This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Kitsch (English pronunciation: /ˈkɪtʃ/, loanword from German) is a form of art that is considered an inferior, tasteless copy of an extant style of art or a worthless imitation of art of recognized value. The concept is associated with the deliberate use of elements that may be thought of as cultural icons while making cheap mass-produced objects that are unoriginal. Kitsch also refers to the types of art that are aesthetically deficient (whether or not being sentimental, glamorous, theatrical, or creative) and that make creative gestures which merely imitate the superficial appearances of art through repeated conventions and formulae. Excessive sentimentality often is associated with the term. The term kitsch is considered derogatory, denoting works executed to pander to popular demand alone and purely for commercial purposes rather than works created as self-expression by an artist. The term is generally reserved for unsubstantial and gaudy works that are calculated to have popular appeal and are considered pretentious and shallow rather than genuine artistic efforts. The concept of kitsch is applied to artwork that was a response to the nineteenth century art with aesthetics that convey exaggerated sentimentality and melodrama, hence, kitsch art is closely associated with sentimental art.
The etymology is uncertain, but, as a descriptive term, kitsch originated in the art markets of Munich in the 1860s and the 1870s, describing cheap, popular, and marketable pictures and sketches In Das Buch vom Kitsch (The Book of Kitsch), Hans Reimann defines it as a professional expression “born in a painter's studio”. Analogously, the writer Edward Koelwel rejects that kitsch derives from the English word sketch, noting how the sketch was not then in vogue, and argues that kitsch art pictures were well-executed, finished paintings rather than sketchy drawings. Another highly possible theory is that it comes from the Hungarian word kicsi Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈkɪtʃɪ]/kis [kɪʃ] meaning little or small. Most likely through Austrian German. This theory is contradicted by the fact that kitsch in Hungarian is known as "giccs", and these words have clear similarities in pronunciation. This fact suggests that one of these words perhaps originated from the other one.
Garden gnomes and other lawn ornaments are often considered kitschy
Early uses of the term
Kitsch appealed to the crass tastes of the newly moneyed Munich bourgeoisie, who allegedly thought they could achieve the status they envied in the traditional class of cultural elites by aping, however clumsily, the most apparent features of their cultural habits. Kitsch became defined as an aesthetically impoverished object of shoddy production, meant more to identify the consumer with a newly acquired class status than to invoke a genuine aesthetic response. In this sense, the word eventually came to mean "a slapping together" (of a work of art). Kitsch was considered morally dubious and to have sacrificed aesthetic life to a pantomime of aesthetic life, usually, but not always, in the interest of signaling one's class status.
Relationship to aesthetics debated
There is a philosophical background to kitsch criticism, however, which is largely ignored. A notable exception to the lack of such debate is Gabrielle Thuller, who points to how kitsch criticism is based on Immanuel Kant's philosophy of aesthetics. Kant describes the direct appeal to the senses as "barbaric". Thuller's point is supported by Mark A. Cheetham, who points out that kitsch "is his Clement Greenberg's barbarism". A source book on texts critical of kitsch underlines this by including excerpts from the writings of Kant and Schiller. One, thus, has to keep in mind two things: a) Kant's enormous influence on the concept of "fine art" (the focus of Cheetham's book), as it came into being in the mid to late 18th century, and b) how "sentimentality" or "pathos", which are the defining traits of kitsch, do not find room within Kant's "aesthetical indifference". Kant also identified genius with originality. One could say he implicitly was rejecting kitsch, the presence of sentimentality and the lack of originality being the main accusations against it.
Immanuel Kant contributed greatly to the philosophical definition of fine art, setting values that could be used to identify kitsch
When originality alone is used to determine artistic genius, using it as a single focus may become problematic when the art of some periods is examined. In the Baroque period, for example, a painter was hailed for his ability to imitate other masters, one such imitator being Luca Giordano. Another influential philosopher writing on fine art was Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who emphasized the idea of the artist belonging to the spirit of his time, or zeitgeist. As an effect of these aesthetics, working with emotional and "unmodern" or "archetypical" motifs was referred to as kitsch from the second half of the nineteenth century on. Kitsch is thus seen as "false". As Thomas Kulka writes, "the term kitsch was originally applied exclusively to paintings", but it soon spread to other disciplines, such as music. The term has been applied to painters, such as Ilya Repin, and composers, such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, whom Hermann Broch refers to as "genialischer kitsch", or "kitsch of genius". 
