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THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study In the stage of globalization, organizations responded to the changing business prospect by restructuring and rightsizing in order to address pressures brought about by stiff competition and survival. This contributed much if not the cause of human relations problems especially in the nature of employer-employee
relationship. Responses of the organization to these changes are to renegotiate, manage, if not cancel the employment relationships, promises, and commitments they have traditionally established with their employees (Kickul & Lester, 2001) With respect to these contentions, it is essential to recognize the human resource management and human resource programs of the organization to be valuable. As Robbins (2003) claimed, more and more organizations today face a dynamic and changing environment which requires these organizations to adapt. ³Change or die!´ is the rallying cry among today¶s managers worldwide and
the most important force for change mentioned, among others, is the nature of the workforce. Needs of workers have pluralized and become distinct from each other. As Reece and Brandt (2002) put up, the variation in individual motives often leads to a breakdown in human
relationships unless individuals take the time to understand the motives of their colleagues. Reward system in organizations attracts, retains, and motivates qualified employees. Hence, benchmark quality. In the Philippines, educational institutions are facing stiff competition; thus, development in all aspects of the faculty is imperative. With this, it is very important to stress that school managers inquire into their teachers¶ present need systems. Cor Jesu College, Inc. (CJC), as a school organization greatly faces competition. Challenge is proposed by other schools in the locality and neighboring cities through the offering curricular programs (e.g. BSIT, BSHRM) that capture the global market of work. At this point, rich human relations program is imperative especially to foster better employment relationship and that this organization should carry out human resource planning so as to
meet school objectives and gain advantage over other school competitors (Noe, et al, 2007). In employment, reciprocal exchange relationship is very evident which appears when the faculty member joins the school organization. Psychological Thereby, contract, need system develops to every and mounts.
relationship, spurs in mounting up this need system. This propels this study to be conducted because the researcher believes it¶s quite essential contribution to the organization. As conceived by Martires (2001), a very significant factor in the efficient
performance or retention of workers is their motivation and its strength. From this end, it is very important for Cor Jesu College as a school organization to know the mounting needs of their faculty and how these influence their affective commitment and job performance because CJC has committed to display academic excellence. Since the researcher is one of the full-time faculty members of Cor Jesu College, he attempted to gather pertinent data regarding work motivation, affective commitment and job
performance of the faculty. As such, this study was conducted in
the hope of determining the extent of significant relationship of compensation; job itself; administration and supervision;
professional growth and opportunities; and work environment through social interaction opportunities to the emotional
attachment of faculty toward the school organization and their outstanding performance. The findings of this study would serve as database in the formulation of effective human resource
development to improve employees¶ affective commitment and job performance. Theoretical Background The present study is anchored on Equity theory of Adams developed in 1965 (Robbins, 2003) which supports the explanatory framework of psychological contract. If breach occurs, people are motivated to reduce or remove the discrepancy by altering their attitudes or changing their behaviors to maintain equity. In an exchange relationship each party is obligated to reciprocate the actions of another, if one party¶s contribution to the other is less than what is expected by the other party, the aggrieved party will lessen his or her contribution to maintain equity with the relationship. This relationship is very significant to emphasize since
the research study leans on the idea that whatever is felt and understood by the employees when it comes to compensation, job itself, administration and supervision, professional growth and development opportunities, and its social interaction with coworkers, which then motivate them to have greater affective commitment and display desirable behavior required in performing the job. This is supported by the Social Exchange Theory of Blau asserting that when one party provides something to another party, the second party is under pressure to give something in return (Larbes, 1999). Underlying this exchange is the norm of reciprocity advanced by Gouldner in 1960 which maintains that if a person does something favorable to another party, the other party is obligated by social convention to return the favor (Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2005). Furthermore, the Social Exchange Framework was later modified by John Thibault and Harold Kelley to make framework in the field of social psychology. Recently, modern social exchange theory is renamed as homo socioeconomicus by Lindenberg in 1990 or homo economicus matarus by Frey and Oberholzer-Gee in 1997 (Zafirovski, 2003).
com/social exchange ± theory-1532-1535-iemf).6 Embedded within the exchange framework are the assumptions about the nature of exchange relationships which are social exchanges characterized by inter-dependence. this section presents the review of foreign and local literature and studies most relevant to the current study. growth and development opportunities. the ability to obtain profits in a relationship is contingent on the ability to provide others with rewards. professional job itself. and co- workers¶ social relationship. and fairness. justice. trust and commitment result from the emergent experiences of individuals within relationships and help to stabilize relationships and the stability of relationships over time result from the contrasting levels of attraction and dependence experienced by the participants in the relationship (http:// encyclopedias families. Facts and findings from abroad and . The presentation of topics related to the variables being investigated are organized according to work motivation indicators which are compensation. Social exchanges are regulated by norms like reciprocity. Furthermore. administration and supervision. that is.
directs. . yet elusive determinant of work behavior. It is intrinsic. it is a natural tendency to seek and accept challenges as everybody pursues personal interest and exercise capabilities. Motivated employees help organizations survive. and the most significant. motivation carries a lot of cultural underpinnings that Filipino manager should know what theory of motivation should be applied. Thus. Motivation Hoy and Miskel (2009) defined motivation as an internal state that stimulates.7 local scenes about organizational commitment and performance were presented. feel and perform certain ways. and maintains behavior to think. Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivation as defined by Moorhead and Griffin (2004) is a set of forces that causes people to engage in one behavior rather than some alternative behavior. To Martires (1999). These are the roles of motivation in the workplaces according to Lindner (1998). Motivated employees are more productive.
