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THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study In the stage of globalization, organizations responded to the changing business prospect by restructuring and rightsizing in order to address pressures brought about by stiff competition and survival. This contributed much if not the cause of human relations problems especially in the nature of employer-employee
relationship. Responses of the organization to these changes are to renegotiate, manage, if not cancel the employment relationships, promises, and commitments they have traditionally established with their employees (Kickul & Lester, 2001) With respect to these contentions, it is essential to recognize the human resource management and human resource programs of the organization to be valuable. As Robbins (2003) claimed, more and more organizations today face a dynamic and changing environment which requires these organizations to adapt. ³Change or die!´ is the rallying cry among today¶s managers worldwide and
the most important force for change mentioned, among others, is the nature of the workforce. Needs of workers have pluralized and become distinct from each other. As Reece and Brandt (2002) put up, the variation in individual motives often leads to a breakdown in human
relationships unless individuals take the time to understand the motives of their colleagues. Reward system in organizations attracts, retains, and motivates qualified employees. Hence, benchmark quality. In the Philippines, educational institutions are facing stiff competition; thus, development in all aspects of the faculty is imperative. With this, it is very important to stress that school managers inquire into their teachers¶ present need systems. Cor Jesu College, Inc. (CJC), as a school organization greatly faces competition. Challenge is proposed by other schools in the locality and neighboring cities through the offering curricular programs (e.g. BSIT, BSHRM) that capture the global market of work. At this point, rich human relations program is imperative especially to foster better employment relationship and that this organization should carry out human resource planning so as to
meet school objectives and gain advantage over other school competitors (Noe, et al, 2007). In employment, reciprocal exchange relationship is very evident which appears when the faculty member joins the school organization. Psychological Thereby, contract, need system develops to every and mounts.
relationship, spurs in mounting up this need system. This propels this study to be conducted because the researcher believes it¶s quite essential contribution to the organization. As conceived by Martires (2001), a very significant factor in the efficient
performance or retention of workers is their motivation and its strength. From this end, it is very important for Cor Jesu College as a school organization to know the mounting needs of their faculty and how these influence their affective commitment and job performance because CJC has committed to display academic excellence. Since the researcher is one of the full-time faculty members of Cor Jesu College, he attempted to gather pertinent data regarding work motivation, affective commitment and job
performance of the faculty. As such, this study was conducted in
the hope of determining the extent of significant relationship of compensation; job itself; administration and supervision;
professional growth and opportunities; and work environment through social interaction opportunities to the emotional
attachment of faculty toward the school organization and their outstanding performance. The findings of this study would serve as database in the formulation of effective human resource
development to improve employees¶ affective commitment and job performance. Theoretical Background The present study is anchored on Equity theory of Adams developed in 1965 (Robbins, 2003) which supports the explanatory framework of psychological contract. If breach occurs, people are motivated to reduce or remove the discrepancy by altering their attitudes or changing their behaviors to maintain equity. In an exchange relationship each party is obligated to reciprocate the actions of another, if one party¶s contribution to the other is less than what is expected by the other party, the aggrieved party will lessen his or her contribution to maintain equity with the relationship. This relationship is very significant to emphasize since
the research study leans on the idea that whatever is felt and understood by the employees when it comes to compensation, job itself, administration and supervision, professional growth and development opportunities, and its social interaction with coworkers, which then motivate them to have greater affective commitment and display desirable behavior required in performing the job. This is supported by the Social Exchange Theory of Blau asserting that when one party provides something to another party, the second party is under pressure to give something in return (Larbes, 1999). Underlying this exchange is the norm of reciprocity advanced by Gouldner in 1960 which maintains that if a person does something favorable to another party, the other party is obligated by social convention to return the favor (Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2005). Furthermore, the Social Exchange Framework was later modified by John Thibault and Harold Kelley to make framework in the field of social psychology. Recently, modern social exchange theory is renamed as homo socioeconomicus by Lindenberg in 1990 or homo economicus matarus by Frey and Oberholzer-Gee in 1997 (Zafirovski, 2003).
Social exchanges are regulated by norms like reciprocity. Furthermore. and fairness. The presentation of topics related to the variables being investigated are organized according to work motivation indicators which are compensation.com/social exchange ± theory-1532-1535-iemf). professional job itself. this section presents the review of foreign and local literature and studies most relevant to the current study. and co- workers¶ social relationship. trust and commitment result from the emergent experiences of individuals within relationships and help to stabilize relationships and the stability of relationships over time result from the contrasting levels of attraction and dependence experienced by the participants in the relationship (http:// encyclopedias families. growth and development opportunities. administration and supervision.6 Embedded within the exchange framework are the assumptions about the nature of exchange relationships which are social exchanges characterized by inter-dependence. justice. Facts and findings from abroad and . that is. the ability to obtain profits in a relationship is contingent on the ability to provide others with rewards.
