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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Dept of E&E, Sir MVIT, 2009
Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials
1.1 Introduction to EMI
EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) is the disruption of operation of an electronic device when it is in the vicinity of an electromagnetic field in the radio frequency spectrum that is caused by another electronic device. EMI consists of any unwanted, conducted or radiated signals of electrical origin that can cause degradation in equipment performance. Interference also leads to data loss, picture quality degradation on monitors, and other problems with PC, or problems with other devices such as television sets and radios. EMI refers to how different sets of electronic equipment interact with each other, usually in a negative manner. The recent advance in semiconductor devices and large scale integration has dramatically reduced the size of electronic equipment while increasing the probability for electromagnetic interference between the different systems and sub systems. Today’s electronic designers must make sure their solutions work in an environment of high EMI. It is not practical to ask new product designers to test their equipment under all conditions and possible end-user configurations, therefore strict emissions regulations have been established. In the United States the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates the use of radio and wire communications. Part of its responsibility concerns the control of electromagnetic interference. The standards for the allowed levels of electromagnetic emissions are outlined in part 15 of FCC rules and regulations. These rules apply to almost all electronic equipments. Under these rules, limits are placed on maximum allowable radiated emissions in the frequency range between 30 to 1000 MHz and on the maximum allowable conducted emissions on the AC power line in the frequency range of 0.450 to 30 MHz. The FCC defines a computing device as “any electronic device or system that generates and uses timing pulses at a rate in excess of 1000 pulses (cycles) per second and use digital techniques; inclusive of telephone equipment that uses digital techniques or any device or system that generates and utilizes radio frequency energy for the purpose of performing data processing functions, such as electronic computations, operations, transformations, recording, filing, sorting, storage, retrieval or transfer”. This definition was intentionally made broad to include as many products as possible. Thus, if a product uses digital circuitry and has a clock frequency greater than 10 KHz, it is a Dept of E&E, Sir MVIT, 2009 2
Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials
computing device under the FCC definitions. This definition covers most digital electronics manufactured today. The computing devices covered by this definition are divided into two classes: Class A: a computing device that is marketed for use in a commercial, industrial, or business environment. Class B: A computing device that is marketed for use in a residential environment, not withstanding its use in a commercial, industrial, or business environment. Since class B devices are more likely to be located in closer proximity to radio and television receivers, the emission limits for these devices are about 10dB more restrictive than those for class A devices.
1.1.1 EMI SOURCES:An EMI source can be any device that transmits, distributes, processes, or utilizes any form of electrical energy where some aspect of its operation generates conducted or radiated signals that can cause equipment performance degradation. Figure 1 shows taxonomy of the different sources of electromagnetic interference.
Radiated Conducte d
Coherent Broadband Incoheren t Man-Made
Radiated Conducte d Radiated Intentiona l Unintentional Intentiona l Radiated Unintentional Restricte d
Conducte d Narrowban d Coherent
Fig 1.1 Dept of E&E, Sir MVIT, 2009 3
Broadband EMI: electromagnetic conducted and radiated signals whose amplitude variation as a function of frequency extends over a frequency range greater than the bandwidth of the receptor. Dept of E&E. etc). All natural sources are classified as broadband. random or pseudo random ( bandwidth limited ) in phase or Conducted EMI: noise signal transmitted via electrical conduction path (ie. radiated and unintentional.ground planes.wires. frequency and phase relationship. incoherent.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials A brief description of each category is given below :- Natural EMI sources: sources that are associated with natural phenomena. Narrowband EMI: electromagnetic conducted and radiated signals whose amplitude variation as a function of frequency extends over a frequency range narrower than the bandwidth of the receptor. Man made EMI sources: sources that are associated with man made devices such as power lines. Radiated EMI: electric and magnetic fields transmitted through space from source to receptor. Coherent broadband signals: neighboring components of the signal ( in the frequency domain ) has a well defined amplitude. They include atmospheric charge/discharge phenomena such as lightning. 2009 4 . Incoherent broadband signals: neighboring components of the signal ( in the frequency domain ) are amplitude. Sir MVIT. fluorescent lights etc. auto ignition.
most communication electronic systems can be emission and receptor sources because they contain transmitters and receivers. receptors can be divided into natural and man-made receptors.1. navigation and radar systems. For example. when exposed to conducted or radiated electromagnetic energy from emitting sources.2 Dept of E&E. 2009 5 . Similar to the emission source taxonomy. Sir MVIT. These include communication. Natural Man-made Man Animals Plants Communication electronic devices Amplifiers Industrial & Consumer RADHAZ Broadcast Navigator Radar IF Video Audio Controls Bio medical Instruments Telephones Sensors Computers EEDS Fuels Figure 1. Many devices can be emission sources and receptors simultaneously. Example includes electronic licensed communication systems.2 RECEPTORS OF EMI: Any EMI situation requires not only an emission source but also a receptor. Unintentional (incidental) radiating devices: devices that intentionally use electromagnetic radiation purposes other than communication and data transfer( ie. will degrade or malfunction in performance. garage door operating systems ). A receptor is also called a "victim" source because it consists of any device. 1. Figure 2 shows a taxonomy of different receptors that are susceptible to EMI.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Intentional radiating emitters: emitters whose primary function depends on radiated emitters.
Industrial and consumer receptors .Industrial receptors include digital computers. Here. and radar receivers. An electronic device should do two things: respond only to desired signals and not respond to undesired signals.1. communication receivers. industrial and consumer devices. and RADHAZ. and public address systems and intercoms. Amplifiers . then this causes problems or EM interference. Man-made EMI receptors .3 Causes of EMI :The causes of EMI can be within the system called as intrasystem problem or the EMI can occur from outside the system called as intersystem problem. video. electronic test equipments. and climate control systems.This category includes radiation hazards to electro-explosive devices and fuels. Sir MVIT.These receivers include broadcast receivers. Consumer receptors include radio and TV receivers. the table 1 lists a number of intrasystem EMI causes and table 2 lists a number of intersystem Dept of E&E. Communication electronic receivers . RADHAZ is an acronym for RADiation HAZards. hi-fi stereo equipment. and audio amplifiers. amplifiers. Department of Defense to the program that is determining the extent of radiation hazards and methods for controlling them. A very common cause of both intra system and intersystem problems is. industrial process controls.Amplifiers include IF.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials A brief description of each category is given below. and plants. biomedical instruments. 2009 6 . animals. electronic musical instruments. a signal intended for one circuit also reaches a circuit or circuits for which it was not intended.Man-made receptors can be categorized into 4 categories: communication electronic receivers. the name given by the U.Natural receptors include humans. S. Natural EMI receptors . relay communication receivers. RADHAZ . If a receiver or other equipments respond to undesired signals. 1.
Mobile radio interference with TV receivers. Intersystem problems includes : • • • Radar interference with aircraft navigation systems. Any item in an emitter column can interfere with any item in a susceptor column.2 Emitters Aircraft Radar transmitters Lightning strokes Motors Susceptors Aircraft Radar receivers Computers Navigational instruments 1. Sir MVIT. • Leakage of radar transmitter energy into the radar receiver. Aircraft radio interference with shipboard systems.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials EMI causes. EMI effects result from both intra system and intersystem problems. etc. Intrasystem problems includes : • car. The effect of EMI can be seen all around us.1 Emitters Generators Computers Radar transmitters Radio transmitters Susceptors Navigational instruments Computers Radar receivers Radio receivers Intersystem EMI Causes Table 1. Interference from an automotive ignition system to a radio receiver within the Dept of E&E.4 Effects of EMI: The effect of EMI can cause malfunctioning or distraction of an electronic circuit. “Emitter” is used to denote a source of electromagnetic energy while the term “susceptor” is used to denote a device that responds to electromagnetic energy. Intrasystem EMI Causes Table 1. 2009 7 .1.
