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Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10/86

A Guide on the Design of Cycle Track

7.0m

5.0m

Roads Branch Public Works Department Malaysia Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50582 Kuala Lumpur

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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track

A GUIDE TO THE DESIGN OF CYCLE TRACK CONTENTS 1.0


1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. Fig. Fig. Types of Cycle Track Method of Attaining Superelevation 3 Cycle Track Pavement Structure 4(a) Typical At-Grade Midblock Crossing 4(b) Intersection Allowing Turning Movements From Arterial Cycle Track to Cross Street 5 Cycle Track Underpass

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Guidelines Types of Cycle Tracks Restricted Cycle Track Exclusive Cycle Track

2.0
2.1 2.2 2.3

PLANNING FOR CYCLE TRACK


Route Location Short Term Solutions Long Term, Solutions Fig.

LIST OF TABLES 3.0 4.0


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ELEMENTS OF DESIGN


Design Speed Sight Distance Horizontal Alignment Minimum Radius Curve Treatment Superelevation Vertical Alignment Grades Cross-Section Element Lane Width Pavement

Table 1 Minimum Stopping Sight Distance Table 2 Minimum Radius Table 3 Curve Treatment Table 4 Width of Cycle Lane

5.0
5.1 5.2

INTERSECTI0N TREATMENT
At Grade Intersection Treatment Grade Separated Intersection Treatment

6.0 7.0
7.1 7.2 7.3

DRAINAGE TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES


Road Markings Traffic Signs Traffic Signals

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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track This kind of cycle track can be developed within the carriageway of an existing road. It is usually sited on the left side of the road,preferably between the kerbs and the parking lane. Some form of physical barrier or pavement markings defines the corridor set aside for the cyclists and route markings are necessary to define the route and reduce potential conflicts. However, at crossings and intersections, this kind of cycle track ceases as a separate mode and conflicts may occur with other forms of movement. 1.2.2 Exclusive Cycle Track (See Figure 1b) An exclusive cycle track is a completeseparate right-of-way established for the sole use of cyclists. This kind of cycle track separates the cyclists from other motorists. This type of exclusive cycle track differs from the restricted cycle track in that it normally has a wide rightof-way and is not developed from existing carriageway of a wide road. It helps to separate conflicts at crossings and intersections with the provision of underpasses and other related facilities.

1.0

INTRODUCTIONS

A cycle track refers to all two-wheel and three wheel transportation systems incorporating paths, trails, lanes and routes, cycle crossings and intersections, overpasses and other related facilities. 1.1 Purpose of Guidelines The purpose of this guideline is to help the designer decide the minimum values of design criteria to be used when designing cycle tracks. Safe, convenient and adequate facilities are essential to allow smooth flow of traffic, and to reduce or avoid accidents between motorists and cyclists. 1.2 Types of cycle Track There are two (2) types of cycle track. These are as discussed below and shown in Figure 1. 1.2.1 Restricted Cycle Track (See Figure 1a)

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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track major dangers to cyclists occur, special protective lanes should be provided. As cycle track development and use become established and sources of finances become recognised, greater attention may be focussed upon the provision of more protected routes. Here, an Exclusive Cycle Track can be introduced to separate conflict between cyclists and motorists.

2.0

PLANNING FOR CYCLE TRACK

2.1 Route Location Locating suitable cycle track routes for initial development requires investigation into the potential purpose of cycling within a community. Four planning principles for the choice of routes are that they would be:i. in locations serving a variety of purposes; ii. in high-use areas near concern trations of residential population and employment as well as shopping areas, schools and parks; iii. in locations where they can easily be inte grated into a system serving the entire urban area; and iv.capable of gradual introduction. The development of any cycle track should be part of an overall adopted system planned in conjunction with adjoining communities. 2.2 Short Term Solutions

3.0

GENERAL CONSIDERATION

In areas, where there is usually a high proportion of motorcyclist, the volume may be so substantial as to affect the smooth flow of traffic.in such instances, the provision of separate and exclusive cycle lanes should be considered. the general warrant for determining the need for an exclusive cycle lane are :i. the total volume of traffic exceeds the pro vided lane capacity, and ii. the volume of motorcycles exceeds 20% of the total volume of traffic.

4.0

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

in the early stages of developing cycle tracks, the low-cost short term solutions reflecting local needs should be considered rather than the provision of elaborate and expensive separate right-of-way. A basic starting point will be the identification of safe, conveniently located and under-utilized road space which could be easily converted to cycle tracks simply by signposting and route markings on the road surface, and restricting motor vehicle speed. A good example of this short solution is the Restricted Cycle Track, which is done by paving the shoulders of the road and introducing adequate guide signs for both the cyclists andmotorists. 2.3 Long Term Solutions

4.1 Design Speed The design speed to be used is 60km/hr. However, where there are physical constraints, this may be lowered. 4.2 Sight Distance Adequate sight distance is required to facilitate safe stopping at junctions with other travel modes, as shown in Table 1.

