Sociology 110 Study Study Study Chapter 1 Sociology- science guided by the social matters: our lives affected

by individual characteristics and place in the social world Social imagination- ability to look beyond the individual as cause for success and failure. Look to see how ones society influences the outcome Sociological perspectives1. Symbolic Interactionism Micro How people interact with others in everyday lives 2. Functionalism- Macro relationships between parts of society. Society=system interrelated parts 3. Conflict Theory- Macro framework that views society as unequal system. Elite control weak How Sociologists know they know World is round vs. flat discussion. Take explanation that

gives us the best prediction. Scientists try to predict behavior.
Scientific method to understand social behaviors1. Decide on topic 2. Review literature (what is already known) 3. Hypothesis, should answer a question 4. Operationalizing variables- turning abstracts into something measurable 5. Collect data reliably and trustworthy. Has to be valid ie measure the right thing SuicideDurkheim claimed that solidarity and social control influence suicide decisions Durkheim s four types of suicide- Egoistic, Altruistic, Fatalistic, Anomic Egoistic- mentally ill, lonely motivated by depression Altruistic- for greater cause Fatalistic- inmates, elderly motivated by hopelessness Anomic- cannot deal with chaos, caused by insecurity Suicide rates are lowest in winter and higher in the spring due to social interactions Kinds of societiesFunctionalism system of interrelated parts, if everyone gets along, better off Conflict theory society- groups compete for what there is to get. Our society is a trading society resulting in inequality Symbolic Interactionism- hunter gather society. How small interactions influence larger group Ethical Considerations- ?????????????????

Chapter 2 Surveys- investigation of opinions of people by asking them questions Clarify purpose, define population, choose sample, prepare questions, how to collect, record/interpret data Populations- target groups researchers want info from Parsimony- unwilling to use resources Hawthorne effect- coined for when people behave differently because they know they are being studied Causal relationships- relationship which one condition leads to causing something

consists of nonphysical products of society: symbols.items within a culture you can taste touch and feel Nonmaterial culture.determine what is good bad wrong Social structures. enduring (friends) Secondary groups are formal superficial.evaluation of society based on society s norms Culture is language beliefs.shrinking of the world through immediate electronic communications Ethnocentrism occurs when a person uses his culture to judge another Xenophobia.turning ideas into something measurable Cohort.group with similar acces to power.disgrace that cannot be hidden from others Discreditable stigma.behavior of specific status Role epectations.investigation conducted by social scientists Operationalizing. intimate.deliberate effort to appreciate a groups ways of life Normative relativism.book on homosexual sex in bathrooms by Laud Humphreys Chapter ¾ Multiculturalism is a concept that supports different cultures values within a society Assimilation. temporary Groups. rules Values.electro shock administered.variables appear related but different cause Social research. values. values .process by which a minority group adopts the dominant culture Global village.demands of role impossible to satisfy Discredited stigma.any number of people with similar norms Role. higher and higher voltage ouch Tearoom trade.patterns of relationships that endure from one generation to the next Social class.Causation.can be concealed from others .fear towards people from other cultures Cultural relativism.norms of society Material culture. wealth and prestige Primary groups are small.degree to which a person plays the role in expected manner Role strain.anticipated behaviors for a particular role Role performance.relationship between cause and effect Spurious correlation.group of people used in a study Milgrams experiment.

15. 5. post industrial societies Social institutions are structures that provide for pattern relationships Solidarity is the glue that binds a society Gemeinschaft.15 dominant values in the US 1. 10. 3.3 stages of the I-ME self Two parts imitation stage (birth to age 2) play stage (2-4 years) Game stageCognitive development. We imagine how our behavior appears to others 2. We interpret others reactions to our behaviors 3. 2.society Values according to Robin Williams. 6. 8. 14. Develop self-concept George Herbert Mead. 13.seeking pleasure over pain . 9.community Gessellschaft. 7.genes from parents are primary cause of human behaviors Nurture. industrial.occurs during childhood Secondary socialization.3rd stage of moral development that refers to morality Hedonism.ones self established through process of reflection 1.Hunting/gathering.second stage of moral development right before puberty Postconventional level. 4.Childhood environment influences way we think and behave Cooleys looking glass self. 11. agricultural. 12.socialization occurs throughout Chapter 5/6 Nature.ability to think and reason Conventional level. Achievement and success Activity and work Moral Orientation Humanitarianism Efficiency and practicality Progress Material comfort Equality Freedom External conformity Science and secular rationality Nationalism and patriotism Democracy Individual responsibility Racism and related group superiority Primary socialization.

the smaller the better but Dyads are stronger than triads no room for teaming up Leadership style varies between autocratic. affection.organization people receive wages in exchange for work Coercive orgs. superficial.intimate.hierarchy organizations Formal rationality. beliefs. if income is below line then they get help .one of the most important agents of socialization socializes with love.ranking of people and rewards based on objective criteria such as wealth Poverty.reasonable actions that orgs take to achieve goals Iron cage.term for group decisions made without objectivity Social Capital.within a class vertical. for short time Reference group. and laissez faire Groupthink. goals.exist only under certain specific qualities Primary groups.introd by Max Weber refers to way workers in bureaucracys feel trapped.move one class to another Bounded relationships. robots Chapter 7 Social stratification.people forced to join Formal structures.state that occurs when compared to the surrounding people Gov t determines poverty with poverty line. authoritarian Social class affects types of experiences and socialization Social mobility.group one uses to evaluate oneself Group size. long lasting Secondary groups.chronic and multigenerational absolute.formal.transitional. authoritative. nurturing and social control Styles of parenting.permissive.temporary marginal.explicit rules.sociological concept tha refers to individual and collective resources available to a person Social network is the web of ties with others Utilitarian organization. and behaviors The family.no resources to survive relative.Boys typically follow morality of justice while girls favor morality of care(best help those in need) Socialization is learned with help from agents of socialization the people and groups that shape our self concept.state of poverty that occurs when person has no stable job residual poverty. guidelines of organization Bureaucracies.ability to change classes horizontal. democratic.

slave is considered property Debt bondage. military leaders) Prestige. Cream rises to the top Conflict Theory.social mobility rarely occurs because US system doesn t allow it Symbolic Interactionism.categorizes countries based on objective criteria.given Power elite holds a lotttt of power (high ranking political officials.slavery. caste.level of esteem associated with ones status or social standing Functionalism. such as wealth power and prestige Zurich Switzerland has the highest quality of life Chattel slavery. corporate leaders.number of births per 1000 people each year .debtor housed and fed by his lender Contract slavery.social class is connected to persons social world.persons position of power or disadvantage is fixed Social stratification system.number of births in a population Crude birth rate.person signs work contract Caste systems.social class and our understanding of it are relative to personal beliefs Chapter 8/9 Global stratification. class systems Fertility rate.Power is abilitity to carry out your will + impose it on others Delegated.

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