or more responsibility. on the other hand. When these are present. administration. advancement. such as salaries. (e) good working conditions (f) promotions and growth in the organization. benefits. (g) . 1998). are those elements that go above and beyond the basic maintenance factors. Lindner conducted a study on employee motivation (Journal of Extension. They include opportunities for recognition. (b) good wages. argues that it is not quite correct to say that motivation is only a maintenance function. they may begin to ask for more maintenance factors. working conditions. and organizational policies social and relationships. (c) full appreciation of work done (d) job security. it was surveyed that the ranked order of motivating factors were: (a) interesting work. Martires (1999).8 Herzberg as cited by Hoy and Miskel (2009) emphasized that if the employee¶s motivational factors are not met. but if any of them is absent. they tend to motivate employees to improve productivity (Reece and Brandt 2002). fringe supervision. Maintenance factors represent the basic things people consider essential to any job. These basic maintenance factors do not act as motivators. the organizational climate that results can hurt employee morale and lower worker productivity. Motivational factors on the other hand.
. Extrinsic motivators. Although there are various literatures and studies that show how competent motivation is in improving productivity of organizations however.9 feeling of being in on things. (i) tactful discipline. The whole problem is the development of attitudes. Intrinsic motivators. Mison. managers can also use intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to increase employee performance and productivity.org/). and medical/dental plans are best enjoyed by the employees when they are away from their job. and (j) sympathetic help with personal problems.worldatwork. (h) personal loyalty to employees. According to McCoy as cited by Zilmann (2000). such as holiday pay. et al. benefit the employees while on the job. satisfaction with job title (an indication of respect for employees) training and development opportunities as discovered in the research conducted by World at Work/Sibson Company on factors that could retain employees (http/www. The most important predictors of retention were career opportunities. such as clean restrooms or a nice cafeteria or break room. feedback from the supervisor. job security. sick leave. (1996) contend that the problem in worker motivation is not getting the workers to do their assigned job but enlisting their cooperation and loyalty for the company.
pay is a powerful signal of change. are met either directly or indirectly. even including some non-material ones. Compensation Compensation often plays a singular role when organizations restructure. supervision and administration. Body of literature and studies agree and disagree that compensation. Martires (1999) defined compensation as the equivalent in any form that is given to the individual for his work. professional growth and development opportunities and co-workers are motivating factors. It can be a leading catalyst for change or a follower of the change. job itself. Pay indeed can capture attention of employees. . Martires (1999) heaps on that pay and benefits a worker receives are a yardstick of how adequately his needs.10 loyalties and capacities for making sacrifices toward an entity that has greater consequence in the individual worker than his own job or his personal welfare. Enormous literatures and studies were looked deeply by the researcher to determine its crucial point as motivators. As Milkovich and Newman (2002) claim.
Goal setting theory on the other hand. Torrington. As such. (2005) postulates the theory of Maslow which stressed that pay would be a motivator only for people functioning at the lower levels of the hierarchy needs. and he or she can identify behaviors. & Taylor. pay is a motivator.11 Authorities in organizational behavior books and human resource books inquired if compensation package of a certain company really serves as motivating factors. people will be concerned with whether their play is a fair reward relative to the rewards received by others. (2002) conducted a study on the performance based pay and found that pay had a stronger impact on individual and corporate performance. However. pay will be an effective motivator to the extent that it is desired by the person. et. From equity or organizational justice theory. Arnold. 2002). Milkovich and Newman (2002) opine that pay is one of the more . involves goals that defined in terms of a person¶s behavior and or accomplishments not pay (Robbins 2003. The advocates of need for achievement theory opine that pay and other material rewards often signal that a person is successful hence. In expectancy theory. Hali. Gerhard and Milkovich and Newman. al. such theory is not accepted as work motivation theory.
(2002). but not on the quality of work. J. 2005).12 visible rewards in the whole recruitment process. (1998) conducted a meta-analysis of existing research and found a substantial positive impact of monetary reward on the quantity of work.. et. The impact of monetary rewards on performance did not seem to be affected by whether the task was boring or interesting (Arnold. especially when they are seen as fair and providing accurate feedback about how well the person is doing. In the local study made by Sr. it was warned that pay has a strong impact if the scheme used is a variable portion of pay rather than the base pay (293). management shall . as Torrington. However. Such being the case. (2002) claimed that companies of today have been reexamining the use of bonus schemes for more junior employees in order to increase motivation. Jenkins.al.P. it was suggested that to help retain employees. O. The contention is especially true to young workers of today. Sando. it was found out that the most successful retention methods are strongly tied to factors affecting employee¶s compensation.al. Employees who feel they are not compensated fairly will look for work in institutions that are willing to pay them more. al. Further. et. one can say that financial rewards tend to enhance performance. et.