Thus. motivation carries a lot of cultural underpinnings that Filipino manager should know what theory of motivation should be applied. . Motivated employees help organizations survive. To Martires (1999). and the most significant. Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. feel and perform certain ways. These are the roles of motivation in the workplaces according to Lindner (1998). Motivation as defined by Moorhead and Griffin (2004) is a set of forces that causes people to engage in one behavior rather than some alternative behavior. Motivated employees are more productive. directs. Motivation Hoy and Miskel (2009) defined motivation as an internal state that stimulates. yet elusive determinant of work behavior. It is intrinsic. it is a natural tendency to seek and accept challenges as everybody pursues personal interest and exercise capabilities.7 local scenes about organizational commitment and performance were presented. and maintains behavior to think.
on the other hand. 1998). it was surveyed that the ranked order of motivating factors were: (a) interesting work. fringe supervision.8 Herzberg as cited by Hoy and Miskel (2009) emphasized that if the employee¶s motivational factors are not met. advancement. working conditions. but if any of them is absent. administration. they may begin to ask for more maintenance factors. Maintenance factors represent the basic things people consider essential to any job. the organizational climate that results can hurt employee morale and lower worker productivity. (g) . benefits. Motivational factors on the other hand. They include opportunities for recognition. (b) good wages. These basic maintenance factors do not act as motivators. are those elements that go above and beyond the basic maintenance factors. or more responsibility. such as salaries. Lindner conducted a study on employee motivation (Journal of Extension. When these are present. (e) good working conditions (f) promotions and growth in the organization. they tend to motivate employees to improve productivity (Reece and Brandt 2002). (c) full appreciation of work done (d) job security. argues that it is not quite correct to say that motivation is only a maintenance function. Martires (1999). and organizational policies social and relationships.
Mison. . Extrinsic motivators. The whole problem is the development of attitudes. Intrinsic motivators. satisfaction with job title (an indication of respect for employees) training and development opportunities as discovered in the research conducted by World at Work/Sibson Company on factors that could retain employees (http/www. benefit the employees while on the job. The most important predictors of retention were career opportunities. such as holiday pay. job security. According to McCoy as cited by Zilmann (2000). sick leave. Although there are various literatures and studies that show how competent motivation is in improving productivity of organizations however. and (j) sympathetic help with personal problems. such as clean restrooms or a nice cafeteria or break room. feedback from the supervisor. and medical/dental plans are best enjoyed by the employees when they are away from their job.worldatwork.9 feeling of being in on things. (i) tactful discipline. (h) personal loyalty to employees. managers can also use intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to increase employee performance and productivity. et al. (1996) contend that the problem in worker motivation is not getting the workers to do their assigned job but enlisting their cooperation and loyalty for the company.org/).
supervision and administration. Compensation Compensation often plays a singular role when organizations restructure. As Milkovich and Newman (2002) claim.10 loyalties and capacities for making sacrifices toward an entity that has greater consequence in the individual worker than his own job or his personal welfare. pay is a powerful signal of change. Enormous literatures and studies were looked deeply by the researcher to determine its crucial point as motivators. Body of literature and studies agree and disagree that compensation. It can be a leading catalyst for change or a follower of the change. professional growth and development opportunities and co-workers are motivating factors. are met either directly or indirectly. even including some non-material ones. . job itself. Pay indeed can capture attention of employees. Martires (1999) heaps on that pay and benefits a worker receives are a yardstick of how adequately his needs. Martires (1999) defined compensation as the equivalent in any form that is given to the individual for his work.
2002). From equity or organizational justice theory. The advocates of need for achievement theory opine that pay and other material rewards often signal that a person is successful hence. Arnold.11 Authorities in organizational behavior books and human resource books inquired if compensation package of a certain company really serves as motivating factors. and he or she can identify behaviors. (2002) conducted a study on the performance based pay and found that pay had a stronger impact on individual and corporate performance. As such. people will be concerned with whether their play is a fair reward relative to the rewards received by others. pay is a motivator. al. pay will be an effective motivator to the extent that it is desired by the person. such theory is not accepted as work motivation theory. & Taylor. Gerhard and Milkovich and Newman. Torrington. Goal setting theory on the other hand. In expectancy theory. et. Hali. However. Milkovich and Newman (2002) opine that pay is one of the more . (2005) postulates the theory of Maslow which stressed that pay would be a motivator only for people functioning at the lower levels of the hierarchy needs. involves goals that defined in terms of a person¶s behavior and or accomplishments not pay (Robbins 2003.
P. J. (2002) claimed that companies of today have been reexamining the use of bonus schemes for more junior employees in order to increase motivation. (2002). it was warned that pay has a strong impact if the scheme used is a variable portion of pay rather than the base pay (293). Sando.. et. as Torrington. al. Such being the case. (1998) conducted a meta-analysis of existing research and found a substantial positive impact of monetary reward on the quantity of work. O.al. management shall . Employees who feel they are not compensated fairly will look for work in institutions that are willing to pay them more. it was suggested that to help retain employees.al. In the local study made by Sr. one can say that financial rewards tend to enhance performance.12 visible rewards in the whole recruitment process. The contention is especially true to young workers of today. Further. 2005). especially when they are seen as fair and providing accurate feedback about how well the person is doing. The impact of monetary rewards on performance did not seem to be affected by whether the task was boring or interesting (Arnold. Jenkins. However. it was found out that the most successful retention methods are strongly tied to factors affecting employee¶s compensation. et. et. but not on the quality of work.