1. To illustrate. while that of a polymer can be as high as several hundred thousands. The small molecules. Some of the polymer materials which can be used for EMI shielding are ABS ( Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ). Sir MVIT. Shields may be in the form of partitions and boxes as well as in form of cable and connector shields. etc…. and its thickness.2. the distance from source to the shield and the quantity and shape of any shield discontinuities. HDPE(high density polyethylene). These big molecules or ‘macro-molecules’ are made up of smaller molecules. the molecular weight of common salt is only 58. When these rings are interlinked. the chain formed can be considered as representing a polymer from molecules of the same compound. In all cases shield can be characterized by its shielding effectiveness. To contrast the difference.5. which combine to form a big molecule can be of one or more chemical compounds. Alternatively.2 EMI SHIELDING:The purpose of shielding is to confine radiated energy to the bounds of a specific region or to prevent radiated energy from entering a specific region. but also upon frequency.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials • Interference caused by the magnetic field of the tape drive to low level digital circuits within the computer system. and interlinked to represent a polymer from molecules of different compounds.1 Use of Polymers for EMI shielding:Polymers are complex and giant molecules and are different from low molecular weight compounds like. say. individual rings could be of different sizes and materials. PVC ( Polyvinyl chloride ) . 2009 8 . Shielding effectiveness is dependant not only on the material of which the shield is made. imagine a set of rings of the same size and made of the same material. etc. poly meaning ‘many’ and mers meaning ‘part’ (in Greek). PC (polycarbonate). Dept of E&E. The interlinking of many units has given the polymers its name. common salt. which is the number of decibels by which the shield reduces the shield strength as the result of its being in place. 1.
The cost of producing ABS is roughly twice the cost of producing polystyrene. such as a wood fire. rigid. ABS can be used between −25 and 60 °C as its mechanical properties vary with temperature.2.Moderate heat.Housings . ABS is considered superior for its hardness. toughness. ABS is flammable when it is exposed to high temperatures.Heat Resistance.Appliance Components .Business Equipment . hot flames. Sir MVIT. However. moisture and chemical resistance . For the majority of applications. golf club heads (used for its good shock absorbance). butadiene is a petroleum hydrocarbon obtained from the C4 fraction of steam cracking. enclosures. Advantages of ABS . protective head gear. ABS is a common thermo plastic used to make light. Good Applications Automotive .Relatively high cost generation . toys.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 1. butadiene.Flow.General Purpose .a hydrocarbon obtained in the reaction of ethylene and benzene.Flammable with high smoke . 2009 Disadvantages of ABS . wheel covers. Good Impact ABS Applications -. styrene monomer is made by dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene . buffer edging for furniture and joinery panels.Appliances . ABS is derived from acrylonitrile. and styrene.Limited weathering resistance .Automotive Interior Parts Dept of E&E. it will be degraded (dissolve) [when exposed to acetone. and electrical insulation properties.2 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) : Chemical formula ( (C8H8· C4H6·C3H3N)n). It will "boil".Flame Retardant .Electrical/Electronic Applications 9 . molded products such as piping (for example plastic pressure pipe systems). musical instruments (most notably recorders and plastic clarinets). Acrylonitrile is a synthetic monomer produced from propylene and ammonia. then burst spectacularly into intense. High -Typical Resistance. automotive body parts.
as such. In case of polycarbonates. • • • • Equipment housings. Exterior automotive components. Nameplates and bezels. Disadvantages: Polycarbonate (PC) has few disadvantages like low durability against organic solvents and alkaline chemicals.3 Polycarbonates (PC): Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polymers. Polycarbonates received their name because they are polymers having functional groups linked together by carbonate groups (-O-(C=O)-O-) in a long molecular chain. Their plastic identification code is 7. Dept of E&E. They are easily worked. Polycarbonates are more expensive. as well as high melt viscosity. Polycarbonate can be synthesized from bisphenol A and phosgene (carbonyl dichloride.2. impact resistance and optical properties) position them between commodity plastics and engineering plastics.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 1. shielding effectiveness is low and there is no electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) shielding. moulded and thermoformed. these plastics are very widely used in the modern chemical industry. 2009 10 . Although polycarbonate has high impact-resistance. Outdoor lighting fixtures. Sir MVIT. Their interesting features (temperature resistance. The engineering applications include. Applications of PC : The price of polycarbonates restricts its use to mainly engineering applications. it has low scratch-resistance and so a hard coating is applied to polycarbonate eyewear lenses and polycarbonate exterior automotive components. COCl2).
Around the world.General Purpose . . 2009 11 . Typical PVC applications :• • • • • • • Wire and cable applications General purpose Profiles Tubing Automotive applications Medical / healthcare applications Cable jacketing. Since about 57% of its mass is chlorine.Shielding effectiveness is low. 1.Flexibility. .Impact Resistance.Limited thermal capability. it is one of the most valuable products of the chemical industry. and easy to assemble. With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers. it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as a wire insulator. Advantages of PVC . By adding plasticizers. the most widely used being phthalates. It is not recommended for use above 70° Celsius although it can be taken to 80° C for short periods. is the third most widely used thermoplastic polymer after polyethylene and polypropylene.Flame Retardant . it becomes a popular material for window and door frames.2. .Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 1. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers. Good . over 50% of PVC manufactured is used in construction. In terms of revenue generated.4 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) : Polyvinyl chloride ( IUPAC Poly (chloroethanediyl) ) commonly abbreviated PVC. As a building material. creating a given mass of PVC requires less petroleum than many other polymers.2.Heat deflection temperature is low. . Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride (VCM).Higher density than many plastics. High Disadvantages of PVC -Sensitive to UV and oxidative degradation.5 COMPOSITE EMI SHIELDING MATERIAL : Dept of E&E. Sir MVIT. durable. PVC is cheap.
no cenosphere or compatibilizer is added to HDPE. Cenosphere and compatibilizer as a composite EMI shielding material. totally 11 sheets were prepared by using a blending machine and a hot press machine. which is a polymer molecule where all the atoms are linked together in a long chain. in our project we have used a combination of HDPE (high density polyethylene). three sheets (test samples) were prepared. it is added to improve the compatibility between the two immiscible polymers. LDPE.3 1.2.5gm HDPE: 9.5gm CENO: 7gm compatibilizer 56. so it’s called as a pure HDPE case. which consists of many Dept of E&E. In the fourth ratio (100:0:0). Polyethylene contains the chemical elements carbon and hydrogen. mechanical strength and absorbs the radiations. In the first three ratios. in case of last ratio ( pure HDPE case). it acts as a adhesion promoter. We have used this combination of materials in different ratios (composition). this filler material imparts good electrical conductivity. This ratio is considered as a reference. 2009 12 . Compatibilizer used here is grafted HDPE with di-butylene maliate. Sir MVIT. In each composition (ratio). Therefore. Unlike its less stable cousin.3gm CENO: 7gm compatibilizer 60gm HDPE: 3gm CENO: 7 gm compatibilizer 70 grams of pure HDPE Table 1. Polyethylene is created through polymerization of ethane. Polyethylene is a polymer consisting of long chains of the monomer ethylene (IUPAC name ethane). Cenosphere is used as a filler material.6 HDPE (high density polyethylene) : Polyethylene or polythene (IUPAC name polyethylene or poly (ethylene)) is a thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the plastic shopping bag). The Structure of HDPE :HDPE is known as a linear polymer. only 2 sheets were prepared. 85:15:10 90:10:10 95:5:10 100:0:0 53. a constant 10% of compatibilizer is used and only HDPE and Cenosphere contents are varied as shown in the table given below.7gm HDPE: 6. But. PC (poly carbonate).Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials In order to avoid all those disadvantages which were observed in case of ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene). PVC (poly vinyl chloride) etc.