Art and kitsch defined as opposites
The word, kitsch, was popularized in the 1930s by the art theorists Theodor Adorno, Hermann Broch, and Clement Greenberg, who each sought to define avant-garde and kitsch as opposites. The art world of the time perceived the immense popularity of kitsch as a threat to culture. The arguments of all three theorists relied on an implicit definition of kitsch as a type of false consciousness, a Marxist term meaning a mindset present within the structures of capitalism that is misguided as to its own desires and wants. Marxists believe there to be a disjunction between the real state of affairs and the way that they phenomenally appear. Adorno perceived this in terms of what he called the "culture industry", where the art is controlled and formulated by the needs of the market and given to a passive population which accepts it—what is marketed is art that is non-challenging and formally incoherent, but which serves its purpose of giving the audience leisure and something to watch or observe. It helps serve the oppression of the population by capitalism by distracting them from their social alienation. Contrarily for Adorno, art is supposed to be subjective, challenging, and oriented against the oppressiveness of the power structure. He claimed that kitsch is parody of catharsis and a parody of aesthetic experience. Broch called kitsch "the evil within the value-system of art"—that is, if true art is "good", kitsch is "evil". While art was creative, Broch held that kitsch depended solely on plundering creative art by adopting formulas that seek to imitate it, limiting itself to conventions and demanding a totalitarianism of those recognizable conventions. Broch Puppy, a gigantic kitsch sculpture by Jeff Koons accuses kitsch of not participating in the development of art, having its displayed at Bilbao Museum has appeal described focus directed at the past, as Greenberg speaks of its concern with by Adorno and Broch previous cultures. To Broch, kitsch was not the same as bad art; it formed a system of its own. He argued that kitsch involved trying to achieve "beauty" instead of "truth" and that any attempt to make something beautiful would lead to kitsch. Consequently, he opposed the Renaissance to Protestantism. Greenberg held similar views to Broch concerning the beauty and truth dichotomy, believing that the avant-garde style arose in order to defend aesthetic standards from the decline of taste involved in consumer society and that kitsch and art were opposites, which he outlined in his essay "Avant-Garde and Kitsch".
Relationship to totalitarianism
Other theorists over time also have linked kitsch to totalitarianism and its propaganda. The Czech writer Milan Kundera, in his book The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1984), defined it as "the absolute denial of shit". He wrote that kitsch functions by excluding from view everything that humans find difficult with which to come to terms, offering instead a sanitized view of the world, in which "all answers are given in advance and preclude any questions". In its desire to paper over the complexities and contradictions of real life, kitsch, Kundera suggested, is intimately linked with totalitarianism. In a healthy democracy, diverse interest groups compete and negotiate with one another to produce a generally acceptable consensus; by contrast, "everything that infringes on kitsch," including individualism, doubt, and irony, "must be banished for life" in order for kitsch to survive. Therefore, Kundera wrote, "Whenever a single political movement corners power we find ourselves in the realm of totalitarian kitsch." For Kundera, "Kitsch causes two tears to flow in quick succession. The first tear says: How nice to see children running on the grass! The second tear says: How nice to be moved, together with all mankind, by children running
Kitsch on the grass! It is the second tear that makes kitsch kitsch."
