MBA SEMESTER III MB0050 ± Research Methodology- 4 (Book ID: B1206) Assignment Set- 1

Q1. Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Ans:The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new nowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: 1) Primary research 2) Secondary research In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research

Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers. Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired

result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee "more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share.

Q 2. a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. Ans:The central purpose is to formulate hypotheses regarding potential problems and opportunities present in the decision situation. The hypotheses can be tested at a later phase with a conclusive research design (Leinhardt and Leinhardt, 1980). Exploratory research design applies when the research objectives include the following: a. identifying problems (threats or opportunities) b. developing a more precise formulation of a vaguely identified problem(threat or opportunity) c. gaining perspective regarding the breath of variables operating in a situation d. establishing priorities regarding the potential significance of various problems (threats or opportunities) e. gaining management and researcher perspective concerning the character of the problem situation f. identifying and formulating alternative courses of action; and g. gathering information on the problems associated with doing conclusive research. h. identification of problems (threats or opportunities) can be assisted through the following: i) Searching secondary sources ii) Interviewing knowledgeable persons iii) Compiling case histories.

Q 2 b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Ans:Independent Variable: A variable that you believe might influence your outcome measure. This might be a variable that you control, like a treatment, or a variable not under your control, like an exposure. It also might represent a demographic factor like age or gender. Contrast this with the definition of the dependent variable. An independent variable is a hypothesized cause or influence on a dependent variable. One way to distinguish these variables is to ask yourself what you are want to learn from this research. The dependent variable is a variable you are trying to predict. Any variable that you are using to make those predictions is an independent variable. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the independent variables were:
y y y

percentage of total fat in the diet, percentage of saturated fat, and the percentage of monounsaturated fat.

Dependent variable:

Sampling Variance . Therefore. While both these two data-gathering methods essentially serve the same purpose. Contrast this with the definition of an independent variable. This may include information on age. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. it would be Known as extraneous variable. housing. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an ¶experimental error·. as you will see later. they have a number of differences with regard to approach and methodology. the variable that you believe might be influenced or modified by some treatment or exposure. as well as scope. among others. Scope A census involves the gathering of information from every person in a certain group. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. In this context. Differentiate between ¶Census survey· and ¶ Sample Survey·. a. It may also represent the variable you are trying to predict. if a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children·s school performance and their selfconcepts. This data is used by the federal and state governments in making numerous decisions with regard to various health care. Ans: Difference between Census and Sampling Practically every country in the world conducts censuses and sampling surveys on a regular basis in order to get valuable data from and about their populations. intelligence may also influence the school performance. Sometimes the dependent variable is called the outcome variable. These two methods may also differ in terms of the variance in the data gathered. sex and language among others. A sample survey on the other hand commonly involves gathering data from only a certain section of a particular group. the birthweight is an outcome or dependent variable. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former is the dependent variable. This definition depends on the context of the study. and educational issues.In a research study. For eg. In a study of prenatal care. Q 3. In this study. but in neonatology. it is more likely to be an independent variable. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. However. the dependent variable was: y incidence of ischemic stroke.

particularly for large populations. Using all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensive or not necessary. In addition. since the data is derived from only a small section of a population May not provide enough information about smaller groups or smaller geographical sections of a place Costs much less than a census. b. again given the smaller scope. sample surveys generally take a much shorter time to conduct. In addition. since the data used is drawn from only a small section of the population. there is no sampling variance Provides detailed information about smaller groups Can be quite costly. they are also a lot more time-consuming than sample surveys. Cost And Timetable A census can be quite expensive to conduct. In addition. This also means reduced requirements for respondents. This makes sampling a much less accurate form of data collection than a census. more precise detail can generally be gathered about smaller groups of the population. there is a possibility of sampling variance. Ans:Multistage sampling Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling. For instance. which in turn leads to better data monitoring and quality control. Summary Census y y y y y Gathers information from every individual in a certain group Since data from the entire population is used. particularly for large populations. Under these circumstances. anyone who does not complete a census form will be visited by a government representative who·s only job to is to gather census data. The huge scope of a census also makes it harder to maintain control of the quality of the data. mainly because the data used is drawn from the whole population. . Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. the sample may be too small to provide an accurate picture of the population. A sample survey for its part costs quite a bit less than a census. due to census tally workers as well as hiring temporary census home visitors Includes an uncomfortable visit from a government worker if the census is not filled out on time Sampling y y y y Gathers information from only a section of the population May have a significant degree of sample variance. As for sampling. since data is gathered from only a small section of a group Q 3.The main advantage of a census is a virtually zero sampling variance. In most cases. since data is gathered from a much smaller group of people. Adding considerably to the timetable is the necessity of gathering data from every single member of the population.

