THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study In the stage of globalization, organizations responded to the changing business prospect by restructuring and rightsizing in order to address pressures brought about by stiff competition and survival. This contributed much if not the cause of human relations problems especially in the nature of employer-employee
relationship. Responses of the organization to these changes are to renegotiate, manage, if not cancel the employment relationships, promises, and commitments they have traditionally established with their employees (Kickul & Lester, 2001) With respect to these contentions, it is essential to recognize the human resource management and human resource programs of the organization to be valuable. As Robbins (2003) claimed, more and more organizations today face a dynamic and changing environment which requires these organizations to adapt. ³Change or die!´ is the rallying cry among today¶s managers worldwide and
the most important force for change mentioned, among others, is the nature of the workforce. Needs of workers have pluralized and become distinct from each other. As Reece and Brandt (2002) put up, the variation in individual motives often leads to a breakdown in human
relationships unless individuals take the time to understand the motives of their colleagues. Reward system in organizations attracts, retains, and motivates qualified employees. Hence, benchmark quality. In the Philippines, educational institutions are facing stiff competition; thus, development in all aspects of the faculty is imperative. With this, it is very important to stress that school managers inquire into their teachers¶ present need systems. Cor Jesu College, Inc. (CJC), as a school organization greatly faces competition. Challenge is proposed by other schools in the locality and neighboring cities through the offering curricular programs (e.g. BSIT, BSHRM) that capture the global market of work. At this point, rich human relations program is imperative especially to foster better employment relationship and that this organization should carry out human resource planning so as to
meet school objectives and gain advantage over other school competitors (Noe, et al, 2007). In employment, reciprocal exchange relationship is very evident which appears when the faculty member joins the school organization. Psychological Thereby, contract, need system develops to every and mounts.
relationship, spurs in mounting up this need system. This propels this study to be conducted because the researcher believes it¶s quite essential contribution to the organization. As conceived by Martires (2001), a very significant factor in the efficient
performance or retention of workers is their motivation and its strength. From this end, it is very important for Cor Jesu College as a school organization to know the mounting needs of their faculty and how these influence their affective commitment and job performance because CJC has committed to display academic excellence. Since the researcher is one of the full-time faculty members of Cor Jesu College, he attempted to gather pertinent data regarding work motivation, affective commitment and job
performance of the faculty. As such, this study was conducted in
the hope of determining the extent of significant relationship of compensation; job itself; administration and supervision;
professional growth and opportunities; and work environment through social interaction opportunities to the emotional
attachment of faculty toward the school organization and their outstanding performance. The findings of this study would serve as database in the formulation of effective human resource
development to improve employees¶ affective commitment and job performance. Theoretical Background The present study is anchored on Equity theory of Adams developed in 1965 (Robbins, 2003) which supports the explanatory framework of psychological contract. If breach occurs, people are motivated to reduce or remove the discrepancy by altering their attitudes or changing their behaviors to maintain equity. In an exchange relationship each party is obligated to reciprocate the actions of another, if one party¶s contribution to the other is less than what is expected by the other party, the aggrieved party will lessen his or her contribution to maintain equity with the relationship. This relationship is very significant to emphasize since
the research study leans on the idea that whatever is felt and understood by the employees when it comes to compensation, job itself, administration and supervision, professional growth and development opportunities, and its social interaction with coworkers, which then motivate them to have greater affective commitment and display desirable behavior required in performing the job. This is supported by the Social Exchange Theory of Blau asserting that when one party provides something to another party, the second party is under pressure to give something in return (Larbes, 1999). Underlying this exchange is the norm of reciprocity advanced by Gouldner in 1960 which maintains that if a person does something favorable to another party, the other party is obligated by social convention to return the favor (Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2005). Furthermore, the Social Exchange Framework was later modified by John Thibault and Harold Kelley to make framework in the field of social psychology. Recently, modern social exchange theory is renamed as homo socioeconomicus by Lindenberg in 1990 or homo economicus matarus by Frey and Oberholzer-Gee in 1997 (Zafirovski, 2003).
the ability to obtain profits in a relationship is contingent on the ability to provide others with rewards.com/social exchange ± theory-1532-1535-iemf). Furthermore. administration and supervision. professional job itself. and co-
workers¶ social relationship.
growth and development opportunities. this section presents the review of foreign and local literature and studies most relevant to the current study. Facts and findings from abroad and
. trust and commitment result from the emergent experiences of individuals within
relationships and help to stabilize relationships and the stability of relationships over time result from the contrasting levels of attraction and dependence experienced by the participants in the relationship (http:// encyclopedias families. that is. justice. Social exchanges are regulated by norms like reciprocity.6
assumptions about the nature of exchange relationships which are social exchanges characterized by inter-dependence. The presentation of topics related to the variables being investigated are organized according to work motivation indicators which are compensation. and fairness.
local scenes about organizational commitment and performance were presented. directs. it is a natural tendency to seek and accept challenges as everybody pursues personal interest and exercise capabilities. Motivation Hoy and Miskel (2009) defined motivation as an internal state that stimulates.
Motivated employees are more productive. and the most significant. feel and perform certain ways. Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. These are the roles of motivation in the workplaces according to Lindner (1998).
