© Journal of Mathematics and Technology, ISSN: 2078-0257, No.

3, August, 2010

DEPLOYING FORENSICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY FOR RESOLVING NATIONAL CYBER-SECURITY CHALLENGES
Prof. Oliver E. Osuagwu1, a, Prof. Tony Ogiemien 2, b, Dr. Samuel Okide3
1

IP Vice-President/Vice-Chairman, Computer Professionals Registration Council of Nigeria (CPN) Department of Information Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, (NIGERIA) 2 President, American Heritage University of Southern California, San Bernardino (USA) 3 Department of Computer Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (NIGERIA) a b E-mails: drosuagwu@yahoo.com, president@amheritageuniv.net ABSTRACT

This paper looks at the problem of cyber criminality as a colossal economic catastrophe which has discouraged the growth of e-commerce, digital economy in Nigeria and the rest of the African continent and calls for immediate solution to reduce the chance of turning Africa into a digital colony and impoverished continent. The paper assessed the mondus operandi of these criminals, identifies government and industry efforts to fight the menace which has proved only palliative, as the rogues continue their successful global ride on the super highway virtually unabated. To some extent, cyber-criminals’ successes have been attributed to the failure of our conventional pass-wording and encryption security systems, dynamic development of malware such as phising software, misplaced social values which worships money and not the intellect, a society that organizes chieftaincy titles for pen robbers in the civil service of the federation and people of doubtful character. The paper introduces the new science and technology frontiers to the rescue – the Forensic sciences and related technology as a solution to this menace and suggests the way forward for Africa to leapfrog the digital divide gap chasm. Specific issues considered include the scope of the pandemic, motivation for cyber criminality and its concomitant impediments to e-commerce growth, actions taken by governments and industry to control the menace, industry security initiatives so far which has proved to be only palliative. An exposition was presented on the solution trust via the new Computer Forensics frontier with stimulating recommendations to government and industry on the way forward. Three hypotheses were tested to give the paper scientific proof. The results of the hypothesis suggest that the Nigerian Police force is yet to acquire advanced techniques, particularly the forensic techniques to tackle the present menace. This gap demands new human development strategy by government to curb this growing menace. The result of the second hypothesis suggests that Nigeria need urgent value re-orientation. The third suggests the enactment of an enabling Act to fight cyber crime. Key words: cyber crime, national cyber security, terrorism technology for resolving cyber-criminality 1. INTRODUCTION - GLOBAL CYBER CRIME AND TERRORISM Scale of the pandemic; Motivation for cyber-criminality Osuagwu (2008)[1,2,3] has cited Security intelligence reports on cyber crime wave around the world are worrisome. According to industry analysts, there are currently 657 million people online world-wide. That figure is expected to rise to 794 million by 2009. This represents a lot of data interchange. Unfortunately many small businesses, and even large organizations, do not know how to properly protect their sensitive data, thus leaving the door open to criminals. More hit is the developing countries like Nigeria who are yet to develop new skills in computer forensics to tackle the menace. According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)[2], credit card fraud costs cardholders and issuers hundreds of millions of dollars each year. There is evidence to show that identity-theft is the fastest growing crime in America; 9.9 million victims were reported in 2007 according to a Federal Trade Commission survey. Creditcards.com (a compiler of credit card statistics) stated that in 2005, approximately 9.2 million U.S. citizens reported loss of credit card information. Furthermore, the FTC noted that 42% of all identity theft cases in 2004 involved credit card fraud. A 2005 study estimates that 1.15% of the U.S. adult population has experienced a misuse of existing non-credit card accounts or account numbers within the past year-estimates that include deposit accounts. In addition, for all internet-related fraud complaints received in 2004, 19% of cases involved a bank account debit. A U.S. FTC survey released in September 2003[2] also stated that over 27.3 million individuals became victims of identity theft between 1998 and 2003 in the U.S., with 67% of all identity theft. The 2002/03 British Crime Survey [9] showed that 18% of households with internet access said their home computer had been affected by a virus. This had increased to 27% in 2003/04. One-third said the virus had damaged their computer. The biennial Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Security Breaches survey reports that 62% of UK businesses had a computer security incident in the 2006. These statistics may underestimate the real situation as many organizations or individuals may be unaware that the security of their computer has been compromised. One important case study which illustrates how dangerous cyber-criminality can be is the United States Anthrax Crime. Though the anthrax Crime was traditionally physical in its outlook (through the chemical Labs and delivery through the post offices the US), but the crime – which later became a monstrous Cyber security to the 21 | www.ijar.lit.az

© Journal of Mathematics and Technology, ISSN: 2078-0257, No.3, August, 2010

United States – was indeed originated in the Cyber space using the Computer as the major tool. Later investigations reveled that all the planning of the Anthrax phenomena took place on the Internet and collaborative Local Area Networks (LAN). According to an FBI Investigation Officer on the Anthrax episode, computers played a major role in perpetuating the crime: Based on the foregoing, I submit that there is probable cause to believe that a search of the aforementioned computers may result in, and obstruction of, the investigation into the dissemination of a weapon of mass destruction (anthrax) through the U.S. mail system in September and October 2001 in violation of 18 U.S.C., Sections 1512(a)(20, 2332a and 1114. Specifically, there is probable cause to believe that a search of the computers may reveal electronic data identifying a plan to kill witnesses, names of intended victims, photographs, suicide letters and other relevant information.[26] Sophisticated crimes can be almost impossible to trace to their true source using current practices. The anonymity enjoyed by today’s cybercrime perpetrators poses a grave security threat to national development and indeed, the global information system. Before we loose tract of the subject, Forensic Technology is the art of sourcing, collecting, extracting and applying forensic evidence to resolve sophisticated crimes at all levels of occurrence – especially those that related to national security and often of complex nature. Perhaps the greatest threat to the Internet today is the abysmal state of security of so many of the systems connected to it. There are many contributing factors, including commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software, in which the number of features and rapid time to market outweigh a thoughtful security design. New vulnerabilities are continually being discovered in such software. The widespread use of many COTS products means that once vulnerability is discovered, it can be exploited by attackers who target many of the thousands or even millions of systems that have the vulnerable product installed. A lack of security expertise by most Internet users means that vendor security patches to remove the vulnerabilities will not be applied promptly, if at all. As a result, systems with un-patched vulnerabilities can be easily compromised, in large numbers, by motivated attackers, who will then use these systems as launching points to concentrate an attack against betterprotected systems and to hide the tracks of the attacker. Though the sophistication of Internet attacks has increased over time, the technical knowledge of the average attacker is declining, in the same manner that the technical knowledge of the average user has declined. The new emerging facts reveal that sophisticated attackers routinely build attack scripts and toolkits that the novice attacker can use with the click of mouse, with devastating effects. Hiding the tracks of the attacker and expunging or concealing any related evidence has become an integral part of many attacker toolkits today. There are various reasons for the increase in cyber criminality and terrorism. One of the major motivations is the increase and spread of computers around the world: Spread of computers Computers are becoming more accessible as their cost decreases, leading to a marked growth in their use, particularly in personal and mobile computing. Studies suggest that many home users are typically unaware of the potential threats from computer crime or may not possess the technical skills to ensure their own security Types of attack There are different types of attacks on computers which may:  Attempt to access information stored on a computer. Information may have a sale value (corporate espionage), may be valuable to the owner (ransom opportunity) or may be useful for further illegal activity such as fraud.  Try to impede or alter the functioning of the computer itself. Also, if a computer can be controlled it can be used to send spam, host illegal content, or conduct further attacks. Malicious software types (‘malware’) the uses of malicious software range from placing excessive demand on a computer’s resources, to destruction of data or even hardware. In some cases the user is made aware of the presence of the malware, for example when it sends a message to the user or deletes the contents of a hard drive. Recent forms of malware may operate without the user’s knowledge, steal financial information such as credit card details, or convert infected computers into an asset for the attacker. Common types of malware work as follows:  Viruses infect computers or other electronic devices and are passed on by user activity, for example by opening an email attachment.  Worms self-propagate using an internet connection to access vulnerabilities on other computers and to install copies of them. They are often used as a conduit to grant attackers access to the computer.  Trojans are malware masquerading as something the user may want to download or install, that may then perform hidden or unexpected actions, such as allowing external access to the computer.  Spyware transmits information gathered from a computer, such as bank details, back to an attacker. For example ‘key-logging’ software records anything entered using the keyboard, such as passwords. As an example of a network breach, in January 2007, hackers accessed the computer systems at the TJX Companies (the parent company of retailers such as T.J. Maxx and Marshalls). These hackers were able to steal approximately 45.7 22 | Baku, Azerbaijan