Chromium/silica catalysts.2. Alcohols and Bases. Limited resistance (moderate attack and suitable for short term use only) to Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Oxidizing Agents. HDPE has a low degree of branching and thus stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials branching molecules. HDPE is created by a catalytic process. 120°C Minimum Temperature: -148°F . Sir MVIT. Good resistance (minor attack) to Aldehydes.7 HDPE Resistance: • • Excellent resistance (no attack) to dilute and concentrated Acids. Ziegler-Natta catalysts or metallocene catalysts can produce HDPE.9 Classification of Polyethylene: Polyethylene is classified into several different categories based mostly on its density. Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons. 1.8 HDPE details:• • • • • • • • • Maximum Temperature: 248°F .941 g/cm3. 2009 13 . -100°C Autoclavable: No Melting Point: 266°F 130°C Tensile Strength: 32 MPa Surface Hardness: SD65 Translucent Rigid Specific Gravity: 0.2. Esters. HDPE is a much denser plastic. The lack of Dept of E&E. and as such is much stronger than LDPE.2. Good UV resistance.95 1. • • 1. and is prepared from a chemical compound known as ethylene. • • • High density polyethylene (HDPE) Medium density polyethylene (MDPE) Low density polyethylene (LDPE) HDPE: is defined by a density of greater or equal to 0. Ketones and Mineral and Vegetable Oils.
and high tensile strength.910–0. margarine tubs. garbage containers and water pipes. but preferably joined by hot air or nitrogen welding. HDPE is readily available in many forms such as sheet. easy. and infrared welding.940 g/cm3. Good chemical resistance and high rigidity make it a good choice for trays and tanks. detergent bottles. Laser. MDPE : is defined by a density range of 0.926–0. FDA. rod and tubing for fabrication: Excellent for any food related products. Good impact resistance. Mechanical fastening is one option. JOINTING :HDPE Pipes offer simple. Sir MVIT. Bends.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials branching is ensured by an appropriate choice of catalyst (for example. Ultrasonic.2. 2009 APPLICATIONS 14 .940 g/cm3.10 Advantages and Applications of HDPE ADVANTAGES Dept of E&E. hinges and cutting boards. Elbow etc. NSF. Also. LDPE : is defined by a density range of 0. chromium catalysts or Ziegler-Natta catalysts) and reaction conditions. very low moisture absorption. wear plates. This material machines extremely well. Tee. and USDA approved for direct contact. quick and economical method of jointing of pipes by Butt-Welding (Fusion Technique) and detachable insert type joints (Sockets.) 1. Not a good candidate for gluing. HDPE is used in products and packaging such as milk jugs. Other uses include pipe fittings. light weight.
Cenospheres are a naturally occurring byproduct of the burning process at coal-fired power plants. 1. 2009 15 . a “High Performance Filler material”? Dept of E&E. Why are cenospheres called as. Sir MVIT. hollow sphere comprised largely of silica and alumina and filled with air and/or inert gases. Calcium Carbonate.12 Importance of CENOSPHERES :Cenospheres are utilized as a High Performance Filler Material.11 Cenosphere (filler material) :A cenosphere is a lightweight. and they have most of the same properties as manufactured hollow-sphered products. Talc.2. and various Silicas. Cenospheres can also be utilized as an extender in many resin applications.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials -Light Weight -Flexibility -Shielding effectiveness is high -Toughness -Chemically Inert -Resistance to Abrasion -Smooth Surface -Environmental Stress -Corrosion Resistance -Hygienic Safety -Easy & Quick Installation -Low Thermal Conductivity -Portable water supply -Irrigation/Agriculture -Gas Transmission -Industrial Effluents -Sewage & Drainage -Sprinkler System -Slurry Transportation -Chemical Industries -Tube wells 1. mechanical strength and absorbs the radiations. inert. This filler material imparts good electrical conductivity. Clays.2. Cenospheres can replace other fillers such as: Glass Spheres.
200% less expensive than man-made hollow glass spheres. Sir MVIT. When used in high volume loadings. cenospheres are 30% . LOW RESIN DEMAND / HIGH LOADING POTENTIAL: Spheres have the lowest surface area to volume ratio achievable. INERTNESS: Cenospheres can be utilized in solvents. cenospheres can produce a higher compressive strength due to a stronger outer shell. With their spherical shape.3 Physical Properties Size pH in Water Dept of E&E. water. cenospheres can reduce shrinkage. IMPROVED FLOWABILITY: With the spherical shape of cenospheres.800 degrees F. organic chemicals. THERMAL STABILITY: Because cenospheres are formed in the boilers. Compared to less expensive fillers. cenospheres produce far less viscosity. STRENGTH: Cenospheres are three to ten times stronger than most man-made hollow glass spheres.35% Iron Oxide 1% .Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials LOW DENSITY: When density counts.0 . COST EFFECTIVE: Cenospheres are 50% .1. 2009 10-350 microns 6.5% Titania Fig 1.8. 1.5% .65% 25% . Compared to most ground minerals and other resins. Unlike glass spheres.50 to 0. cenospheres are cost effective based on volume loading and weight reduction.85% lighter.2. cenospheres can be the answer with a density ranging from 0. the flow rate will improve greatly for most applications. LOW SHRINKAGE: Cenospheres are one of the few products in the filler industry today that can meet the requirements for low shrinkage.0 16 0.13 Typical Properties of Cenospheres : Chemical Properties Silica Alumina 55% . they are thermally stable in temperatures exceeding 1. or alkalis while maintaining their integrity.80. acids.5% .
When mixing polymers with other components. these two or more components will not necessarily like each other.2.Light Grey . For example detergent powder as surfactant will 'compatibilise' the dirt with the water in the washing machine and facilitate the washing cycle. Without mixing the components will separate. Compatibilizer used in our project is grafted HDPE with di-butylene maliate. In most of the cases there will be a repelling force and there will be very poor or even no adhesion. the applications for polymer blends continue to grow. Softening Point Shape Color Above 1800 degrees F Spherical Grey .0. Adhesion promoters that are most easy to handle are polymeric adhesion promoters.33 – 0. They act as surfactants. 2009 17 . they are called COMPATIBILIZERS. This will occur while mixing or even in many cases also when trying to adhere such components. be it fillers or even other polymers.Off White 1. When adhesion promoters are used to increase the compatibility of two immiscible polymers. In order to improve adhesion. It is added to improve the compatibility between the two immiscible polymers (components). Compatibilizers provide the mechanism for blending these immiscible polymers. which can also be called compatibilizers or coupling agents.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Bulk Density Specific Gravity 0. adhesion promoters can be added. per square in.6 .46 g/cm^3 0.5000 lbs. Through offering the required balance of physical and chemical properties.8 Compressive Strength 3000 . Dept of E&E. Sir MVIT.14 Compatibilizer : Any polymeric interfacial agent that facilitates formation of uniform blends of normally immiscible polymers with desirable end properties can be called as a compatibilizer.
