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# 6.

3D Solids and Solids of Revolution

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

6.1 Introduction

• Problems of beam bending, plane stress, plates, etc. may be considered as special cases of 3D solids. • So why not use 3D solids all the time?

– Harder to prepare – Harder to check for errors – Much greater demand on computer resources

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

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Introduction • Stress can vary in all three directions • Nodes are located in 3 space • Nodes have displacements in 3 directions MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Stress-strain relations • Stress-strain relations are now described by a 6x6 matrix MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 2 .

in plane strain we assumed εz=0) MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Displacement Interpolation • Displacements within an element are interpolated from nodal displacements using u=Nd.Strain-Displacement Relations • If strains are small: • These are the most general equations. as before.g. however there are now interpolations in three directions. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 3 . In deriving previous elements we made assumptions about some of these values (e.

General Formula for k • The general. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 6. except that there are more terms in the integration due to the bigger matrices. energy-based formula for k is the same as for previous elements. Strain Triangle Linear Strain Tetrahedron Å Linear Strain Triangle Trilinear Hexahedron Å Bilinear Quadrilateral Quadratic Hexahedron Å Parabolic Quadrilateral MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 4 .2 3D Solid Elements • The 3D solid elements are analogous to planar counterparts: – – – – Constant Strain Tetrahedron Å Const.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Trilinear Hexahedron • Is also called the 8 node “brick” element. it is only accurate when strains are almost constant over the element span. • Solving for shape functions: • Isoparametrically: MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 5 .Constant Strain Tetrahedron • As with the Constant Strain Triangle.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 6.Distributed Loading • The work equivalent nodal loads for a constant distributed pressure p are as shown.3 Axisymmetric Solid Elements • In axisymmetric problems. • Meshing is similar to plane problems. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 6 . however each node represents a circle and each element represents the cross section of an annulus. the geometry is axisymmetric and the loads and support are usually also axisymmetric. but they do not need to be. if certain tricks are employed.

Axisymmetric Solid Elements • Stress-strain relations • Strain-displacement relations MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Axisymmetric Solid Elements • Displacement interpolation • General formula for k (axisymmetric stress field) MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 7 .

axisymmetric elements will always counteract radial forces and moments as shown. these elements are similar to plane elements. • Three node triangle is similar to constant strain triangle: • However. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Axisymmetric Elements • Because of εθ. • Note that: • Isoparametrically: MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 8 . εθ is a function of r and z (it is not constant strain).Axisymmetric Elements • Except for circumferential strain of εθ=u/r.

Nonaxisymmetric Loads • We can use Fourier Series to represent loads as a function of θ! MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Nonaxisymmetric Loads • We can also use Fourier Series to represent the displacements as functions of θ! MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 9 .

Nonaxisymmetric Loads • Each harmonic can be solved independently. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 10 .