kidnapping and gansterism. enjoy in expensive hotels and suppress the poor in society. According to the National Infrastructure Security Coordination Centre (NISCC). telecommunications. key economic saboteurs! So to them. Motivation for Cyber-Criminality And Terrorism In Nigeria. the probability of terrorists carrying out an electronic attack against the CNI is currently low compared with other risks such as using explosive devices. There is a negative psyche that money is the most important thing in the world. birth dates and some credit card information. These hackers were able to steal approximately 45. Someone at Merril Lynch observed that the same two Yahoo email addresses. drive on expensive cars and own magnificent edifices which counts for recognition!. This ended one of the most sensational identity theft sprees in human history!! Osuagwu et. Attackers using computers may also attempt to damage the functioning of the Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) which includes emergency services. Equipped with all the necessary information. The type of money that comes through cyber crime is huge. These rogues use such money which have spelt death sentence to most people who are duped to chase women. The easiest option is 419. and applied for credit cards in other people’s names.az . become commissioners and ministers are indeed. hackers accessed the computer systems at the TJX Companies (the parent company of retailers such as T. given ministerial appointments once huge sum of money can be deposited into the campaign accounts of prospective governors and presidents-to-be. They also know that in most cases people who are punished for crimes are the poor and under-privileged. The bubble got burst when the same fraudster tried to transfer US$10 million from the Merril Lynch account of software entrepreneur. you can now see that the solution to this menace does not lie on procedural legal policing but on attending to the negative social psyche. • Computer crime training has been made available to all officers. This is his target group. Thomas Siebel. There has been speculation over the prospect of terrorists using electronic attacks to target computer systems and networks. or entire infrastructures may be targeted.7 million credit 23 | www.lit.ijar. crime techniques and terrorism refinements. armed robbery.Network Breach: USA In January 2007. all of which rely on IT. to large extent. for example if crimes are committed in Nigeria by criminals overseas. the fraudster went into action. due to the rapid pace of technological development.[7] Targets Of Computer Crime Some attacks do not have a specific target. Experian and Trans Union by sending queries on the forged letterhead of several top investment banks (Jain & Pankanti 2006).3. police forces face challenges in tackling computer crime: • The international nature of computer crime means that determining jurisdictional responsibility can be difficult. They know that most of these side supporters of policies who eventually get lucrative board appointments. However. • Specialist investigative staff is costly: they need up-to-date equipment and continuous training. two New York City detectives wrestled Abdallah out of his car. No. He further obtained additional information from the Internet and from credit bureaus Equifax. ISSN: 2078-0257. 2010 million credit and debit card numbers. • Data can be stored on a range of devices and in large volumes that require time and expertise to access.al. a wrong value system is being promoted. but uptake has been low. although the NISCC points out that threats can change quickly. Most Police and law enforcement officers are not computer literate. sometimes in millions of US$. Youths observe when rogues are promoted and given high chieftaincy titles and these youths know the source of wealth of these people. Maxx and Marshalls). Home computer users.4]: Fraud .© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. The names had social security numbers. The TJX Companies believe that unauthorized software placed on its computer systems was the cause of the breach. The rich always go free from police net. The Problem Of Cyber Crime Policing Although all UK and American forces (unlike Nigeria) have some form of specialist computer crime forensic and investigation capability. August. This evil psyche could have been better controlled if there were jobs for graduates of our tertiary institutions. withdrew money from brokerage accounts.(2007) [1.J. Those who have made it through 419 have escaped unhurt and are enjoying their wealth. ritual murder. They never care for any form of investment to promote national gross domestic product! Consequently many youths think cyber crime is a profession and many are training to become members of the evil club! So. attacks against specific computers or groups of computers are becoming more common. both Abdallah’s had been used in connection with the five clients! On March 2001. providing good employment. This may result in potential evidence of computer crime being lost. energy [8] distribution and finance. family retraining of children and readjustment of social values in Nigeria and the rest of the African continent. organizations with large networks of computers. Cyber crime has less risk for Nigerian youths – Nigeria is yet to develop forensic capability to track them. increasing their vulnerability. using a computer in a public library to order merchandise online. Many CNI systems which were once isolated are now connected to the Internet. Nigeria has no law enacted and operational for cyber-criminality. Cyber-Criminals’ Mondus Operandi – Some Case Study Examples: Credit Card Fraud: USA A diabolically gifted hacker had obtained of copy of Forbes magazine which featured America’s 400 richest people. the best option is not to continue bordering themselves about higher education but to seek quicker means of getting rich so that they can be counted among those who matter in society. So why be poor and be down trodden? These youths also know that most rogues have been made Traditional Rulers.