EXPERIMENT DETAILS Dept of E&E. 2009 18 .Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials CHAPTER-2 EXPERIMENT DETAILS 2. Sir MVIT.
although it is common to see the more descriptive unit of ohms per square. ρs = Resistance (Ω) x perimeter of LV electrode (cm) Gap between LV and guard (cm) ρs = R x πD 0.1 Surface resistivity: Surface resistivity is the resistance to leakage current along the surface of an insulating material. and the current per unit of the electrode length. The electrical resistance between 2 parallel electrodes in the contact with the specimen surface and separated by a distance equal to the contact length of the electrodes.1. Volume resistivity 3. Generally for a better EMI shielding.1 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES:The electrical properties which we are studying are:1. Capacitance 5. Unit of surface resistivity is ohms. The resistivity is therefore the quotient of the potential gradient in V/m. Dissipation Factor (tanδ) 4. the length in the quotient cancel and surface resistivities are reported in ohms. (Ω) 2. A/m.1 (cm) = 1 mm. 2009 19 .1. surface resistivity of the shielding material must be low.1 Where R = resistance (Ω) πD = perimeter of LV electrode (cm) Gap between LV and guard = 0. since the four ends of the electrodes define a square. Dielectric Constant 2.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 2.2 Volume resistivity: Dept of E&E. Sir MVIT. Surface resistivity 2.
In SI. Sir MVIT.1. This phenomena is commonly known as “the expense” or “loss” of power.1. The amount of power losses in a dielectric under the action of the voltage applied to it is commonly known as dielectric losses. Generally for a better EMI shielding. The losses under an alternating voltage are determined by more intricate regularities. ρv = Resistance (Ω) * Area of LV electrode (cm²) Thickness of sample in cm ρv = R (Ω) x (πD²/4) t (cm) 2. is directly proportional to the square of the electric voltage applied to the specimen or the product. the loss of power in a specimen of a material or in some product made of this material. it dissipates a certain quantity of electric energy that transforms into heat energy. volume resistivity of the shielding material must be low. volume resistivity is numerically equal to the direct-current resistance between opposite faces of a one-meter cube of the material (ohm-m).Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Volume resistivity is the resistance to leakage current through the body of an insulating material. 2. all other conditions being equal. It is also referenced as the loss tangent (tan δ) and approximate power factor. As a rule.4 Capacitance:Dept of E&E. R is the resistance of the insulation in ohm. Dielectric losses at a direct voltage can easily be found from the equation P = V² R Where V is the voltage in volts. 2009 20 . When considering dielectric losses we usually mean the precisely under an alternating voltage. and is equal to the tangent of the loss angle. This is the general term determining the loss of power in an electrical insulation both at a direct and an alternating voltage. The ratio of the potential gradient parallel to the current in a material to the current density.3 Dissipation Factor (tan δ ): DF is expressed as the ratio of the resistive power loss to the capacitive power. meaning an average electrical power dissipated in matter during a certain interval of time. When an electric field acts on any matter.
In SI units. as above. Experience shows that the charge Q is proportional to the voltage (Potential difference) between the plates of a capacitor. For example. dry air has a low dielectric constant.5 Dielectric constant: Dielectric constant the relative static permittivity of the materials under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. Generally for a better EMI shielding. Generally for a better EMI shielding. which permits the storage of electrically separated charges when potential differences exist between the conductors. The relative static permittivity is represented as Єr. Sir MVIT. farad (F) is the unit. Q=CV Here. It is an expression of the extent to which a material concentrates electric flux and is the electrical equivalent of relative magnetic permeability.854*10^-12 t = thickness of sample in m C = capacitance in pF. capacitance value of the shielding material must be high.1. dielectric constant value of the shielding material must be high. Єr = (C*t) / (Єo*A) Where A= area of electrode = 20*10^-4 m² Єo= 8. Substances with high dielectric constant breakdown more easily when subjected to intense electric fields. than do materials with low dielectric constants. 2009 21 . It is the ratio of the amount of stored electrical energy when a potential is applied. but it makes an excellent dielectric material for capacitors used in high power radio frequency transmitters. The relative static permittivity is the same as the relative permittivity evaluated for a frequency of zero. Dielectric constant is also defined as the ratio of permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space. V is the voltage applied to the capacitor.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials It is that property of the system of conductors and dielectric. 2. Dept of E&E. The total magnitude of a free charge across each plate of ac capacitor will be denoted by Q. relative to the permittivity of a vacuum. the shape of the electrode and on the material of the dielectric. The factor of proportionality. The capacitance of an insulated portion depends on the geometrical dimensions. C is the capacitance of a capacitor.
Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 2.2 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS:Shielding can be specified in terms of the reduction in magnetic and / or electric field strength caused by the shield. It is a measure of the reduction or attenuation in electromagnetic field strength at a point in space caused by the insertion of a shield between the source and that point stated in dB. In the design of a shielded enclosure there are two prime considerations: 1) The shielding effectiveness of the shield material itself and 2) The shielding effectiveness due to discontinuities and holes in the shield. The shielding effectiveness of a solid shield with no seams or holes is determined and then the effect of discontinuities and holes is considered. It is the shielding effectiveness of the apertures that usually determines the overall shielding effectiveness of a shield, not the intrinsic shielding effectiveness of the shield material. Shielding effectiveness varies with frequency, geometry of shield, position with the shield where the field is measured, type of field being attenuated, direction of incidence, and polarization. In this project we are considering the shielding provided by a plane sheet of moderately conducting material. The total Shielding effectiveness of a material is equal to the sum of the absorption loss (A) plus the reflection loss (R) plus a correction factor (B) to account for multiple reflections in thin shields. Total Shielding effectiveness therefore can be written as S=A+R+B dB.
The multiple reflection factor B can be neglected if the absorption loss A is greater than 9 dB.
Dept of E&E, Sir MVIT, 2009
Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials
CHAPTER-3 PREPARATION OF TEST SAMPLES
Dept of E&E, Sir MVIT, 2009
Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials
3. PREPARATION OF TEST SAMPLES (SHEETS)
3.1 STEP 1:- BLENDING
Blending is the first step in the preparation of samples. It involves the breakdown of molecules and incorporation of selected ingredients. Blending is basically done to develop a uniform, homogenized well-dispersed compound.
The basic principle of blending carried here is REACTIVE BLENDING. Reactive blending is a process in which a chemical bond is formed between polymer and additives accompanied by the chemical reaction(s) of a polymer mixture with the aid of compatibilizer. The primary objectives of blending process are: To obtain a uniform blend of all the ingredients with adequate dispersion of the dry powders. To produce consecutive batches which are in degree of dispersion and viscosity, which is essential for consistency in processing and finished products.
Viscosity reduction. Incorporation of ingredients. Distribution of ingredients.
Almost all compounding ingredients exist as powders or granules. During incorporation stage these powders will breakdown into smaller molecules, still retaining irregularity in structure. The polymer will flow and wet these powders. The voids will get filled with the polymer. At this stage the blend becomes less compressible and denser. This will lead to further breakage. The viscosity will be slightly higher than the initial value because some polymer is getting immobilized by the irregular structure of the individual particles. The entire process will lead to some rise in temperature. In the next stage distributive mixing occurs concurrently with dispersion. Dept of E&E, Sir MVIT, 2009 24
3 BRABENDER (Plasti-corder): BRABENDER (blending machine) is rather like a very small internal blender which has interchangeable rotors and in which the blending chamber is jacketed for operation generally at constant temperature.1 Dept of E&E. The rotors are coupled to a torque meter that records throughout the blending cycle. CENOSPHERE (filler material) and compatibilizer (grafted HDPE with di-butylene maliate) in the desired compositions is carried out using BRABENDER (blending machine). Blending of HDPE. 2009 25 . CENOSPHERE (filler material) and compatibilizer (grafted HDPE with di-butylene maliate) in the desired compositions is carried out using this blending machine.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Blending of HDPE. Sir MVIT.1. 3. Fig 3.