. and maintains behavior to think. To Martires (1999). Motivation as defined by Moorhead and Griffin (2004) is a set of forces that causes people to engage in one behavior rather than some alternative behavior. yet elusive determinant of work behavior. Thus. motivation carries a lot of cultural underpinnings that Filipino manager should know what theory of motivation should be applied. It is intrinsic. Motivated employees help organizations survive.
(c) full appreciation of work done (d) job security. fringe supervision. Martires (1999).
administration. Maintenance factors
represent the basic things people consider essential to any job. When these are present. such as salaries. they may begin to ask for more maintenance factors. benefits. 1998). but if any of them is absent. they tend to motivate employees to improve productivity (Reece and Brandt 2002). They include opportunities for recognition. or more responsibility. argues that it is not quite correct to say that motivation is only a maintenance function. (g)
. advancement. are those elements that go above and beyond the basic maintenance factors. Lindner conducted a study on employee motivation (Journal of Extension. the organizational climate that results can hurt employee morale and lower worker
productivity. working conditions. it was surveyed that the ranked order of motivating factors were: (a) interesting work. Motivational factors on the other hand. (b) good wages. and organizational policies social and
Herzberg as cited by Hoy and Miskel (2009) emphasized that if the employee¶s motivational factors are not met. on the other hand. These basic maintenance factors do not act as motivators. (e) good working conditions (f) promotions and growth in the organization.
org/). Intrinsic motivators. The most important predictors of retention were career opportunities. benefit the employees while on the job.worldatwork. (1996) contend that the problem in worker motivation is not getting the workers to do their assigned job but enlisting their cooperation and loyalty for the company. Mison. and medical/dental plans are best enjoyed by the employees when they are away from their job.
. (i) tactful discipline. feedback from the supervisor. sick leave. and (j) sympathetic help with personal problems. et al. Extrinsic motivators. such as clean restrooms or a nice cafeteria or break room. The whole problem is the development of attitudes.
satisfaction with job title (an indication of respect for employees) training and development opportunities as discovered in the research conducted by World at Work/Sibson Company on factors that could retain employees (http/www. (h) personal loyalty to employees. managers can also use intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to increase employee performance and productivity.9
feeling of being in on things. such as holiday pay. According to McCoy as cited by Zilmann (2000). Although there are various literatures and studies that show how competent motivation is in improving productivity of
organizations however. job security.
Enormous literatures and studies were looked deeply by the researcher to determine its crucial point as motivators. pay is a powerful signal of change. It can be a leading catalyst for change or a follower of the change. Martires (1999) heaps on that pay and benefits a worker receives are a yardstick of how adequately his needs. Compensation Compensation often plays a singular role when organizations restructure. are met either directly or indirectly. job itself. Martires (1999) defined compensation as the equivalent in any form that is given to the individual for his work. Body of literature and studies agree and disagree that compensation.
professional growth and development opportunities and co-workers are motivating factors. As Milkovich and Newman (2002) claim.10
loyalties and capacities for making sacrifices toward an entity that has greater consequence in the individual worker than his own job or his personal welfare. supervision and administration. even including some non-material ones.
. Pay indeed can capture attention of employees.
involves goals that defined in terms of a person¶s behavior and or accomplishments not pay (Robbins 2003. pay is a motivator. Hali. (2002) conducted a study on the performance based pay and found that pay had a stronger impact on individual and corporate performance. (2005) postulates the theory of Maslow which stressed that pay would be a motivator only for people functioning at the lower levels of the hierarchy needs. Torrington. such theory is not accepted as work motivation theory. From equity or organizational justice theory. al. & Taylor. Arnold. and he or she can identify behaviors.11
Authorities in organizational behavior books and human resource books inquired if compensation package of a certain company really serves as motivating factors. et. people will be concerned with whether their play is a fair reward relative to the rewards received by others. As such. pay will be an effective motivator to the extent that it is desired by the person. Gerhard and Milkovich and Newman. Goal setting theory on the other hand. Milkovich and Newman (2002) opine that pay is one of the more
. 2002). The advocates of need for achievement theory opine that pay and other material rewards often signal that a person is successful hence. In expectancy theory. However.
et. especially when they are seen as fair and providing accurate feedback about how well the person is doing. Jenkins. In the local study made by Sr. et. J. Further. it was warned that pay has a strong impact if the scheme used is a variable portion of pay rather than the base pay (293). it was found out that the most successful retention methods are strongly tied to factors affecting employee¶s compensation. (2002).. 2005).P. as Torrington. (1998) conducted a meta-analysis of existing research and found a substantial positive impact of monetary reward on the quantity of work. one can say that financial rewards tend to enhance performance.al. Employees who feel they are not compensated fairly will look for work in institutions that are willing to pay them more. O. it was suggested that to help retain employees. management shall
. et. However. Sando. Such being the case. (2002) claimed that companies of today have been reexamining the use of bonus schemes for more junior employees in order to increase motivation. The impact of monetary rewards on performance did not seem to be affected by whether the task was boring or interesting (Arnold.12
visible rewards in the whole recruitment process.al. al. but not on the quality of work. The contention is especially true to young workers of today.