No. Ha3: Legislative backing (by Act of Parliament) is NECESSARY to enhance Police Capability to police cyber crime. The reason for this assertion is that the new world economic order will continue to be technology driven. Other related cyber crimes relate to stealing valuable information through phising software which makes a computer systems belonging to an individual vulnerable to access by unauthorized intruder.1 Research questions This paper will at the end answer the following questions:  What factors are responsible for the increasing crime wave in the super highway in Nigeria?  Is the Nigeria Police ready with the right training and skill to arrest cyber crime?  What can be done to control the menace?  Is an Enabling Act of parliament necessary to accelerate the ability of Nigerian Police to tackle cyber crime? 1. ISSN: 2078-0257. Some criminals who have learnt the trick of using spam (uninvited letters written as a prey to greedy people) to lure them into bogus transaction via the Internet. Multiple Regression and if need be Discriminant Analysis.[7] 1. Azerbaijan . Ha2: Negative Social Values has IMPACT on the increasing tend in cyber criminality in Nigeria. This assertion is supported by the conclusions draw by the former UNESCO scribe some three decades ago: … 24 | Baku. The results will deployed to testing the Hypothesis and to answer the research questions posed in this research paper. arranged and subjected to Analysis of Variance. Mathematical & Analysis Tool The responses will be collated. The situation has become worrisome that every nation is now devising new techniques to police the cyberspace against these agents of the Devil and economic saboteurs. Ho3: Legislative backing (by Act of Parliament) is UNNECESSARY to enhance Police capability to police cyber crime. This has consequently led to loss of interest in e-commerce whose market potential runs into billions of US Dollars. Ho2: Negative Social Values has NO impact on the increasing trend in cyber criminality in Nigeria.3. These are provided in the following sections: 2. lots of money has been lost to these criminals which could not be added to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and has led to the backwardness of many economies. Population Sample 60 questionnaires randomly distributed amongst various levels of Police Hierarchy. Criminals can also have access to your data bases and steal vital information of sellable value to your competitors. Sample questionnaire for the three clusters are found in Appendix A The questions and hypothesis are handled in section 5. This will lead to conclusions and recommendations. On the national economy of countries.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. It has discouraged prospective investors from establishing trust in e-payment system.0. Many businesses have been duped several million US$ and this has led to the untimely death of victims. CYBER CRIME AS IMPEDIMENT TO E-COMMERCE GROWTH Electronic fund transfer e-payment system in Nigeria and Africa Cyber Criminals Mondus Operandi Osuagwu (2008) [2] has referred to Internet terrorism and fraud as the new pandemic that has shaken the world economy and has even brought down large corporations to ultimate collapse. Effective participation in e-commerce is expected to expand the economies of developing nations by three fold by the year 2010. or plant unsavory message on your website which may cause loss of customer loyalty. We need however lay some pedagogical foundations and knowledge elicitation to provide the desired ontology for the knowledge domain. The projected expectation that by the year 2020 Nigeria would have become one of the largest and strongest economies in the world would become a mirage if the current cyber criminality is not halted and ecommerce and internet diffusion in Nigeria and Africa encouraged. A criminal who has planted phishing software via an email will have the software automatically installed on your system as soon as you open the email and he will thenceforth have access to every key stroke on your PC including password and critical information. Ha1: Nigerian Police has NO adequate computer and forensic training to tackle the present cyber crime menace.2 Hypothesis Ho1: Nigerian Police has adequate computer and forensic training to tackle the Present cyber crime menace. The TJX Companies believe that unauthorized software placed on its computer systems was the cause of the breach. 2010 and debit card numbers. August.

S.15% of the U. August. Furthermore. Establish the National Information Technology Commission. are privately owned and operated. and promote the confidence of the public in. the U. and communicate information in various types of circumstances.[11] The US President opined that this would help America protect herself and citizens from those who would do us harm.ijar.org. regardless of the technologies employed to obtain the representations. citizens reported loss of credit card information. validity and enforceability on information represented in or on data media regardless of the technologies employed to obtain the representations. the information can be read or perceived. investigative and prosecutorial provisions to regress and or combat them. with 67% of all identity theft. It is titled: The information technology bill 2004 [18] The IT bill is the initiative of the Nigeria Computer Society (NCS). ISSN: 2078-0257. Because of the terrible image this has created against Nigeria. the medium in or which the representation is made and the representation that determines the identification. Other departments and agencies also have important roles to play. A 2005 study estimates that 1. the National Assembly recently adopted the first IT Bill to deal with Cyber-crime. the FTC noted that 42% of all identity theft cases in 2004 involved credit card fraud. supported by or pertaining to information represented in or on data media wherefrom it is retrievable.iwar.uk/cip/resources/pcipb/cyberstrategy. No. as appropriate to the entity. Create cyber crimes and make penal. as the case may be. and private citizens to continue to work together to make America secure. and where or on retrieval from where. such as those in the banking. approximately 9.. The IT Bill is intended as A Legal Framework for the Establishment of Information Technology Infrastructure. Establish the National Information Technology Development Fund. Confer equality in value and function on information represented on paper and in or on other data media. and transportation sectors. regardless of the technology employed to create the information representation.g.lit. Confer equality in value and function on unique identification or association of an entity and.3 million individuals became victims of identity theft between 1998 and 2003 in the U. adult population has experienced a misuse of existing non-credit card accounts or account numbers within the past year—estimates that include deposit accounts. for all internet-related fraud complaints received in 2004. FTC survey released in September 2003 also stated that over 27. and the media in or on which the representations are made. The Department of Homeland Security will take the lead in accomplishing many of the objectives of these strategies.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. whether through physical destruction or by attacking our infrastructures through cyberspace. In addition.S. EFFORTS OF GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY TO POLICE THE CYBER SPACE: e. The President encouraged everyone. Cyber-crime/Information Technology Bill 2004 To refresh our memory of what is happening in the cyber space.3. the concurrence or approval of the entity. The document is made up of the following components:  Letter from the President  Executive Summary  Introduction  Cyberspace Threats and Vulnerabilities: A Case for Action  National Policy and Guiding Principles  Priority I: A National Cyberspace Security Response System  Priority II: A National Cyberspace Security Threat and Vulnerability Reduction Program 25 | www. EFCC and the Nigerian Police Force. The IT Bill seeks to: Make provisions or. 19% of cases involved a bank account debit.az .S. communication that is based on. This is further supported by the Cyber-crime Bill which has passed the second reading in the national assembly. with or of the information represented on paper or other data media. energy.htm). Confer legal effect. Foster and facilitate employing modern techniques and technologies to perform information activities.S. government at all levels. and the media in or on which the representations are made. review existing provisions in the laws of the country. 2010 3. and identify opportunities for partnership with the private sector. Creditcards. The National Information Technology Commission.com (a compiler of credit card statistics) stated that in 2005.2 million U. Telecommunications. Every executive and professional who is to be protected from the legal intricacies of IT application today need to be conversant with the IT and Cyber-crime Bill for Ignorantia juris non-excusat! What the United States of America Has Done The United States of America has preferred National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets (see http://www. These strategies recognize that the majority of our critical assets and infrastructures. industry. Facilitate. Computer Professionals Registration Council of Nigeria (CPN) and the Information Technology Association of Nigeria (ITAN) which is a member of NCS. A U. Enable interoperability or interchangeability between different data media and information representation technologies.S. And the National Information Technology Development Fund. The strategies outline Federal efforts and State and local roles in securing the Nation's critical infrastructures. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) recently reported that credit card fraud costs cardholders and issuers hundreds of millions of dollars each year. to cater for developments in the field of Information Technology.