Then. is compressed into sheets by using a HOT PRESS machine. which is irregular in shape. Sir MVIT. the obtained blended mixture. Mixing is carried out at an optimum temperature of 120 degree centigrade.1. HDPE is added into the stainless steel chamber.5 Factors affecting quality of mix: Rotor speed : High speeds are given to rotors if the compounds to be prepared using non-reinforcing fillers. The compatiblizer being HDPE grafted as well forms a thorough bond and forms a good composite.1. The compatiblizer [HDPE-grafted with dibutylene maliate] plays its role well in forming an efficient bond between HDPE and Cenosphere. Fill factor : It is the ratio of volume of the mix to that of the volume of the chamber. whereas low speeds for reinforcing fillers. A fill factor of 65% is normally followed for reinforced system. 2009 26 . Firstly.4 Operating procedure: Procedures for operating internal mixers depend on the nature of the polymer and additives. and have often been established as a result of production experience over many years. a homogenous (uniform) mixture is obtained. to obtain uniform blending and then cenosphere and compatibilizer are added and again left to melt for sometime. It can be 85% for general-purpose Dept of E&E.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials BRABENDER specifications are as follows: Chamber size: 70 cubic centimeters Rotor speed: 100rpm Equipment and instrument: Make: CMEI Model: 16CME SPL BRABENDER (Blending Machine) 3. Finally. It is allowed to melt. 3.
Temperature of the mix : The temperature of the compound inside the chamber should be maintained in the range of 120 degree centigrade. STEP 2 :. Sir MVIT.HOT PRESSING and COOLING Fig 3. There should be some empty space left out in chamber for the continuous flow of material inside the chamber.2 Dept of E&E.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials compounds. 2009 27 .
Firstly. 2009 28 .2. which can be varied and upper and lower plates. is placed between these upper and lower plates and pressed. Sir MVIT. smooth uniform sheets are obtained from hot press machine. Dept of E&E. Hot Press is a machine. the blended mixture (which will be in irregular shape) obtained from blending machine.1 Hot Press Machine: A smooth test specimen (sheet) is prepared using a hot press machine where the blended mixture is made into a smooth sheet at a temperature of 150 degree centigrade.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 3. temperature (150°C) is set for both upper and lower plates. which consists of an ammeter. voltmeter. The cooling is done by letting down water to upper and lower plates. Finally. The mixture is pressed for sometime and then cooled to a temperature of 30 degree centigrade. Then.
2009 29 . Sir MVIT.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials CHAPTER-4 MEASUREMENTS OF THE TEST SAMPLES Dept of E&E.
4. 2009 30 . Sir MVIT. The micrometers in our laboratory have a pitch of 0. MEASUREMENTS OF THE TEST SAMPLES 4. which prevents too much tension being applied. Basically it is a screw with an accurately constant pitch (the amount by which the thimble moves forward or backward for one complete revolution).1 Measurements The measurements of the test samples are done by using Screw gauge instrument to have a high accuracy. The thimble must be rotated through two revolutions to open the jaws by 1 mm. Using screw gauge the thickness of the test samples is calculated.50 mm (two full turns are required to close the jaws by 1.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 4.1 Fig 4. The jaws can be adjusted by rotating the thimble using the small ratchet knob. The rotating thimble is subdivided into 50 equal divisions.1. This includes a friction clutch.00 mm). the specimen is placed between the jaws and the thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the specimen is secured.1 The micrometer screw gauge :-In order to measure the thickness of the specimen (sheet). The thimble passes through a frame that carries a millimeter scale graduated to 0. Fig 4.1 SCREW GAUGE (for thickness measurement of the samples): The micrometer screw gauge:The micrometer screw gauge is used to measure even smaller dimensions than the vernier calipers.5 mm. Note that the ratchet knob must be used to secure the object Dept of E&E. The micrometer screw gauge also uses an auxiliary scale (measuring hundredths of a millimeter) which is marked on a rotary thimble.
21864 0.087 2.1864 2. Sir MVIT.187 2. Fig 4.074 2. 4.201 2. therefore the reading is 7.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials firmly between the jaws. 2009 31 .5 mm) must be included if the mark below the main scale is visible between the thimble and the main scale division on the sleeve. otherwise the instrument could be damaged or give an inconsistent reading. In figure 4.2 the last graduation visible to the left of the thimble is 7 mm and the thimble lines up with the main scale at 38 hundredths of a millimeter (0. The first significant figure is taken from the last graduation showing on the sleeve directly to the left of the revolving thimble.1. The lock may be used to ensure that the thimble does not rotate while taking the reading.193 2.38 mm.21874 0.1874 2.2 Tabular column ( for thickness ) :95:5:10 1 2 3 Thickness of sheets ( mm ) 2.2: The reading is 7.20917 Dept of E&E.141 2.0917 0.38 mm). The manufacturer recommends 3 clicks of the ratchet before taking the reading.225 2.2 Figure 4.114 Average Average thickness(mm) thickness(cm) 2.38 mm.174 2. Note that an additional half scale division (0.
15 2. Once the instrument is installed and test connections are made.36 1. Dept of E&E.1874 2.17466 1.017 2.114 2. Many advanced features and safety checks are built into this instrument.94 2. provided a suitable test fixture is available. Sir MVIT.2114 0.44 2.31 2.19166 85:15:10 1 2 3 Thickness of sheets ( mm ) 2.058 2.2.7466 0.51 1.087 2.219 Pure HDPE PURE 1 PURE 2 Thickness of sheets ( mm ) Average Average thickness(mm) thickness(cm) 1. simple and safe instrument to operate and maintain.1 Resistance Measurements using ELTEL (MODEL ADTR-2k) :Description :The ELTEL automatic Dielectric Constant. tan δ and resistivity test set.08 2.21874 0. (model ADTR-2k) is an instrument designed to measure three important parameters of a insulation medium.19 0.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 90:10:10 1 2 3 Thickness of sheets ( mm ) 2.187 1.053 Table 4.054 2. making it more reliable.08 4.18 2.2366 0.054 2. resulting in a considerable save in time.08 2.2 CALCULATION OF RESISTIVITY 4.10 2. the entire test procedure is simplified to a great extent.366 1.787 1.06 2.02 2.1787 0.9166 0. it can be used to test other insulating media.2054 0.23 1.1 Average Average thickness(mm) thickness(cm) 2. test can be carried out ever disturbing the test set up.11 2. 2009 32 .157 2.89 Average Average thickness(mm) thickness(cm) 2. By combining the three measurements in a single unit. Though specifically designed for testing oil and other dielectric fluids.92 2.
The ADTR-2k comprises: HV supply board Analog board Relay board Interlock and ground protection board Digital board Key board Power supply board LCD panel. GND. tan δ and resistivity of the transformer oil as well as other insulating media at set voltages and display results. Dept of E&E. The rear panel of the chassis contains the power on socket and other connectors (HV. it measures dielectric constant. RS232 etc).Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials This instrument is fully automatic and microprocessor controlled. Sir MVIT. LV. INTLK. 2009 33 .