Sequential sampling Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. they are substantially different. In stratified sampling. For example. where in cluster sampling only the selected clusters are studied. in order to reduce travel requirements. The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist and is inappropriate. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. the mean of the numbers regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the population. conducts his study. and blocks are chosen from within each selected collection district (second stage). the researcher randomly selects elements from each cluster. Next. Q 4. The symbol m is use d for the mean of a population.multistage cluster sampling becomes useful. and some of these dwellings are selected (third stage). household surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics begin by dividing metropolitan regions into 'collection districts'. In some cases. Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. The symbol M is used for the mean of a sample. Constructing the clusters is the first stage. and selecting some of these collection districts (first stage). only for selected blocks. either in single stage or multi stage. In remote areas. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers. The formula for m is shown below: where X is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the sample and N is the number of numbers in the sample. The selected collection districts are then divided into blocks. a random sample is drawn from all the strata. . This method means that it is not necessary to create a list of every dwelling in the region. an additional stage of clustering is used. several levels of cluster selection may be applied before the final sample elements are reached. As an example. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Ans:Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. analyzes the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. dwellings are listed within each selected block. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters.[1] Although cluster sampling and stratified sampling bear some superficial similarities.

or some other mean. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. Median The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same numbers of scores are above the median as below it. The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. Number of touchdown passes. For the data in the table. the geometic mean. if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. Therefore. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile. Number of touchdown passes.The table. it is by far the most commonly used.4516 as shown below. Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown in Table 2. Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometic mean). there are 31 scores. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the National Football League in the 2000 season. .

your score is below the median. The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data. the same as your score. Thus. For Dataset 2. When there is an even number of numbers. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers. Therefore. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700. Finally for Dataset 3.For Dataset 1. With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals. the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. the median is 4. the mode is the middle of that interval (650). This means you are in the lower half of the class. and 7 is 4.For the data in the table. For example. For this dataset. the median of the numbers Mode The mode is the most frequently occuring value. the median of 2. 4. the median is 2. your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. the median is three. the median is simply the middle number. Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. Number of touchdown passes. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same. .

observation and experiments. marketing research. It is a field study. inventory records. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose. inadequate or obsolete.5. for several types of social science research. Primary data has to be gathered in cases where the available data is inappropriate. e. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys. for the purposes of the project immediately at hand. compared to gathering information from availabl e sources Data collection is a time consuming process It requires trained interviewers and investigators 2 Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data. Ans: Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. brand preference. business management studies etc.g. published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. In this case. The advantages of primary data are ² It is unique to a particular research study It is recent information. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. experiments and observation. attitudinal surveys. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.. radio listening and T. census reports. sales reports. audits and panels. trade and financial journals. leadership studies. A survey has certain characteristics: It is always conducted in a natural setting. It includes: socio economic surveys. minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm. such as government agencies (e. Yet. They may also be external sou rces. financial statements. publications of international organizations such as the UN. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample at a particular time. Methods of Data Collection: The researcher directly collects primary data from its original sources. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. opinion polls. the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs and he can collect them when he wants and in the form that he needs it. in the form of a marketing information system. farm management studies. World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Secondary sources may be internal sources.g. viewing surveys. It seeks responses directly from the respondents. It can cover a very large population. . from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. reports of government departments).g.V. etc. There are various methods of primary data collection. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are ² It is expensive to collect. Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information). such as annual reports.Q. trade associations (e. and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. required data is not available from secondary sources and it has to be directly gathered from the primary sources. including surveys. 1 Survey Research A survey is a fact-finding study. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions.).