2002). al. in which worker who feels unfairly treated in pay react by leaving the firm for greener pastures. 2002). they may begin to ask for more maintenance factors. employment is an economic reciprocal arrangement (Malkovich & Newman. thus affecting their organizational commitment. et. It is with this fact that Malkovich and Newman studied if pay could be a reason of employees staying in or leaving a firm. Employers also seek to use the payment contract to motivate employees and thus to improve their work performance (Torrington. In their study. In today¶s era. 2002). Another example that used money to retain employees is of the Fleet Financial Group which had experienced rapid and unacceptable turnover in information technology jobs during the 1990s.13 conduct compensation reviews and adjust salaries to keep them competitive with other healthcare organizations and similar positions in other fields. (Malkovich & Newman. the Adam¶s equity theory was strengthened. Herzberg theories state that if employee¶s motivational factors are not met. They successfully retained their best employees by using three-pronged solution: raise base wages immediately to ensure . such as increase salaries and fringe benefits (Reece and Brandt. 2002).
(Malkovich & Newman. 2004). one of the most progressive companies in the world that coped up with the threats of globalization has taken steps to make sure that its compensation system is clear and understandable. However. Compensation should be a fair reward for the individual¶s contributions to the organizations and the compensation should be a competitive in the external labor for the organization to attract and retain competent workers in appropriate fields. ( 2000). there are authorities who claimed that compensation is not a factor in motivating employees to remain in the job nor could be a factor to improve performance. Different employers set different pay levels. grant stocks options to selected employees in the group. they deliberately choose to pay above or below what others are paying for the same work. According to Moorhead and Griffin (2004). .14 equity with the external market. The General Electric Company. the organization¶s structure must be equitable and consistent to ensure equality of treatment and compliance with the law. (Moorhead & Griffin. that is. An effectively planned and managed pay system can improve motivation and performance. 2002). Malkovich & Newman. and give a retention bonus to anyone who stayed through March 2000.
With the hodgepodge of agreements and disagreements of compensation as motivator.al. at. 2005) in the first place theorized that pay is not a motivator. Arnold. 2003. In the local researches. can even easily demotivate when managed poorly. 2002).al. The controversial issues of minimum wage increase of President Clinton. 2001) suggested that the administrators and non-master teachers had least concern for ³augmented salary´. Other authorities would even claim that incentives are perceived by employees as tools of management control which reduce their autonomy and discretion. Thompson and others (Torrington.15 Herzberg (Robbins. et. . pay has a limited capacity to motivate positively. To Herzberg (Torrington. This causes resentment and leads to dissatisfaction and industrial conflict. rather a hygiene or maintenance factor. the finding of Pelagio (Modern Teacher. Malkovich and Newman claimed that pay could improve performance by quantity but not quality (2002). at. agreed that there is little to be gained and a great deal to lose from the introduction of the incentives schemes.al. Feb. one discovery contributes to the inquisitive mood of this researcher. This is supported by the contention of Robbins (2003) that money and promotions typically are low on the priority list of professionals. 2002).
cash rewards and work content are less useful for retaining members of this group than others. In the study conducted by Rewards of Work (ROW) 2000 (a research organization that particularly concerns on wages and salary and this tied up with World at Work Organization).16 The increase of minimum wage instigated controversy when the congress and President Clinton passed a bill in 1996 raising the minimum wage for all American workers. a practice leader at Sibson and Company (an American Compensation Association) announced . Another study strengthens the fact that pay is not a motivator especially for the freshmen in the world of world.worldatwork. 1998).org/). 2000:http://www. In short pay was not a motivator because workers were retrenched or resigned from the job because of multiplicity of works (Moorhead & Griffin. This group is also less satisfied than its older counterparts. Multiple jobs were prearranged by owners to cope up because business industries operated with a paper thin margin of profits that the increase of minimum wage forced them to pay higher wages. Contrary to the popular wisdom. especially with direct financial and career rewards (Johnson. ³Generation Y´. the newest generation to enter the workforce. According to Gerry Ledford. is different from other cohorts in some respects.
And job performance since the younger teaching personnel has edge in number in Cor Jesu College. and long-term career opportunities. He especially noted in the exposition that ³All are necessary for companies that wish to offer and attractive employee value proposition.sibson. that is. monetary) rewards. satisfying work content. ³(http//www. The study found that of the job leavers surveyed: 30% were unhappy with management and the way they managed 25% felt they received no respect for good . indirect financial rewards (benefits). affiliation with an admirable organization.17 their findings during the 2000 World at Work International Conference & Exposition: The five types of rewards examined in the study are financial (that is. Another study which suggests that money is often not the biggest motivator for an employee is the survey on ³40 Strategies for Winning in Business´ by Haney and Sirbasku (1997). appealing exchange of rewards from the company in return for the employee¶s motivated effort and continued employment in the firm.com). It was found that only 15% of employees left their jobs because of inadequate salary and benefits.These findings have prompted more this researcher to find out if compensation is a motivator that influence affective organizational commitment.
their goals and their experience of the workplace. 15% cited inadequate salary and benefits.18 work. a motivator or a negative motivator. (http://www. Rowland (1996) found that psychological rewards were more important than the economic rewards for their retention. sabbatical) (1997-2005 Profiles International. may be a hygiene factor.html) Knight commented (2002) that something. Inc: http://www. McCoy as cited by Zillman (2000) strengthened this claim by saying. In the study of nurses who resigned from their jobs.worldatwork. career change. that . depending on the person.org/). 20% complained of limited opportunities for advancement.com/concept. Equally. such as salary. He added (58) that well judged management and teaching incentives are necessary but not sufficient for encouraging commitment to teaching as an activity that calls upon initiative and inspiration. bad management and lack of incentives might be expected to provoke motivational crises in the form of apathy or stress. a fair and equitable compensation system can ensure employee¶s trust in management that helps prevent turnover. Jr. These claims are agreed by the local author Iñigo. (2002).successmotivation. 5% were bored with the job 5% cited other reasons (retirement.
