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# :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

Temperature sensors

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
When two wires composed of dissimilar metals are joined at both ends and one of the ends is heated, there is a continuous current which flows in the thermoelectric circuit. Thomas Seebeck made this discovery in 1821. If this circuit is broken at the center, the net open circuit voltage (the Seebeck voltage) is a function of the junction temperature and the composition of the two metals. All dissimilar metals exhibit this effect. The most common combinations of two metals are listed on next, along with their important characteristics. For small changes in temperature the Seebeck voltage is linearly proportional to temperature: eAB = T Where , the Seebeck coefficient, is the constant of proportionality. (For real world thermocouples, is not constant but varies with temperature).

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
Output voltages for some popular thermocouples are plotted as a function of temperature.

## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
Diagrama de variatie a coeficientului Seebeck (variatia tensiunii Seebeck raportata la variatia temperaturii). Atunci cand alegem un senzor de tip termocupla trebuie sa avem in vedere zona in care coeficientul Seebeck al senzorului variaza cel mai putin cu temperatura se va selecta tipul termocuplei in functie de domeniul de temperatura masurat. De exemplu, o termocupla de tip J are un coeficient Seebeck care variaza cu mai putin de + 1V/ in domeniul C 200.. 500 acesta este domeniul in C care se vor folosi termocuple de tip J.

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

Tensiunea electromotoare Seebeck va aparea la capetele libere ale celor doua conductoare din material diferite (A, B) la diferenta de temperatura dT.

A T B dV1=S x dT V1

Tensiunea Seebeck este foarte mica (V pana la mV) ca urmare voltmetrele uzuale nu se pot utiliza.

## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

Un alt aspect important este acela ca pentru a conecta un aparat de masura (un microvoltmetru, de exemplu), se vor forma doua jonctiuni parazite (AC si CB) care vor functiona ca niste termocuple. Ca urmare, tensiune citita va fi: V(V) = V(AB) - V(CB) - V(AC)

A T

V(AC)

C
V
V(V)

V(AB)

V(CB)

dV(AB)=S x dT

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

Ca urmare, daca am masura temperatura jonctiunilor AC si CB (cu un alt dispozitiv) si am calcula V(AB) la aceasta temperatura (de pe grafic), am putea compensa valoarea citita de microvoltmetru:

A T

V(AC)

C
V
V(V)

V(AB)

V(CB)

dV(AB)=S x dT

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
O alta metoda de compensare a jonctiunii reci este aceea de a intercala o jonctiune de referinta ca in figura alaturata:

A T
V(AB) V(AB)o

V(AC)

C
V
V(V)

V(AB) V(AB)o = V(AC) + V (V) + V(CA) V(V) = V(AB) - V(AB)o Tensiuna V(AC) este egala dar de sens contrar cu tensiunea V(CA), ca urmare suma lor este zero.

B To

V(CA)

dV(AB)=S x dT

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
Daca jonctiune BA suplimentara este tinuta la o temperatura constanta, cunoscuta (0 se C) va putea calibra cu usurinta termocupla.

A T
V(AB) V(AB)o

V(AC)

C
V
V(V)

B
0 C

V(CA)

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
Daca se foloseste un senzor suplimentar (de exemplu un termistor) pentru a detecta temperatura jonctiunii reci, se poate compensa cu usurinta eroarea de masurare:

A T
V(AB) V(AB)o

V(AC)

C
V
V(V)

B
V(AB) V(AB)t = V(AC) + V (V) + V(CA) V(V) = V(AB) - V(AB)t(Th) t C Th

V(CA)

C
A
V+

V(CJC)

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
O termocupla de tip K va avea un coeficient Seebeck de aproximativ 41V/C; ca urmare, pentru compensarea jonctiunii reci am folosit un senzor de temperatura intagrat (TMP35) cu un coeficient de temperatura de 10mV/C. Acest coeficient este divizat si inversat prin reteaua R1 si R2 pentru a produce o tensiune de jonctiune rece cu un coeficient de 41V/C. Astfel se compenseaza erorile introduse de conectarea la termocupla (fire si trasee PCB).Aceasta compensare functioneaza corect pentru valori ale temperaturii ambiente situate in intervalul 20C .. 50C. Pentru un domeniu de masura de 250C, tensiunea Seebeck a termocuplei va avea o variatie de 10.151mV.