2009 34 . with the help of a electrode system (cell) as shown below :- Dept of E&E.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials ELTEL ADTR-2K :- Fig 4.3 The test sample is connected to the ELTEL ADTR -2k. Sir MVIT.
2009 HV (high voltage terminal) 35 .2. high voltage electrode and low voltage electrode.e. to (Low voltage terminal) which are shown in tabular column.2 VOLUME AND SURFACE RESISTIVITY CONFIGURATIONS:VOLUME RESISTIVITY:In this configuration type. Sir MVIT.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Fig 4. For the measurement of volume resistivity the sheet is placed between the two electrodes where the low voltage electrode is placed above and the high voltage electrode is placed below. the test specimen (sheet) is placed between the two electrodes of a cell. A cell consists of 2 electrodes i.4 4. Volume resistivity Ground Sample Dept of E&E. The device displays the readings. This cell is connected LV ELTEL device.
which is placed above and the ground electrode. which are shown in tabular column. 2009 36 .5 Surface resistivity: Similar procedure is followed here.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Fig 4. the sheet is placed between the high voltage electrode. Sir MVIT.2.6 4. Surface resistivity HV (high voltage terminal) LV (Low voltage terminal) Sample Ground Fig 4. the only difference is that. The device displays the readings.3 PROCEDURE :Dept of E&E. which is placed below.
L and G electrodes. it measures resistance and second.3 g) Press ‘1’ for selecting AC testing. c) Keep the instrument OFF and make the connections for H. We have used this instrument to measure the resistance values. MANUAL MEASUREMENT 1 2 3 AC TESTING DC+ TESTING DC. b) Keep the material to be tested between the H and LG electrodes. If the thickness is uneven take multiple measurements and choose the highest reading for ‘d’.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials The ADTR-2K performs two different measurements: one.TESTING Table 4. result appears as shown in the figure below. Sir MVIT. 2009 . e) Press ‘2’ from the main menu of ADTR-2K as shown in the figure below. Procedure:a) Measure the thickness of the material to be tested (‘t’ in mm). Resistance Voltage AC TESTING ……………………………(Ω) ……………………………(V) 37 Dept of E&E. it measures capacitance and dissipation factor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 AUTOMATIC MEASUREMENT MANUAL MEASUREMENT VIEW RESULTS SETTING DATE/TIME PROPERTIES BACK LIGHT Table 4.2 f) If ‘2’ is pressed from the menu it will go to the menu which is as shown below. d) Switch ON the instrument and raise the AC voltage gradually (500 volts).
Surface resistivity 200V Volume resistance (*10^13 Ω) 0.016 1.62 2.03107 0.03458 0.155 1.08721 0.0237 0.36667 1.219 0..2114 0.956 2.2.083 1.3 0..5 Surface Resistivity v/s % of Cenospheres and Volume Resistivity v/s % of Cenospheres at 200V :- Dept of E&E.0338. Volume resistivity 85:15:10 2.980667 1.08524 0.219 0.4676 Pure HDPE 2..9833 1.17466 Surface resistance (*10^13 Ω) 0..884 95:05:10 1.21874 0..02674 0.88 2.02053 0.0368 Surface resistivity (*10^13 Ω) 2.0935.54 2..08132 0.02159 0.(Hz) Table 4..584 2.4 4.762 1..8885 Table 4.0914.086 0.84 1.9 0.02835 0.685 0.4 TABULAR COLUMN AND GRAPH FOR 200 V : - Composition Thickness (cm) 0.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Current Power Frequency ……………………….….57 Avg.37 2.20917 0.2366 0.09588 0. 2009 38 ..03149 0.02102 0.55 1.97 90:10:10 1.734 2. 0.. Sir MVIT.13 1.0606 Volume resistivity (*10^13 Ωcm) 1.19166 0.93 1.207 1.(A) ………………………….0907 0..342 2.0882 0..77 Avg.21864 0.6 2.1787 0.2054 0.11 1.78 1.(m W) ………………………….0442 0.
2009 istivity 0.5 1. Sir MVIT.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials surface re 2.7 surface resistivity 1.5 2 Fig 4.9 39 .5 2 1 1.8 Volume re OBSERVATION :- Dept of E&E.95 Fig 4.
086 0.21864 0.48 6.20917 0.0195 0.6 Dept of E&E. 2009 40 .83 19. Surface resistivity Volume resistivity (*10^13 Ωcm) 33.814 1.57 2.057 0.44 95:05:10 3.015 0.2114 0.219 0.2.29 Avg.2054 0.98 7.91 11.88 0.24 90:10:10 6.86 9.59766 16.5 TABULAR COLUMN AND GRAPH FOR 500 V: 500V Volume resistance (*10^13 Ω) 1. is showing least value of surface and volume resistivity.088 0.47 0.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials From these graphs we can observe that.18 12.074 0.09 0. with the increase in percentage of filler content (cenosphere).431 0.613 0.1787 0.77 0.138 38. Here. the EMI shielding composite materials must have low surface and volume resistivity.03 1.19166 0.0733 Pure HDPE 8.7858 6.175 186.0108 0.32 178.2366 0.04 11. Generally for a better EMI shielding.0248 0.29 8.06 8.635 5.219 0.44 Avg.13 6.1 42. both surface and volume resistivity values are increasing.017 0.898 0.011 Surface resistivity (*10^13 Ω) 1.57 1.87 4. Sir MVIT. 4.5454 Table 4.09 18.57 0.21874 0.523 6.6 Composition Thickness (cm) 0.65 194.8 38. Volume resistivity 85:15:10 1.05 12.17466 Surface resistance (*10^13 Ω) 0. composite material with 5% of cenosphere (filler material).
2009 esistivity 2 40 1 41 .9 surface resistivity 6 5 60 4 50 3 Fig 4.10 Volume res OBSERVATION :Dept of E&E.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Surface Resistivity v/s % of Cenospheres and Volume Resistivity v/s % of Cenospheres at 500V:- surface r 9 8 7 Fig 4. Sir MVIT.
The scope of supply is that precision measuring system for dissipation factor tan δ and capacitance type 2822. line voltage is from 115V to 220V. with the increase in percentage of filler content (cenosphere). composite material with 5% cenosphere (95:5:10) is a better EMI shielding material. Generally. Hence. This instrument gives a accurate values of capacitance and tan δ. 4. The caonnecting cables are included with the test cells. Here. 2009 42 .3 CAPACITANCE AND DISSIPATION FACTOR MEASUREMENT:TETTEX INSTRUMENT:This instrument is used to measure the capacitance and dissipation factor of the shielding material. its high accuracy for dissipation factor measurements and its high sensitivity also for low test voltages. 50Hz or 60Hz. Dept of E&E. both surface and volume resistivity values are increasing. the EMI shielding composite materials must have low surface and volume resistivity. compared to other compositions. for a better EMI shielding. Sir MVIT. The main advantage of this bridge are its simple operation. It uses a 4 capacitance bridge arrangement to measure the capacitance and tan δ values. composite material with 5% of cenosphere (filler material) is showing least value of surface and volume resistivity. it uses only one power cable.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials From these graphs we can observe that.