al. Moorhead & Griffin. or executive indifference. Job itself Herzberg theorized (Arnold. increased and growth and development are satisfying factors relating to job itself.et. recognition for accomplishment.19 money could be a motivator but not the best because it gives rise to defensive or retaliatory behavior such as union organization. challenging work. there is no correlation between monetary rewards and productivity. According to the study of Lee & Tarce cited by Martires (2002). achievement. 2007) that job itself is a motivator. 2004. Hoy & Miskel. With that Robbins (2003) claimed that today¶s progressive workplace is being modified to accommodate the . interesting work becomes more of a motivator. There are authorities who claim that as employees get older. To Martires (2002). 2005. poor quality workmanship. These huge literatures and studies on compensation strengthened the inquisitive desire of the researcher to investigate more in order to find out if compensation package in school organizations like Cor Jesu College influence the faculty¶s emotional attachment or elicits outstanding performance..
2002). To Knight (2002). While happiness with working conditions and remuneration are important. To Robbins (2003).20 varied needs of a diverse workforce. 2002). Their chief reward in their job is the work itself. the practices we take for granted and our beliefs what is good are influenced by the contexts in which we are. and individual growth (Reece and Brandt. Internal motivations occur when the tasks or duty performed is in itself a reward (Reece and Brandt. job challenge for professionals tends to be ranked high. the motivated and created input of people is brought out largely by providing them satisfaction in their jobs. Psychologists Frederick Herzberg said that motivation comes from internal stimulus resulting from job content. a challenge to their ability and an opportunity for achievement. This includes providing a wide range of scheduling opinions and benefits that allow employees more flexibility at work and which allows them to better balance or integrate and personal lives. He has suggested that jobs be enriched to provide challenge. Reece and Brandt (2002) likewise claimed that . our expectations as teachers. not job environment. opportunity for achievement. Being a good teacher is about personal skill deployed in an environment rich in appropriate affordances.
His said that it is useful to appreciate the teaching is an emotional activity in which psychic rewards are important.21 learning opportunities. Knight (2002) clarifies the understanding to intrinsic motivational strategies for improving teaching quality. thus. can be a strong motivational force. This idea is agreed by Rosabeth Moss Kanter (Reece and Brandt. employment expectations. and physical as well as the emotional. . They are not teaching for money (knight 2002). Catt as cited by Zilman (2000). 2002) upon saying that ³the chance to learn new skills or apply them in new arenas is an important motivator in a turbulent environment because it¶s oriented toward securing the future. making him or her perform less or leave the organization. He contested more that good teaching flourishes when motivation to teach is part of the fabric of the job. when the work and its social settings make it relatively easy and quite natural to teach well (60). both on and off the job. claimed that worker¶s motivation is also influenced by the nature of the job itself. ³Or such work if not motivating at all becomes stressful to the employee. Brookfield (1999) and Palmer (1998) have made similar claims about the importance of these psychic rewards of higher education.
in the Phil. working conditions. Setting. Though various literatures and studies emphasized that job itself is rewarding. In the local study of Pelagio (Modern Teacher February 2001). when his self-worth is boosted. from his loob. in a study conducted by Taylor (Moorhead & Griffin. (Philippine Journal of Psychology. when one needs to prove his worth. However. we mean that the people involved tend to have pleasant internal feelings when they think about their jobs. Job security is relatively high (75 percent positive) in retaining employees to the job according to ROW 2000. when one is motivated to work. and quality . 2005). Motivation comes from within the Filipino. it found out that teachers (master and non-master) believed that one who finds joy and pride in his or her work or position is at his/her maximum in his/her usefulness to his or her organization.al. 1998) on the automobile industry. (Bowditch and Buono. When we speak of a positive job attitude or job satisfaction.22 make-up of employees. motivation is present when one is ganado. it resulted that workers were reasonably satisfied with their pay. 1997) According to Tomas Andres (1996) as cited by Tang. hence. provides driving force of the worker. et.
According to Sinlao (2002). In fact. So this means that rather than analyzing the tasks that make up the job. she expressed that in the field of educational leadership. the human force is the most vital element in the achievement of its goals. therefore. et. Supervision and Administration Managers strive to motivate people in the organization to perform at high levels (Torrington. in any organization. It is imperative.23 of their supervision. extreme dissatisfaction with the actual work was expressed. Managers are experimenting variety of responses to the challenge of constantly changing work. Milkovich and Newman (2002) claimed that managers of today are not focusing on the job itself. school managers are quite confused on how to bring out the best in . performance rating becomes irrelevant. however. they analyze the skills or competencies a person must possess to perform the work. The supervisors and managers are in the appropriate capacity to encourage their subordinates or perform better or develop emotional attachment to their organization.al 2004). Hence. These encouragements somehow help the organization to achieve its goals. that leaders or managers need to know about the psychology of motivation.