In their study. It is with this fact that Malkovich and Newman studied if pay could be a reason of employees staying in or leaving a firm. Herzberg theories state that if employee¶s motivational factors are not met. (Malkovich & Newman.13
conduct compensation reviews and adjust salaries to keep them competitive with other healthcare organizations and similar
positions in other fields. the Adam¶s equity theory was strengthened. al. employment is an economic reciprocal arrangement (Malkovich & Newman. they may begin to ask for more maintenance factors. 2002). Employers also seek to use the payment contract to motivate employees and thus to improve their work performance
(Torrington. In today¶s era. 2002). 2002). 2002). Another example that used money to retain employees is of the Fleet Financial Group which had experienced rapid and unacceptable turnover in information technology jobs during the 1990s. They successfully retained their best employees by using three-pronged solution: raise base wages immediately to ensure
. in which worker who feels unfairly treated in pay react by leaving the firm for greener pastures. such as increase salaries and fringe benefits (Reece and Brandt. et. thus affecting their organizational commitment.
(Moorhead & Griffin. According to Moorhead and Griffin (2004).
. and give a retention bonus to anyone who stayed through March 2000. ( 2000). Malkovich & Newman. However. grant stocks options to selected employees in the group. Compensation should be a fair reward for the individual¶s contributions to the organizations and the compensation should be a competitive in the external labor for the organization to attract and retain competent workers in appropriate fields. The General Electric Company. An effectively planned and managed pay system can improve motivation and performance. that is. 2004). there are authorities who claimed that
compensation is not a factor in motivating employees to remain in the job nor could be a factor to improve performance. 2002). the organization¶s structure must be equitable and consistent to ensure equality of treatment and compliance with the law. they deliberately choose to pay above or below what others are paying for the same work. one of the most progressive companies in the world that coped up with the threats of globalization has taken steps to make sure that its compensation system is clear and understandable. Different employers set different pay levels.14
equity with the external market. (Malkovich & Newman.
at. Arnold. one discovery contributes to the inquisitive mood of this researcher.al. This is supported by the contention of Robbins (2003) that money and promotions typically are low on the priority list of professionals.
. Feb. 2002). 2002). rather a hygiene or maintenance factor.al. Thompson and others (Torrington. Malkovich and Newman claimed that pay could improve performance by quantity but not quality (2002). et. at. can even easily demotivate when managed poorly. 2003. The controversial issues of minimum wage increase of President Clinton. 2005) in the first place theorized that pay is not a motivator. agreed that there is little to be gained and a great deal to lose from the introduction of the incentives schemes. 2001) suggested that the administrators and non-master teachers had least concern for ³augmented salary´.15
Herzberg (Robbins. This causes resentment and leads to dissatisfaction and industrial conflict. To Herzberg
(Torrington. the finding of Pelagio (Modern Teacher. With the hodgepodge of agreements and disagreements of compensation as motivator. Other authorities would even claim that incentives are perceived by employees as tools of management control which reduce their autonomy and discretion.al. In the local researches. pay has a limited capacity to motivate positively.
Multiple jobs were prearranged by owners to cope up because business industries operated with a paper thin margin of profits that the increase of minimum wage forced them to pay higher wages. is different from other cohorts in some respects. This group is also less satisfied than its older counterparts. the newest generation to enter the workforce. In short pay was not a motivator because workers were retrenched or resigned from the job because of multiplicity of works (Moorhead & Griffin. 1998).org/). In the study conducted by Rewards of Work (ROW) 2000 (a research organization that particularly concerns on wages and salary and this tied up with World at Work Organization). Contrary to the popular wisdom.worldatwork.16
The increase of minimum wage instigated controversy when the congress and President Clinton passed a bill in 1996 raising the minimum wage for all American workers. Another study strengthens the fact that pay is not a motivator especially for the freshmen in the world of world. According to Gerry Ledford. a practice leader at Sibson and Company (an American Compensation Association) announced
. especially with direct financial and career rewards (Johnson. ³Generation Y´. 2000:http://www. cash rewards and work content are less useful for retaining members of this group than others.
satisfying work content. and long-term career
opportunities. indirect financial rewards (benefits). monetary) rewards.17
their findings during the 2000 World at Work International Conference & Exposition: The five types of rewards examined in the study are financial (that is. ³(http//www. It was found that only 15% of employees left their jobs because of inadequate salary and benefits.sibson. affiliation with an admirable organization. He especially noted in the exposition that ³All are necessary for companies that wish to offer and attractive employee value proposition. And job performance since the younger teaching personnel has edge in number in Cor Jesu College. that is. appealing exchange of rewards from the company in return for the employee¶s motivated effort and continued employment in the firm.These findings have prompted more this researcher to find out if compensation is a motivator that influence affective organizational commitment. The study found that of the job leavers surveyed: 30% were unhappy with management and the way they managed 25% felt they received no respect for good
. Another study which suggests that money is often not the biggest motivator for an employee is the survey on ³40 Strategies for Winning in Business´ by Haney and Sirbasku (1997).com).
bad management and lack of incentives might be expected to provoke motivational crises in the form of apathy or stress. 20% complained of limited opportunities for advancement. career change. 5% were bored with the job 5% cited other reasons (retirement. 15% cited inadequate salary and benefits. These claims are agreed by the local author Iñigo. Rowland (1996) found that psychological rewards were more important than the economic rewards for their retention.com/concept.worldatwork. He added (58) that well judged management and teaching incentives are necessary but not sufficient for encouraging commitment to teaching as an activity that calls upon initiative and inspiration. In the study of nurses who resigned from their jobs. Inc:
http://www. their goals and their experience of the workplace. depending on the person.successmotivation. (2002).org/). a fair and equitable compensation system can ensure employee¶s trust in management that helps prevent turnover. Jr. that
. may be a hygiene factor. a motivator or a negative motivator.18
work.html) Knight commented (2002) that something. McCoy as cited by Zillman (2000) strengthened this claim by saying. (http://www. such as salary. sabbatical) (1997-2005 Profiles International. Equally.