voice pattern. These traits include fingerprint patterns. the following technologies can help to block attacks: (These will be explained further in the following pages). This type of authentication is referred to as biometrics and often requires the installation of specific hardware on the system to be accessed. to more complex methods using biometric technology.3. Some Tested Palliative solutions in place If correctly installed. • Hardware cryptography uses computer chips with cryptographic capabilities intended to protect against arrange of security threats. August. This reduces end-user participation and increases ease of use Biometric Authentification Systems (Bas) According to Osuagwu [4] BAS refers to a brand new technology to reliably indicate whether people are actually who they say they are using traits unique to them. France and members of the European Union have taken identical initiatives. Something a person is Table 2. or pattern of veins in the user’s eye. Characteristics of authentication technologies Source: Crystal Research Associates. LLC.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology.1. Biometric Authentication Systems. which the user must enter into an interface to be authenticated by the backend server. • Authentication involves determining that a particular user is authorized to use a particular computer. Many must be paid for but free versions are also available. the arrangement of tissue in the eye’s iris. 26 | Baku. Cyberspace Priority V: National Security and International Cyberspace Security Cooperation Conclusion: The Way Forward Appendix: Actions and Recommendations Summary Other countries like Britain. Patching is often installed automatically. Pass-Wording. 2010     Priority III: A National Cyberspace Security Awareness and Training Program Priority IV: Securing Governments. Factors used to authenticate an individual Source: FFIEC Guidance for Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment Something a person knows Something a person has Commonly a password or PIN. Industry Security Initiatives For The Cyber Space:  Firewalls. ISSN: 2078-0257.2. Nigeria should borrow a leaf from the United States by developing identical functional strategy for the protection of Critical National Infrastructure from Cyber attack and Terrorists. No. Etc. referred to as a token. and the timbre of a person’s voice. This can include simple mechanisms such as passwords. Anti-Malware. such as a fingerprint. Azerbaijan . hand geometry. Whatever disaster affects critical national infrastructure will affect corporations and their employees. • Software solutions exist to identify and remove malware and to help manage spam email. access is granted. • Firewalls are hardware or software devices that block certain network traffic according to their security policy. Tokens include self-contained devices that must be physically connected to a computer. All hands must therefore be on deck to safeguard the asset of the nation and those of her industries. 4. Factors Used To Authenticate An Individual Table 2. Encryption. • Patches are programs designed by software manufacturers to fix software security flaws. Antivirus. Most commonly a physical character. or devices that have a small screen where an OTP is displayed. Most commonly a physical device. If the user types in the correct password or pin.

At the commencement of a credit card transaction. the customer is prompted to enter his or her pass-code (second factor) to complete the authentication process. it is reflected by the hemoglobin in the blood. analyzes the image. Some limitations of 27 | www. The size of a credit card. c. Critics say that biometric data gathered for one purpose. are adequate for protecting personal privacy. The terminal would establish secure communications channels between itself and your card via communications chips embedded in the card and with the credit card company’s central database via Ethernet. Variants of BAS(see Fig. which can be seen with the naked eye. August. protect privacy. Vein pattern recognition has been adopted to screen passengers at South Korea’s International Airport and to control access to the tarmac at several Canadian airports. over the telephone. Using an iris scanner requires aligning the eye with a coloured LED inside the camera. Within a second or two. Each fingerprint contains global features. 2010 Fig. As the near-infrared light passes through the body tissue. This reflected light picked up by the CCD reveals an image of the blood vessels. but only its data template. If the smart card is recognized as valid (first factor). Finger Prints: This technique of biometric authentication have been used to secure commercial transactions since the days of ancient Babylon. This new techniques uses fingerprint sensors and a combination of other BAS techniques could be incorporated. All we know is that Biometric Authentication is here to stay and should be encouraged in Nigeria to infuse some confidence in electronic fund transfer and e-commerce delivery. Iris Scans: This technique analyze vein pattern and has the potential to be more accurate than fingerprints because the iris has about 260 degrees of freedom with regard to its vein patterns. credit card companies could quickly recoup their infrastructure investments and save businesses. Samples of biometric authentication technologies Businesses. More than a dozen Japanese banks and credit unions have made hundreds of ATMs featuring vascular sensors available for everyday use. No.ijar. the tiny unique characteristics of fingerprint ridges.lit.3. also called minutia points. Smart Cards: A smart card is another example of an authentication method. The only criticism against BAS is the invasion of privacy [4].az . Early adopters of the technology chose smart card to allow customers maintain possession of their digitized records and free the service provider from having to maintain databases.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. The system then makes the scan. Proponents say that current best practices such as not storing the fingerprint or iris scan. Large organizations are also beginning to deploy the technology to manage access to their information technology infrastructure. where fingerprints have been found among the ruins on clay scale attached to business documents. and decides whether they match. The light source is paired with a charge-coupled device similar to the one used in standard digital photography. To be used. then moving the person’s head forward or back until the LED changes colour. The terminal then would verify that your card has not been reported lost or stolen. d. and apartment buildings are using vascular recognition for physical access control. including ones that take place at a store. b. and guarantee the validity of all kinds of credit card transactions. and local features. ISSN: 2078-0257. a smart card contains a microprocessor that enables it to store and process data. consumers. the user is prompted to hold a hand near an infrared light source. 4 on market growth) a. and themselves billions of dollars annually. Vascular pattern sensing has been preferred over fingerprint scanners because users do not have to tough the sensors in order to do transactions which are of concern in some Asian countries where hygiene is an exceptionally important cultural value. by exchanging encrypted information with the card in a predetermined sequence and checking its responses against the credit card database. In the vascular recognition systems developed by Fujitsu and TechSphere after inserting a banking card in a cash machine. Fingerprints taken from non-citizens who enter the US under the US VISIT program can be easily repurposed for application such as criminal identification. creates a template that it can compare with the encrypted image template associated with the authorized user. the system filters the digitized image. e. and stores the template. or with an Internetbased retailer. It is going to be economical. signaling that the distance is correct for proper imaging.17].1. you would present your smart credit card to a point-of-sale terminal. Smart cards are difficult to duplicate and have demonstrated to be tamper resistant. creating a relatively secure vehicle for storing sensitive data and credentials. Fingerprint scanners can be attached to USB ports as an external peripheral or they can be embedded within device. The template data can be stored either directly on the chip in a smart card or in a central database. 2.g. Biometric Sensors: This is the new proposal for enhancement of the existing BAS systems posited by Jain and Pankanti [16. a smart card must be inserted into a compatible reader attached to either a computer or some type of electronic reading device. By preventing identity thieves from entering the transaction look. schools. 2. Vascular recognition already has won wide acceptance in banking.

This brings up the issue of cyber crime policing and law enforcement. ISSN: 2078-0257. 2. you need more than an accountant. what. it will further diminish the motivation to commit cyber crime. 2010 smart cards are that they can only be used in the presence of a smart card reader. Illustrations of some of the typical types of smart cards are provided in Figure 1.2. these experts will help you put together and implement systems and controls to prevent internal or external fraud from happening again. It is however strongly believed that if perpetrators of cyber crime can be caught and punished. Inc All the above measures are palliative. FORENSICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY FRONTIER FOR RESOLVING THE LABYRINTH Forensic sciences cover a broad spectrum of activities ranging from forensic accounting. where. Chemical. and they require additional software to run on most computers.3. Azerbaijan .© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. Source: IEEE Spectrum. CPAs. A combination of BAS and Forensic Technology is likely to produce the desired solution to the cyber criminality conundrum. Fig.3. You need a certified forensic accountant (CrFA) who specializes in forensic accounting. Fig. Projected Biometrics market growth 2003-2008 rensic accountants look behind the numbers. which has limited portability. This assertion was confirmed by the International Biometric Group in New York City who gave the statistic in Fig. computer forensics. No. when and how—all during the course of forensic accounting financial investigation. 2. However. More importantly. August. 2. why.  Forensic Accounting Accountants look at the numbers. and CFEs specialize in the following areas:  Fraud Detection 28 | Baku. certified public accountants. investigators and researchers thoroughly trained and will not only find financial discrepancies—they will find out who. March 2004 If you are concerned about financial discrepancies and financial fraud. Pharmacological and DNA Analysis etc: Our emphasis in this lecture is Computer Forensics with smartly references to other forensics landscape. 2.2 Examples of smart cards Source: Versatile Card Technology. Pin pads 4.3 which displays the Biometric market breakdown. the most reliable authentication and integrity system today is the biometric frontiers. CrFAs. Forensic accountants are certified fraud examiners.4. FoFig.

