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Reading Comprehension Strategies


Article Topics: Dyslexia, Instruction, Article types:

Submitted By: Greg Gay


View Submitter's Profile (greg) Skilled readers use a wide range of strategies while reading. Some of these include the SQ3R technique, flow-charting, summarization, questioning and predicting. Of particular interest is the ability of learners to learn reading strategies, and how these strategies should be taught. Bereiter and Bird (1985) conducted two studies which investigated strategy use while reading. In the first they transcribed think aloud protocols of expert readers (university students thought out loud while reading) and found four central strategies they use when comprehension fails: 1. Restatement: 1. rephrasing using inferred equivalents where unknown words appear 2. paraphrasing in simpler terms 3. inferring superordinate propositions 4. paraphrasing with inserted referents 5. periodic summarization 2. Backtracking 1. reread from beginning of confusing segment

2. reread previously comprehended parts 3. Demanding relationships 1. setting watchers (ie wh questions) 2. Why? (cause and effect) 3. What? (for what reason) 4. Where? (for orientation) 5. Links between topics (why, what, how, is this related) 4. Problem formulation 1. formulate comprehension failure into problem solving These of course were only the most frequent strategies used. Many others were also used including prediction, imagery, and recall of related information. The four central strategies were then taught to grades 7 and 8 students using three instructional groups and a control group. The instructional methods included: 1. Modelling-plus-explanation (Teachers explained the strategies listed above and demonstrated them by thinking aloud. Students then practised thinking aloud themselves while reading) 2. Modelling only ( Like above with out initial explanations of the strategies) 3. Exercises (No modelling or explanation, but rather exercises which required students to use the strategies listed above. This latter is perhaps the most commonly used instructional method) After nine instructional periods spread over three weeks only the Modelling-plusexplanation group showed a significant improvement ( 2.7 grade levels) in comprehension and only Restatement and Backtracking strategies were used. It was suggested that Demanding Relationships and Problem Formulation were skills found in older readers. It does appear that modelling Restatement and Backtracking strategies by thinking aloud accompanied with verbal explanations (ie. Direct Instruction) of the strategies, and practice, helped grades 7 and 8 students improve their reading comprehension. Other studies indicate that sophisticated reading strategies are difficult to teach and learn. For most reading strategies prompting is required. Despite knowing them, few students will use them. One helpful way to get students to use strategies is to point out what they should look for while reading. This raises their

self-awareness, a point that is central to this course, and a point that underlies teaching any cognitive strategy; raising self-awareness requires direct instruction. Direct instruction alone, however, is not sufficient, an expert model is also required. Thinking aloud is also been shown as an effective means of teaching writing skills, with the teacher modelling expert writing practice, and explaining the strategies that emerge.

References
Armstrong, W.H., & Lampe II, M.W. (1990) Pocket Guide to Study Tips, New York: Barron. Bereiter, C. & Bird, M. (1985) Use of Think Aloud in Identification and Teaching of Reading Comprehension Strategies, Cognition and Instruction, 2(2) 131-156.

Pre-reading

I.

Activating background knowledge

There are many techniques for reading that I have studied. All of the technique or strategies are divided into three stages. They are pre-reading, while-reading, and post-reading. Each of the stages has many strategies. As like planning and predicting in pre-reading, scanning and skimming in while-reading, and summarizing, concluding, and reviewing in post-reading, etc. II. Predicting There are new technique or explaining about the reading strategy that we find in the article. While-reading III. highlighting Underlying the important thing (look at the text) IV. Scanning

Some of these include the SQ3R technique, flow-charting, summarization, questioning and predicting Bereiter and Bird (1985) conducted two studies which investigated strategy use while reading. In the first they transcribed think aloud protocols of expert readers (university students thought out loud while reading) and found four central strategies they use when comprehension fails: 1. Restatement: 1. rephrasing using inferred equivalents where unknown words appear 2. paraphrasing in simpler terms 3. inferring super ordinate propositions 4. paraphrasing with inserted referents 5. periodic summarization 2. Backtracking 1. reread from beginning of confusing segment 2. reread previously comprehended parts 3. Demanding relationships 1. setting watchers (ie wh questions)

2. Why? (cause and effect) 3. What? (for what reason) 4. Where? (for orientation) 5. Links between topics (why, what, how, is this related) 4. Problem formulation 1. formulate comprehension failure into problem solving 2. The instructional methods included: 1. Modeling-plus-explanation (Teachers explained the strategies listed above and demonstrated them by thinking aloud. Students then practiced thinking aloud themselves while reading) 2. Modeling only ( Like above with out initial explanations of the strategies) 3. Exercises (No modeling or explanation, but rather exercises which required students to use the strategies listed above. This latter is perhaps the most commonly used instructional method) It does appear that modeling Restatement and Backtracking strategies by thinking aloud accompanied with verbal explanations (ie. Direct Instruction) of the strategies, and practice, helped grades 7 and 8 students improve their reading comprehension. Post-reading V. Summarizing there are some strategies in the text. They are ; SQ3R technique, flow-charting, summarization, questioning and predicting Bereiter and Bird (1985) conducted two studies which investigated strategy use while reading.

n the first they transcribed think aloud protocols of expert readers (university students thought out loud while reading) and found four central strategies they use when comprehension fails: 1. Restatement: 1. rephrasing using inferred equivalents where unknown words appear

2. 3. 4. 5. 2.

paraphrasing in simpler terms inferring super ordinate propositions paraphrasing with inserted referents periodic summarization

Backtracking 1. 2. reread from beginning of confusing segment reread previously comprehended parts

3.