which include: Personal interview Telephone interview Mail survey and Fax survey Personal Interview Personal interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. The interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. It may be defined as a two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. experiences and future intentions. The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. values. facial expressions and pauses. It has a fixed beginning and termination points. even confidential information may be obtained. viz. Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required. The participants ² the interviewer and the respondent ² are strangers. personal interview is feasible. and his environment. beliefs. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. 4. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. but also learning from the respondent·s gestures. It involves not only conversation. the investigator has to get himself/herself introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner. It permits the investigator to seek clarifications and brings to the forefront those questions. or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. obtaining information relevant to a study. Where the area covered for the survey is compact. but a conversation with a specific purpose. attitudes. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data. The interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally. hence.It may include an extensive study or an intensive study It covers a definite geographical area. which for some reason or the other the respondents do not want to answer. The interview proper is a fleeting. momentary experience for them. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. They are: 1. A survey involves the following steps Selection of a problem and its formulation Preparation of the research design Operation concepts and construction of measuring indexes and scales Sampling Construction of tools for data collection Field work and collection of data Processing of data and tabulation Analysis of data Reporting There are four basic survey methods. from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relat ing to a person·s opinions. Once rapport is established. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. 2.. . or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. 3.

In a personal interview. 5 Mail Survey The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. clubs and other organized groups.g. behavior. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. It can also be conducted with a group of persons. 9. It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice questions. The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each other. facial expression and intonation. 4 Group Interviews A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. business executives. Interviewing is not a standardized process like that of a chemical technician. At the same time. such as family members. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes.g. 13. When the survey must be conducted in a very short period of time. or a group of customers. a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. e. a survey relating to a profession conducted by the concerned professional association. it need not be limited to a single respondent. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. or a group of children. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. so that it could be . Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. When the universe is composed of those persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. gestures. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. As far as possible. a radio or television program survey. the flow of information is multi dimensional. provided the units of study are listed in the telephone directory. This poses a problem of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis. 12. e. When the study requires responses to five or six simple questions. e. 15. 7. 6. In particular. When the respondents are widely scattered and when there are many call backs to make. psychological process. The respondent reacts to the interviewer·s appearance. because the interview can also be conducted over the telephone. intentions and opinions among in dividuals in the group. Although the interview is usually a conversation between two persons.g. 3 Telephone Interviewing Telephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection. business houses. it is rather a flexible. 14. It will be useful in the following situations: 11. 10. The investigator records information furnished by the respondent in the interview. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only. doctors and other professionals. The interview is an interactive process. depending on the requirements of the study. 8. with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern. beliefs. It may be used as a major method or as a supplementary method. Samples for group interviews can be obtained through schools. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post.5.

Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? Ans:Roles of Graphs Graph is a diagram. Covering letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style. so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. as a curve. by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project. The progress in return may be watched and at the appropriate stage. or by a letter. or series of bars. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. it is not desirable to reveal it. The following procedures should be followed ² a covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. they may be approached through someone in that organization known as the researcher. a disguised organization name may be used. follow-up efforts can be made. representing various kinds of quantitative information and relationships. Quality printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed on quality light colored paper. 5. broken line. For example. 2. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. Anonymity must be assured. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than followup efforts. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low in developing countries like India. Incentives: Money. a. A self-addressed stamped envelope should be enclosed in the covering letter. if the required sample size is 1000. The graphs which are most commonly used in visual aids are Bar graphs. or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization. 4. such as the successive changes in a variable quantity or quantities. when such information may bias the result. However. It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. Communication is carried out only in writing and this requires more cooperation from the respondents than verbal communication. 6. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. as in the case of personal interview method. They are: 1. It is desirable to address the respondent by name. In this case. Pie Charts. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them and not by the investigator. 3. The sponsor·s identity may be revealed. the researcher can expect the return of completed ones from them. Line graphs . Advance information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return the mail questionnaire. Q 6. After a few days from the date of mailing the questionnaires to the respondents.completed within a few minutes.