2002). 2002).13 conduct compensation reviews and adjust salaries to keep them competitive with other healthcare organizations and similar positions in other fields. such as increase salaries and fringe benefits (Reece and Brandt. thus affecting their organizational commitment. They successfully retained their best employees by using three-pronged solution: raise base wages immediately to ensure . the Adam¶s equity theory was strengthened. 2002). they may begin to ask for more maintenance factors. Herzberg theories state that if employee¶s motivational factors are not met. employment is an economic reciprocal arrangement (Malkovich & Newman. et. It is with this fact that Malkovich and Newman studied if pay could be a reason of employees staying in or leaving a firm. Another example that used money to retain employees is of the Fleet Financial Group which had experienced rapid and unacceptable turnover in information technology jobs during the 1990s. Employers also seek to use the payment contract to motivate employees and thus to improve their work performance (Torrington. 2002). In today¶s era. (Malkovich & Newman. al. in which worker who feels unfairly treated in pay react by leaving the firm for greener pastures. In their study.
there are authorities who claimed that compensation is not a factor in motivating employees to remain in the job nor could be a factor to improve performance. and give a retention bonus to anyone who stayed through March 2000. According to Moorhead and Griffin (2004). Compensation should be a fair reward for the individual¶s contributions to the organizations and the compensation should be a competitive in the external labor for the organization to attract and retain competent workers in appropriate fields. one of the most progressive companies in the world that coped up with the threats of globalization has taken steps to make sure that its compensation system is clear and understandable. Malkovich & Newman. ( 2000). grant stocks options to selected employees in the group. that is. 2002). Different employers set different pay levels. 2004). An effectively planned and managed pay system can improve motivation and performance.14 equity with the external market. The General Electric Company. However. (Moorhead & Griffin. . (Malkovich & Newman. the organization¶s structure must be equitable and consistent to ensure equality of treatment and compliance with the law. they deliberately choose to pay above or below what others are paying for the same work.
one discovery contributes to the inquisitive mood of this researcher. rather a hygiene or maintenance factor. Thompson and others (Torrington. With the hodgepodge of agreements and disagreements of compensation as motivator. 2005) in the first place theorized that pay is not a motivator. 2003. To Herzberg (Torrington. agreed that there is little to be gained and a great deal to lose from the introduction of the incentives schemes. 2001) suggested that the administrators and non-master teachers had least concern for ³augmented salary´. pay has a limited capacity to motivate positively. can even easily demotivate when managed poorly. In the local researches. .al.15 Herzberg (Robbins. The controversial issues of minimum wage increase of President Clinton. et. 2002).al. Malkovich and Newman claimed that pay could improve performance by quantity but not quality (2002). Arnold. at. Other authorities would even claim that incentives are perceived by employees as tools of management control which reduce their autonomy and discretion. the finding of Pelagio (Modern Teacher. at. Feb. This is supported by the contention of Robbins (2003) that money and promotions typically are low on the priority list of professionals.al. 2002). This causes resentment and leads to dissatisfaction and industrial conflict.
a practice leader at Sibson and Company (an American Compensation Association) announced . 2000:http://www. ³Generation Y´.worldatwork. especially with direct financial and career rewards (Johnson. the newest generation to enter the workforce. 1998). Contrary to the popular wisdom. In short pay was not a motivator because workers were retrenched or resigned from the job because of multiplicity of works (Moorhead & Griffin. is different from other cohorts in some respects. Multiple jobs were prearranged by owners to cope up because business industries operated with a paper thin margin of profits that the increase of minimum wage forced them to pay higher wages. According to Gerry Ledford.16 The increase of minimum wage instigated controversy when the congress and President Clinton passed a bill in 1996 raising the minimum wage for all American workers. Another study strengthens the fact that pay is not a motivator especially for the freshmen in the world of world.org/). This group is also less satisfied than its older counterparts. cash rewards and work content are less useful for retaining members of this group than others. In the study conducted by Rewards of Work (ROW) 2000 (a research organization that particularly concerns on wages and salary and this tied up with World at Work Organization).
com). that is.These findings have prompted more this researcher to find out if compensation is a motivator that influence affective organizational commitment. appealing exchange of rewards from the company in return for the employee¶s motivated effort and continued employment in the firm. Another study which suggests that money is often not the biggest motivator for an employee is the survey on ³40 Strategies for Winning in Business´ by Haney and Sirbasku (1997). indirect financial rewards (benefits). satisfying work content. And job performance since the younger teaching personnel has edge in number in Cor Jesu College. It was found that only 15% of employees left their jobs because of inadequate salary and benefits. monetary) rewards. and long-term career opportunities.sibson. affiliation with an admirable organization. The study found that of the job leavers surveyed: 30% were unhappy with management and the way they managed 25% felt they received no respect for good .17 their findings during the 2000 World at Work International Conference & Exposition: The five types of rewards examined in the study are financial (that is. He especially noted in the exposition that ³All are necessary for companies that wish to offer and attractive employee value proposition. ³(http//www.
Jr. Inc: http://www.com/concept.successmotivation. such as salary. (http://www. McCoy as cited by Zillman (2000) strengthened this claim by saying. He added (58) that well judged management and teaching incentives are necessary but not sufficient for encouraging commitment to teaching as an activity that calls upon initiative and inspiration. sabbatical) (1997-2005 Profiles International. that . Rowland (1996) found that psychological rewards were more important than the economic rewards for their retention. bad management and lack of incentives might be expected to provoke motivational crises in the form of apathy or stress. These claims are agreed by the local author Iñigo. (2002). 20% complained of limited opportunities for advancement.18 work. career change. 15% cited inadequate salary and benefits. may be a hygiene factor. their goals and their experience of the workplace. In the study of nurses who resigned from their jobs. Equally. 5% were bored with the job 5% cited other reasons (retirement. a motivator or a negative motivator. a fair and equitable compensation system can ensure employee¶s trust in management that helps prevent turnover. depending on the person.html) Knight commented (2002) that something.org/).worldatwork.