achievement. 2005. Moorhead & Griffin. there is no correlation between monetary rewards and productivity. 2004.et.al. challenging work. poor quality workmanship. There are authorities who claim that as employees get older. interesting work becomes more of a motivator. These huge literatures and studies on compensation
strengthened the inquisitive desire of the researcher to investigate more in order to find out if compensation package in school organizations like Cor Jesu College influence the faculty¶s emotional attachment or elicits outstanding performance. To Martires (2002). increased and growth and development are satisfying factors relating to job itself.
Job itself Herzberg theorized (Arnold. With that Robbins (2003) claimed that today¶s progressive workplace is being modified to accommodate the
. recognition for accomplishment. 2007) that job itself is a motivator.19
money could be a motivator but not the best because it gives rise to defensive or retaliatory behavior such as union organization.. According to the study of Lee & Tarce cited by Martires (2002). or executive indifference. Hoy & Miskel.
and individual growth (Reece and Brandt. Psychologists Frederick Herzberg said that motivation comes from internal stimulus resulting from job content. job challenge for professionals tends to be ranked high. Reece and Brandt (2002) likewise claimed that
. the practices we take for granted and our beliefs what is good are influenced by the contexts in which we are. Internal motivations occur when the tasks or duty performed is in itself a reward (Reece and Brandt. 2002). Their chief reward in their job is the work itself. opportunity for achievement. This includes providing a wide range of scheduling opinions and benefits that allow employees more flexibility at work and which allows them to better balance or integrate and personal lives. not job environment. the motivated and created input of people is brought out largely by providing them satisfaction in their jobs. 2002).20
varied needs of a diverse workforce. To Robbins (2003). Being a good teacher is about personal skill deployed in an environment rich in appropriate affordances. a challenge to their ability and an opportunity for achievement. our expectations as teachers. He has suggested that jobs be enriched to provide challenge. To Knight (2002). While happiness with working conditions and remuneration are important.
learning opportunities. employment expectations. He contested more that good teaching flourishes when motivation to teach is part of the fabric of the job. Brookfield (1999) and Palmer (1998) have made similar claims about the importance of these psychic rewards of higher education.
. and physical as well as the emotional. can be a strong motivational force. claimed that worker¶s motivation is also influenced by the nature of the job itself. thus. This idea is agreed by Rosabeth Moss Kanter (Reece and Brandt. His said that it is useful to appreciate the teaching is an emotional activity in which psychic rewards are important. both on and off the job. 2002) upon saying that ³the chance to learn new skills or apply them in new arenas is an important motivator in a turbulent environment because it¶s oriented toward securing the future. Catt as cited by Zilman (2000). Knight (2002) clarifies the understanding to intrinsic
motivational strategies for improving teaching quality. making him or her perform less or leave the organization. when the work and its social settings make it relatively easy and quite natural to teach well (60). They are not teaching for money (knight 2002). ³Or such work if not motivating at all becomes stressful to the employee.
(Bowditch and Buono. it found out that teachers (master and non-master) believed that one who finds joy and pride in his or her work or position is at his/her maximum in his/her usefulness to his or her organization. working conditions. when his self-worth is boosted. hence. provides driving force of the worker. when one needs to prove his worth. in a study conducted by Taylor (Moorhead & Griffin. Motivation comes from within the Filipino. it resulted that workers were reasonably satisfied with their pay. When we speak of a positive job attitude or job satisfaction. motivation is present when one is ganado. in the Phil. 1998) on the automobile industry. when one is motivated to work. we mean that the people involved tend to have pleasant internal feelings when they think about their jobs. (Philippine Journal of Psychology. 1997) According to Tomas Andres (1996) as cited by Tang. Job security is relatively high (75 percent positive) in retaining employees to the job according to ROW 2000. However. Though various literatures and studies emphasized that job itself is rewarding.22
make-up of employees. 2005).al. and quality
. Setting. et. In the local study of Pelagio (Modern Teacher February 2001). from his loob.
In fact. in any organization. Managers are
experimenting variety of responses to the challenge of constantly changing work. school managers are quite confused on how to bring out the best in
. therefore. According to Sinlao (2002). performance rating becomes irrelevant. they analyze the skills or competencies a person must possess to perform the work. Supervision and Administration Managers strive to motivate people in the organization to perform at high levels (Torrington.al 2004). that leaders or managers need to know about the psychology of motivation. et. Hence. These encouragements somehow help the organization to achieve its goals. Milkovich and Newman (2002) claimed that managers of today are not focusing on the job itself. extreme dissatisfaction with the actual work was expressed. she expressed that in the field of educational leadership. So this means that rather than analyzing the tasks that make up the job. however. It is imperative. the human force is the most vital element in the achievement of its goals.23
of their supervision. The supervisors and managers are in the appropriate capacity to encourage their subordinates or perform better or develop emotional attachment to their organization.
