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Introduction to Heat Transfer
Islamic Azad University
Dr. M. Khosravy 1
Thermodynamics: • Energy can be transferred between a system and its surroundings. • A system interacts with its surroundings by exchanging work and heat • Deals with equilibrium states • Does not give information about:
– Rates at which energy is transferred – Mechanisms through with energy is transferred
In this chapter we will learn ! What is heat transfer ! How is heat transferred ! Relevance and importance
Dr. M. Khosravy 2
M. • Convection heat transfer: Occurs within a moving fluid. Dr. or between a solid surface and a moving fluid. Khosravy 4 . often in the absence of an intervening medium. when they are at different temperatures • Thermal radiation: Heat transfer between two surfaces (that are not in contact). Identify all heat transfer processes that contribute to cooling of the coffee. Dr.Definitions • Heat transfer is thermal energy transfer that is induced by a temperature difference (or gradient) Modes of heat transfer • Conduction heat transfer: Occurs when a temperature gradient exists through a solid or a stationary fluid (liquid or gas). Comment on features that would contribute to a superior container design. Khosravy 3 Example: Design of a container A closed container filled with hot coffee is in a room whose air and walls are at a fixed temperature. M.
M. ! Atomic and molecular activity – random molecular motion (diffusion) T1 T1>T2 xo qx x T2 Dr. Wall Area. Khosravy T1 ! T2 L 6 . A ! The rate of conductive heat qx T1=20°C transfer in the x-direction depends on T x T2= -20°C L=0. T1=20°C and a constant outside temperature.3 m which in a cold winter day is exposed to a constant inside temperature. of thickness L=0. Khosravy T2 5 1. ! Under steady-state conditions the temperature varies linearly as a function of x. Conduction Transfer of energy from the more energetic to less energetic particles of a substance by collisions between atoms and/or molecules. M. T2=-20°C. Conduction Consider a brick wall.3 m q" " x Dr.1.
M. A Dr. Conduction • The proportionality constant is a transport property.K) rate in the x-direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of transfer. which is the heat transfer ! The heat rate. qx (units W=J/s) through a plane wall of area A is the 7 1. product of the flux and the area: qx= qx . Khosravy ! qx is the heat flux (units W/m2 or (J/s)/m2). M. Khosravy 8 . Conduction • In the general case the rate of heat transfer in the x-direction is expressed in terms of the Fourier law: q" = ! k x dT dx T1(high) qx T2 (low) • Minus sign because heat flows from high to low T ! For a linear profile x1 x x2 dT (T2 ! T1 ) = <0 dx ( x2 ! x1 ) Dr.K (assumed constant).72 W/m.1.026 W/m. k=0. therefore qx = 96 W/m2 ? How would this value change if instead of the brick wall we had a piece of polyurethane insulating foam of the same dimensions? (k=0. known as thermal conductivity k (units W/m.K) T "T !T q" = k 1 2 = k x L L • For the brick wall.
M. arising from density differences arising from temperature variations in the fluid The above cases involve sensible heat (internal energy) of the fluid ! Latent heat exchange is associated with phase changes – boiling and condensation. Khosravy 9 2. Air q T! = 20! C TS = 300! C The convective heat flux is proportional to q" # TS " T! x Dr. Convection Air at 20°C blows over a hot plate. – Advection: transport due solely to bulk fluid motion. ! Forced convection: Caused by external means ! Natural (free) convection: flow induced by buoyancy forces. Khosravy 10 . Dr. Convection Energy transfer by random molecular motion (as in conduction) plus bulk (macroscopic) motion of the fluid. which is maintained at a temperature Ts=300°C and has dimensions 20x40 cm. – Convection: transport by random motion of molecules and by bulk motion of fluid.2. M.