Job itself Herzberg theorized (Arnold. there is no correlation between monetary rewards and productivity. increased and growth and development are satisfying factors relating to job itself. Moorhead & Griffin. or executive indifference. These huge literatures and studies on compensation strengthened the inquisitive desire of the researcher to investigate more in order to find out if compensation package in school organizations like Cor Jesu College influence the faculty¶s emotional attachment or elicits outstanding performance. According to the study of Lee & Tarce cited by Martires (2002).19 money could be a motivator but not the best because it gives rise to defensive or retaliatory behavior such as union organization. poor quality workmanship. With that Robbins (2003) claimed that today¶s progressive workplace is being modified to accommodate the . challenging work. 2007) that job itself is a motivator. To Martires (2002).. recognition for accomplishment. interesting work becomes more of a motivator. 2004. Hoy & Miskel. achievement. 2005.al. There are authorities who claim that as employees get older.et.
and individual growth (Reece and Brandt. Being a good teacher is about personal skill deployed in an environment rich in appropriate affordances. Reece and Brandt (2002) likewise claimed that . not job environment. Psychologists Frederick Herzberg said that motivation comes from internal stimulus resulting from job content. This includes providing a wide range of scheduling opinions and benefits that allow employees more flexibility at work and which allows them to better balance or integrate and personal lives. job challenge for professionals tends to be ranked high. He has suggested that jobs be enriched to provide challenge. Internal motivations occur when the tasks or duty performed is in itself a reward (Reece and Brandt. 2002). While happiness with working conditions and remuneration are important. opportunity for achievement. our expectations as teachers. the practices we take for granted and our beliefs what is good are influenced by the contexts in which we are. Their chief reward in their job is the work itself. To Knight (2002). 2002).20 varied needs of a diverse workforce. To Robbins (2003). a challenge to their ability and an opportunity for achievement. the motivated and created input of people is brought out largely by providing them satisfaction in their jobs.
³Or such work if not motivating at all becomes stressful to the employee. and physical as well as the emotional. Brookfield (1999) and Palmer (1998) have made similar claims about the importance of these psychic rewards of higher education. He contested more that good teaching flourishes when motivation to teach is part of the fabric of the job. both on and off the job. Catt as cited by Zilman (2000). when the work and its social settings make it relatively easy and quite natural to teach well (60). His said that it is useful to appreciate the teaching is an emotional activity in which psychic rewards are important.21 learning opportunities. 2002) upon saying that ³the chance to learn new skills or apply them in new arenas is an important motivator in a turbulent environment because it¶s oriented toward securing the future. They are not teaching for money (knight 2002). can be a strong motivational force. Knight (2002) clarifies the understanding to intrinsic motivational strategies for improving teaching quality. thus. This idea is agreed by Rosabeth Moss Kanter (Reece and Brandt. making him or her perform less or leave the organization. . claimed that worker¶s motivation is also influenced by the nature of the job itself. employment expectations.
22 make-up of employees. et. Job security is relatively high (75 percent positive) in retaining employees to the job according to ROW 2000. it resulted that workers were reasonably satisfied with their pay. motivation is present when one is ganado. it found out that teachers (master and non-master) believed that one who finds joy and pride in his or her work or position is at his/her maximum in his/her usefulness to his or her organization. (Bowditch and Buono. When we speak of a positive job attitude or job satisfaction.al. (Philippine Journal of Psychology. hence. In the local study of Pelagio (Modern Teacher February 2001). when one is motivated to work. working conditions. 2005). when one needs to prove his worth. in a study conducted by Taylor (Moorhead & Griffin. Though various literatures and studies emphasized that job itself is rewarding. provides driving force of the worker. However. in the Phil. 1997) According to Tomas Andres (1996) as cited by Tang. Motivation comes from within the Filipino. when his self-worth is boosted. 1998) on the automobile industry. and quality . we mean that the people involved tend to have pleasant internal feelings when they think about their jobs. from his loob. Setting.
she expressed that in the field of educational leadership. So this means that rather than analyzing the tasks that make up the job. et. Supervision and Administration Managers strive to motivate people in the organization to perform at high levels (Torrington. According to Sinlao (2002). These encouragements somehow help the organization to achieve its goals.23 of their supervision. Milkovich and Newman (2002) claimed that managers of today are not focusing on the job itself. Managers are experimenting variety of responses to the challenge of constantly changing work.al 2004). In fact. therefore. The supervisors and managers are in the appropriate capacity to encourage their subordinates or perform better or develop emotional attachment to their organization. performance rating becomes irrelevant. the human force is the most vital element in the achievement of its goals. Hence. extreme dissatisfaction with the actual work was expressed. school managers are quite confused on how to bring out the best in . that leaders or managers need to know about the psychology of motivation. It is imperative. in any organization. however. they analyze the skills or competencies a person must possess to perform the work.
