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0101 -- BA 2165 0201 -- BA 2165 0301 -- BA 2195 0401 -- BA 1210 0501 -- BA 1240 1601 -- BA 2175 0102 -- BA 1200 0202 -- BA 1200 0302 -- SS 2105 0402 -- BA 1230 0502 -- BA 2185 1602 -- BA 2155

0601 -- BA 1230 0701 -- BA 2175 0801 -- BA 2175 0901 -- BA 2175 1001 -- MS 3171 0602 -- BA 2145 0702 -- BA 2185 0802 -- BA 2185 0902 -- BA 2185 1002 -- MS 4171

1101 -- SS 1084 1201 -- BA 2175 1301 -- BA 1230 1401 -- BA 1230 1501 -- BA 2195 1102 -- SS 1086 1202 -- BA 2195 1302 -- SS 1070 1402 -- SS 1084 1502 -- BA 1240 -

Instructions: 1. ON THIS PAGE: Fill in your UTorID (e.g. smithm1) and circle your tutorial section. 2. ON THE NEXT PAGE: Fill in your name (as it appears on ROSI), your student number, and your UTorID (e.g. smithm1). 3. ON THE SCANTRON CARD: Fill in your last name, first initial, and student number in the spaces given and, using pencil, darkly shade in the corresponding bubbles. Then sign the card. 4. For each multiple choice question, mark your answer in pencil on the Scantron card by darkly shading the appropriate bubble. All answers to multiple choice questions must be transferred to the Scantron card. Under no circumstances will answers to multiple choice questions written on this paper be accepted. 5. Answer short answer questions in the spaces provided. Answers written in pencil will not be remarked. 6. Mark values are indicated with each question. 7. Make sure that your midterm has 9 pages.

AST 101 MIDTERM 1, FALL 2010


NAME: __________________________________ UTORID: ________________________________ STUDENT NUMBER: _____________________ Question A1-A22 (MC) B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 Total Marks /22 /2 /2 /2 /2 /1 /4 /35 AST 101 MIDTERM 1. FALL 2010 PAGE 2 OF 9 .

(e) We did not think that Mercury had the required concentrations of magnetized minerals to produce a strong magnetic field 4. sound waves do not AST 101 MIDTERM 1. while Mars does. CIRCLE THE MOST CORRECT ANSWER (1 mark each) 1. sound waves do need a medium to travel through (d) Light waves have small wavelengths. sound waves do not (b) Light waves can be described with a frequency. sound waves have large wavelengths (e) Light waves carry a lot of energy. The atmospheres of Mars and Venus both consist primarily of carbon dioxide. sound waves can only be described with a wavelength (c) Light waves do not require a medium to travel through. so its atmosphere is able to hold more heat (d) Venus is fixed with one side facing the Sun at all times.PART A: Multiple choice questions. (b) Venus' atmosphere is very thick. FALL 2010 PAGE 3 OF 9 . Why is it a surprise that Mercury has such a strong magnetic field? (a) Mercury was thought to be too close to the Sun to have a strong magnetic field (b) Mercury is covered in craters and it was thought that all of those impacts would have disrupted Mercury's magnetic field long ago (c) The last astronauts to visit Mercury detected no magnetic field (d) Magnetic fields are generated by motions of molten material inside a planet and we thought that Mercury solidified long ago. so it never gets a chance to radiate away most of the heat it absorbs (e) Venus has lots of active volcanoes which produce a lot of heat 3. How many planets are there in the solar system? (a) 1 (b) 8 (c) 9 (d) 10 (e) more than 100. a powerful greenhouse gas. Which of the following correctly describes an essential difference between light waves and sound waves? (a) Light waves bend as they go through narrow openings. trying to determine why Mercury has a fairly strong magnetic field. while Mars' is very thin (c) Venus is a much larger planet than Mars. The MESSENGER probe is currently exploring Mercury. counting all the moons of the outer planets 2. Yet the surface of Venus is very hot while the surface of Mars is very cold. Why? (a) Venus has no oceans to absorb any of the heat.