Relationship to academic art
One of Greenberg's more controversial claims was that kitsch was equivalent to academic art: "All kitsch is academic, and conversely, all that is academic is kitsch." He argued this based on the fact that academic art, such as that in the nineteenth century, was heavily centered in rules and formulations that were taught and tried to make art into something that could be taught and easily expressible. He later came to withdraw from his position of equating the two, as it became heavily criticized. Often nineteenth century academic art still is seen as kitsch, although this view is coming under attack from modern art critics. Broch argued that the genesis of kitsch was in Romanticism, which wasn't kitsch itself, but which opened the door for kitsch taste by emphasizing the need for expressive and evocative art work. Academic art, which continued this tradition of Romanticism, has a twofold reason for its association with kitsch. It is not that academic art was found to be accessible. In fact, it was under its reign that the difference between high art and low art first was defined by intellectuals. Academic art strove toward remaining in a tradition rooted in the aesthetic and intellectual experience. Intellectual and aesthetic qualities of the work were certainly there—good examples of academic art even were admired by the avant-garde artists who would rebel against it. There was some critique, however, that in being "too beautiful" and democratic it made art look easy, non-involving, and superficial. According to Tomas Kulka, any academic painting made after the time of academism, is kitsch by nature.
This antique kitsch writing set allows the user to rest writing utensils in the buck's antlers
Many academic artists tried to use subjects from low art and ennoble them as high art by subjecting them to interest in the inherent qualities of form and beauty, trying to democratize the art world. In England, certain academics even advocated that the artist should work for the marketplace. In some sense the goals of democratization succeeded and the society was flooded with academic art, with the public lining up to see art exhibitions as they do to see movies today.
Literacy in art became widespread, as did the practice of art making, and there was a blurring of the division between high and low culture. This often led to poorly made or conceived artwork being accepted as high art. Often, art which was found to be kitsch showed technical talent, such as in creating accurate representations, but lacked good taste. Furthermore, although original in their first expression, the subjects and images presented in academic art were disseminated to the public in the form of prints and postcards, which often actively was encouraged by the artists. These images were copied endlessly in kitschified form until they became well-known clichés. The avant-garde reacted to these developments by separating itself from aspects of art that were appreciated by the public, such as pictorial representation and harmony, in order to make a stand for the importance of the aesthetic. Many modern critics try not to pigeonhole academic art into the kitsch side of the art-or-kitsch dichotomy, recognizing its historical role in the genesis of both the avant-garde and kitsch.
This kitsch postcard of Lohengrin was circulated around 1900
With the emergence of postmodernism in the 1980s, the borders between kitsch and high art again became blurred. One development was the approval of what is called "camp taste" - which may be related to, but is not the same as camp when used as a "gay sensibility". Camp, in some circles, refers to an ironic appreciation of that which might otherwise be considered corny, such as singer and dancer Carmen Miranda with her tutti-frutti hats, or otherwise kitsch, such as popular culture events that are particularly dated or inappropriately serious, such as the low-budget science fiction movies of the 1950s and 1960s. A hypothetical example from the world of painting would be a kitsch image of a deer by a lake. In order to make this camp, one could paint a sign beside it, saying "No Swimming". The majestic or romantic impression of a stately animal would be punctured by humor; the notion of an animal receiving a punishment for the breach of the rule is patently ludicrous. The original, serious sentimentality of the motif is neutralized, and thus, it becomes camp. "Camp" is derived from the French slang term camper, which means "to pose in an exaggerated fashion". Susan Sontag argued in her 1964 Notes on "Camp" that camp was an attraction to the human qualities which expressed themselves in "failed attempts at seriousness", the qualities of having a particular and unique style, and of reflecting the sensibilities of the era. It involved an aesthetic of artifice rather than of nature. Indeed, hard-line supporters of camp culture have long insisted that "camp is a lie that dares to tell the truth".