In the study of Pelagio (Modern Teacher Feb. For Asian managers. Sinlao (2002) emphasized further that outstanding motivators are not necessarily the gregarious backslapping types at all. the master teacher showed more concern for ³ exercise of leadership and initiative´ but not for better supervisory atmosphere.it resulted that in terms of the motivation-hygiene features of the master teacher scheme. consequently. management capabilities of nurse supervisors in Cotabato regional and medical center and the job performance of their staff nurses. 2005) in her study on individualism-collectivism. Other studies exemplify the importance of leadership in motivating employees that affect performance or productivity. 2001).24 their teachers. Moreover. such administrators becomes a motivator to his or her teachers. will win his subordinates¶ loyalty and support by establishing personal contact with them and showing awareness of their problems and sentiments. In the study of Ticzon (2003). it . according to the findings of MayoralgoNolasco (Philippine Journal of Psychology. attributions and leadership styles of Asian and Western Managers. in such article it was noted that the administrator¶s displays to his or her teacher¶s personal example on how to handle failure and rejection.
whether they are teaching specialized or nonspecialized courses. it was emphasized that the preponderance of female teachers showed that the teaching profession is more attractive to women than men. and identified drivers of retention associated with each of the five types of rewards. The most important predictors of retention were career opportunities. it resulted . In the study conducted by Pelagio (Modern Teacher.25 resulted that there was a positive correlation between the management capabilities of nurse supervisors and the job performance of staff nurses. feedback from the supervisor. Growth and Development Opportunities Benito (1998) . The ROW 2000 study investigated employee propensity to turnover. satisfaction with job title (an indication of respect for employees) and training and development opportunities. job security. In the same study. 2001) on the influence on the attitudes of public elementary school and administrators and teachers in the division of Cagayan. recommended that the faculty should be provided with academic opportunities and adequate promotion for ranking and tenure. They should also be given other incentives that would further enhance their teaching competencies and strengthen their commitments.
worker¶s affiliation has no correlation to productivity. (2002) on factors prompting the voluntary turnover of nurses working in the private tertiary hospitals at Davao City.26 that every teacher needs to have ³some achievements´ to feel good about teachings and that every teacher needs to be rewarded and recognized for outstanding work. Co-workers It might seem obvious that an organization can enhance the motivation of its employees by creating conditions that foster and promote friendship and other close personal relationships as Moorhead & Griffin (2004) claimed. Robbins (2003) stressed that professionals place a high level of importance on having skill development opportunities. However. Sando. according to the study of Lee & Tarce as cited by Martires (2002). it resulted that all survey participants agreed that the method which work best is to promote employees from within rather than hire from outside of the organization. O. . Cooperation to create a professional development plan with clearly defined tracks for advancement and promotion gives employees an incentive to stay with an organization. In the study of Sr.P.
positive people. In the study of Sinlao (2002). attending classes and seminars.27 Although social relationship with co-workers are essential in performance and organizational commitment. disorderly classrooms. Complicating matters even further is the fact that the strength or importance of social relationships to motivation will vary from person to person from very strong and meaningful to relatively weak and inconsequential. However. This finding gains . Moorhead and Griffin (2004) cite its danger when transfer of employees to different work settings or lay off members of its workforce to reduce costs happen. that is. role overload. and keeping a journal of their goals. intra-organizational conflicts. such views are negated in the study conducted by Joffres and Haughey (2001). the teacher¶s inability to build warm and nurturing relationships in their work communities. and specific community members¶ characteristics contribute much to the teacher¶s low performance due to feelings of inadequacy. which resulted that low feelings of community. it resulted that there are teachers who need to be motivated through association with successful. and a record of their spiritual journey. careful monitoring of their ideas. were facilitated by value incongruence.
. Organizational Commitment The concept of organizational commitment has generated huge amounts of research from 1980s onwards. (2005).al. These OCBs result when they feel they are treated fairly or just. being a teacher is a part of being a faculty member that competes or co-exists with other identities. et. He added (56).al.et. J. Being a teacher in higher education is about you and your work environments. 2005). According to Arnold. This is no doubt because it is what some employers say they want from employees. and your nonwork environments. Moorhead and Griffin (1998) likewise believe that in providing more opportunities for social interaction contingent on improved performance might capitalize on employee¶s needs. all of whom are engaging with multiple tasks in shifting settings. . (Arnold. successful work organizations need people who help each other out in addition to doing the core tasks of their jobs well. Altruism or helping another person with a work task or problem is one of the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs).28 support from Knight (2002): motivation and discomfort are created by individuals in networks of others.
al. 2005) defined organizational commitment as the relative strength of an individual identification with an involvement in an organization. Professionals have a strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise. especially when combined with low level of continuance commitment. et. Their loyalty is more often to their profession than to their employer (Millet.al. 2001).al. 2003).al. based on a person¶s felt obligation and responsibility to his or her employing organization. 2005 October) suggested that affective commitment is the primary driver of positive outcomes. The results in the study of Wasti (Journal of Vocational Behavior. (2005) have divided organizational commitment slightly different from the way described above: affective commitment essentially concerns the person¶s emotional attachment to his perception of the costs an risks associated with leaving his or her current organization and normative commitment is a moral dimension. Mowday. et. (Arnold. et.29 Organizational commitment is a psychological state where an employee identifies with the goals and desires to maintain membership with the organization (Robbins. et. . Allen and Meyer as cited by Arnold.