where the telescope will not be exposed to gamma rays. where would it be best to build it? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Far away from civilization. Compared to light with a short wavelength. What do the positions of these lines in the Sun's spectrum tell us about the Sun? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The chemical composition of the outer layers of the Sun The overall size and mass of the Sun The colour of the Sun's outer layers The distance to the Sun The temperature in the core of the Sun 9. light with a long wavelength has: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) a “bluer” colour more energy a lower frequency a faster speed a lower pitch 7. 6. 8. Clouds of hydrogen gas in space glow a characteristic red colour. (d) Because red light corresponds to the energy difference between a pair of electron orbitals in the hydrogen atom. FALL 2010 PAGE 4 OF 9 . The spectrum of the Sun shows a variety of absorption lines. Why? (a) Because hydrogen atoms are red. because you'd want to be far from all the heat produced by the Earth Above the atmosphere.5. (b) Because such clouds are usually full of red stars. whose light the hydrogen reflects. because infrared radiation can harm people On top of a mountain. What heat source contributes the most to keeping terrestrial planet interiors molten long after those planets have formed? (a) accretion (b) desalination (c) differentiation (d) radioactive decay (e) redistribution AST 101 MIDTERM 1. (c) Because the hydrogen gas is very hot. If you were building a telescope to observe BOTH visible light and infrared radiation. (e) Because our eyes are most sensitive to red light. so it glows red. to avoid atmospheric absorption On Venus. where there is plenty of infrared radiation to pick up In a protected environment deep underground.

no patio. orbit identical stars. you realize that there is. Consider two planets. or even looking at the Moon with your bare eye. you decide to make a latte and sip it on the patio on the shaded side of the ISS. encircling Saturn They are composed of a fine spray of gas They mainly consist of tiny rocks and chunks of ice. possibly made of magma A contains more heavy elements than B A has a weaker magnetic field than B 11. A and B. like hula-hoops.10. modern telescope? (a) resolution (seeing more detail in celestial objects) (b) magnification (making images of celestial objects larger) (c) light gathering power (seeing fainter objects) AST 101 MIDTERM 1. While on vacation to the International Space Station (ISS). FALL 2010 PAGE 5 OF 9 . about the size of pebbles They mainly consist of large chunks of rock. You start to get very cold. about the size of refrigerators They are rings of sulphur plasma emitted by Io 13. while B has none. Both have the same chemical composition. formed at the same time. Which of the following is NOT an important power of a large. These dark patches are round and have names like “The Sea of Tranquility”? What are these dark patches? (a) Oceans of liquid methane (b) Places where the intense heat from the rockets of the Apollo astronauts charred the surface of the Moon (c) Craters that filled with lava early in the Moon's history (d) Oceans of liquid water (e) Places where high winds have cleared the Moon's surface free of dust 12. Which of the following best describes the rings of Saturn? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) They are solid rings. Looking at a picture of the Moon. A has a lot of volcanoes. in fact. Unfortunately. Which of the following conclusions is consistent with this evidence? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A is larger than B A has a thicker atmosphere than B A is likely to be home to more aggressive aliens. and orbit those stars at identical distances. By what method are you and your latte mainly losing heat? (a) convection (b) differentiation (c) conduction (d) radiation (e) Darwinian natural selection 14. after exiting the ISS without any form of protection. you can see lots of dark patches.

what would happen in the long term? (a) Carbon dioxide would be released by the oceans. (d) Because they hit the ground at moving faster than the speed of sound in space. so their mass is converted to energy. (b) Because they hit the surface while moving faster than the speed of sound in the ground. Which planet will you send the astronauts to? (a) Neptune (b) Jupiter (c) Europa (d) Mars (e) Venus 17. which would be absorbed by the oceans. Why? (a) Because they hit the surface while moving at the speed of light. at which point the temperature would stabilize at a new. and the temperature would come back down (c) Rocks would start to release carbon dioxide. (b) More water would evaporate from the oceans. Because you only have four years until the next election and don't have time to invent a lot of new technology. Over millions of years. you're going to have to send the astronauts to the planet that. the water would absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide. so they get superheated by the planet's atmosphere and are ready to explode when they hit the surface of the planet. Imagine you are elected president of the United States. in its natural state. bringing the temperature back down (d) The capacity of the oceans to dissolve carbon dioxide would increase. 18. You decide that your legacy will be to land humans on another planet. tidal interactions between the Earth and the Moon are causing: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Earth's day to get longer the Moon to move closer to Earth Earth's crust to cool down Earth's year to get shorter the Moon to spin faster on its axis PAGE 6 OF 9 AST 101 MIDTERM 1. When impactors capable of producing craters hit a planetary body. higher level 16. (c) Because rocks capable of producing craters are generally very hot. The whole budget of NASA is at your disposal. If the temperature of the Earth increased a little bit (a degree or two). they explode. reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. bringing the temperature back down (e) Rocks would start to release carbon dioxide so the temperature would rise until the oceans absorbed some of the extra carbon dioxide. is the most suitable for supporting human life.15. FALL 2010 . so the ground can't deform to absorb the impact and the impactor's energy is instead converted to heat. so when they hit the ground. causing the temperature to get hotter and hotter in a feedback loop. that heats them up an extra little bit and causes them to explode.