2005) in her study on individualism-collectivism. the master teacher showed more concern for ³ exercise of leadership and initiative´ but not for better supervisory atmosphere. Sinlao (2002) emphasized further that outstanding motivators are not necessarily the gregarious backslapping types at all. such
administrators becomes a motivator to his or her teachers. Moreover. it
. In the study of Pelagio (Modern Teacher Feb. according to the findings of MayoralgoNolasco (Philippine Journal of Psychology. consequently. attributions and leadership styles of Asian and Western Managers. 2001).24
their teachers. will win his subordinates¶ loyalty and support by establishing personal contact with them and showing awareness of their problems and sentiments. In the study of Ticzon (2003).
management capabilities of nurse supervisors in Cotabato regional and medical center and the job performance of their staff nurses. in such article it was noted that the administrator¶s displays to his or her teacher¶s personal example on how to handle failure and rejection. Other studies exemplify the importance of leadership in motivating employees that affect performance or productivity. For Asian managers.it resulted that in terms of the motivation-hygiene features of the master teacher scheme.
it was emphasized that the preponderance of female teachers showed that the teaching profession is more attractive to women than men. In the study conducted by Pelagio (Modern Teacher. The ROW 2000 study investigated employee propensity to turnover. 2001) on the influence on the attitudes of public elementary school and administrators and teachers in the division of Cagayan. They should also be given other incentives that would further enhance their teaching competencies and strengthen their commitments. Growth and Development Opportunities Benito (1998) . The most important predictors of retention were career opportunities. it resulted
. feedback from the supervisor. job security.25
resulted that there was a positive correlation between the management capabilities of nurse supervisors and the job
performance of staff nurses. In the same study. whether they are teaching specialized or nonspecialized courses. recommended that the faculty should be provided with academic opportunities and adequate promotion for ranking and tenure. and identified drivers of retention associated with each of the five types of rewards.
satisfaction with job title (an indication of respect for employees) and training and development opportunities.
However. Robbins (2003) stressed that professionals place a high level of importance on having skill development opportunities. according to the study of Lee & Tarce as cited by Martires (2002).
. worker¶s affiliation has no correlation to
productivity. it resulted that all survey participants agreed that the method which work best is to promote employees from within rather than hire from outside of the organization. O.P. Sando. Co-workers It might seem obvious that an organization can enhance the motivation of its employees by creating conditions that foster and promote friendship and other close personal relationships as Moorhead & Griffin (2004) claimed. In the study of Sr. (2002) on factors prompting the voluntary turnover of nurses working in the private tertiary hospitals at Davao City.26
that every teacher needs to have ³some achievements´ to feel good about teachings and that every teacher needs to be rewarded and recognized for outstanding work. Cooperation to create a professional development plan with clearly defined tracks for advancement and promotion gives employees an incentive to stay with an
careful monitoring of their ideas. and keeping a journal of their goals. In the study of Sinlao (2002). role overload. that is. However. positive people. attending classes and seminars. which resulted that low feelings of community. and a record of their spiritual journey. Moorhead and Griffin (2004) cite its danger when transfer of employees to different work settings or lay off members of its workforce to reduce costs happen. such views are negated in the study conducted by Joffres and Haughey (2001). and specific community members¶
characteristics contribute much to the teacher¶s low performance due to feelings of inadequacy. disorderly classrooms. Complicating matters even further is the fact that the strength or importance of social relationships to motivation will vary from person to person from very strong and meaningful to relatively weak and inconsequential.27
Although social relationship with co-workers are essential in performance and organizational commitment. the teacher¶s inability to build warm and nurturing relationships in their work communities. were facilitated by value incongruence. This finding gains
. intra-organizational conflicts. it resulted that there are teachers who need to be motivated through association with successful.
. 2005).et. This is no doubt because it is what some employers say they want from employees. Moorhead and Griffin (1998) likewise believe that in providing more opportunities for social interaction contingent on improved performance might capitalize on
employee¶s needs. et.
. Being a teacher in higher education is about you and your work environments. J. Altruism or helping another person with a work task or problem is one of the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs).al.al. (2005). successful work organizations need people who help each other out in addition to doing the core tasks of their jobs well. (Arnold. being a teacher is a part of being a faculty member that competes or co-exists with other identities. According to Arnold. and your nonwork environments. all of whom are engaging with multiple tasks in shifting settings. Organizational Commitment The concept of organizational commitment has generated huge amounts of research from 1980s onwards. He added (56).28
support from Knight (2002): motivation and discomfort are created by individuals in networks of others. These OCBs result when they feel they are treated fairly or just.
Allen and Meyer as cited by Arnold.29
Organizational commitment is a psychological state where an employee identifies with the goals and desires to maintain membership with the organization (Robbins. (Arnold. The results in the study of Wasti (Journal of Vocational Behavior.al. (2005) have divided organizational commitment slightly different from the way described above: affective commitment essentially concerns the person¶s emotional attachment to his perception of the costs an risks associated with leaving his or her current organization and normative commitment is a moral dimension. 2005 October) suggested that affective commitment is the primary driver of positive outcomes.