Much of pop art attempted to incorporate images from popular culture and kitsch. These artists strove to maintain legitimacy by saying they were "quoting" imagery to make conceptual points, usually with the appropriation being ironic. In Italy, a movement arose called the Nuovi-nuovi ("new new"), which took a different route: instead of "quoting" kitsch in an ironic stance, it founded itself in a primitivism which embraced ugliness and garishness, emulating kitsch as a sort of anti-aesthetic. A different approach is taken by the Norwegian painter Odd Nerdrum, who, in 1998, began to argue for kitsch as a positive term used as a superstructure for figurative, non-ironic, and narrative painting. In 2000, together with several other authors, he composed a book entitled On Kitsch, where he advocated the concept of "kitsch" as a more correct name than "art" for this type of painting. As a result of this redefinition proposed by Nerdrum, an increasing number of figurative painters are referring to themselves as "kitsch painters". Conceptual art and deconstruction posed as interesting challenges, because, as with kitsch, they downplayed the formal structure of the artwork in favor of elements that enter it by relating to other spheres of life.
Some create their own, simple kitsch decorations, such as this angel sculpture
Despite this, many in the art world continue to adhere to some sense of the dichotomy between art and kitsch, excluding all sentimental and realistic art from being considered seriously. This has come under attack by critics, who argue for a renewed appreciation of academic art and traditional figurative painting, without the concern for it appearing innovative or new. As in the surreal and figurative paintings of Lawrence Hollien. In any case, whatever difficulty there is in defining boundaries between kitsch and fine art since the beginning of postmodernism, the word "kitsch" still remains in common use to label anything seen as being in poor taste.
Contemporary kitsch debate
A notable issue regarding kitsch and copyright laws arose early in the twenty-first century. In 2005 one of several versions of a statue produced by the staff of Seward Johnson, was placed on temporary exhibit among a display of fine art at the bay front of Sarasota, Florida. The response of the community was severely divided. Johnson has been labeled a kitsch artist since the 1980s.  
The statue is alleged to be a copy of an iconic photograph by Alfred Eisenstaedt, that was published in Life magazine in 1945 and is protected by copyright. When issues of copyright infringement arose, Johnson claimed to have used another source found through research at the national archives, which was in the public domain. Certain details of the statues, however, are present only in the Eisenstaedt photograph, supporting the infringement claim.  After a temporary display of a similar statue at the Port of San Diego, the director of a Sarasota bay front biannual show brought another version of the work to Sarasota in 2009. An elderly donor offered to give that statue permanently to the city. Public debate about the role of kitsch in the arts ensued.  
 A twenty-five-feet-tall version of a Johnson statue that Although the proposal was rejected unanimously by the municipal is cited as an unauthorized derivative of an Alfred public art committee and the city attorney expressed concern Eisenstaedt photograph by its copyright holder; the because he felt the copyright infringement case had merit, a people shown walking away from the statue claim to be majority vote of the city commission authorized acceptance of the the subjects gift as long as funding for any legal expenses was provided by the donor and Johnson agreed to forgo the purchase price for that purpose if that became necessary.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Camp (style) Chintz Cliché Fine art Folk art Hipster (contemporary subculture) Popular culture/popular culture studies Poshlost Prolefeed Retro Schlock Vladimir Tretchikoff Lowbrow (art movement)
