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Roman, April Ann A.


Prof. Emmanuel Domingo Phil. History

Magellans Voyage Trying to prove for Spain that many of the islands of the Far East, including the Moluccas laid in Spains territory. Magellan set sail from San lucar be Barrameda in September 20, 1519, with a crew of about 250-270 men on five different ships, called the Trinidad, the San Antonio, the Concepcion, the Victoria, and the Santiago. He sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to the Canary Islands, where they decided to set sail for Brazil. A mutiny occurred on the ship which was led by Cartegena, which later was relived from his command of the San Antonio and held prisoner at the Victoria. On December 6 they saw Brazil, and on December 13, they reached the Bay of Rio de Janeiro where they stopped for a rest. On October 21, 1520, they reached a straight that had troubled waters, which was to be later named after him. For 38 days, they struggled trying to get through. In the process, the captain of the San Antonio deserted and returned to Spain with the ship. Finally they broke through and arrived to a calm open water ocean which Magellan named the Pacific. With three ships left, the Trinidad, the Victoria, and the Concepcion, they were ready to go and visit Moluccas or the Spice Islands. Magellan knew nothing of this ocean, for he said diagonally across to look for nearby land. He thought it would take him only about three days to get to the Spice Islands. But he was wrong. They sailed for three months and 20 days without fresh food until they finally reached Guam in March 6, 1521. Though they obtained food and provisions, many of the men suffered scurvy without the benefit of vitamin C, and were still starving. But Magellan decided to sail to the Philippines. When her arrived there, he made an alliance with the ruler of Cebu (one of Philippines many islands) and persuaded him to accept Christianity. But Magellan and his crew got involved in a war with the neighboring island of Cebu, Mactan. This involvement in this conflict led to a victory for Cebu, but a death for Magellan who was killed by the Mactan ruler, Lapu Lapu on April 27, 1521. Results of Magellans Voyage Magellan did not live to see the final completion of the first known voyage in history to circumnavigate the globe. It was through this trip that the Europeans first learned of the existence of the Philippines. Magellans voyage vastly increased the geographical knowledge of mankind and proved once and for all that the earth is round. Finally, the voyage paved the way to Spanish colonization and Christianization of the Philippines.

From the point of view of the Filipinos, Magellans expedition paved the way for contacts between Philippines and Western colonization.

Other Spanish Expeditions Loaisa Expedition It was commanded by Fray Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaisa and consisted of seven ships and 450 men. In the crew were Sebastian del Cao and Andres de Urdaneta. The expedition left Corua, Spain on July 24, 1525. After loading on some provisions in the Canary Islands they crossed the Atlantic Ocean. Soon after, they lost two ships in the coast of Brazil and one in the Strait of Magellan. On July 30, 1526 Loaisa died in midocean. Del Cao then took over the command, but he too died on August 4 and was succeeded by Toribio Alonzo de Salazar. The expedition under Zarquizano reached Mindanao and anchored at a port called Bizaya on the eastern coast. Sailing south they reached Mollucas islands. The Portuguese refused to let them enter the port, saying that Mollucas belong to them by treaty. The expedition anchored Port of Tidore waiting for assistance from Spain. Cabot Expedition Loaisa expedition failed. King Charles I sent Sebastian Cabot on April 3, 1526. During the trip to South America, Cabot quarreled with his captains. The men had been discontented because of the poor food. The mutinied when the expedition reached Brazil. But Cabot succeeded in suppressing the mutiny and the expedition continued its voyage. Cabot explored the Rio de la Plata (River of Silver) in Argentina and stayed in the region for three years. Cabot thought there was a passage to the Pacific Ocean. The crew was attacked by the hostile Indians, and Cabot eventually lost his flagship. Half of his men perished from famine and disease. Discouraged by his failure to find the way to the Pacific, Cabot returned to Spain in August, 1530. His expedition had dismal failure. Saavedra Expedition Alvaro de Saavedra took the command to look for the survivors of Loaisa expedition. He left on November 1, 1527 with the mission to engage in trade relations with the Cebuano, to see what happened to Magellan, Cabot, and Loaisa expeditions, and to pay ransoms for Spaniards who might be held prisoners in Cebu. Early in 1528, his ship reached Mindanao where he ransomed two survivors of the Magellan expedition. However, he died at sea on October 9, 1529. The rest of his men landed at Tidore (Indonesia) but were captured by the Portuguese.

The Villalobos Expedition Ruy Lopez de Villalobos set sail for the Philippines from Navidad, Mexico on November 1, 1542. He followed the route taken by Magellan and reached Mindanao on February 2, 1543. He established a colony in Sarangani but could not stay long because of insufficient food supply. His fleet left the island and landed on Tidore in the Moluccas, where they were captured by the Portuguese. Villalobos is remembered for naming our country Islas Filipinas,/Felipinas in honor of King Charles son, Prince Philip, who later became king of Spain. The Legazpi Expedition Since none of the expedition after Magellan from Loaisa to Villalobos had succeeded in taking over the Philippines, King Charles I stopped sending colonizers to the Islands. However, when Philip II succeeded his father to the throne in 1556, he instructed Luis de Velasco, the viceroy of Mexico, to prepare a new expedition to be headed by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who would be accompanied by Andres de Urdaneta, a priest who had survived the Loaisa mission. On February 13, 1565, Legaspi's expedition landed in Cebu island. After a short struggle with the natives, he proceeded to Leyte, then to Camiguin and to Bohol. There Legaspi made a blood compact with the chieftain, Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship. Legaspi was able to obtain spices and gold in Bohol due to his friendship with Sikatuna. On April 27, 1565, Legaspi returned to Cebu; destroyed the town of Raja Tupas and establish a settlement. On orders of the King Philip II, 2,100 men arrived from Mexico. They built the the port of Fuerza de San Pedro which became the Spanish trading outpost and stronghold for the region. Hearing of the riches of Manila, an expedition of 300 men headed by Martin de Goiti left Cebu for Manila. They found the islands of Panay and Mindoro. Goiti arrived in Manila on May 8, 1570. At first they were welcomed by the natives and formed an alliance with Rajah Suliman, their Muslim king but as the locals sensed the true objectives of the Spaniards, a battle between the troops of Suliman and the Spaniards erupted. Because the Spaniards are more heavily armed, the Spaniards were able to conquer Manila. Soon after Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived to join Goiti in Manila. Legaspi built alliances and made peace with Rajahs Suliman, Lakandula and Matanda. In 1571, Legaspi ordered the construction of the walled city of Intramuros and proclaimed it as the seat of government of the colony and the capital of the islands. In 1572, Legaspi died and was buried at the San Agustin Church in Intramuros. In 1574, Manila was bestowed the title "Insigne y Siempre Leal Ciudad de Espaa" (Distinguished and ever loyal city of Spain) by King Philip II of Spain.

Sources: y y y y y Philippine History and Government; Second Edition, First Year (Leodivicio Cruz Lacsamana) History of the Filipino People, Eight Edition (Teodoro A. Agoncillo)