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

Daca dorim ca iesirea full-scale a circuitului sa fie de 2.5V, pentru iesirea compensata a termocuplei (10.151mV) avem nevoie de o amplificare de 246.3. Alegand R = 4.99kohms rezulta R5 = 1.22Mohms. Deoarece cea mai apropiata valoare de 1% este 1.21Mohms, se va alege un potentiometru de 50kohms in serie cu valoarea standard, pentru ajustare fina. Desi amplificatorul ales (OP193) este un AO cu alimentare monopolara, iesirea acestuia nu este de tip rail-torail si valoarea minima de iesire va fi de aproximativ 0.1V.

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple

Ca urmare, se va aduga rezistenta R3 care sa introduca un offset de 0.1V pentru o alimentare de 5V. Acest ofset (echivalentul a 10 C) trebuie scazut din valoarea obtinuta la iesire. R3 permite si detectarea unei termocuple intrerupte (pentru termocupla intrerupta, tensiunea de la intrarea AO va fi mai mare de 3V). R7 adapteaza impedanta de cc si capacitorul de 0.1F reduce zgomotul de cuplare.

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
Circuitele AD594/AD595 sunt amplificatoare de instrumentatie pentru termocuple cu compensarea jonctiunii reci, incluse intr-un circuit monolitic. Structura lor contine o referinta de 0 grade Celsius si un amplificator precalibrat, astfel incat la iesire obtinem o senzitivitate de (10mV/ C).

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple
Circuitele mai contin si o alarma pentru defecte de termocuple (TTL). Pot fi alimentate de la tensiuni monopolare de 5V minim dar alimentarea lor cu tensiuni bipolare permite masurarea temperaturilor negative.

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Chapter 004

## 1. Thermocouple tree switching

Tree switching is a method of organizing the channels of a scanner into groups, each with its own main switch. Without tree switching, every channel can contribute noise directly through its stray capacitance.With tree switching, groups of parallel channel capacitances are in series with a single tree switch capacitance. The result is greatly reduced crosstalk in a large data acquisition system, due to the reduced interchannel capacitance.

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## 1. Thermocouple analog filter

A filter may be used directly at the input of a voltmeter to reduce noise. It reduces interference dramatically, but causes the voltmeter to respond more slowly to step inputs.

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple integration
Integration is an A/D technique which essentially averages noise over a full line cycle, thus power line-related noise and its harmonics are virtually eliminated. If the integration period is chosen to be less than an integer line cycle, its noise rejection properties are essentially negated. Since thermocouple circuits that cover long distances are especially susceptible to power line related noise, it is advisable to use an integrating analog-to-digital converter to measure the thermocouple voltage. Integration is an especially attractive A/D technique in light of recent innovation have brought the cost in line with historically less expensive A/D technologies.

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple isolation
A noise source that is common to both high and low measurement leads is called common mode noise. Isolated inputs help to reduce this noise as well as protect the measurement system from ground loops and transients

Lets assume a thermocouple wire has been pulled through the same conduit as a 220 V AC supply line. The capacitance between the power lines and the thermocouple lines will create an AC signal of approximately equal magnitude on both thermocouple wires. This is not a problem in an ideal circuit, but the voltmeter is not ideal. It has some capacitance between its low terminal and safety ground (earth). Current flows through this capacitance and through the thermocouple lead resistance, creating a normal mode signal which appears as measurement error.
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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple isolation
This error is reduced by isolating the input terminals from safety ground with a careful design that minimizes the low-earth capacitance. Non-isolated or ground-referenced inputs (single-ended inputs are often ground-referenced) dont have the ability to reject common mode noise. Instead, the common mode current flows through the low lead directly to ground, causing potentially large reading errors. Isolated inputs are particularly useful in eliminating ground loops created when the thermocouple junction comes into direct contact with a common mode noise source.

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple isolation
In the left figure we want to measure the temperature at the center of a molten metal bath that is being heated by electric current. The potential at the center of the bath is 120 VRMS. The equivalent circuit is shown in the middle figure. Isolated inputs reject the noise current by maintaining a high impedance between LO and Earth. A non-isolated system, represented in the right figure, completes the path to earth resulting in a ground loop. The resulting currents can be dangerously high and can be harmful to both instrument and operator. Isolated inputs are required for making measurements with high common mode noise.