of certain entities called nodes or vertices.and Scatter diagrams. By using graphs. giving advice about the drawing conventions. b. Role Activity Diagrams (RADs) are a useful way of describing processes.µ The need of representing data graphically: . variations and trends in data can be showed clearly and they show how the values of particular variables change over time.y) is said to point or go from x to y. In reality the reader will rely upon experience gained through using Role Activity Diagrams in projects. Q. A graph is an abstract data structure that is meant to implement the graph and hypergraph concepts from mathematics. In addition to these syntactic skills. etc. This is where the real skill of using Role Activity Diagrams comes in but such issues are addressed only partially in this report. It describes these in turn. It is not difficult to learn how to draw them and it is not difficult for most people to interpret them. and as they might be in the future. the creation of Role Activity Diagrams relies upon an ability to scope a study. to decide on the level of interest and to determine the boundaries of each role in a diagram. The main part of the SPRINT BPR Methodology describes the ways in which Role Activity Diagrams can be used within a broader change project. This experience will teach how Role Activity Diagrams can best be used.). length. such as a symbolic label or a numeric attribute (cost. called edges or arcs. the data may also be presented in some graphic or diagrammatic form. A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of ordered pairs. The guide progresses by introducing each of the main constructs of the Role Activity Diagram. This guide tells you how to draw Role Activity Diagrams. As in mathematics. Graphs play a very important role during presentations because they make the data easier to understand and interpretations and comparisons can be made quickly. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? Ans:REPRESENTATION OF DATA Besides the tabular form. A graph data structure may also associate to each edge some edge value. They are valuable in documenting processes as they are now. maps and charts is called representation of data. and what they are most useful for. Roles of Diagrams Diagram is a graphic representation of an algebraic or geometric relationship.6. Graphs really help the audience in absorbing the data as they are simple to interpret and are appealing. They are useful in presentations also because they can summarize large amounts of data and can convey the basic idea of the research. capacity. The guide will show you that Role Activity Diagrams are a reasonably simple diagramming technique. or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references. Graphs also help in determining the relationship between variables. an edge (x. diagrams. This is syntactic guidance. The nodes may be part of the graph structure. ´The transformation of data through visual methods like graphs.

The scale should neither be too large nor too small. symbols and signs used in the map and diagram. Thus. To show the data related to the temperature or growth of population between different periods in time line graph are used. Graphical form makes it possible to easily draw visual impressions of data. For example. General Rules for Drawing Graphs. bar diagrams are used for showing rainfall or the production of commodities. Types of Diagrams The diagrams and the maps is of following types: (i) One-dimensional diagrams such as line graph. Legend or Index: The index must clearly explain the colours. The scale must cover the entire data that is to be represented. pyramid. The title. Besides. poly graph. These are written with different font sizes and thickness. etc. It presents characteristics in a simplified way. shades. . (ii) Two-dimensional diagram such as pie diagram and rectangular diagram. such methods create an imprint on mind for a longer time. graphs and diagrams. age. It makes the comparisons easy. Design The diagram or map should have following design: Title: The title of the diagram/map must be clear and include o The name of the area.. it becomes difficult to draw results. The population density can be shown by choropleth maps. subtitle and the corresponding year is shown in the centre at the top of the map/diagram. occupational structure. it is necessary and important to select suitable graphical method to represent data. Similarly. These makes it easy to understand the patterns of population growth. S 3. bar diagram. histogram. Diagrams and Maps 1. They are necessary: If the information is presented in tabular form or in a descriptive record. are used to represent large volume of data. distribution and the density. Direction the maps should show the direction North and properly placed on the top. or the distribution of the crop producing areas are shown by dot maps. o Reference year of the data used and o The caption of the diagram. both human and livestock. A legend is shown either at the lower left or lower right side of the map sheet.Graphics. etc. The graphic method of the representation of data enhances our understanding. The population distribution. such as maps. Selection of a Suitable Graphical Method Each characteristic of the data can only be suitably represented by an appropriate graphical method. age²sex composition. sex ratio. sex. Selection of Suitable Scale Each diagram or map is drawn to a scale which is used to measure the data. It is a time consuming task to draw inferences about whatever is being presented in non² graphical form. 2.