In the very recent past. sometimes using the original application program. Forensic Accountants will show you how certified fraud examiners and forensic accountants can get—and keep—your business on sound financial footing Computer Forensics Electronic evidence and information gathering have become central issues in an increasing number of conflicts and crimes. these experts will be by your side. for many years. connections between individuals by examination of telephone logs or bank account transactions).lit.  Application of computer investigation and analysis techniques in the interests of determining potential legal evidence[ 20]  Taking an autopsy of the computer using specialized software and techniques to analyze exactly what actions the computer has taken and what data is stored.[19] Today. there are e-review tools that can be used on many types of electronic documentation which work equally well.”[22]       29 | www. in the form of computer graphics. Information on one’s computer is only truly deleted when the sector on the hard drive is overwritten. After research. identification. French or any other character sets. the need for skilled personnel in this arena becomes more and more pressing. When a file is deleted from one’s computer. investigators have found ways of collecting evidence from remote computers to which they do not have immediate physical access. If you feel that your company is. law enforcement officers have been seizing data media and computers themselves. including the Internet. the FBI scans the hard drive for all the information stored on servers or networks on a user’s computer in order to create timelines of crimes or whereabouts. However.ijar.3. The foregoing procedures form part of what is called computer forensics. ready to stand as expert witnesses to testify about the specifics of the crime uncovered during the forensic accounting investigation. how can computer forensics be defined?  The scientific collection. extraction and documentation of computer evidence. government entities and corporations worldwide. sometimes specialist analytic and examination tools. contact Forensic Accountants. though some people also use the term to include the use of computers to analyze complex data (for example. or has been.az . Corporations are using the techniques not only to investigate computer crimes within a company. As society becomes more digitized. More recently. As Thomas Rude of CISSP recently posited: “The Science of Computer Forensics is fast becoming a very necessary skill-set for law enforcement departments.and ensuring accountability for all material that has been subject to review. to illustrate a complex situation such as a fraud or as a replacement for large volumes of paper-based exhibits and statements. Another use of the term is when computers are employed in the court itself. 2010 Expert Witness Testimony Discovery Assistance Royalty Audits Damage Computation Claims Analysis Determination of Compliance If you decide to pursue legal recourse. Electronic or computer evidence used to mean the regular print-out from a computer—and a great deal of computer exhibits in court is just that.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. boards. while maintaining an audit trail of the entire process . central processing units. It does not prove causality. This process eliminates duplicate emails and user files. as they have become smaller and more ubiquitous. but also as a preventative measure to deter future crimes. forensically searching mailboxes and user files through a simple interface. It is even possible to track activities across a computer network. Chinese. The field of computer forensics has grown rapidly in the past decade as the amount of computer-related crime has risen. investigators generated their own printouts. No. the information still remains on the hard drive because the operating system only consider the file open to being overwritten. Thus. The FBI uses computer forensics to retrieve information from a computer’s storage media such as hard drives. legal analysis and presentation of data held or retrieved from computer storage media in such a way that the information can be used as evidence in a court of law. So. recovery preservation. Law enforcement agencies are learning to use computer forensics to gain evidence in crimes not computer related. monitors and printers. a victim of financial fraud and you need a certified forensic accountant or CFE. ISSN: 2078-0257. For example. By the way it was originally conceived. Forensic tools now exist with capability to mine and allow owners to process and search data of this magnitude. They will also educate the court as to the nature of forensic accounting and fraud examinations. the FBI developed techniques to restore even deleted information. Computer evidence can be anything from entire copies of hard drives to individual files on a desktop [21]. chips. which shows the credibility in the field of forensic accounting. or if you would like to fraud-proof your business and implement proven safeguards. The origin of Computer Forensics Science can be traced to the first training session held by the International Association of Computer Specialists (IACIS) in 1991[21]. large organizations generate and store hundreds of email boxes with backup data running into terabytes. The evidence obtained may then be explained and presented to those who will make the ultimate decision about how to proceed in the criminal investigation. regardless of whether the data sets are in English. August. it refers to the application of law in the field of computing and deals with the preservation. provided such computers are accessible via a phone line or network connection.

) for evidence. preservation. Computer forensics. or even completely recover. process. There are few specializations in computer forensics. A thorough analysis by a skilled examiner can result in the reconstruction of the activities of a computer user.semester MS degree program in Forensics Science: Core Curriculum FSS 605 FSS 609 FSS 676 ISS 631 FSS 604 FSS 606 FSS 612 FSS 618 FSS 622 FSS 624 FSS 630 FSS 632 FSS 665 FSS 680 FSS 680 FSS 680 FSS 680 MTH 519 FSS FSS FSS FSS FSS MCB MCB MCB PMC PMC PMC PMC BIC MBS 609 610 681 685 620 642 643 660 625 630 633 650 638 670 Forensic Digital Imaging Introduction to Cyber-crime Advanced Digital Evidence Detection & Recovery Information Security Genetics and DNA Technology Crime Scene & Death Investigation Introduction to Forensic Microscopy Forensic Comparative Science Forensic Analytical Chemistry I Biochemistry: Forensics Forensic Internship Foundation & Fundamentals in Digital Evidence Forensic Science Legal Issues Forensic Science Seminar: Semester 1 Forensic Science Seminar: Semester II Forensic Science Seminar: Semester III Forensic Science Seminar: Semester IV Statistics for Forensic Science Electives Introduction to Cyber-crime Bioterrorism Thesis Research Methods Principles of Medical Microbiology Graduate Microbiology I Principles of Immunology Graduate Virology Drug Metabolism Chemical Aspects of Pharmacology Vistas in Pharmacology General Toxicology Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Basic Methods in Molecular Cloning 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 5 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 6 6 6 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 Emphasis On Dna Analysis These courses must be taken:  FSS 603 Genetics & DNA Laboratory I  BMS 600 Cellular/Molecular Biology  BMS 614 Human Genetics  TOTAL CREDIT HOURS REQUIRED TO GRADUATE 2 3 2 44 30 | Baku. you may want one to criticize the work of others. ISSN: 2078-0257. Today cyber forensics is a term used in conjunction with law enforcement and is offered as courses at many colleges and universities around the world [11].© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. No. 2010 Thus. even if the information was intentionally deleted. Azerbaijan .3. electronic discovery. analysis. August. Below is a sample curriculum for a four. and computer examination. Computer forensics can often find evidence of. diskettes. Computer forensics is thus the collection. On the other hand. civil disputes. Computer forensics is about evidence from computers that is sufficiently reliable to stand up in court and be convincing. It includes the act of making digital data suitable for inclusion into a criminal investigation. tapes. electronic evidence discovery. and authentication of data by technical analysis or explanation of technical features of data and computer usage. digital discovery. also referred to as computer forensic analysis. interpret. You might employ a computer forensics specialist to acquire evidence from computers on your behalf. and presentation of computer-related evidence. Computer evidence can be useful in criminal cases. Computer Forensics is the application of scientifically proven methods to gather.[11]. computer analysis. Computer Forensics requires specialized expertise that goes beyond normal data collection and preservation techniques available to end-users or system support personnel. and to use digital evidence to provide a conclusive description of cyber rime activities. examination of residual data. lost or deleted information. data recovery. etc. with a solid core but with many controversies at its edges. data discovery. The field is a rapidly growing one. and human resources/employment proceedings. authentication and analysis of electronic data when a case involves issues relating to reconstruction of computer usage. is the process of methodically examining computer media (hard disks. It is the use of specialized techniques for recovery.