Demanding relationships 1. 2. 3. 4. setting watchers (ie wh questions) Why? (cause and effect) What? (for what reason) Where? (for orientation)

5. Links between topics (why, what, how, is this related) 4. Problem formulation 1. Formulate comprehension failure into problem solving. he instructional methods included: Modeling-plus-explanation (Teachers explained the strategies listed above and demonstrated them by thinking aloud. Students then practiced thinking aloud themselves while reading) Modeling only ( Like above with out initial explanations of the strategies) Exercises (No modeling or explanation, but rather exercises which required students to use the strategies listed above. This latter is perhaps the most commonly used instructional method) VI.Concluding a) There are SQ3R technique, flow-charting, summarization, questioning and predicting that we find in the article b) In the article, not many techniques that was explained

c)

There are instructional methods included: Modeling-plus-explanation Modeling only Exercises

d)

That article is made by Greg Gay

Terjemahan
pembaca Terampil menggunakan berbagai strategi saat membaca. Beberapa di antaranya adalah teknik SQ3R, aliran-charting, summarization, mempertanyakan dan memprediksi. Yang menarik adalah kemampuan peserta didik untuk mempelajari strategi membaca, dan bagaimana strategi-strategi ini harus diajarkan. Bereiter dan Bird (1985) melakukan dua studi yang meneliti penggunaan strategi saat membaca. pertama merekamenulis perpikiran keras pembaca ahli (mahasiswa berpikir keras saat membaca) dan menemukan empat strategi pusat yang mereka gunakan ketika pemahamannya gagal: 1. Penyajian kembali: 1. mengulang menggunakan tereka setara di mana kata-kata yang tidak diketahui muncul 2. parafrase dalam hal sederhana 3. menyimpulkan proposisi superordinat 4. parafrase dengan referen dimasukkan 5. periodik summarization

2. Backtracking 1. membaca kembali dari awal segmen membingungkan 2. membaca kembali bagian sebelumnya dipahami 3. Menuntut hubungan 1. pengaturan pengamat (pertanyaan wh yaitu) 2. Mengapa? (Sebab dan akibat) 3. Apa? (Untuk alasan apa) 4. Dimana? (Untuk orientasi) 5. Kaitan antara topik (mengapa, apa, bagaimana, pada apakah ini terkait) 4. Perumusan masalah 1. Kegagalan merumuskan pemahaman ke pemecahan masalah Ini tentu saja hanya strategi yang paling sering digunakan. Banyak orang lain juga menggunakan strategi lain termasuk prediksi, citra, dan mengingat kembali informasi yang terkait. Empat strategi utama tersebut kemudian diajarkan untuk kelas 7 dan 8 siswa yang menggunakan tiga kelompok pembelajaran dan kelompok kontrol. Metode instruksional termasuk: 1. Pemodelan-plus-penjelasan (Guru menjelaskan strategi yang tercantum di atas dan menunjukkan mereka dengan berpikir keras. Siswa kemudian berlatih berpikir keras sendiri saat membaca) 2. Pemodelan hanya (Seperti di atas dengan keluar penjelasan awal strategi) 3. Latihan (No pemodelan atau penjelasan, melainkan latihan yang diperlukan siswa untuk menggunakan strategi yang tercantum di atas. Yang terakhir ini mungkin metode pembelajaran yang paling umum digunakan)

Setelah periode sembilan instruksional yang tersebar di tiga minggu hanya kelompok Pemodelan-plus-penjelasan yang menunjukkan peningkatan yang signifikan (2,7 tingkat kelas) dalam pemahaman dan Pernyataan Kembali saja dan strategi Backtracking digunakan. Disarankan bahwa Menuntut Hubungan dan Perumusan Masalah adalah keterampilan yang ditemukan di pembaca yang lebih tua. Itu tidak muncul bahwa pemodelan Penegasan dan Backtracking strategi dengan berpikir keras disertai dengan penjelasan verbal (mis. Langsung Instruksi) dari strategi, dan praktek, membantu kelas 7 dan 8 siswa meningkatkan pemahaman membaca mereka. Studi lain menunjukkan bahwa strategi membaca canggih sulit untuk mengajar dan belajar. Untuk sebagian besar strategi membaca gerak yang diperlukan. Meski tahu mereka, beberapa siswa akan menggunakannya. Salah satu cara membantu untuk mendapatkan siswa untuk menggunakan strategi adalah untuk menunjukkan apa yang mereka harus mencari saat membaca. Hal ini menimbulkan kesadaran diri mereka, titik yang merupakan pusat untuk kursus ini, dan titik yang mendasari setiap strategi pengajaran kognitif; meningkatkan kesadaran diri memerlukan instruksi langsung. instruksi langsung saja, bagaimanapun, adalah tidak cukup, model ahli juga diperlukan. Berpikir keras juga telah terbukti sebagai cara yang efektif untuk mengajarkan

keterampilan menulis, dengan guru pemodelan ahli menulis praktek, dan menjelaskan strategi yang muncul.