management capabilities of nurse supervisors in Cotabato regional and medical center and the job performance of their staff nurses. attributions and leadership styles of Asian and Western Managers. In the study of Pelagio (Modern Teacher Feb. Other studies exemplify the importance of leadership in motivating employees that affect performance or productivity. such administrators becomes a motivator to his or her teachers. In the study of Ticzon (2003). will win his subordinates¶ loyalty and support by establishing personal contact with them and showing awareness of their problems and sentiments. For Asian managers. consequently. Sinlao (2002) emphasized further that outstanding motivators are not necessarily the gregarious backslapping types at all. it . Moreover. according to the findings of MayoralgoNolasco (Philippine Journal of Psychology.it resulted that in terms of the motivation-hygiene features of the master teacher scheme. in such article it was noted that the administrator¶s displays to his or her teacher¶s personal example on how to handle failure and rejection.24 their teachers. the master teacher showed more concern for ³ exercise of leadership and initiative´ but not for better supervisory atmosphere. 2001). 2005) in her study on individualism-collectivism.
They should also be given other incentives that would further enhance their teaching competencies and strengthen their commitments. whether they are teaching specialized or nonspecialized courses. and identified drivers of retention associated with each of the five types of rewards. it was emphasized that the preponderance of female teachers showed that the teaching profession is more attractive to women than men. job security. In the study conducted by Pelagio (Modern Teacher. 2001) on the influence on the attitudes of public elementary school and administrators and teachers in the division of Cagayan. The ROW 2000 study investigated employee propensity to turnover. Growth and Development Opportunities Benito (1998) . recommended that the faculty should be provided with academic opportunities and adequate promotion for ranking and tenure.25 resulted that there was a positive correlation between the management capabilities of nurse supervisors and the job performance of staff nurses. The most important predictors of retention were career opportunities. feedback from the supervisor. satisfaction with job title (an indication of respect for employees) and training and development opportunities. it resulted . In the same study.
it resulted that all survey participants agreed that the method which work best is to promote employees from within rather than hire from outside of the organization. However.P. Sando. O. (2002) on factors prompting the voluntary turnover of nurses working in the private tertiary hospitals at Davao City. . Cooperation to create a professional development plan with clearly defined tracks for advancement and promotion gives employees an incentive to stay with an organization. In the study of Sr. worker¶s affiliation has no correlation to productivity. Co-workers It might seem obvious that an organization can enhance the motivation of its employees by creating conditions that foster and promote friendship and other close personal relationships as Moorhead & Griffin (2004) claimed. Robbins (2003) stressed that professionals place a high level of importance on having skill development opportunities. according to the study of Lee & Tarce as cited by Martires (2002).26 that every teacher needs to have ³some achievements´ to feel good about teachings and that every teacher needs to be rewarded and recognized for outstanding work.
Complicating matters even further is the fact that the strength or importance of social relationships to motivation will vary from person to person from very strong and meaningful to relatively weak and inconsequential. careful monitoring of their ideas. which resulted that low feelings of community. it resulted that there are teachers who need to be motivated through association with successful. disorderly classrooms. intra-organizational conflicts. and keeping a journal of their goals. and a record of their spiritual journey. were facilitated by value incongruence.27 Although social relationship with co-workers are essential in performance and organizational commitment. However. Moorhead and Griffin (2004) cite its danger when transfer of employees to different work settings or lay off members of its workforce to reduce costs happen. This finding gains . positive people. role overload. and specific community members¶ characteristics contribute much to the teacher¶s low performance due to feelings of inadequacy. such views are negated in the study conducted by Joffres and Haughey (2001). In the study of Sinlao (2002). the teacher¶s inability to build warm and nurturing relationships in their work communities. that is. attending classes and seminars.
al. successful work organizations need people who help each other out in addition to doing the core tasks of their jobs well. et. .28 support from Knight (2002): motivation and discomfort are created by individuals in networks of others.al. (2005).et. He added (56). Organizational Commitment The concept of organizational commitment has generated huge amounts of research from 1980s onwards.. J. (Arnold. According to Arnold. 2005). This is no doubt because it is what some employers say they want from employees. and your nonwork environments. all of whom are engaging with multiple tasks in shifting settings. Altruism or helping another person with a work task or problem is one of the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). being a teacher is a part of being a faculty member that competes or co-exists with other identities. These OCBs result when they feel they are treated fairly or just. Moorhead and Griffin (1998) likewise believe that in providing more opportunities for social interaction contingent on improved performance might capitalize on employee¶s needs. Being a teacher in higher education is about you and your work environments.
The results in the study of Wasti (Journal of Vocational Behavior.al. et. et. et. 2005 October) suggested that affective commitment is the primary driver of positive outcomes. .29 Organizational commitment is a psychological state where an employee identifies with the goals and desires to maintain membership with the organization (Robbins.al. et. (2005) have divided organizational commitment slightly different from the way described above: affective commitment essentially concerns the person¶s emotional attachment to his perception of the costs an risks associated with leaving his or her current organization and normative commitment is a moral dimension. based on a person¶s felt obligation and responsibility to his or her employing organization. Mowday. Allen and Meyer as cited by Arnold. Professionals have a strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise. 2005) defined organizational commitment as the relative strength of an individual identification with an involvement in an organization. 2001). 2003). especially when combined with low level of continuance commitment. Their loyalty is more often to their profession than to their employer (Millet. (Arnold.al.al.