Polygraph Polygraph is a line graph in which two or more than two variables are shown on a same diagram by different lines. All steps of construction of polygraph are similar to that of line graph.Construction of a Polygraph . mark the location of the plotted values by a dot and join these dots by a free hand drawn line. 2nd step: Draw X and Y-axis. Examples which can be shown as polygraph are: The growth rate of different crops like rice. birth rates and the death rates.(iii) Three-dimensional diagrams such as cube and spherical diagrams. rainfall. Line Graph The line graphs are usually drawn to represent the time series data related to the temperature. population growth. Construction of a Line Graph 1st step: Round the data to be shown upto the 1 digit of even numbers. Mark the time series variables (years/months) on the X axis and the data quantity/value to be plotted on Y axis. 3rd step: Choose an appropriate scale to show data and label it on Y-axis. death rates and life expectancy in one diagram. It helps in comparing the data. If the data involves a negative figure then the selected scale should also show it. Example 1: Construct a line graph to represent the data 2. wheat. The most commonly drawn diagrams and maps are: ‡ Line graphs ‡ Bar diagrams ‡ Pie diagram ‡ Wind rose and star diagram ‡ Flow Charts 1. Example 2: Construct a polygraph to compare the variables. Sex ratio in different states or countries in one diagram. 4th step: Plot the data to depict year/month-wise values according to the selected scale on Y-axis. . The birth rates. pulses in one diagram. But different lines are drawn to indicate different variables.

It is advisable to arrang e the given data set in an ascending or descending order and plot the data variables accordingly.3. The bar diagrams are drawn through columns of equal width. Example 3: Construct a simple bar diagram. Bar Diagram It is also called a columnar diagram. Following rules were observed while constructing a bar diagram: (a) The width of all the bars or columns is similar. Three types of bar diagrams are used to represent different data sets: The simple bar diagram Compound bar diagram Polybar diagram. (c) Bars are shaded with colours or patterns to make them distinct and attractive. However. (b) All the bars should are placed on equal intervals/distance. time series data are represented according to the sequencing of the time period. . Simple Bar Diagram A simple bar diagram is constructed for an immediate comparison.

tube well and well irrigation in the total irrigated area in different states. Divide X-axis into equal parts to draw bars. Construction: (a) Draw X and Y-axes of a suitable length and divide X-axis into parts to show months in a year. (c) Similarly. Line and Bar Graph The line and bar graphs as drawn separately may also be combined to depict the data related to some of the closely associated characteristics such as the climatic data of mean monthly temperatures and rainfall. (d) Plot data using line graph and columnar diagram.Construction Steps: Draw X and Y-axes on a graph paper. 5. rural and urban population or the share of canal. . Multiple Bar Diagram Multiple bar diagrams are constructed to represent two or more than two variables for the purpose of comparison. The actual values will be plotted according to the selected scale. 4. For example. Take an interval and mark it on Y-axis to plot data. Example 4: Construct a Line and bar Graph. (b) Select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label it at its right side. a multiple bar diagra m may be constructed to show proportion of males and females in the total. select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label at its left side.

Example 6: Construct a Compound Bar Diagram. (b) Plot the data in closed columns. different variables are shown in a single bar with different rectangles. their representation is made by a compound bar diagram. It is drawn to depict the total value of the given attribute using a circle.(a) Mark time series data on X-axis and variable data on Y-axis as per the selected scale. (b) A single bar will depict the set of variables by dividing the total length of the bar as per percentage. 7. Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. Hence. Compound Bar Diagram When different components are grouped in one set of variable or different variables of one component are put together. Dividing the circle into corresponding degrees of angle then represent the sub² sets of the data. 6. it is also called as Divided . Example 5: Construct a Multiple bar Diagram. In this method. Pie Diagram Pie diagram is another graphical method of the representation of data.

Calculation of Angles (a) Arrange the data on percentages in an ascending order. the angles are calculated using the given formulae. (b) Draw a line from the centre of the circle to the arc as a radius. The angle of each variable is calculated using the following formulae. e. (d) Complete the diagram by adding the title. sub ² title. and the legend.6 as derived by dividing the total number of degrees in a circle by 100. 360/100. (c) Measure the angles from the arc of the circle for each category of vehicles in an ascending order clock-wise. (c) Plot the data by dividing the circle into the required number of divisions to show the share different regions/countries Construction (a) Select a suitable radius for the circle to be drawn. The legend mark be chosen for each variable/category and highlighted by distinct shades/colours. i. A radius of 3. starting with smaller angle. If data is given in percentage form.Circle Diagram. Precautions . (b) Calculate the degrees of angles for showing the given values (b) It could be done by multiplying percentage with a constant of 3. 4 or 5 cm may be chosen for the given data set.