. et. 2003). based on a person¶s felt obligation and responsibility to his or her employing
organization. Mowday. Professionals have a strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise. especially when combined with low level of continuance commitment.al.al.al. 2005) defined organizational commitment as the relative strength of an individual identification with an involvement in an organization. et. et. et. 2001). Their loyalty is more often to their profession than to their employer (Millet.
because both people and career opportunities change. It includes a feeling of belonging and sense of psychological attachment to the target of commitment. Job Performance Throughout much of the world. a project. This entity maybe in an organization. and
involvement within the respective identity. The reasons why an employee does not meet performance standards can be generally categorized into one or more of four reasons. skills. and the employee isn¶t motivated or has a negative attitude (http://www. higher and higher levels of performance are demanded (Robbins. 2000).html
. 1998). the employee¶s work is hampered by lack of knowledge. supervision or a fellow worker.state. or resources.2. The supervisor has not clearly communicated standards to employee. Career choices arise more than once during a lifetime.us/train/onlinelearning/EC/301.mny.goer.30
Affective commitment according to Meyer and Allen (1997) refers to an actor¶s attachment to identification with. the employee hasn¶t received feedback on how well he or she is doing. Knowing that they can change careers can help individuals avoid becoming poor performers in their jobs as a result of career frustration (Moorhead and Griffin.
As Robbins (2003) emphasized. that individual performance may be enhanced by instituting incentives though. al. expectations. (2002) claimed that performance was typically seen as the result of the interaction between individual ability and motivation. et.
. Hill as cited by Robbins (2003). their attitudes toward personal achievement and advancement. goals. People are willing to put forth the kind of effort that will increase productivity if their needs. the amount of opportunity people see in their jobs has a direct relationship to their job performance. and desires are met. It is furthered by Bittel (Robbins 2003) by saying ³Employee performance is greatly influenced by the
workers¶ expectancy of what their job will provide.al. Torrington.31
In a local study made by Corpuz (2005). and their wish for harmony in the workplace´. et. Sound performance evaluation contributes to the display of desirable behavior at work. (2002) expressed otherwise. people need to perceive that the effort they exert leads to a favorable performance evaluation and that the favorable evaluation will lead to the rewards that they value. it is not universally applicable. Torrington. the degree of behavior problems of pupils did not affect the teacher¶s teaching performance.
outstanding job performances somehow greatly depend on the system of the organization itself or workplaces. which established that the inadequate performance definition is perceived lack of goals. inadequate performance assessments. Sinai School of Medicine. which are useful to this study. but of the systems that are implemented and controlled by managers. Deming asserts (Torrington. performance variations are the result not of individual differences.
workplace in an organization. the impediments to performance could be inadequate support or resources or mismatch between job requirements and skills of staff and lastly. Moreover. The different literature and studies reviewed allowed the writer to decide the research methodology and provided additional pieces of evidence and information. delayed and perceived inequities in distribution of rewards. Hall & Taylor 2002). These are more elaborated in the Program. inadequate performance/reward linkages rewards are not valued by staff. Secondly. the literature on high performing romanticize workplaces the and in subfields like and TQM tends of to the
energy. As emphasized by Elmore (1997).
. for Faculty development of Mt.32
The study includes two variables which are dependent and independent.33
are meaningfully related to teachers¶ work
motivations. affective commitment and job performance. such level of influence varies according to the factors identified: compensation. The independent variable is the work motivation while the dependent variables are the affective organizational commitment and job performance. however. and coworkers. supervision and
administration. growth and development opportunities. This study then conceptualizes the relationship of motivation to affective organizational commitment and job performance. The degree of affective organizational commitment and job
performance will be influenced by the level of motivation of the faculty.
. job itself.
2. this study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. 1.2 civil status.3 organizational tenure. What is the present level of work motivation of the faculty of Cor Jesu College with regard to the following indicators: 2. and
.4 highest level of education? 2. 1.1 compensation. 2. 2. What is the demographic profile of the male and female faculty of Cor Jesu College in terms of: 1.1 age.2 job itself. Specifically.3 professional growth and development opportunities.34
THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The study aimed to determine the extent of work motivation indicators which are significantly correlated to the affective organizational commitment and job performance of the faculty of Cor Jesu College for school year 2010-2011.4 administration and supervision. and 1.
What is the level of the affective commitment of the faculty? 4. What is the level of the job performance when the faculty is grouped according to 4.35
2.2 Basic Education Department (BED)? 5.1 College Department.3 work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? 7. and 4. What is the extent of relationship between the following
. Is there significant relationship between the following
variables: 6. 6.1 work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty.2 work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. Is there a significant difference on the level of faculty¶s work motivation between departments based on each work motivation indicator? 6. and 6.5 co-workers? 3.
. and 7.36
7.1 work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. and e. c.2 work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. What human resource development plan can be proposed based on the findings of the study? Null Hypotheses The following null hypotheses are formulated: Ho1: There is no significant difference on the work motivation between college faculty and BED faculty in terms of the following indicators: a. professional growth and development opportunities. b. administration and supervision. co-workers. job itself. d. compensation. 7.3 work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? 8.
and c. and c.37
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the following variables: a. b. work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? Ho3. b. work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty?
. work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. There is no extent of relationship between the following variables: a. work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty.
A quality work life invokes quality services to their clienteles. hence.