In this solution we assumed that heat flux is positive when heat is transferred from the surface to the fluid 11 Dr. liquids and gases.K) or flowing water (h=50 W/m2.4) = 560 W. M. Can occur from solid surfaces.1 textbook. nature of • the fluid motion. as well as fluid properties. • The heat transfer coefficient depends on surface geometry. Dos not require presence of a medium ! Emissive power E is the rate at which energy is released per unit area (W/ m2) (radiation emitted from the surface) ! Irradiation G is the rate of incident radiation per unit area (W/m2) of the surface (radiation absorbed by the surface). Convection • The proportionality constant is the convection heat transfer coefficient.2.K. A = qx .K) ? How would this value change if instead of blowing air we had still air (h=5 • The heat rate. see Table 1. For typical ranges of values. therefore the heat flux is qx = 7. originating from its surroundings 12 Surroundings at Tsur " " qincident = G qemitted = E Surface at Ts Dr. is qx= qx . Radiation • • • • Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter Energy is transported by electromagnetic waves (or photons). (0.K) q" = h(TS " T! ) x Newton s law of Cooling • For air h=25 W/m2. h (W/m2. M. Khosravy 3.000 W/m2 W/m2.2 x 0. Khosravy .
M.3. Radiation • The net radiation heat exchange can be also expressed in the form: qrad = hr A(Ts ! Tsur ) where 2 hr = !"(Ts + Tsur )(Ts2 + Tsur ) Dr.K4) • For a real (non-ideal) surface: " qemitted = E = !"Ts4 e is the emissivity 0 ! " !1 a !1 • The irradiation G. Radiation • For an ideal radiator. or blackbody: "" qemitted = Eb = !Ts4 Stefan-Boltzmann law where Ts is the absolute temperature of the surface (K) and s is the StefanBoltzmann constant. the net radiation heat transfer from the surface. Khosravy 14 . M.67x10-8 W/m2. originating from the surroundings is: " 4 qincident = G = !"Tsur a is the absorptivity 0! For a grey surface. per unit area is " 4 qrad = "#(Ts4 ! Tsur ) 3. Khosravy 13 • Assuming a = e. a=e Dr. (s = 5.
when you are wearing a short-sleeved shirt. Suppose you maintain the thermostat of your home at 15°C throughout the winter months. Are you imagining things? Dr. M. Khosravy 16 . but feel cold if the temperature becomes lower. M. while you are sitting in a room. You are able to tolerate this if the outside air temperature exceedes –10°C.Summary: Heat Transfer Processes Identify the heat transfer processes that determine the temperature of an asphalt pavement on a summer day Dr. Khosravy 15 Summary: Heat Transfer Processes Identify the heat transfer processes that occur on your forearm.
M.8 respectively. Tspace=0 K.7. The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm. so that the surface temperature of a spacecraft in orbit can be maintained to 300 K.67x10-8 W/m2. and its surface temperature and emissivity are 200°C and 0.4. Propose a method to dissipate the heat. What are the surface emissive power (E).K4 Dr. M. Given a=0. qsolar = 1000 W.2 Textbook) An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and the walls are at 25°C. Ts=300K. Khosravy 18 . what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe. q’? Dr.K. Khosravy 17 Example 2 (1. e=0.Example 1 Satellites and spacecrafts are exposed to extremely high radiant energy from the sun. s = 5. and irradiation (G)? If the coefficient associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface to the air is h=15 W/m2.
Useful in fluid mechanics. M. momentum. Mass can be exchanged across its boundaries. Khosravy 20 . The system may experience change in its momentum or energy but there is no transfer of mass between the system and its surroundings. momentum and energy are transferred. M. entropy. The system is closed . • A control volume is an arbitrary volume across whose boundaries mass. Khosravy 19 Reminder: System and Control Volume • A system is defined as an arbitrary volume of a substance across whose boundaries no mass is exchanged. electric charge Dr.Reminder: The General Balance Equation Accumulation = Creation – Destruction + Flow in – Flow out Rate Equation Rate of Rate of Rate of Rate of Rate of Accumulation = Creation – Destruction + Flow in – Flow out Applicable to any extensive property: mass. The control volume may be stationary or in motion. energy. heat and mass transfer Dr.
CS) -Accumulation (Storage) Addition through inlet ! Est ! -Generation E g Loss through outlet ! Ein ! Eout dE ! ! ! ! Ein + E g ! Eout = st = E st dt (1. making a balance of flow in versus flow out and determining flow effects such as forces. Dr. Khosravy 21 Conservation of Energy Surroundings.y. sometimes also called microscopic .Reminder: Approaches for Analysis of Flow In analyzing fluid motion we may take two paths: 1.1) • Energy conservation on a rate basis: Units W=J/s ! Inflow and outflow are surface phenomena ! Generation and accumulation are volumetric phenomena Dr. Khosravy 22 . S Control Volume (CV) Boundary. M. or total energy exchange.z) in the field. Analysing the detailed flow pattern at every point (x. This is the control volume method. 2. Working with a finite region (=the control volume). This is the differential analysis. This approach is also called macroscopic or integral method of analysis . B (Control Surface. M.