Second priority should be given to the removal of barriers to travel by the provision of over and under-passes at critical locations. In areas of greatest vehicle concentration where the
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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track


Table 1 : Minimum Stopping Sight Distance

Design Speed (km/hr) 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 120

Min. Stopping Sight Distance (m) 20 30 45 65 85 140 205 285

4.3

Horizontal Alignment

4.3.1 Minimum Radius The formula used in determining the required minimum radius for the curve is : V2 R = --_________ 127 (e + f) where :R V e f = = = = Minimum radius of curve in meters Design Speed , in km/hr. Maximum rate of superelevation Maximum allowable side friction factor.
Table 2 : Minimum Radius

Design Speed (km/hr) 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 120

Minimum Radius(m) e = 0.06 e = 0.10 15 15 35 30 60 50 100 85 150 125 28 230 465 375 710 570

However, the value for the radius has been computed and tabulated as in Table 2. Where cycle tracks are incorporated in existing street system, optimum design wil be restricted as turning radius will be dictated by the form of the existing roads. Adequate warning will then have
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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track

to put up to inform the cyclists about the dangerous curves. 4.3.2 Curve Treatment In designing two-sway cycle track there is a need to increase the width through curves in order to allow for cyclists to lean on curves. The amount of widening is however limited to 1.2m and the standards are expressed in Table 3. Degree of curves D

Pavement Widening (m) Design Speed (km/hr) 50 N/A N/A N/A 0.6 0.9 1.2 60 N/A N/A 0.6 0.6 80 0.6 0.6

9 10 -11 12 16 19 22 -15 -18 -21 -25

Table 3 : Curve Treatment 4.3.3 Superelevation The maximum superelevation to be used is 0.06. Superelevation should be applied from the tangent point to its

required value at the point of maximum widening. This is as shown in Figure 2.

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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track

4.4 Vertical Alignment 4.4.1 Grades The maximum grade allowed is 10% with a minimum grade of 0.5%. At very flat areas, the minimum grade can be reduced further but with prior approval. 4.4.2 Vertical Curves The minimum vertical curve length to be used is 15m.On sag vertical curves, the design should be such as to avoid any ponding of surface water. 4.5 Cross-Section Element

4.5.1 Lane Width The required widths of the cycle lane is as shown in Table 4.The cycle lane must be separated from any pedestrians sidewalk and the width of separation must be at least 1.0m. Table 4 : Width of cycle Lane Volume (cyclist / hour)

1000 - 1500 1500 - 2000 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0

2000 3.0 3.5

Width

Minimum Desirable

4.5.2 Pavement The pavement structure will vary according to ground and sub-surface conditions, volume of motorcycles and the type of use. Two types of standard design have been selected and are to be used. They are as indicated in Figure 3. The normal crossfall of the pavement is 2%.

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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track

5.0

INTERSECTION TREATMENT

At intersection or interchanges, some form of channelisation with specific routes for the motor cyclists should be provided to minimize conflicts that will arise. Possible intersection treatment types include i) at grade or ii) grade-separated.The type of intersection treatment will depend on the volume of the traffic and the volume of motorcycles. 5.1 At Grade Intersection Treatment An at-grade intersection treatment is sufficient where the volume of motorcycles does not exceed 30 percent of the total volume of traffic at the particular intersection during peak hours. Typical atgrade intersection is as shown in Figure 4(a) and 4(b). An at-grade intersection treatment is sufficient with proper signing, speed limits and lane markings. 5.2 Grade Separated Intersection Treatment When the volume of motorcycles exceeds 30 percent of the total volume of traffic at the particular intersection during peak hours or when an at-grade intersection treatment does not provide a smooth flower adequate safety to the motorcyclist, grade separated intersection treatment should be considered. This can be easily incorporated at roundabout and other intersections with the provision of underpasses (box culvert type). The underpass must have a 2.5m clearance with a maximum slope of 10 percent. They should be lighted to give better visibility and safety during the night time. A typical, underpass is as shown in Figure 5.

6.0

DRAINAGE

No special. drainage treatment is required for a shared or restricted cycle track forming part of an existing carriageway. In steep sloping terrain where it is necessary for the cycle track to be cut into the hillside, a continuous gutter should be provided along the cut face with approximately placed sumps and drains to divert storm water run-off beneath the cycle track.

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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track

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A Guide to the Design of Cycle Track

7.0 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES Traffic control devices play and important part in allowing the smooth flow of traffic.It also helps to reduce or avoid accidents among users of the road. Basically there are 3 types of traffic control devices namely :7.1 Road Markings Proper markings on the pavement regulate, warn and advise users on the dangers ahead of them. Road markings such as "LALUAN SIKAL" and many other words can be painted on the ,surface of the pavement. Further details of the road markings can be found in JKR's Arahan Teknik (Jalan) :Manual On Traffic Control Devices-Road Marking And Delineations. 7.2 Traffic Sins Just like road markings, traffic signs regulate, warn and advise users on the dangers ahead of them.There are many signs and their location is a fundamental importance for the road users to act on them. For cycle track with design speed of 60 kilometers per hour, the signs need to be put at least 50 metres away from the point of danger. This is to give the cyclists ample time to act on seeing the signs. It is not necessary to have a different set of colours from those that are in use now as it will only make things more complicated in construction and maintenance. 7.3 Traffic Signals Wherecycle track crosses a major road ,adequate junction treatment need to be considered, particularly on the safety aspects. Here traffic signals can be used whereby a separate phase can be introduced for the cyclists.

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