etc. The flow maps/ charts are generally drawn to represent two the types of data as given below: 1. along with the point of origin and destination of the movements. The number and frequency of the vehicles as per the direction of their movement 2. vehicles. 8. (b) Select a scale to represent the number of trains. Example 7: Construct a Pie Diagram. the maximum and minimum numbers will be represented by a strip of 10 mm and 1. Here. etc. (c) Plot the thickness of each strip of route between the given rail route. (c) The selection of a scale through which the data related to the quantity of passengers and goods or the number of vehicles is to be represented. of trains of selected routes of to the flow of goods.. Delhi and adjoining areas services. . These charts are drawn using lines of proportional width. is the best example of a flow chart. If we select a scale of 1cm = 50 trains.. Transport map. Many government agencies prepare flow maps to show density of the means of transportation on different routes.2 mm thick lines respectively on the map. Construction (a) Take an outline map of Delhi and adjoining areas in which railway line and the nodal stations are depicted. It is drawn to show the flow of commodities or people between the places of origin and destination. which shows number of passengers. It is also called as Dynamic Map.(a) The circle should neither be too big to fit in the space nor too small to be illegible. Flow Maps/Chart Flow chart is a combination of graph and map. Requirements for the Preparation of a Flow Map: (a) A route map depicting the desired transport routes along with the connecting stations. number of vehicles. (b) Starting with bigger angle will lead to accumulation of error leading to the plot of the smaller angle difficult. (b) The data pertaining No. the maximum number is 50 and the minimum is 6. The number of the passengers and/or the quantity of goods transported.

on the other hand. (b) All dots should be of same size. e. (b) Statistical data on selected theme for the chosen administrative units. Source of the data and year d. . cattle. For example. Example 8: Construct a Flow Map of Train movements in and around Delhi. The construction of quantitative maps: There are three types of quantitative maps (a) Dot maps (b) Choropleth maps (c) Isopleth maps 9. Title of the subject-matter c. Scale (ii) The selection of a suitable method to be used for thematic mapping. 100 to 200 cm. (d) Physiographic map of the region especially relief and drainage maps. maps depicting areas receiving more than 200 cm. Rules for Making Thematic Maps (i) The drawing of the thematic maps must be carefully planned. These maps are also called as statistical maps. signs. Classification of Thematic Maps based on Method of Construction The thematic maps are generally. These maps are also called as qualitative maps. For example. etc.e. etc. The final map should properly reflect the following components: a. classified into quantitative and non-quantitative maps. (c) Selection of a scale to determine the value of a dot. physiographic map for population distribution and relief and drainage map for constructing transportation map. Thematic Maps Varieties of maps are drawn to understand the patterns of the regional distributions or the characteristics of variations over space these maps are known as the distribution maps or thematic maps. Indication of symbols. depict the non²measurable characteristics in the distribution of given information such as a map showing high and low rainfall -receiving areas. (c) Physical map of the region. Precaution (a) The lines demarcating the boundaries of various administrative units should not be very thick and bold. i. The non-quantitative maps. cattle etc. The dots of same size as per the chosen scale are marked over the given administrative units to highlight the patterns of distributions. Dot Maps The dot maps are drawn to show the distribution of phenomena such as population. total population. shades. Requirements for Making a Thematic Map (a) State/District level data about the selected theme. The quantitative maps are drawn to show the variations within the data. Name of the area b.(d) Draw a terraced scale as legend and choose distinct sign or symbol to show the nodal points (stations) within the strip. types of crops.. Requirement (a) An administrative map of the given area showing state/district/block boundaries. colours. (b) Outline map of the study area along with adm inistrative boundaries. 50 to 100 cm and less than 50 cm of rainfall are referred as quantitative maps.