30 Affective commitment according to Meyer and Allen (1997) refers to an actor¶s attachment to identification with. The supervisor has not clearly communicated standards to employee. supervision or a fellow worker. skills. Knowing that they can change careers can help individuals avoid becoming poor performers in their jobs as a result of career frustration (Moorhead and Griffin.html . It includes a feeling of belonging and sense of psychological attachment to the target of commitment. and the employee isn¶t motivated or has a negative attitude (http://www. the employee¶s work is hampered by lack of knowledge. Career choices arise more than once during a lifetime.2. the employee hasn¶t received feedback on how well he or she is doing. This entity maybe in an organization. because both people and career opportunities change. Job Performance Throughout much of the world. or resources. and involvement within the respective identity.goer. The reasons why an employee does not meet performance standards can be generally categorized into one or more of four reasons. 1998). 2000). a project.us/train/onlinelearning/EC/301. higher and higher levels of performance are demanded (Robbins.mny.state.
al. People are willing to put forth the kind of effort that will increase productivity if their needs. As Robbins (2003) emphasized. goals. it is not universally applicable. people need to perceive that the effort they exert leads to a favorable performance evaluation and that the favorable evaluation will lead to the rewards that they value. that individual performance may be enhanced by instituting incentives though. (2002) claimed that performance was typically seen as the result of the interaction between individual ability and motivation. (2002) expressed otherwise. . the degree of behavior problems of pupils did not affect the teacher¶s teaching performance. the amount of opportunity people see in their jobs has a direct relationship to their job performance. et. Hill as cited by Robbins (2003). and desires are met. and their wish for harmony in the workplace´. Torrington.31 In a local study made by Corpuz (2005). It is furthered by Bittel (Robbins 2003) by saying ³Employee performance is greatly influenced by the workers¶ expectancy of what their job will provide. expectations. et. their attitudes toward personal achievement and advancement.al. Sound performance evaluation contributes to the display of desirable behavior at work. Torrington.
outstanding job performances somehow greatly depend on the system of the organization itself or workplaces.32 However. Deming asserts (Torrington. Sinai School of Medicine. which established that the inadequate performance definition is perceived lack of goals. These are more elaborated in the Program. The different literature and studies reviewed allowed the writer to decide the research methodology and provided additional pieces of evidence and information. . As emphasized by Elmore (1997). performance variations are the result not of individual differences. but of the systems that are implemented and controlled by managers. Moreover. Secondly. inadequate performance/reward linkages rewards are not valued by staff. the literature on high performing romanticize workplaces the and in subfields like and TQM tends of to the energy. competence creativity workplace in an organization. the impediments to performance could be inadequate support or resources or mismatch between job requirements and skills of staff and lastly. which are useful to this study. for Faculty development of Mt. Hall & Taylor 2002). delayed and perceived inequities in distribution of rewards. inadequate performance assessments.
The degree of affective organizational commitment and job performance will be influenced by the level of motivation of the faculty. affective commitment and job performance. supervision and administration. The independent variable is the work motivation while the dependent variables are the affective organizational commitment and job performance.33 The information are meaningfully related to teachers¶ work motivations. This study then conceptualizes the relationship of motivation to affective organizational commitment and job performance. and coworkers. such level of influence varies according to the factors identified: compensation. however. job itself. The study includes two variables which are dependent and independent. . growth and development opportunities.
1. and 1.2 job itself. 2. this study attempted to answer the following questions: 1.3 organizational tenure. 2. What is the demographic profile of the male and female faculty of Cor Jesu College in terms of: 1. 2.2 civil status.1 compensation.4 administration and supervision. and .1 age. Specifically. 1.34 THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The study aimed to determine the extent of work motivation indicators which are significantly correlated to the affective organizational commitment and job performance of the faculty of Cor Jesu College for school year 2010-2011.4 highest level of education? 2. What is the present level of work motivation of the faculty of Cor Jesu College with regard to the following indicators: 2.3 professional growth and development opportunities.
35 2.1 College Department. What is the level of the affective commitment of the faculty? 4.3 work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? 7. What is the level of the job performance when the faculty is grouped according to 4.5 co-workers? 3. Is there a significant difference on the level of faculty¶s work motivation between departments based on each work motivation indicator? 6. What is the extent of relationship between the following variables: .2 work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. and 4. Is there significant relationship between the following variables: 6.1 work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. 6.2 Basic Education Department (BED)? 5. and 6.
1 work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty.2 work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. b.3 work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? 8.36 7. co-workers. and 7. 7. . compensation. administration and supervision. professional growth and development opportunities. What human resource development plan can be proposed based on the findings of the study? Null Hypotheses The following null hypotheses are formulated: Ho1: There is no significant difference on the work motivation between college faculty and BED faculty in terms of the following indicators: a. d. and e. c. job itself.
work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? . work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. b. work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. and c. and c. There is no extent of relationship between the following variables: a.37 Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the following variables: a. work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? Ho3. b.