Computer crime has forced the computer and law enforcement professions to develop new areas of expertise and avenues of collecting and analyzing evidence. In computer forensics. Key Elements Of Computer Forensics Investigation  A Forensic examiner is impartial.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology.ijar. In data recovery. Daubert v. Microbiology forensics. there was a precedent setting case in 1993. This is what has developed into the science of computer forensics.S. Techniques And Technologies There are rules of what to do where forensic skills are required. Pharmacology Forensics. The tools. international guidelines and laws.lit. No. 31 | www. These include:      Whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested Whether it has been subjected to peer review and publication The known or potential error The general acceptance of the theory in the scientific community Whether the proffered testimony is based upon the expert’s special skill. 579(1993). gathering and analysis have been tried and proven and are accepted in many countries of the world [23] Forensic Techniques Computer forensics although employing some of the same skills and software as data recovery. However the crucial courses for Computer Forensics specialization include:  Crime Scene and Death Investigation  Forensic Comparative Science  Forensic Analytical Chemistry I  Genetics & DNA Technologies  Introduction to Forensic Microscopy  Foundations and Fundamentals in Digital Evidence  Forensic Science Legal Issues. you may have observed varied specializations in forensic science – Computer Forensics.3. the goal is to retrieve the lost data. August. That case lays out a set of five elements that must be achieved in order for evidence gathered by an unproven technique to be accepted. The continuing technological revolution in communications and information Exchange has created an entirely new form of crime: cyber crime or computer crime. greater emphasis must be placed on the computer forensic field of study. and training of the professionals involved in the process. With the continuous evolution of technology. for example. and Forensic Chemistry etc.az . including but not limited to financial support. 2010 Emphasis On Computer Forensics  FSS 605 Forensic Digital Imaging  FSS 609 Introduction to Cyber-crime  FSS 576 Advanced Digital Evidence Detection & Recovery  ISS 631 Information Security  TOTAL CREDIT HOURS REQUIRED TO GRADUATE 3 3 3 3 49 From the sample core and elective courses above. it is difficult for law enforcement and computer professionals to stay one step ahead of technologically savvy criminals. examining. Other countries have their own precedents that validate electronic forensics evidence gathering methods. His job is to analyze the media and report findings with no presumption of guilt or innocence  The media used in forensic examinations must be sterilized before each use  A true image of the original media must be made and used for the analysis  The integrity of the original media must be maintained throughout the entire investigation [22] Criteria For Acceptance Of Evidentiary Techniques In The Courts In the United States. as well as the following subject matter:        The Computer Forensic Objective The Computer Forensic Priority The accuracy versus speed conflict The need for computer forensics The double tier approach Requirements for the double tier approach The computer forensics specialist Forensic Tools. the goal is to retrieve the data and interpret as much information about it as possible. is a much more complex undertaking. DNA Analysis. ISSN: 2078-0257. 509 U. Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals (92-102). To effectively combat cyber crime. and applying digital evidence is crucial to the success of prosecuting a cyber criminal. techniques and methodologies of electronic investigation. The process of acquiring.

Virus/Worms and other internet borne incidents 32 | Baku. and more)  Network Storage Devices  External hard Drives  Tape Devices  Specialty Devices (JAZ. identify what websites have been visited and what files have been downloaded. simple tasks such as booting up a computer or saving a document can alter data or other files. The bigger the hard drive. loving  Justice and fairness: procedural fairness. and find any attempts to conceal or destroy evidence. impartiality. Some examples of ethical values include:  Trustworthiness: honesty. REV. consistency. After the expert discovers all hidden files. Ethics as used here refer primarily to an individual’s inner standards based on orientation. ZIP. they create an overall analysis in which an overview of the computer system is given and every conspicuous pattern is displayed. It has been proven almost all people believe that they are or should be ethical. People need to understand that ethical principles are ground rules of decision making – not just factors to consider. acceptance  Responsibility: accountability. giving. handle the computer with care so that no evidence is destroyed or damaged. Some values concern ethics when they pertain to beliefs as to what is right and wrong most. comfortable. and deed that constrain a person to do what is right and good (rather than simply what is easy. Sources Of Useful Computer Evidence  Cell phones  Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)  Digital Cameras  Desktop and Laptop Computers  Servers (web. sharing. This implies. promise-keeping. Some criminals use encryption programs to make their files unreadable. it is not simply an idea to think and argue about. LS120 etc.  Next. No. intention.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. fragments of data not completely overwritten. and consistent with those utilized by international law enforcement agencies and accepted by the courts in most countries. 2010  Before the investigation starts.  On arrival at the investigation scene. the longer the investigation takes. recovers all deleted files and access all encrypted files. equality. worthwhile. and no evidence is destroyed by mechanical or electromagnetical influences. integrity. social or emotional costs. whereas values simply concern the various beliefs and attitude that determine how a person actually behaves. Ethics is an action concept. In order to apply this definition to practical decision making it is necessary to specify the nature of the moral obligations considered intrinsic to ethical behaviour. The electronic investigations also show which files have been deleted or protected. privacy. community service. August.)  Digital Camcorders Ethical Challenges Ethics are standards for thought. service and charity. swap files. the mirror image is taken to the lab for retrieval and analysis. The second involves the commitment to do what is right. The backup will include all active and deleted files. Ethics is concerned with how a moral person should behave. most values do not. Because of the volatile nature of electronic evidence. loyalty  Respect: autonomy. Ethical commitment refers to a strong desire to do the right thing. kindness. In order to enhance the integrity of data and forensic application results. First. threatening e-mail. He is able to make an image backup without damaging or tampering with potential evidence. ability to organize search for high-tech intrusive incidents including hacking/cracking. ISSN: 2078-0257. A forensics expert can also recover deleted computer files and email. piracy. database. consideration. good from evil and propriety from impropriety. email. courtesy. due process  Civic virtue and citizenship: law abiding. Azerbaijan . equity. no computer virus may infect the system. The terms “values” and “ethics” are not interchangeable. The Computer forensic expert will then assist in the investigation or litigation as a consultant. embedded data and metadata. The processes and software tools we use are specialized for this purpose. protection of environment. and motivation. An image backup of the hard drive is made and used for all examination of the data so that there is no chance of damage to the original drive. Ethics also has a value. especially when ethical behaviour imposes financial. dignity. or self-serving). It is also crucial that the evidence is always kept in custody and that none of the confidential information on the suspect’s computer system is misused. tolerance. The integrity of forensic process requires the implied guarantee that the seizure and capture of digital data is performed in a forensically sound manner. word. and much more. it is necessary to apply worldclass computer forensic and electronic evidence recovery services. the ability to discern right from wrong. The biggest challenge for the Forensics Expert is the size of the hard disk today which goes up to 100GB of space. good and proper. Experts use specialist software to recover encrypted or password protected documents during the retrieval process. Ethics has a price and sometimes people must choose between what they want and what they want to be. which makes self-restraint and sacrifice. pursuit of excellence  Caring: compassion.3. they first unplug the computer in case it is running a file-erasure program that could potentially destroy evidence. which is critical in the legal system. file.