and the frequency of the impacts on their surfaces has disrupted their atmospheres. What relationship between these two objects is revealed by these spectra? (a) A is hotter than B (b) A is moving relative to us at a different speed than B is (c) A is colder than B (d) A is larger than B (e) A is made of different materials than B 21. (c) Because Mars and Mercury are heavily cratered. (e) We cannot be sure why Mars and Mercury have such thin atmospheres. and therefore little material out of which to build planetary atmospheres. Which of the following correctly describes a change that will occur in Earth's sky over the next ten thousand years? (a) all of the stars will go out because they will have exhausted their fuel (b) the expansion of space will make it impossible to see other galaxies (c) the Orion Nebula will finish forming stars and disappear (d) the North Celestial Pole will move away from Polaris (e) most of the constellations will change their appearance due to the motion of the stars within them.. We hope that the MESSENGER and Mars Express probes will help resolve this enduring mystery. Which of the following planets DOES NOT have rings? (a) Jupiter (b) Venus (c) Uranus (d) Neptune (e) Saturn AST 101 MIDTERM 1. 20. A and B. (b) Because Mars and Mercury orbit in parts of the solar system where there are few comets. (d) Because Mars and Mercury have masses below the threshold required to capture and hold a thick atmosphere for billions of years. so that they will become unrecognizeable 22. Why do Earth and Venus have much thicker atmospheres than either Mars or Mercury? (a) Because Mars and Mercury are either too hot or to cold to maintain atmospheres. Here are the spectra of two different celestial objects. FALL 2010 PAGE 7 OF 9 .19.

Be sure to indicate the direction to the observer who sees the absorption spectrum! -Diagram should show a hot. A common mistake was omitting a clear indication of the direction to the observer. or making the KB and the OC orbit Neptune itself. Common mistakes included making the Oort Cloud non-spherical (simply noting that it's a sphere would have sufficed). circled by the orbit of Neptune.PART B: Short answer questions. 1. FALL 2010 PAGE 8 OF 9 . and representations of both the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. a circle for the orbit of Neptune. AST 101 MIDTERM 1. Point form is acceptable where appropriate. Marks may be deducted for lack of clarity or concision. Answer ALL of the following questions in the spaces provided. It would be a SPHERE (NOT a circle) of dots stretching to 50. The Oort Cloud may be so large that it can't even fit on the page. Diagram should show a dot for the Sun. or getting this direction wrong. Your diagram should include a dot for the Sun. so that either a continuous or emission spectrum would be seen. The Kuiper Belt should be a circular distribution of dots mainly outside the orbit of Neptune. [2 marks] Draw a CLEARLY LABELED diagram showing an example of a configuration of celestial objects which would produce an absorption spectrum. 2. dense object viewed THROUGH a cooler gas. [2 marks] Using a CLEARLY LABELED diagram.000 AU or so. illustrate the difference in the positions and extents of the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud. extending to about 50 AU.

[4 marks] Use a line to connect each of the following measurable quantities (on the left) to the ONE piece of information (on the right) that it gives us about a celestial object. is highly volcanically active. In such a disk. Two planets in the solar system rotate on their axes in peculiar ways which challenge this model for the formation of the planets. Each item should be used only once.g. [2 marks] We believe that the planets formed in a disk of material orbiting the young Sun. Any two of impact gardening. What are these two planets AND in what way is the rotation of each one peculiar? Venus – spins backward (retrograde rotation) OR can also call this a 180 degree inclination of its rotation axis Uranus – tipped on its side OR can call this a 90 degree inclination of its rotation axis 5. FALL 2010 PAGE 9 OF 9 . [2 marks] NAME two different processes that tend to erase craters from the surfaces of moons and planets. yet it is smaller than geologically inactive planets such as Mars and Mercury. plate tectonics. counterclockwise as seen from above). tidal friction via tides caused by Jupiter 6. 4. What primary source of heat continues to power Io's volcanic activity.3. erosion. blackbody spectrum presence of emission or absorption lines Doppler shift of emission or absorption lines degree of cratering --> --> --> --> surface temperature chemical composition speed toward or away from us age THE END AST 101 MIDTERM 1. Io. [1 mark] The Jovian moon. everything would rotate in the same sense (e. volcanism.

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