendously weaken economy and
than the war-ravaged economy and industry of China in 1949. economic backwardness.

Conclusion: These key aspects were significant in how the Chinese were to determine the character of social development
after 1949. Ultimately Mao would interpret Marxism and accustomed it to the needs of China at the time. This would cause
friction between him and Stalin over the differences in each other’s perspective of communism and in time would eventually
show repeatedly between him and future Soviet leaders.