So Capacitance and Dissipation factor are measured by using Tettex instrument. Though tanδ & Єr can be measured by ADTR-2K. Later Єr is calculated by using a formula.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Fig 4. 2009 . we are not using it because the error caused by ADTR-2K is very high.11 The capacitance and dissipation factor of the samples are tested by using a instrument known as Tettex instrument. 43 Dept of E&E. Sir MVIT.
The main advantages of this bridge are its simple operation.10^-5 to 10. Є0 = 8. at a pressure of 2 N/cm^2. which is set to show null deflection and ‘precision tan δ and C bridge’ in which C (capacitance) and tan δ values are varied in order to obtain balance condition and then readings are taken.1 DESCRIPTION :- Tettex bridge (instrument) is an instrument used to measure the electrical properties like capacitance and dissipation factor (tan δ ). its high accuracy for dissipation factor measurements and its high sensitivity. The main advantages of this bridge are. It consists of HV (high voltage) and LV (low voltage) electrodes between which specimen (sheet) will be placed.854*10^-12 . . Its design is based on the fact that dielectric tests of insulants require a broad measurement range for the dissipation factor tan δ. A = area of the electrode = 20*10^-4 m². its high accuracy for dissipation factor measurements and its high sensitivity. For each specimen.3. The tan δ measurement range of this bridge reaches from 1. voltmeter is set to 200 V ). Where. a temperature control unit in which temperature is set to 27°C and voltmeter which is set to 500V ( for C and tanδ measurements at 200V. Єr = dielectric strength (dielectric constant).000pF. Sir MVIT. its simple operation. t = thickness of the samples in m. minimum of 3 readings are taken. 2009 44 . C = capacitance in Pf. This measuring bridge has been developed particularly for testing liquid and solid insulants. Dept of E&E. And it is also used for low-test voltages. 4.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Єr = ( C * t ) / (Є0*A). This bridge also consists of a galvanometer. The bridge can also be used for normal capacitance measurements in the range of 9 to 10.
02 500V Capacitance (pF) 12.3. 2009 45 .7 Dept of E&E. Sample 200V Capacitance (pF) 3.032 0.2 TABULAR COLUMN AND GRAPH:Capacitance and tan δ values at 200V & 500V : - Sl.73 Tan δ 0.0019 0.76 4.56 4.034 0.58 22 19.0018 0.69 18.56 Tan δ 0.029 0. Sir MVIT.017 1 2 3 4 pure HDPE 95:05:10 90:10:10 85:15:10 Table 4.86 4.No.026 0.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 4.
Generally. the capacitance value is gradually decreasing . 2009 46 . Hence. with the addition of filler material (cenosphere). Here. the EMI shielding composite materials must have high capacitance value. Dissipation Factor V/S % of Cenosphere at 200V & 500V is shown below :- Dept of E&E.12 OBSERVATION :From the graph we can observe that. compared to other compositions.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Capacitance Vs % of Cenosphere at 200 and 500V 25 20 15 200V 500V e n t i c p a C 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 % of cenosphere Fig 4. capacitance value is initially increasing. composite material with 5% of cenosphere (filler material) is having high capacitance value. for a better EMI shielding. composite material with 5% cenosphere (95:5:10) is a better EMI shielding material. with the increase in filler content (cenosphere). Sir MVIT. Later.
02 0.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Dissipation factor Vs % of cenosphere 0. Where. Generally. 2009 47 .01 0.04 0. the dissipation factor is gradually decreasing. b) The formula for capacitance is .005 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 200V 500V r c f n o t a p s i D % of Cenosphere Fig 4. (95:5:10) is showing high dissipation factor value. Є0 = 8. composite material with 5% of cenosphere (filler material) i.015 0. Here. Dept of E&E. with the increase in filler content (cenosphere). the composite material with 15% of cenosphere (85:15:10) is showing low dissipation factor value. Єr can be calculated by the formula. Єr = ( C * t ) / (Є0*A). Єr = dielectric strength ..035 0. Sir MVIT. dissipation factor is initially increasing. the dissipation factor is high in case of conductors. c) Therefore.025 500 0.854*10^-12 .e. 4.03 0. where as. C = (Є0*Єr*A) / t F.4 CALCULATION OF DIELECTRIC CONSTANT (Єr) :a) The values of capacitance of the test samples are obtained from TETTEX instrument. with the addition of filler material (cenosphere).13 OBSERVATION :From the graph we can observe that. Later.
8 Dielect 3 2. No. 4. 2009 onstant 2 48 .Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials A = area of the electrode = 20*10^-4 m² C = capacitance in pF.56 4.73 2.59 at 500V Capacitance Dielectric (pF) constant 12.55 18.58 22 1.14 OBSERVATION :- Dept of E&E.26 2.2155 at 200V Capacitance Dielectric (pF) constant 3.4.56 1.48 4 0.86 1.76 1.57 19.2132 4. t = thickness of the samples in m.17676 0.26 Table 4.69 2.68 pure HDPE HDPE+5% ceno HDPE+10% ceno HDPE+15% ceno 3 0.35 1.21438 4.5 Fig 4. Sir MVIT. 1 2 Sample thickness (cm) 0.1 TABULAR COLUMN and GRAPH at 200 & 500V:- Sl.
with the addition of filler material (cenosphere). that is. Later. (95:5:10) is showing high dielectric constant value. where as. CHAPTER-5 Dept of E&E. dielectric constant value is initially increasing. Sir MVIT. the composite material with 15% of cenosphere (85:15:10). the dielectric constant value is gradually decreasing. is showing low dielectric constant value. with the increase in filler content (cenosphere). Here. composite material with 5% of cenosphere (filler material). 2009 49 .Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials From the graph we can observe that.
P2= received power without the material present. It is also defined as. ELECTRO-MAGNETIC SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS TEST 5.1 Shielding Effectiveness Test It follows the ASTM standard D 4935-99. Shielding Effectiveness (SE) is the ability of a shield component to prevent the passage of electromagnetic radiations. If the receiver readout is in un its of voltage. Sir MVIT. SE = 10 log(P1/P2) dB. Dept of E&E. P1= received power with the material present. the ratio of power received with and without a material present for the same incident power.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS TEST 5. use the following equation: SE= 20 log(V1/V2) dB. 2009 50 .
Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Where V1 and V2 are the respective voltage levels with and without a material present. 2009 51 . The measurement is valid over a frequency range of 30MHz to 1. In our project we are calculating from 100 KHz to 1GHz. This test method applies to the measurement of SE of planar materials under normal incidence. According to these equations. far-field. plane-wave conditions.1 Dept of E&E. SE will have a negative value if less power is received with the material present than when it is absent. This test method measures the net SE caused by reflection and absorption are calculated.5 GHz. Fig 5. Sir MVIT.
coaxial transmission line with special taper sections and notched matching grooves to maintain a characteristic impedance of 50Ω throughout the entire length of the holder. The test samples are prepared as below and then it can be subjected to the SE test Dept of E&E.These are devices for connecting power between specific components without causing interference with other components.These are devices used to isolate the specimen holder from the signal generator and the receiver. o Coaxial Cables and Connectors. o Attenuators.A source capable of generating a sinusoidal signal over the desired portion of the frequency range.2 5. o Receiver. Sir MVIT.It is an enlarged.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Fig 5.A device with a 50Ω input impedance capable of measuring signals over the same frequency range as the signal generator. o Signal Generator.2 GENERAL TEST SET UP :The test setup contains the following parts:o Specimen Holder. It should have a impedance lesser than 50Ω. Their main purpose in this system is for impedance matching. 2009 52 .