. This would mainly promote a quality delivery of services. Teaching Personnel. This would make them evaluate certain important dimensions of work that may have an effect to their chosen career paths. Evaluating factors that arrest a worker from growing. Students. they would benefit from the effective and efficient performance of their mentors.38
Significance of the Study This study would be significant to the following entities or agencies and people where the study was conducted. Profit from the study is generated as they are able to know how the benefits offered by their institution helped them improve their performance and strengthen their affection to the organization as a whole. It would be more significant to the school organization or instruction as a whole. persevere and enjoy and endure with their teaching job. it is important for them to make decisions to continue or go out.
This would assist to modify or continue practices that may still be enriching or halting the growth of their employees. It would help the school generate more clients.
. Researchers. Cor Jesu College as an Organization. as such the organization earns an edge to a taut competition and dwindle highly qualified employees from attractive offers. The loyalty and vigor exhibited by the faculty as may be shown in the study may be utilized. A better
understanding on the needs of its workforce helps the organization competes fluently in the academe and consequently amplifies its reputation of being efficient. managed and clearly understood especially in implementing new policies. This would likewise help them scrutinize and examine closely certain provisions and policies that keep and invite highly qualified employees especially faculty members.39
School Administrators in General. invites more qualified personnel and retain the very skilled employees especially in the areas currently groomed. The result of this study would help/ assist the researchers as they explore and deepen their appreciation and understanding on the influence of work motivation to the affective commitment and job performance of the employees.
Punnalan. job itself. It further utilized to test the amount of variance explained by the indicators of work motivation (compensation. Regala & Uriarte. the study aimed to determine if there is a significant relationship between the affective
commitment and work motivation indicators. It determined the extent to which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest. These critical distinguishing characteristics are the effort to
estimate a relationship (Sevilla.
. THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design This study made use of the descriptive correlational and comparative design. and likewise the magnitude of relationship between work motivation indicators and job performance. From this design. 1992).40
Future Researchers. professional growth and development opportunities. and co-workers) in both affective commitment and job performance of the college and BED faculty. Ochave. administration and supervision. The finding would provide some in depth knowledge and information related to affective commitment and job performance influenced by work motivation.
The student enrolment for the second semester of school year 2010-2011 was only 2. Bachelor of Library and Information Science. the BED is preparing for the first Level PAASCU accreditation. Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. This year. Bachelor of Elementary Education. 798 for the college and 886 for the basic education.
. Cor Jesu College is a Filipino. It is a PAASCU accredited college since 1971 and had been a leading institution of tertiary education in the province. Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. and Catholic School owned and run by the Brothers of the Sacred Heart. The Basic
Education had gained respectable reputation in the province especially in academic contests and non-academic pursuits. Bachelor of Science in Accountancy.41
Research Environment This study was conducted in Cor Jesu College. The curricular programs being offered in the college are as follows: Bachelor of Arts. The institution envisions ³fully transformed persons inspired by the spirituality of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the charism of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart´. Bachelor of Secondary Education. located along Sacred Heart Avenue. Digos City. Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology. Davao del Sur.
The universal sampling technique was utilized in gathering data since the size is manageable. and 35 from the Basic Education Department (BED). Bachelor of Science in Information Technology. Computer Studies. Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Communication Engineering.42
Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering. Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Health Sciences. Arts and Sciences. and the Vocational and Technology. Bachelor of Science in Criminology. Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management. Research Respondents The respondents of the study were 101 full-time College and Basic Education or the teaching personnel of Cor Jesu College. Business and Accountancy. The 66 full time College Faculty comprised the following departments: Teacher Education. All the full time Basic Education Faculty and College Faculty were considered in the study as they were all the direct recipients of the translation of policies of the institution and its provisions that greatly influence their
. Bachelor of Science in
Midwifery. Bachelor of Science in Computer Science. Engineering and Technology. Bachelor of Science in Psychology. and Sunday College.
job itself. The Work Motivation Questionnaire. professional growth and development opportunities.43
commitment to this organization and how these made interplay to their performance. The instrument used to measure work motivation was made by the researcher. The job performance data that were already generated from the principal¶s office (BED) and Dean¶s Office (college) were finally submitted to the Human Resource Director¶s Office. The researcher requested five (5) experts in the field to validate the questionnaire. and co-workers. This Work Motivation Questionnaire was categorized according to indicators: compensation. (WMO). The mean score for each motivational indicator was
computed and analyzed following the scale and descriptions given below:
. Research Instrument This study employed three sets of survey questionnaires for data collection and one personal data profiler. administration and
51-4. an interesting and challenging job. provides moderate motivation to the faculty.51-3.51-5.50
Highly Motivated (HM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. people oriented supervision/ administration. thus.44
Table1 Description of Scales Using the Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ)
Description Very Highly Motivated (VHM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. people oriented supervision/ administration.00
Moderately Motivated (MM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support6 and congeniality are mostly or highly acquired in the workplace.
4. hence gives vigor to do the job. gives vigor to the job. an interesting and challenging job. people oriented supervision/administration.
2. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are fully or extremely acquired in the workplace. an interesting and challenging job. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are neither acquired in the workplace and gives vigor to do job nor lost and gives the lethargy to do the job thus.
people oriented supervision/administration.
. This questionnaire was likewise validated by experts.00-1.
The Affective Commitment Scale (ACS). an interesting and challenging job. The mean score was computed and analyzed according to the following scale with its scale description.