2000). supervision or a fellow worker. and involvement within the respective identity. and the employee isn¶t motivated or has a negative attitude (http://www.30 Affective commitment according to Meyer and Allen (1997) refers to an actor¶s attachment to identification with. The supervisor has not clearly communicated standards to employee.mny. a project.goer. It includes a feeling of belonging and sense of psychological attachment to the target of commitment. or resources.html . skills.us/train/onlinelearning/EC/301. This entity maybe in an organization. higher and higher levels of performance are demanded (Robbins.state.2. the employee¶s work is hampered by lack of knowledge. Knowing that they can change careers can help individuals avoid becoming poor performers in their jobs as a result of career frustration (Moorhead and Griffin. Career choices arise more than once during a lifetime. Job Performance Throughout much of the world. 1998). the employee hasn¶t received feedback on how well he or she is doing. The reasons why an employee does not meet performance standards can be generally categorized into one or more of four reasons. because both people and career opportunities change.
31 In a local study made by Corpuz (2005). (2002) expressed otherwise. et. and desires are met. Torrington. It is furthered by Bittel (Robbins 2003) by saying ³Employee performance is greatly influenced by the workers¶ expectancy of what their job will provide. and their wish for harmony in the workplace´. As Robbins (2003) emphasized. Hill as cited by Robbins (2003). it is not universally applicable. . People are willing to put forth the kind of effort that will increase productivity if their needs. people need to perceive that the effort they exert leads to a favorable performance evaluation and that the favorable evaluation will lead to the rewards that they value.al. their attitudes toward personal achievement and advancement. expectations. the amount of opportunity people see in their jobs has a direct relationship to their job performance. that individual performance may be enhanced by instituting incentives though. the degree of behavior problems of pupils did not affect the teacher¶s teaching performance. Sound performance evaluation contributes to the display of desirable behavior at work. et. (2002) claimed that performance was typically seen as the result of the interaction between individual ability and motivation. Torrington. al. goals.
inadequate performance assessments. for Faculty development of Mt. Hall & Taylor 2002). Deming asserts (Torrington.32 However. outstanding job performances somehow greatly depend on the system of the organization itself or workplaces. which established that the inadequate performance definition is perceived lack of goals. These are more elaborated in the Program. but of the systems that are implemented and controlled by managers. performance variations are the result not of individual differences. Moreover. Secondly. As emphasized by Elmore (1997). the literature on high performing romanticize workplaces the and in subfields like and TQM tends of to the energy. which are useful to this study. competence creativity workplace in an organization. the impediments to performance could be inadequate support or resources or mismatch between job requirements and skills of staff and lastly. . The different literature and studies reviewed allowed the writer to decide the research methodology and provided additional pieces of evidence and information. inadequate performance/reward linkages rewards are not valued by staff. delayed and perceived inequities in distribution of rewards. Sinai School of Medicine.
however.33 The information are meaningfully related to teachers¶ work motivations. such level of influence varies according to the factors identified: compensation. and coworkers. The independent variable is the work motivation while the dependent variables are the affective organizational commitment and job performance. The study includes two variables which are dependent and independent. . This study then conceptualizes the relationship of motivation to affective organizational commitment and job performance. The degree of affective organizational commitment and job performance will be influenced by the level of motivation of the faculty. growth and development opportunities. supervision and administration. affective commitment and job performance. job itself.
3 professional growth and development opportunities.34 THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The study aimed to determine the extent of work motivation indicators which are significantly correlated to the affective organizational commitment and job performance of the faculty of Cor Jesu College for school year 2010-2011.3 organizational tenure. 2. What is the present level of work motivation of the faculty of Cor Jesu College with regard to the following indicators: 2.1 age. 2. this study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the male and female faculty of Cor Jesu College in terms of: 1. and 1.2 job itself.2 civil status. and . 1.4 administration and supervision.1 compensation. Specifically.4 highest level of education? 2. 2. 1.
1 work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. What is the level of the job performance when the faculty is grouped according to 4. What is the level of the affective commitment of the faculty? 4. Is there a significant difference on the level of faculty¶s work motivation between departments based on each work motivation indicator? 6. and 4.3 work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? 7.2 Basic Education Department (BED)? 5. 6.1 College Department.35 2.2 work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. and 6. What is the extent of relationship between the following variables: . Is there significant relationship between the following variables: 6.5 co-workers? 3.
1 work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. 7. d.36 7. job itself. . and e.3 work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? 8. and 7. professional growth and development opportunities. What human resource development plan can be proposed based on the findings of the study? Null Hypotheses The following null hypotheses are formulated: Ho1: There is no significant difference on the work motivation between college faculty and BED faculty in terms of the following indicators: a. administration and supervision. co-workers. b.2 work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. c. compensation.
work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? . There is no extent of relationship between the following variables: a.37 Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the following variables: a. work motivation indicators and job performance of the college faculty? Ho3. and c. work motivation indicators and affective commitment of the faculty. and c. work motivation indicators and job performance of the basic education faculty. b. b.
hence. This would make them evaluate certain important dimensions of work that may have an effect to their chosen career paths. it is important for them to make decisions to continue or go out. It would be more significant to the school organization or instruction as a whole. This would mainly promote a quality delivery of services. they would benefit from the effective and efficient performance of their mentors. Profit from the study is generated as they are able to know how the benefits offered by their institution helped them improve their performance and strengthen their affection to the organization as a whole. Teaching Personnel.38 Significance of the Study This study would be significant to the following entities or agencies and people where the study was conducted. Evaluating factors that arrest a worker from growing. Students. . persevere and enjoy and endure with their teaching job. A quality work life invokes quality services to their clienteles.