This includes but is not limited to what is called unallocated space on a disk (currently unused. then store them on the computer. A computer can be the target of the crime.The Investigation Proper A computer can play one of three roles in a computer crime. the file structures discovered. divorce. Analyze all possibly relevant data found in special (and typically inaccessible) areas of a disk. Further. It can also serve as a file cabinet storing critical evidence. precious resource of time is usually at a premium. Applying information about how the computer was used in the crime also helps when searching the system for evidence.ijar. No. 3. and legal processes. discrimination. Protect the subject computer system during the forensic examination from any possible alteration. as in any branch of forensic science. 6. This includes existing normal files. and the forensic practitioner accepts that the precious resource of time must be expended in order to maintain the highest standards of work. the emphasis must be on evidential integrity and security. it is important to know what roles the computer played in the crime and then tailor the investigative process to that particular role. the investigator will know how to look for password cracking software and password files. it can take a very long time to check and analyze every piece of data a computer contains. where speed is the main concern.3. and anything else that has been discovered and appears to be relevant to the overall computer system examination. hidden files. With the size of hard drives these days. The Computer Forensic Priority Computer forensics is concerned primarily with forensic procedures. that is. as well as slack space in a file (the remnant area at the end of a file. data corruption. One talks of completing work as efficiently as possible. For example. the computer can have multiple roles.az . Often law enforcement officials need the information quickly. audit logs and unfamiliar programs should be checked. that is unused by current file data but once again may be a possible site for previously created and relevant evidence). provide an opinion of the system layout. 4.14] Users of Computer Forensic Evidence Many types of criminal and civil proceedings can and do make use of evidence revealed by computer forensics specialists. every forensic practitioner must adhere to stringent guidelines. analyze. Accuracy versus Speed In our world full of daily pressures. Civil litigations can readily make use of personal and business records found on computer systems that bear on fraud. It can be the “smoking gun” serving as the instrument of the crime. Knowing how the computer was used will help narrow down the evidence collection process. and having a general idea of what to look for will speed the evidence collection process. in computer forensics the absolute priority is accuracy. it can be the instrument of the crime.lit. and child pornography. delete. a hacker may use the computer as the tool to break into another computer and steal files. The Computer Forensic Objective The objective of a computer forensics examination is to recover. as required [11. protect. Criminal Prosecutors use computer evidence in a variety of crimes where incriminating documents can be found: homicides. ISSN: 2078-0257. but possibly the repository of previous data that is relevant evidence). The Role of Computer Forensics Specialist A computer forensics specialist is the person responsible for doing computer forensics. rules of evidence. 2010 Roles of a Computer in Crime . Provide expert consultation and/or testimony. and workman’s compensation 33 | www. or it can serve as an evidence repository storing valuable information about the crime. as well as a listing of all possibly relevant files and discovered file data. Print out an overall analysis of the subject computer system. or encrypt information. arson. In observing this priority. Discover all files on the subject system. Accesses (if possible and if legally appropriate) the contents of protected or encrypted files. The computer forensics specialist will take several careful steps to identify and attempt to retrieve possible evidence that may exist on a subject computer system: 1. Insurance companies may be able to mitigate costs by using discovered computer evidence of possible fraud in accident. 5. August. damage. in contrast to all other areas of computing. When investigating a case. In computer forensics. pressure is heaped upon you to work as fast as possible. There fore. such as an intrusion. as fast as possible without sacrificing accuracy. or virus introduction. and harassment cases. Reveal (to the extent possible) the contents of hidden files as well as temporary or swap files used by both the application programs and the operating system. password-protected files. In some cases. and en-crypted files. The key phrase here is useable as evidence in a court of law. any discovered data and authorship information. Recover all (or as much as possible) of discovered deleted files. If the computer was the target of the crime. any attempts to hide. financial fraud. in the last assigned disk cluster. Working under such pressure to achieve deadlines may induce you to take shortcuts in order to save time leading sometimes to poor performance.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. and present computer-based material in such a way that it is useable as evidence in a court of law. If the computer was used to hack into a network password file. It is only secondarily concerned with computers. 8. It is essential that none of the equipment or procedures used during the examination of the computer omit this particular objective. 2. Such guidelines do not encompass the taking of shortcuts. deleted yet remaining files. 7. drug and embezzlement record-keeping.

when people try to destroy incriminating evidence contained on a computer (from harassing memos to stolen technology). That email is rapidly becoming the communications medium of choice for businesses . computer data evidence is quickly becoming a reliable and essential form of evidence that should not be overlooked. the employer is protected. Corporations often hire computer forensics specialists to find evidence relating to sexual harassment. If the computer and its contents are examined (even if very briefly) by anyone other than a trained and experienced computer forensics specialist. Think about computer forensics just as you would any other forensic science and look for a corresponding level of expertise. make a directory listing. when people attempt to steal electronic information (everything from customer databases to blueprints). destroyed. There is far more to proper computer forensic analysis than the ability to retrieve data. When you require the services of a computer forensics specialist. but also the ability to stand up to the scrutiny and pressure of cross-examination. Whether you are looking for evidence in a criminal prosecution or civil suit or determining exactly what an employee has been up to. The court will want to know that individual’s own level of training and experience. That many people keep their financial records. That faxes sent or received via computer may remain on the computer indefinitely. Damaged or deleted data can be replaced. you should be equipped to find and interpret the clues that have been left behind. There are an increasing number of people who claim to be experts in the field. embezzlement. Make sure you find someone who not only has the expertise and experience. the chances are very good that there is valuable evidence on that computer. on computers [15] Computer Forensics Services No matter how careful they are. employers must safeguard critical business information. and evidence can be recovered to show what occurred. For example. should the employee choose to do anything to that data before leaving. not the experience of his or her employer. ISSN: 2078-0257.That people tend to write things in email that they would never consider writing in a memorandum or letter That email has been used successfully in criminal cases as well as in civil litigation. they leave behind traces of their activities. theft or misappropriation of trade secrets. This includes situations where files have been deleted. especially when a criminal case is involved. Likewise. those traces can prove to be the smoking gun that successfully wins a court case. they leave behind vital clues. August. 2010 cases. the usefulness and credibility of that evidence will be tainted. For example. Employer Safeguard Program As computers become more prevalent in businesses. Look very carefully at the level of experience of the individuals involved. and other internal/confidential information. they should be able to perform the following services:           Data seizure Data duplication and preservation Data recovery Document searches Media conversion Expert witness services Computer evidence service options E-Discovery Litigation support Other miscellaneous services 34 | Baku. did you know  What Web sites have been visited  what files have been downloaded  when files were last accessed  of attempts to conceal or destroy evidence  of attempts to fabricate evidence That the electronic copy of a document can contain text that was removed from the final printed version that some fax machines can contain exact duplicates of the last several hundred pages received. Before an individual is informed of their termination. or misappropriated by a discontented individual. Law enforcement officials frequently require assistance in pre-search warrant preparations and post-seizure handling of the computer equipment. do not be afraid to shop around. disks have been reformatted. That email is often backed up on tapes that are generally kept for months or years. a computer forensic specialist should come on-site and create an exact duplicate of the data on the individual’s computer. A computer forensics professional does more than turn on a computer. including investments. In both cases. or age discrimination [11]. Choosing a Computer Forensics Specialist for a Criminal Case is therefore crucial. No. If there is a computer on the premises of a crime scene. sexual harassment.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. An unfortunate concern today is the possibility that data could be damaged. and search through files. This method can also be used to bolster an employer’s case by showing the removal of proprietary information or to protect the employer from false charges made by the employee. Individuals sometimes hire computer forensics specialists in support of possible claims of wrongful termination. In this way. Thus.3. Your forensics professionals should be able to successfully perform complex evidence recovery procedures with the skill and expertise that lends credibility to your case. Azerbaijan . or other steps have been taken to conceal or destroy the evidence. The bottom line is that you will be retaining the services of an individual who will likely be called to testify in court to explain what he or she did to the computer and its data.