Remove two nylon screws. Determine all frequencies for which SE values are to be measured for the Reference specimen. Sir MVIT. Record the measured received values as P2 or V2 values at each frequency. Record the measured values as P1 or V1 values at the same frequencies. The specimen mounting procedure requires more time and effort then changing frequency. and carefully lift off the upper half of the holder. The procedure for inserting the specimen is a follows use a support structure to support the specimen holder in a vertical position. This procedure can be automated if a computer and ancillary equipment with IEEE-488 bus capability are available. If the recorded units are volts. If the recorded units are watts use the power ratio equation to calculate SE. Replace the reference specimen with the load specimen. so it is more efficient to record values at all frequencies for the reference specimen. change to the load specimen.3 LOAD The samples are prepared according to the measurements given. and then record load values at these same frequencies.3 TEST procedure:- Fig 5. and then record load values at these same frequencies. Measure the received power (or voltage) while using the reference specimen. 2 specimens are prepared namely Reference Specimen and the Load specimen. 2009 53 . Place the two pieces of the reference specimen on the flange of the Dept of E&E. Determine all frequencies for which SE values are to be measured.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials REFERENCE 5. use the voltage ratio equation to calculate SE. change to load specimen.
However. 5. that there is no much difference in attenuation level with respect to all compositions. Reconnect the coaxial cables. from the results obtained we can conclude that.4 SE test results:This test was conducted in the frequency range of 100KHz to 1GHz and the following results were obtained:Sample Pure HDPE HDPE with 5% Cenosphere HDPE with 10% Cenosphere HDPE with 15% Cenosphere Shielding Effectiveness from 100KHz to 1GHz 1dB 4dB 2dB 2dB Table 5.1 Observation:The above results show. 2009 54 . Turn the holder end for end and then reinstall the other two nylon screws. Dept of E&E. Sir MVIT. HDPE with 5% cenosphere is a better EMI shielding material.replace the half of the specimen holder.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials bottom half of the specimen holder.
2009 55 . 10% and 15% of cenosphere as filler content and di-butylene maliate as compatibilizer (composite materials) have been studied. The volume resistivity of HDPE with ceno has increased with increase in ceno content from 5 to 15%.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE 6. tan δ.1 CONCLUSION:The above work leads to the following conclusions: HDPE with 5%. Sir MVIT. Dept of E&E. The dissipation factor and dielectric constant have decreased with increase in ceno from 5 to 15%. dielectric constant and then subjected to electromagnetic shielding effectiveness test. capacitance. These samples have been evaluated for different electrical parameters like surface and volume resistivity.
. more than 15% need to be tried for improved shielding effectiveness due to EMI. All these conditions are satisfied by composite material with 5% of cenosphere (i. Filler material other than ceno such as graphite may be tried for improved EMI performance.2 Future Scope: HDPE with increased level of ceno addition i. we can judge that HDPE with 5% cenosphere content and 10% compatibilizer (i. pure HDPE.e. for a better EMI shielding. The results indicated that electromagnetic shielding effectiveness properties with respect to all the compositions are nearly the same. 95:5:10) shows better characteristics as an EMI shielding material. Sir MVIT. Applicability of these composite materials as shields for the electronic devices like energy meters.e. The composite material with 5% of cenosphere (95:5:10)is showing better shielding effectiveness. high capacitance and dielectric value. 2009 56 .e. Dept of E&E. tan δ and dielectric constant with respect to all the combinations has increased when compared to the base material i. Generally. Based on our evaluations. 6. there is a marginal decrease in surface resistivity value. The pure HDPE and composite materials were tested for their Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness in the frequency range of 100 KHz to 1GHz.e. 95:5:10).Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials It is found that volume resistivity is decreased by just 1 order in case of the composite materials as compared to pure HDPE where as.. the shielding material must have low volume and surface resistivity. Study of the mechanical properties of these shielding materials.
Sir MVIT. 2009 57 .Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Dept of E&E.
1 Appendix A Tettex instrument:Description This measuring bridge has been developed particularly for testing liquid and solid insulants. for example. are approximately 10^-4. The bridge can also be used for normal capacitance measurements in the 9 to 10. 2009 58 . Sir MVIT.000pF range. mainly for type tests of plastic capacitors with accurate tan δ requirements.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials CHAPTER-7 APPENDIX & BIBLIOGRAPHY 7. Dept of E&E. Its design is based on the fact that dielectric tests of insulants requires a broad measurement range fro the dissipation factor tan δ values for new. used and dirty oil may amount up to approximately 5 (500%). While tan δ for old. pure and clean oil. The tan δ measurement range of this bridge reaches from 1*10^-5 to 10 *(1000%).. 10^-3 etc.
Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials The main advantages of this bridge are its simple operation. Sir MVIT. 2009 59 . its high accuracy for dissipation factor measurements and its high sensitivity and also for its low test voltages.1 7. A simple block diagram of the Tettex AG is given below Fig 7.2 Appendix B ELTEL-ADTR 2K Automatic Dielectric Constant Tanδ & Resistivity Test Set Dept of E&E.
The Tan Delta value gives an indication of the condition of the oil sample.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Fig 7. 2009 60 . Dielectric Constant (Єr). Tan Delta (Dissipation Factor) Resistance & Resistivity of the test sample. insulating material deteriorating etc. Dept of E&E.2 The ADTR-2K is an automated instrument for measuring the electrical characteristics of transformer oil. Dielectric Loss. insulating liquids & other insulating material samples. ADTR-2K is especially designed to work with the IEC & ASTM type oil cell with a 2mm spacing and will apply a stress in the range of 100-1200 volts per mm as recognised by ASTM and other specifications. The ADTR-2K measures Capacitance. dissolving of some of the transformer varnish. There are several reasons due to which the Tan Delta value may be affected such as moisture. Sir MVIT.
This instrument is fully automatic and microprocessor controlled.3 The ELTEL automatic Dielectric Constant. tan δ and resistivity of the transformer oil as well as other insulating media at set voltages and display results. (model ADTR-2k) is an instrument designed to measure three important parameters of a insulation medium. 2009 61 . Many advanced features and safety checks are built into this instrument.3 BIBLIOGRAPHY Dept of E&E.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials Fig 7. it measures dielectric constant. test can be carried out ever disturbing the test set up. 7. Sir MVIT. tan δ and resistivity test set. making it more reliable. simple and safe instrument to operate and maintain. Once the instrument is installed and test connections are made.
Nikkei New Materials. 1989. Conductive Composites for Shielding. Bernhard Keiser. “Electromagnetic Interference and Preventice Measure”.Tillar. Tokyo Denki University.com 2. 3rd Edition. 4.com 3. Kubel. materials Engineering 102:25 (January 1985). 51... “Principle of Electromagnetic Compatibility”. Ott.org Dept of E&E. Nakanighi. V. 2009 62 . www. “Rapidly Developing EMI shielding Materials”.wickepedia.sciencedirect. www. www. Hand Book of Electrical and Electronic insulating Materials. K.google.com 4. Kodali.freepatents..com 5. Shugg. 7. F. (1980). “Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems”. Spe composites institute. Bradish. E. Engineering Electromagnetic compatibility. www. pp. 74-89.Composite Characterization of EMI shielding materials 1.astm.org 6. 6. T. Metal and polymer composites 2. www. No. 1984. Henry W. www. Second Edition.W. pp. 9. 3. John Wiley and Sons.129-143. 8.ieeexplorer. Van nostrand and Reinhold. Araki. Sir MVIT.P. 1988. 5. SITES 1.
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