This would mainly promote a quality delivery of services. persevere and enjoy and endure with their teaching job. A quality work life invokes quality services to their clienteles. . Profit from the study is generated as they are able to know how the benefits offered by their institution helped them improve their performance and strengthen their affection to the organization as a whole.38 Significance of the Study This study would be significant to the following entities or agencies and people where the study was conducted. Students. This would make them evaluate certain important dimensions of work that may have an effect to their chosen career paths. it is important for them to make decisions to continue or go out. It would be more significant to the school organization or instruction as a whole. they would benefit from the effective and efficient performance of their mentors. Evaluating factors that arrest a worker from growing. hence. Teaching Personnel.
managed and clearly understood especially in implementing new policies. It would help the school generate more clients. The result of this study would help/ assist the researchers as they explore and deepen their appreciation and understanding on the influence of work motivation to the affective commitment and job performance of the employees. This would assist to modify or continue practices that may still be enriching or halting the growth of their employees. . The loyalty and vigor exhibited by the faculty as may be shown in the study may be utilized. This would likewise help them scrutinize and examine closely certain provisions and policies that keep and invite highly qualified employees especially faculty members.39 School Administrators in General. A better understanding on the needs of its workforce helps the organization competes fluently in the academe and consequently amplifies its reputation of being efficient. Researchers. invites more qualified personnel and retain the very skilled employees especially in the areas currently groomed. as such the organization earns an edge to a taut competition and dwindle highly qualified employees from attractive offers. Cor Jesu College as an Organization.
and likewise the magnitude of relationship between work motivation indicators and job performance. Punnalan. Regala & Uriarte. It further utilized to test the amount of variance explained by the indicators of work motivation (compensation. and co-workers) in both affective commitment and job performance of the college and BED faculty. Ochave. From this design. professional growth and development opportunities. 1992). administration and supervision. job itself. . THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design This study made use of the descriptive correlational and comparative design. the study aimed to determine if there is a significant relationship between the affective commitment and work motivation indicators.40 Future Researchers. The finding would provide some in depth knowledge and information related to affective commitment and job performance influenced by work motivation. These critical distinguishing characteristics are the effort to estimate a relationship (Sevilla. It determined the extent to which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest.
Bachelor of Science in Accountancy. The Basic Education had gained respectable reputation in the province especially in academic contests and non-academic pursuits. Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. The student enrolment for the second semester of school year 2010-2011 was only 2. Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. Cor Jesu College is a Filipino. Davao del Sur. Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology. It is a PAASCU accredited college since 1971 and had been a leading institution of tertiary education in the province. the BED is preparing for the first Level PAASCU accreditation. The institution envisions ³fully transformed persons inspired by the spirituality of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the charism of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart´. Bachelor of Library and Information Science. Digos City.41 Research Environment This study was conducted in Cor Jesu College. located along Sacred Heart Avenue. Bachelor of Secondary Education. The curricular programs being offered in the college are as follows: Bachelor of Arts. Bachelor of Elementary Education. and Catholic School owned and run by the Brothers of the Sacred Heart. . 798 for the college and 886 for the basic education. This year.
Bachelor of Science in Computer Science. Arts and Sciences.42 Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering. and Sunday College. Bachelor of Science in Information Technology. The universal sampling technique was utilized in gathering data since the size is manageable. Bachelor of Science in Criminology. and 35 from the Basic Education Department (BED). The 66 full time College Faculty comprised the following departments: Teacher Education. All the full time Basic Education Faculty and College Faculty were considered in the study as they were all the direct recipients of the translation of policies of the institution and its provisions that greatly influence their . Bachelor of Science in Psychology. Bachelor of Science in Midwifery. Computer Studies. Business and Accountancy. Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Communication Engineering. Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Engineering and Technology. Research Respondents The respondents of the study were 101 full-time College and Basic Education or the teaching personnel of Cor Jesu College. Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management. Health Sciences. and the Vocational and Technology.
professional growth and development opportunities. The mean score for each motivational indicator was computed and analyzed following the scale and descriptions given below: . The job performance data that were already generated from the principal¶s office (BED) and Dean¶s Office (college) were finally submitted to the Human Resource Director¶s Office. and co-workers.43 commitment to this organization and how these made interplay to their performance. (WMO). The researcher requested five (5) experts in the field to validate the questionnaire. The instrument used to measure work motivation was made by the researcher. The Work Motivation Questionnaire. job itself. administration and supervision. This Work Motivation Questionnaire was categorized according to indicators: compensation. Research Instrument This study employed three sets of survey questionnaires for data collection and one personal data profiler.
opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support6 and congeniality are mostly or highly acquired in the workplace. . opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are neither acquired in the workplace and gives vigor to do job nor lost and gives the lethargy to do the job thus. 2.51-4.00 3. gives vigor to the job. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are fully or extremely acquired in the workplace. 4. thus. provides moderate motivation to the faculty. people oriented supervision/administration.44 Table1 Description of Scales Using the Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) Scale Description Very Highly Motivated (VHM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation.50 Highly Motivated (HM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. an interesting and challenging job.51-5.51-3. people oriented supervision/ administration. people oriented supervision/ administration.50 Moderately Motivated (MM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. an interesting and challenging job. an interesting and challenging job. hence gives vigor to do the job.
the faculty is very poorly motivated. The affective commitment variable was measured by the Affective Commitment Scale which was developed by Meyer and Allen (1997). . people oriented supervision/administration. people oriented supervision/administration. and opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are seldom or poorly acquired in the workplace and gives lethargy to do the job. The Affective Commitment Scale (ACS).45 1. The mean score was computed and analyzed according to the following scale with its scale description. There were some questions which were modified by the researcher in order to fit with the respondents being studied. an interesting and challenging job. 1. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are lost in the workplace and gives strong lethargic attitude to do the job thus. an interesting and challenging job.51-2.50 Very Poorly Motivated (VPM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. This questionnaire was likewise validated by experts.00-1.50 Poorly Motivated (PM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation.