V: velocity. z: potential energy. q: heat rate. M. Khosravy 24 . M. )# V2 m* u t + + g z '! $ * ' 2 (" CV % + ut :internal energy. W: work Dr.The Energy Balance Dr. Khosravy 23 The Energy Balance ! Rate of Energy Flow into CV: & # V2 ! ! $ ut + + g z ! min + qin + Win $ ! 2 % "in & # V2 ! ! + g z ! mout + qout + Wout ! Rate of Energy Flow out of CV: $ ut + $ ! 2 % "out ! Rate of Energy Accumulation: d dt & .
W is positive when transferred from system to surroundings 25 The Energy Balance • For steady-state conditions the energy balance reduces to: ' $ ' $ V2 V2 ! ! ! % ut + + g z " min ! % ut + + g z " mout + q ! Wnet .2) " The work term is divided in two contributions: Flow work.out = 0 % " % " 2 2 & #in & #out (1. associated to pressure forces (=pu.The Energy Balance ! Substituting in equation (1. where u is the specific volume) and (shaft) work done by the system. # ) V2 ! ! * ut + ' min + qin + Win ! + g z' $* 2 $+ ! (in % " &. # ) V2 ! ! * ut + ' mout + qout + Wout ! = 0 + g z' $* 2 $+ ! (out % " " Convention qnet . M. Khosravy 26 . M. The net work is: Injection Work ! ! ! ! Wnet .out = Wshaft + [(P ! ) m]out " [(P ! ) m]in Dr.out = Wout ! Win Dr. Khosravy q is positive when transferred from surroundings to system.in = qin ! qout ! ! ! Wnet .1) and assuming steady-state conditions: &.
Khosravy 28 . M. no thermal energy generation. Khosravy 27 Volumetric flow rate (m3/s) Simplified steady-flow energy equation • For steady state conditions. M. neglible pressure drop: ! q = mC p (Tout ! Tin ) Dr. no changes in kinetic or potential energy.Steady-Flow Energy Equation ' $ ' $ V2 V2 ! ! m% u + p( + + g z " ! m% u + p( + + g z" + % " % " 2 2 & #in & #out ! + q !W =0 shaft Recall: ! m = !VAc ! ! = VA = m " c Mass flow rate (kg/s) Units of [J/s] ! Enthalpy per i = ut + p! and (i in ! i out ) = c p (Tin ! Tout ) unit mass: Dr.
M.Example (Problem 1. Under normal operating conditions. an electronic package is housed in a compartment having a surface area As=1 m2. Khosravy 29 Surface Energy Balance For a control surface: qcond qrad ! ! Ein ! Eout = 0 or T1 qconv T x Dr. M. the electronics dissipate 1kW. (a) If the surface emissivity is 1.36 textbook) In an orbiting space station. what is its steady-state temperature? Dr. all of which must be transferred from the exposed surface to space. what is its steady-state temperature? (b) If the surface is exposed to a solar flux of 750 W/m2 and its absorptivity to solar radiation is 0. which is exposed to space.0 and the surface is not exposed to the sun.25. Khosravy " " " qcond ! qconv ! qrad = 0 T2 T! 30 .
M. Khosravy 31 Chapter 1: Summary Modes of Heat Transfer: Conduction Convection Radiation q" = ! k x dT dx q" = h(TS " T! ) x " 4 qrad = "#(Ts4 ! Tsur ) qrad = hr A(Ts ! Tsur ) qx (W/m2) is the heat flux qx (W=J/s) is the heat rate Energy Balances – written on a rate basis (J/s): ! Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume ! Surface Energy Balance (does not consider volumetric phenomena) Dr. calculate the temperature of the roof under steady-state conditions. M.8 Dr.55 textbook) The roof of a car in a parking lot absorbs a solar radiant flux of 800 W/m2. if the ambient air temperature is 20°C. The convection coefficient between the roof and the ambient air is 12 W/m2. while the underside is perfectly insulated.Example (Problem 1. b) For the same ambient air temperature.K. Khosravy 32 . calculate the temperature of the roof it its surface emissivity is 0. a) Neglecting radiation exchange with the surroundings.