• Adorno, Theodor (2001). The Culture Industry. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25380-2 • Braungart, Wolfgang (2002). ”Kitsch. Faszination und Herausforderung des Banalen und Trivialen”. Max Niemeyer Verlag. ISBN 3-484-32112-1/0083-4564. • Broch, Hermann (2003). Geist and Zeitgeist: The Spirit in an Unspiritual Age. Counterpoint Press. ISBN 1-58243-168-X • Cheetham, Mark A (2001). ”Kant, Art and Art History: moments of discipline”. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80018-8. • Dorfles, Gillo (1969, translated from the 1968 Italian version, Il Kitsch). Kitsch: The World of Bad Taste, Universe Books. LCCN 78-93950 • Elias, Norbert. (1998) “The Kitsch Style and the Age of Kitsch,” in J. Goudsblom and S. Mennell (eds) The Norbert Elias Reader. Oxford: Blackwell. • Gelfert, Hans-Dieter (2000). ”Was ist Kitsch?”. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht in Göttingen. ISBN 3-525-34024-9. • Giesz, Ludwig (1971). Phänomenologie des Kitsches. 2. vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag. [Partially translated into English in Dorfles (1969)]. Reprint (1994): Ungekürzte Ausgabe. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer Verlag. ISBN 3-596-12034-9 / ISBN 978-3-596-12034-5. • Greenberg, Clement (1978). Art and Culture. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-6681-8 • Karpfen, Fritz (1925). ”Kitsch. Eine Studie über die Entartung der Kunst”. Weltbund-Verlag, Hamburg. • Kristeller, Paul Oskar (1990). ”The Modern System of the Arts” (In ”Renaissance Thought and the Arts”). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02010-1. (pbk.) / 0-691-07253-1. • Kulka, Tomas (1996). Kitsch and Art. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01594-2 • Kundera, Milan (1999). The Unbearable Lightness of Being: A Novel. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093213-9 • Moles, Abraham (nouvelle édition 1977). Psychologie du Kitsch: L’art du Bonheur, Denoël-Gonthier • Nerdrum, Odd (Editor) (2001). On Kitsch. Distributed Art Publishers. ISBN 82-489-0123-8 • Olalquiaga, Celeste (2002). The Artificial Kingdom: On the Kitsch Experience. University of Minnesota ISBN 0-8166-4117-X • Reimann, Hans (1936). ”Das Buch vom Kitsch”. Piper Verlag, München. • Richter, Gerd, (1972). Kitsch-Lexicon, Bertelsmann. ISBN 3-570-03148-9 • Shiner, Larry (2001). ”The Invention of Art”. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-75342-5. • Thuller, Gabrielle (2006 and 2007). "Kunst und Kitsch. Wie erkenne ich?", ISBN 3-7630-2463-8. "Kitsch. Balsam für Herz und Seele", ISBN 978-3-7630-2493-3. (Both on Belser-Verlag, Stuttgart.) • Ward, Peter (1994). Kitsch in Sync: A Consumer’s Guide to Bad Taste, Plexus Publishing. ISBN 0-85965-152-5 • "Kitsch. Texte und Theorien", (2007). Reclam. ISBN 978-3-15-018476-9. (Includes classic texts of kitsch criticism from authors like Theodor Adorno, Ferdinand Avenarius, Edward Koelwel, Walter Benjamin, Ernst Bloch, Hermann Broch, Richard Egenter, etc.).
• • • • • • • Avant-Garde and Kitsch —essay by Clement Greenberg On Kitsch —selections from Odd Nerdrum’s manifesto Kitsch and the Modern Predicament —essay by Roger Scruton Museum of Bad Art  World Of Kitsch  The Allee Willis Museum of Kitsch  Kitsch or Not? —like Hot or Not, but for kitsch.
• world wide kitsch —kitsch painters and writers • Why Dictators Love Kitsch  by Eric Gibson, The Wall Street Journal, August 10, 2009
Kitsch • Fulford, Robert (2009-04-28). "Finding kitsch's inner beauty" . ISSN 1486-8008. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