1. There were some questions which were modified by the researcher in order to fit with the respondents being studied.51-2. people oriented supervision/administration. and opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are seldom or poorly acquired in the workplace and gives lethargy to do the job. an interesting and challenging job. the faculty is very poorly motivated.50
Very Poorly Motivated (VPM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are lost in the workplace and gives strong lethargic attitude to do the job thus.50
Poorly Motivated (PM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. The affective commitment variable was measured by the Affective Commitment Scale which was developed by Meyer and Allen (1997).
Moderately Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 41% to 60% manifested by CJC faculty.
Highly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 61% to 80% by CJC faculty.00
Very Highly Manifested: This indicated that commitment is 81% to 100% manifested by CJC faculty.
Description Very Poorly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 1% to 20 % manifested by CJC faculty Poorly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 21% to 40% manifested by CJC faculty.
All instruments were tracked down using the codes for each respondent listed in the master list of the researcher.51-5.50
Neither agree Or disagree
Table 2 Description of the Scale Using the Affective Commitment Scale (ACS)
Status Strongly Disagree
Interval Scale 1.
For the purpose of this study. However. The job performance ratings of the faculty are secondary data obtained from the office of the Human Resource Director. The BED used 25-point maximum while the college utilized 50. Professional services and cooperation in
upholding unit and school policies in following accepted school rules. procedures. performance and completion of related studies and work. the two departments covered the same areas in rating the job performance: teaching/ classroom performance. the researcher developed job performance rating as follow:
. and the code of ethics. The job performance Rating Instrument for the BED differs from the college in the point system distribution. The Standard Job Performance Rating of two departments was formulated for the purpose of ranking and promotion. however.47
Job Performance Rating.point maximum. The college department however put emphasis on attendance to seminars or training by placing points.
The data for the job performance would be
. and analyzing and interpreting of data and the writing of the final research manuscript. Likewise.48
Table 3 Distribution of Points and Description of Job Performance Rating
Description Excellent Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Does not Meet Expectations
BED (25 maximum point distribution) Above 24 20-24 15-19 Below 15
College (50 maximum point distribution) 45 and above 35-44 25-34 Below 25
Research Procedure In conducting the research. the following steps would be embarked upon: asking permissions from the School President through the Human Resource Director to compose the Basic Education (BED) and College Faculty as respondents of the study. the Dean of the College and the Principal of the BED was informed of the approved request. retrieving the answered survey forms. collating. Particularly. the same office was asked for permission in
administering the questionnaire. tabulating.
Statistical Treatment The study purposely correlated the motivating indicators as perceived by the full time teaching personnel of Cor Jesu College to their affective commitment and job performance. the following statistical tools were employed: 1.49
generated from the BED Principal and the Dean of the College as these are considered ready data or results. Mean scores.
. civil status and rank. 2. To do this. age. It determined the varying degree of this motivational indicator in influencing affective organizational commitment and job performance of the teaching personnel. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to find the
significant relationship between affective commitment of the faculty and each of the indicators of work motivation. sex. It was likewise utilized to determine the magnitude of relationship between job performance of the faculty and each of the indicators of work motivation. percentages and frequency distribution were
utilized to describe the demographic profile of the faculty in terms of organizational tenure.
Likewise. it was utilized to test the amount of variance explained by the indicators of work motivation in both affective commitment and job performance of the college and BED faculty.
. Multiple linear regression was employed to determine the
factor of each category of work motivation that greatly affects job performance and affective commitment of the college faculty or BED faculty.50
ANOVA was used to find whether significant
difference exists on work motivation between college faculty and BED faculty in terms of the five (5) motivational indicators. 2000). All interpretations were based on 0. Thus. 4. the Standard Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was obtained to answer the question of the extent of relationship between/ among two or more variables (Padua.05 alpha level of
This is essentially concerned with the person¶s emotional attachment to his or her organization and his or her great belief in the values of the organization which strongly affect organizational citizenship behaviors and its intention to stay in the organization. This refers to the school administrators¶ style of managing their functions. benefits convertible to cash and
incentives) or in kinds like uniform allowance or awards received by an employee. Compensation. Administration and Supervision.
. Affective commitment.51
DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally for clear understanding of the research specifically on the findings and interpretation of data. bonuses. This pertains to all forms of financial returns and tangible services and benefits receive as part of an
employment relationship. implementing policies and their dealings with subordinates. This may be received directly in the form of cash (salary.
are considered interesting and permits opportunities for learning and accepting responsibility. grading. as well as other work related behaviors required of him or her to display in a job as evaluated against a specific set of criteria. upgrading of skills through attending training or seminars or be a speaker to
. Job Itself. Job Performance. etc. This pertains to the extent to which job tasks as lecturing. Organizational Tenure. This pertains to the number of years or the length of time that an employee worked in the school organization. This refers to the availability and accessibility for the chance to advance professionally such as promoted to a higher rank.52
Co-workers. This refers to the full time basic education and college instructors or teachers working in Cor Jesu College. Professional Growth and Development Opportunities. creating and modifying enriching classroom activities. This is a measure of how a faculty conducts classroom instruction and tasks related to it. This refers to the other employees working with the individual whether faculty or non-teaching personnel. Faculty.
enriching seminars within or outside the school.
. educational advancement for academic leadership.