Construction (a) Select the size and value of a dot.247/100. (d) Consult the physiographic/relief map of India to identify mountainous. number of dots in Maharashtra will be 9.52. 10.52. Example 9: Construct a Dot Map.5. as the fraction is more than 0.000 = 967. (b) Determine the number of dots in each state using the given scale. It may be rounded to 968. and/or snow covered areas and mark lesser number of dots in such areas.67. For example. (c) Place the dots in each state as per the determined number in all states. Choropleth Map . desert.

Steps to be followed (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order.literacy/growth rates. (d) Patterns. high. Range/5 and Range = maximum value ² minimum value. (c) The interval between the categories may be identified on the following formulae i.e. sex-ratio. etc. These maps are used to represent the density of population. medium. . (b) Appropriate statistical data according to administrative units. (b) Group the data into 5 categories to represent very high. Requirement for drawing Choropleth Map (a) A map of the area depicting different administrative units. low and very low concentrations.The choropleth maps are also drawn to depict the data characteristics as they are related to the administrative units. shades or colour to be used to depict the chosen categories should be marked in an increasing or decreasing order.

Tripura. In the present case. Chhattisgarh) 65 ² 74 Medium (Nagaland. Hence. over a definite period of time. We can convert this value to a round number 9. temperature. Goa) 83 ² 92 Very High (Mizoram. The exact point of drawing an Isopleth is determined by using the following formulae. Meghalaya. (b) Appropriate data of temperature. the range would be 91. determine the minimum and maximum values given on the map. etc. The word Isopleth is derived from Iso meaning equal and pleth means lines. Maharashtra. We will finally get following categories: 47 ² 56 Very low (Bihar. Gujarat. 10.e. Jammu and Kashmir) 56 ² 65 Low (Uttar Pradesh.Madhya Pradesh. etc. pressure. is referred as Isopleth. drawing of isopleths joining the places of same value is also termed as interpolation. (f) Prepare the map as shown in Fig. (g) Complete the map with respect to the attributes of map design. Example 10: Construct a Choropleth Map. (c) Based on range.0 as so on. Requirement (a) Base line map depicting point location of different places. Isohels (equal sunshine). (c) Drawing instrument specially French Curve. which joins the places of equal values. Sikkim. Manipur. 15.9%) respectively. (b) Identify the range within the data. occurrence of rainfall. follow the following steps: (a) Firstly.0 ² 47. .80). Thus. Add 9. Isobar (equal pressure). 11. Rules to be observed (a) An equal interval of values be selected. Delhi. the states recording the lowest and highest literacy rates are Bihar (47%) and the Kerala (90. may be represented by drawing the lines of equal values on a map. Tamil Nadu) 74 ² 83 High (Himachal Pradesh. Orissa. Assam. (c) The value of Isopleth should be written along the line on either side or in the middle by breaking the line. (44. rainfall. All such maps are termed as Isopleth Map. Kerala) (e) Assign shades/pattern to each category ranging from lower to higher hues. etc. Jharkhand. Isonephs (equal cloudiness). Rajasthan. The more frequently drawn isopleths include Isotherm (equal temperature). Uttaranchal. (d) Determine the number of the categories along with range of each category. Generally.0/ 5 = 8.0 = 44. determine the interval in a whole number like 5. Interpolation Interpolation is used to find the intermediate values between the observed values of at two stations/locations. etc.Punjab. Isohaline (equal salinity).0 to the lowest value of 47. Karnataka.0. Haryana. Method of Interpolation: For interpolation. 10. (b) Calculate the range of value i. or 20 is supposed to be ideal.Isobaths (eq ual depths).Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending order as shown above. Isopleth Map Variations in the degrees of slope. Range = maximum value ² minimum value. Isohyets (equal rainfall). Andhra Pradesh. contours (equal heights). (b) Interval of 5. West Bengal. Arunachal Pradesh. an imaginary line.0 (c) Divide the range by 5 to get categories from very low to very high.

. Example 11: Construct an Isopleth Map. in an Isotherm map of two places show 28º C and 33º C and you want to draw 30ºC isotherm. For example. exact point of 30 will be plotted 4mm away from 28ºC or 6mm ahead of 33ºC. thus.The interval is the difference between the actual value on the map and interpolated value. Suppose the distance is 1cm or 10 mm and the difference between 28 and 33 is 5. measure the distance between the two points.

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