 "ArtsNet Minnesota: Identity Vocabulary" (http:/ / www. artsconnected. org/ artsnetmn/ identity/ idvocab. html). Artsconnected.org. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.  "Glossery of Art terms and materials" (http:/ / netdwellers. com/ 1001/ hosting/ users/ AT/ IslandArts/ paTerms and materials. html). Netdwellers.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.  "Classical Guitar Dictionary K" (http:/ / www. cgsmusic. net/ Classical Guitar Sheet Music Dictionary/ Classical Guitar Dictionary K. htm). Cgsmusic.net. 2002-11-01. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.  Calinescu, Matei. Five Faces of Modernity. Kitsch, pg 234.  Clement Greenberg, "Avantgarde and Kitsch"  Theodor Adorno, "Musikalische Warenanalysen"  Carl Dahlhaus, "Über musikalischen Kitsch"  Cf. Fabio Cleto, ed. Queer Aesthetics and the Performing Subject: A Reader. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2002.  Sarasotaseasonofsculpture.org (http:/ / www. sarasotaseasonofsculpture. org/ GallerySpecs. cfm?id=407)  Neuhaus, Cable (1984-03-26). "Cast in Bronze and Controversy, Sculptor J. Seward Johnson's Works Find No Haven in New Haven" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ archive/ article/ 0,,20087432,00. html). People.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.  Blake Gopnik, Washington Post. "A Bad Impression. At the Corcoran Gallery, Seward Johnson's Travesty in Three Dimensions" Washingtonpost.com (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn?pagename=article& contentId=A62842-2003Sep11& notFound=true)  Lynette Clemonson, "Corcoran, After Dispute, Casts About for New Path" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 05/ 28/ arts/ design/ 28corc. html?pagewanted=print)  Graves, Robert, Reject Copycat Statue, Sarasota Herald Tribune (http:/ / www. heraldtribune. com/ article/ 20090822/ LETTERS/ 908219932/ 2163/ OPINION?Title=Reject-copycat-sailor-statue)  "Sculptor at center of copyright infringement case" (http:/ / www. heraldtribune. com/ article/ 20060509/ NEWS/ 605090464?Title=Sculptor-at-center-of-copyright-infringement-case). HeraldTribune.com. 2006-05-09. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.  Pincus, Robert L. (2007-03-11). "Port surrenders in the battle against kitsch | The San Diego Union-Tribune" (http:/ / ww. uniontrib. com/ uniontrib/ 20070311/ news_lz1a11kitsch. html). Ww.uniontrib.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.  Theledger.com (http:/ / www. theledger. com/ article/ 20090620/ news/ 906205044)  ""Unconditional Surrender" statue in Sarasota" (http:/ / unconditionalsurrender. wordpress. com/ ). Unconditionalsurrender.wordpress.com. 2009-06-30. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.  Heraldtribune.com (http:/ / www. heraldtribune. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20090713/ VIDEO/ 907132002& template=video)  Heraldtribune.com (http:/ / www. heraldtribune. com/ article/ 20090822/ LETTERS/ 908219932/ 2163/ OPINION?Title=Reject-copycat-sailor-statue)  Localmatters.podomatic.com (http:/ / localmatters. podomatic. com/ entry/ 2009-07-10T09_56_04-07_00)  Ogles, Jacob, Unconditional Surrender Deal to Be Finalized Today (http:/ / www. srqmagazine. com/ JMailer/ showMassMail. cfm?masID=1967), SRQ Daily, June 11, 2010  http:/ / www. sharecom. ca/ greenberg/ kitsch. html  http:/ / www. nerdrum. com/ kitsch/  http:/ / www. city-journal. org/ html/ 9_1_urbanities_kitsch_and_the. html  http:/ / www. museumofbadart. org/  http:/ / www. worldofkitsch. com/  http:/ / www. AWMoK. com/  http:/ / www. kitschornot. com/  http:/ / www. worldwidekitsch. com  http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB10001424052970204908604574336383324209824. html#mod=article-outset-box  http:/ / www. nationalpost. com/ story-printer. html?id=34b2e4cc-6760-49b1-8cb0-a6642d73a6d1