This would assist to modify or continue practices that may still be enriching or halting the growth of their employees. as such the organization earns an edge to a taut competition and dwindle highly qualified employees from attractive offers. The result of this study would help/ assist the researchers as they explore and deepen their appreciation and understanding on the influence of work motivation to the affective commitment and job performance of the employees. invites more qualified personnel and retain the very skilled employees especially in the areas currently groomed. managed and clearly understood especially in implementing new policies. Cor Jesu College as an Organization. It would help the school generate more clients. Researchers. . The loyalty and vigor exhibited by the faculty as may be shown in the study may be utilized. A better understanding on the needs of its workforce helps the organization competes fluently in the academe and consequently amplifies its reputation of being efficient.39 School Administrators in General. This would likewise help them scrutinize and examine closely certain provisions and policies that keep and invite highly qualified employees especially faculty members.
THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design This study made use of the descriptive correlational and comparative design. the study aimed to determine if there is a significant relationship between the affective commitment and work motivation indicators. Ochave. 1992). . administration and supervision. and co-workers) in both affective commitment and job performance of the college and BED faculty. It determined the extent to which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest. Regala & Uriarte. These critical distinguishing characteristics are the effort to estimate a relationship (Sevilla. and likewise the magnitude of relationship between work motivation indicators and job performance. Punnalan. job itself.40 Future Researchers. The finding would provide some in depth knowledge and information related to affective commitment and job performance influenced by work motivation. From this design. professional growth and development opportunities. It further utilized to test the amount of variance explained by the indicators of work motivation (compensation.
It is a PAASCU accredited college since 1971 and had been a leading institution of tertiary education in the province. Cor Jesu College is a Filipino. Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology. Bachelor of Elementary Education. Bachelor of Science in Accountancy. Digos City. The institution envisions ³fully transformed persons inspired by the spirituality of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the charism of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart´. Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering. the BED is preparing for the first Level PAASCU accreditation. Davao del Sur. Bachelor of Secondary Education.41 Research Environment This study was conducted in Cor Jesu College. . Bachelor of Library and Information Science. Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. The curricular programs being offered in the college are as follows: Bachelor of Arts. The Basic Education had gained respectable reputation in the province especially in academic contests and non-academic pursuits. 798 for the college and 886 for the basic education. The student enrolment for the second semester of school year 2010-2011 was only 2. located along Sacred Heart Avenue. This year. and Catholic School owned and run by the Brothers of the Sacred Heart.
The universal sampling technique was utilized in gathering data since the size is manageable. Bachelor of Science in Information Technology. Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management. The 66 full time College Faculty comprised the following departments: Teacher Education. and Sunday College. Business and Accountancy.42 Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering. Computer Studies. Engineering and Technology. Bachelor of Science in Criminology. Research Respondents The respondents of the study were 101 full-time College and Basic Education or the teaching personnel of Cor Jesu College. Arts and Sciences. All the full time Basic Education Faculty and College Faculty were considered in the study as they were all the direct recipients of the translation of policies of the institution and its provisions that greatly influence their . and the Vocational and Technology. Bachelor of Science in Computer Science. Health Sciences. Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Bachelor of Science in Psychology. Bachelor of Science in Midwifery. Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Communication Engineering. and 35 from the Basic Education Department (BED).
and co-workers. job itself. Research Instrument This study employed three sets of survey questionnaires for data collection and one personal data profiler. (WMO). professional growth and development opportunities. administration and supervision. The instrument used to measure work motivation was made by the researcher. The Work Motivation Questionnaire. The mean score for each motivational indicator was computed and analyzed following the scale and descriptions given below: . This Work Motivation Questionnaire was categorized according to indicators: compensation.43 commitment to this organization and how these made interplay to their performance. The job performance data that were already generated from the principal¶s office (BED) and Dean¶s Office (college) were finally submitted to the Human Resource Director¶s Office. The researcher requested five (5) experts in the field to validate the questionnaire.
50 Moderately Motivated (MM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation.51-3.50 Highly Motivated (HM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are fully or extremely acquired in the workplace. an interesting and challenging job. people oriented supervision/administration.51-4. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support6 and congeniality are mostly or highly acquired in the workplace. 2.51-5. provides moderate motivation to the faculty. hence gives vigor to do the job. people oriented supervision/ administration. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are neither acquired in the workplace and gives vigor to do job nor lost and gives the lethargy to do the job thus.00 3.44 Table1 Description of Scales Using the Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) Scale Description Very Highly Motivated (VHM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. an interesting and challenging job. 4. thus. . people oriented supervision/ administration. an interesting and challenging job. gives vigor to the job.
There were some questions which were modified by the researcher in order to fit with the respondents being studied.51-2.50 Very Poorly Motivated (VPM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are lost in the workplace and gives strong lethargic attitude to do the job thus. and opportunities for professional and personal advancement and social support and congeniality are seldom or poorly acquired in the workplace and gives lethargy to do the job.45 1.00-1. 1. people oriented supervision/administration. people oriented supervision/administration. The affective commitment variable was measured by the Affective Commitment Scale which was developed by Meyer and Allen (1997). This questionnaire was likewise validated by experts. The Affective Commitment Scale (ACS). . The mean score was computed and analyzed according to the following scale with its scale description. an interesting and challenging job. an interesting and challenging job.50 Poorly Motivated (PM) means the faculty¶s need for good compensation package or adequate compensation. the faculty is very poorly motivated.