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## :: Sensors and conditioning circuits

Chapter 004

1. Thermocouple isolation
Sometimes having isolated inputs isnt enough. In previous figures, the voltmeter inputs are floating on a 120 VRMS common mode noise source. They must withstand a peak offset of 170 V from ground and still make accurate measurements. An isolated system with electronic FET switches typically can only handle 12 V of offset from earth; if used in this application, the inputs would be damaged. The solution is to use commercially available external signal conditioning (isolation transformers and amplifi ers) that buffer the inputs and reject the common mode voltage. Another easy alternative is to use a data acquisition system that can float several hundred volts. Notice that we can also minimize the noise by minimizing RS. We do this by using larger thermocouple wire that has a smaller series resistance. Also, to reduce the possibility of magnetically induced noise, the thermocouple should be twisted in a uniform manner. Thermocouple extension wires are available commercially in a twisted pair configuration.

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Chapter 004

## 1. Thermocouple sources of errors

We have discussed the concepts of the reference junction, how to use a polynomial to extract absolute temperature data and what to look for in a data acquisition system to minimize the effects of noise. The polynomial curve fi t relies upon the thermocouple wire being perfect; that is, it must not become decalibrated during the act of making a temperature measurement. We shall now discuss some of the pitfalls of thermocouple thermometry. Aside from the specified accuracies of the data acquisition system and its isothermal reference junction, most measurement error may be traced to one of these primary sources: 1. Poor junction connection 2. Decalibration of thermocouple wire 3. Shunt impedance and galvanic action 4. Thermal shunting 5. Noise and leakage currents 6. Thermocouple specifications 7. Documentation

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Chapter 004

## 2.Semiconductor Temperature Sensors

Modern semiconductor temperature sensors offer high accuracy and high linearity over an operating range of about 55C to +150C. Internal amplifiers can scale the output to convenient values, such as 10mV/C. They are also useful in cold-junction compensation circuits for wide temperature range thermocouples. All semiconductor temperature sensors make use of the relationship between a bipolar junction transistor's (BJT) baseemitter voltage to its collector current:

where k is Boltzmann's constant, T is the absolute temperature, q is the charge of an electron, and Is is a current related to the geometry and the temperature of the transistors. (The equation assumes a voltage of at least a few hundred mV on the collector, and ignores Early effects.)
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## 2. Semiconductor Temperature Sensors

If we take N transistors identical to the first and allow the total current Ic to be shared equally among them, we find that the new base-emitter voltage is given by the equation:

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## 2. Semiconductor Temperature Sensors

Neither of these circuits is of much use by itself because of the strongly temperature dependent current Is, but if we have equal currents in one BJT and N similar BJTs then the expression for the difference between the two base-emitter voltages is proportional to absolute temperature and does not contain Is.

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## 2. Semiconductor Temperature Sensors

The circuit shown in the next figure implements the above equation and is known as the "Brokaw Cell".

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## 2. Semiconductor Temperature Sensors

The voltage VBE = VBE VN appears across resistor R2. The emitter current in Q2 is therefore VBE/R2. The op amp's servo loop and the resistors, R, force the same current to flow through Q1. The Q1 and Q2 currents are equal and are summed and flow into resistor R1. The corresponding voltage developed across R1 is proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) and given by:

The bandgap cell reference voltage, VBANDGAP, appears at the base of Q1 and is the sum of VBE(Q1) and VPTAT. VBE(Q1) is complementary to absolute temperature (CTAT), and summing it with VPTAT causes the bandgap voltage to be constant with respect to temperature (assuming proper choice of R1/R2 ratio and N to make the bandgap voltage equal to1.205V). This circuit is the basic band-gap temperature sensor, and is widely used in semiconductor temperature sensors.

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## 3. Integrated temperature sensors

An innovation in thermometry is the IC (Integrated Circuit) temperature transducer. These are available in both voltage and current-output configurations. Both supply an output that is linearly proportional to absolute temperature. Typical values are 1 A/K and 10 mV/K F. Except that they offer a very linear output with temperature, these IC sensors share all the disadvantages of thermistors. They are semiconductor devices and thus have a limited temperature range. The same problems of self-heating and fragility are evident and they require an external power source.

These devices provide a convenient way to produce an easy-to-read output that is proportional to temperature => Used for thermocouple compensation.

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Current output

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## 3. Integrated temperature sensors

Proportional voltage output

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## 3. Integrated temperature sensors

Absolute voltage output

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## 3. Integrated temperature sensors

Absolute voltage output

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Digital output

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Digital output

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## 3. Integrated temperature sensors

Interfatarea cu un microcontroller

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Preset setpoint

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## 3. Integrated temperature sensors

Programmable setpoint

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## 3. Integrated temperature sensors

10bit digital sensor

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