00-1.50 Highly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 61% to 80% by CJC faculty.51-4.50 4 Agree 3. 5 Strongly agree 4.51-3. All instruments were tracked down using the codes for each respondent listed in the master list of the researcher.46 Table 2 Description of the Scale Using the Affective Commitment Scale (ACS) Weight 1 Status Strongly Disagree Interval Scale 1. . Moderately Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 41% to 60% manifested by CJC faculty.51-2.51-5.50 3 Neither agree Or disagree 2. 2 Disagree 1.00 Very Highly Manifested: This indicated that commitment is 81% to 100% manifested by CJC faculty.50 Description Very Poorly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 1% to 20 % manifested by CJC faculty Poorly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 21% to 40% manifested by CJC faculty.
However. The college department however put emphasis on attendance to seminars or training by placing points. The BED used 25-point maximum while the college utilized 50. The job performance Rating Instrument for the BED differs from the college in the point system distribution. however. procedures. the two departments covered the same areas in rating the job performance: teaching/ classroom performance. the researcher developed job performance rating as follow: . performance and completion of related studies and work.point maximum. The Standard Job Performance Rating of two departments was formulated for the purpose of ranking and promotion. The job performance ratings of the faculty are secondary data obtained from the office of the Human Resource Director.47 Job Performance Rating. For the purpose of this study. and the code of ethics. Professional services and cooperation in upholding unit and school policies in following accepted school rules.
the same office was asked for permission in administering the questionnaire. the Dean of the College and the Principal of the BED was informed of the approved request. tabulating. Particularly. retrieving the answered survey forms. Likewise.48 Table 3 Distribution of Points and Description of Job Performance Rating Description Excellent Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Does not Meet Expectations BED (25 maximum point distribution) Above 24 20-24 15-19 Below 15 College (50 maximum point distribution) 45 and above 35-44 25-34 Below 25 Research Procedure In conducting the research. the following steps would be embarked upon: asking permissions from the School President through the Human Resource Director to compose the Basic Education (BED) and College Faculty as respondents of the study. The data for the job performance would be . collating. and analyzing and interpreting of data and the writing of the final research manuscript.
sex. . To do this. age. percentages and frequency distribution were utilized to describe the demographic profile of the faculty in terms of organizational tenure. It was likewise utilized to determine the magnitude of relationship between job performance of the faculty and each of the indicators of work motivation. civil status and rank. Mean scores. the following statistical tools were employed: 1. 2.49 generated from the BED Principal and the Dean of the College as these are considered ready data or results. It determined the varying degree of this motivational indicator in influencing affective organizational commitment and job performance of the teaching personnel. Statistical Treatment The study purposely correlated the motivating indicators as perceived by the full time teaching personnel of Cor Jesu College to their affective commitment and job performance. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to find the significant relationship between affective commitment of the faculty and each of the indicators of work motivation.
the Standard Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was obtained to answer the question of the extent of relationship between/ among two or more variables (Padua. Multiple linear regression was employed to determine the factor of each category of work motivation that greatly affects job performance and affective commitment of the college faculty or BED faculty. 2000).50 3. Thus. . it was utilized to test the amount of variance explained by the indicators of work motivation in both affective commitment and job performance of the college and BED faculty. All interpretations were based on 0. One-Way ANOVA was used to find whether significant difference exists on work motivation between college faculty and BED faculty in terms of the five (5) motivational indicators.05 alpha level of significance. 4. Likewise.
bonuses. Affective commitment. This may be received directly in the form of cash (salary. benefits convertible to cash and incentives) or in kinds like uniform allowance or awards received by an employee.51 DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally for clear understanding of the research specifically on the findings and interpretation of data. . This is essentially concerned with the person¶s emotional attachment to his or her organization and his or her great belief in the values of the organization which strongly affect organizational citizenship behaviors and its intention to stay in the organization. This refers to the school administrators¶ style of managing their functions. Compensation. implementing policies and their dealings with subordinates. This pertains to all forms of financial returns and tangible services and benefits receive as part of an employment relationship. Administration and Supervision.
upgrading of skills through attending training or seminars or be a speaker to . This refers to the other employees working with the individual whether faculty or non-teaching personnel.52 Co-workers. This pertains to the extent to which job tasks as lecturing. are considered interesting and permits opportunities for learning and accepting responsibility. This pertains to the number of years or the length of time that an employee worked in the school organization. This refers to the availability and accessibility for the chance to advance professionally such as promoted to a higher rank. Faculty. grading. This refers to the full time basic education and college instructors or teachers working in Cor Jesu College. as well as other work related behaviors required of him or her to display in a job as evaluated against a specific set of criteria. Professional Growth and Development Opportunities. etc. Job Performance. Organizational Tenure. creating and modifying enriching classroom activities. This is a measure of how a faculty conducts classroom instruction and tasks related to it. Job Itself.
educational advancement for academic leadership. .53 enriching seminars within or outside the school.
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