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Kitsch Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=374044712 Contributors: 605Scorpion, 83d40m, Abby Boultbee, Aeternus, After Midnight, AgentPeppermint, Agonotheta, Ajd, AlainLa, AmiDaniel, Andre Engels, Andycjp, AngelOfSadness, Aominux, Aristottler, Arn7, BMF81, Bblackmoor, Bhumiya, BigBodBad, Bobblewik, Booyabazooka, Boston, Brianshapiro, Bunnyhop11, Bus stop, CSWarren, Caesium, CambridgeBayWeather, Camembert, Capricorn42, Catdude, Catgut, ChildofMidnight, Chris 73, Clashfrankcastle, Clubmarx, Cmdrjameson, Connelly, CryptoDerk, Cutler, Cybercobra, Cyfal, D'n, DVD R W, Dakinijones, David Gerard, David Rush, DavidLeslie2, DavidParfitt, Deltabeignet, Dogwood123, Dori, Duncan, Elindstr, Elvis, EncycloPetey, Enirac Sum, Evrenosogullari, Ewoo251, Exe, Faradayplank, Felicity4711, Fetchcomms, Fireplace, Fourohfour, Francisco BR, Freshacconci, Gaius Cornelius, Goochelaar, Greatgavini, Gregbard, Guerilla grrl, Hailey C. Shannon, Hashar, Haukurth, Hmwith, Hu12, Hybirdd, Icaro, Ihcoyc, Ilja Lorek, Imperialles, Ingolfson, InnocuousPseudonym, Ionesco, Irønie, Islandtech, J04n, JRM, Jaberwocky6669, Jackollie, Jahsonic, Johan Magnus, Johnbod, Jpgordon, Judge Rahman, Jwalk487, KF, Katr67, Ke4roh, Kelisi, Kingturtle, Kitschkatch, Kjetil r, Koffer, Kwamikagami, Lacrimosus, Lars T., Laurascudder, Leandrod, LedgendGamer, Legotech, LettusB, Lord Voldemort, Lotje, Lupin, Lycurgus, M5, Mandarax, Marskell, Mav, Mboverload, Mdwyer, Mechasheherezada, Mel Etitis, MeridianiGusev, Moleskiner, Mr Adequate, Nach0king, Nakon, Naniwako, Nfu-peng, Nick, Night1stalker, Notyourbroom, Oblivious, OlEnglish, Opelio, Orangefoodie, OregonD00d, Ortolan88, Ouishoebean, P00r, Pathless, Peter Isotalo, Petercorless, Phlebas, Pietaster, Poobread, Popageorgio, Proxima Centauri, Pteron, Puckly, Q9, Qertis, Quadell, Qwyrxian, R Lowry, RL0919, Rachel1, Recury, RedWolf, Redthoreau, Rholton, Rich Farmbrough, Riffraffselbow, Rlitwin, Robertvan1, Rsukach, Sam Blacketer, Sandover, SandyGeorgia, Sebasletelier, Secretlondon, Seresin, Sfan00 IMG, Siryendor, Sitethief, Sparkit, Spencerk, Spinoza1111, Spiraling, Static Universe, Stephen pomes, Steverapaport, Stude62, Sunday 66, Susvolans, Symane, Sys, TJSwoboda, Tamfang, TedE, Tenebrous, Tgwitty, That, TheKMan, Thewiikione, Thjortel, Thorenn, Tiddly Tom, Tillwe, Tom harrison, Tothebarricades.tk, Toytoy, Trilobite, Vanished User 03, Veldin963, Verne Equinox, Wernher, WhatamIdoing, Wik, Y73m09d11, Zingale, Znode, Zoicon5, Zovits, 354 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Garden gnome with wheelbarrow-20051026.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Garden_gnome_with_wheelbarrow-20051026.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Ioannes.baptista File:Immanuel Kant.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Immanuel_Kant.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anne97432, EugeneZelenko, Gepardenforellenfischer, Immanuel Giel, Jed, Moros, Tomisti, Warburg File:Bilbao Jeff Koons Puppy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bilbao_Jeff_Koons_Puppy.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Noebse File:Schreibtischset.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schreibtischset.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Peng File:Lohengrin-kitsch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lohengrin-kitsch.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: BeatrixBelibaste, David.Monniaux, Ingolfson, Mattes, Zman, Μυρμηγκάκι, 1 anonymous edits File:Angioletto kitsch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Angioletto_kitsch.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Jacopo Prisco
Image:US Navy 070210-N-7643B-079 The statue ^ldquo,Unconditional Surrender,^rdquo, which represents a famous photo taken by Alfred Eisenstaedt of a Sailor kissing a nurse in Time Square, New York City 1945, was dedicated to the city .jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Navy_070210-N-7643B-079_The_statue_^ldquo,Unconditional_Surrender,^rdquo,_which_represents_a_famous_photo_taken_by_Alfred_Eisenstaedt_of_a_Sailor_kissin License: Public Domain Contributors: Ephraim33, Svajcr
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.