2 Disagree 1. Moderately Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 41% to 60% manifested by CJC faculty.51-5.46 Table 2 Description of the Scale Using the Affective Commitment Scale (ACS) Weight 1 Status Strongly Disagree Interval Scale 1. 5 Strongly agree 4.50 4 Agree 3.00 Very Highly Manifested: This indicated that commitment is 81% to 100% manifested by CJC faculty. All instruments were tracked down using the codes for each respondent listed in the master list of the researcher. .50 Highly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 61% to 80% by CJC faculty.50 3 Neither agree Or disagree 2.51-4.00-1.51-2.50 Description Very Poorly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 1% to 20 % manifested by CJC faculty Poorly Manifested: This indicates that commitment is 21% to 40% manifested by CJC faculty.51-3.
47 Job Performance Rating. the researcher developed job performance rating as follow: . performance and completion of related studies and work. however. the two departments covered the same areas in rating the job performance: teaching/ classroom performance. The job performance Rating Instrument for the BED differs from the college in the point system distribution. The job performance ratings of the faculty are secondary data obtained from the office of the Human Resource Director. The Standard Job Performance Rating of two departments was formulated for the purpose of ranking and promotion. The college department however put emphasis on attendance to seminars or training by placing points. However. Professional services and cooperation in upholding unit and school policies in following accepted school rules. and the code of ethics. procedures. The BED used 25-point maximum while the college utilized 50.point maximum. For the purpose of this study.
retrieving the answered survey forms. The data for the job performance would be . Likewise. the same office was asked for permission in administering the questionnaire. collating. the Dean of the College and the Principal of the BED was informed of the approved request. the following steps would be embarked upon: asking permissions from the School President through the Human Resource Director to compose the Basic Education (BED) and College Faculty as respondents of the study.48 Table 3 Distribution of Points and Description of Job Performance Rating Description Excellent Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Does not Meet Expectations BED (25 maximum point distribution) Above 24 20-24 15-19 Below 15 College (50 maximum point distribution) 45 and above 35-44 25-34 Below 25 Research Procedure In conducting the research. Particularly. tabulating. and analyzing and interpreting of data and the writing of the final research manuscript.
49 generated from the BED Principal and the Dean of the College as these are considered ready data or results. civil status and rank. To do this. . Statistical Treatment The study purposely correlated the motivating indicators as perceived by the full time teaching personnel of Cor Jesu College to their affective commitment and job performance. It was likewise utilized to determine the magnitude of relationship between job performance of the faculty and each of the indicators of work motivation. percentages and frequency distribution were utilized to describe the demographic profile of the faculty in terms of organizational tenure. Mean scores. It determined the varying degree of this motivational indicator in influencing affective organizational commitment and job performance of the teaching personnel. 2. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to find the significant relationship between affective commitment of the faculty and each of the indicators of work motivation. age. sex. the following statistical tools were employed: 1.
One-Way ANOVA was used to find whether significant difference exists on work motivation between college faculty and BED faculty in terms of the five (5) motivational indicators. . it was utilized to test the amount of variance explained by the indicators of work motivation in both affective commitment and job performance of the college and BED faculty.05 alpha level of significance. Multiple linear regression was employed to determine the factor of each category of work motivation that greatly affects job performance and affective commitment of the college faculty or BED faculty. All interpretations were based on 0. Thus. 2000). 4.50 3. Likewise. the Standard Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was obtained to answer the question of the extent of relationship between/ among two or more variables (Padua.
This refers to the school administrators¶ style of managing their functions. bonuses. Affective commitment. benefits convertible to cash and incentives) or in kinds like uniform allowance or awards received by an employee.51 DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally for clear understanding of the research specifically on the findings and interpretation of data. implementing policies and their dealings with subordinates. This is essentially concerned with the person¶s emotional attachment to his or her organization and his or her great belief in the values of the organization which strongly affect organizational citizenship behaviors and its intention to stay in the organization. This may be received directly in the form of cash (salary. Compensation. . This pertains to all forms of financial returns and tangible services and benefits receive as part of an employment relationship. Administration and Supervision.
This refers to the full time basic education and college instructors or teachers working in Cor Jesu College. Job Performance. This refers to the availability and accessibility for the chance to advance professionally such as promoted to a higher rank. creating and modifying enriching classroom activities. upgrading of skills through attending training or seminars or be a speaker to .52 Co-workers. This pertains to the extent to which job tasks as lecturing. This pertains to the number of years or the length of time that an employee worked in the school organization. Organizational Tenure. This refers to the other employees working with the individual whether faculty or non-teaching personnel. Job Itself. as well as other work related behaviors required of him or her to display in a job as evaluated against a specific set of criteria. Faculty. Professional Growth and Development Opportunities. This is a measure of how a faculty conducts classroom instruction and tasks related to it. are considered interesting and permits opportunities for learning and accepting responsibility. etc. grading.
53 enriching seminars within or outside the school. educational advancement for academic leadership. .
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