2. ICS Image MASSter 550i Fig. ICS Drive Lock (b) Forensic Examination Forensic Professionals use Access Data Corporation's Forensic Tool Kit (FTK) and Password Recovery Tool Kit (PRTK) for all forensic examinations. Fig. Experience has shown that courts are more willing to grant access to digital evidence when the acquisition process is done onsite with a minimum amount of system down time. As an extra precaution. Because ICS image acquisition tools are designed for portability. Access Data has the best forensic tools on the market. ICS Image MASSter Solo Fig. not days. ISSN: 2078-0257. professionals can take forensic lab to where the evidence is. With this tool. o Interrogating data from large financial systems and ERP environments for fraud and fraud-related and regulatory compliance issues. No.az . and o Reviewing high-tech intrusive incidents including unlawful access to a computer network. o Providing electronic review environments for global languages. 2010  Other Extended Services Include: o Analysis of computers and data in criminal investigations o On-site seizure of computer data in criminal investigations o Analysis of computers and data in civil litigation.ijar. forensic experts use the ICS Image Master Drive Lock hardware write blocker to prevent data from being written to the evidence source drive. Forensics professionals also use Digital Intelligence Firefly write protection devices to capture images from SATA and SCSI hard drives. privacy and other internet borne incidents. o Providing specialized computer forensic analysis and expert report. professionals are able to complete forensic examinations in hours. o Working Tools of The Trade Deployed In Field Forensics Some of the field tools used by Forensics Professionals are presented below.lit. 35 | www. They include: (a) Image Capture ICS Image Master forensic duplication systems are deployed for image acquisition. o Providing forensic electronic review environments for corporate email and user files.3. as was the case with previous forensics tools. They allow much faster and more thorough examination than any other forensics analysis software product. threatening e-mail. 2. 2. ICS products are the state of the art in computer forensics acquisition. August.3. o On-site seizure of computer data in civil litigation o Analysis of company computers to determine employee activity o Assistance in preparing electronic discovery requests o Reporting in a comprehensive and readily understandable manner o Court-recognized computer expert witness testimony o Computer forensics on both PC and Mac platforms o Fast turnaround time o Locating. o Consolidating terabytes of data for easy and accountable review.4.5.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. identifying and securing all forms of electronic data.

Azerbaijan . Data is retrieved remotely with Blue Tooth technology or USB with a Fujitsu laptop and NuSpec™ software. portable Raman spectrometer that fits in your hand for analysis of solids. vials.2. No. flasks. and can do so through walls of sealed bags. DNA Source: www.AbramsForensics. Spectral libraries are developed using DeltaNu’s library development software for identification of unknown substances and quantification of various compounds. This lightweight. Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of identifying various substances by their unique fingerprint. transparent bottles. The Inspector Raman™ is a robust. 2. liquids. Access Data Corp.8. pastes. FTK Fig. NMR tubes. ISSN: 2078-0257. based on the chemical structure of the unknown. 2010 Fig. and slurries. PRTK Fig.6.com Raman Spectrometer For Analysis Of Solids.3. Applications  Reaction monitoring  Authentication of historical works of art  Raw material identification  Analysis of organ metallic compounds in a glove box  Botanical research  Octane number in fuels  Edible oil analysis Features and Specifications  Solids: Point and shoot attachment  Liquids: Sample cell attachment for 8mm vials. dispersive spectrometer has no moving parts and may be used in any position. Access Data Corp.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. 2. Liquids.7. and ampoules without opening the container. Pastes And Slurries. Access Data Corp. or MP tubes  Microscopy: Optional microscope attachment (NuScope™)  Portability o weighs under 5 lbs o remote trigger o wireless Blue Tooth connectivity (or USB) o battery powered with 5 hours of continuous use  Instrument specifications: o laser: 120mW 785 nm o resolution: 8 cm -1 o spectral range: 200 – 2000 cm -1  PC and software o Laptop PC o NuSpec™ software and library development software One year parts and labour warranty 36 | Baku. August.

The results will deployed to testing the Hypothesis and to answer the research questions posed in this research paper. arranged and subjected to Analysis of Variance. Population Sample 60 questionnaires randomly distributed amongst various levels of Police Hierarchy. August. CLUSTER I: POLICE COMPUTER AND FORENSIC TRAINING LIKERT KEY: [1] Do not Agree [2] Fairly agree [3] Averagely agree [4] agree to a large extend [5] Fully agree Sample Questionnaire Response Respondents Q5 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 2 10 1 11 1 12 3 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 2 17 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 37 | www. DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING Total number of questionnaires administered 60 100% Total respondents 50 83. ISSN: 2078-0257. This will lead to conclusions and recommendations.3% For purposes of clarity. Mathematical & Analysis Tool The responses will be collated.lit. Ho3: Legislative backing (by Act of Parliament) is UNNECESSARY to enhance Police capability to police cyber crime. the research questions and hypothesis are re-presented here: Research questions This paper will at the end answer the following questions:  What factors are responsible for the increasing crime wave in the super highway in Nigeria?  Is the Nigeria Police ready with the right training and skill to arrest cyber crime?  What can be done to control the menace?  Is an Enabling Act of parliament necessary to accelerate the ability of Nigerian Police to tackle cyber crime? Hypothesis Ho1: Nigerian Police has adequate computer and forensic training to tackle the Present cyber crime menace.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. Ha2: Negative Social Values has IMPACT on the increasing trend in cyber criminality in Nigeria. Ha3: Legislative backing (by Act of Parliament) is NECESSARY to enhance Police Capability to police cyber crime.az . 2010 5. No.3. Ha1: Nigerian Police has NO adequate computer and forensic training to tackle the present cyber crime menace. Ho2: Negative Social Values has NO impact on the increasing trend in cyber criminality in Nigeria.ijar. Multiple Regression and if need be Discriminant Analysis.

ISSN: 2078-0257. No.22 107.622449 0.02 F 21.656 80.876 Sum 57 58 65 60 101 df 4 245 249 Average 1.327429 Variance 0.408488 38 | Baku.65E-15 F crit 2.16 1.914 0.3 1.11606 P-value 5.14 1.571429 0. Azerbaijan .© Journal of Mathematics and Technology.3.2 2.02 MS 6. August.259592 0. 2010 18 1 19 1 20 1 21 1 22 1 23 1 24 1 25 1 26 1 27 1 28 1 29 1 30 1 31 1 32 1 33 1 34 1 35 1 36 1 37 1 38 1 39 1 40 1 41 1 42 1 43 5 44 1 45 1 46 1 47 1 48 1 49 1 50 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total on Cluster I Count 50 50 50 50 50 SS 27.163673 0.

This is further buttressed by a mean score 2. Diploma and degree courses to meet the ever-increasing demand for this type of urgently needed personnel.654286 F 36.05 (95% c. No.214286 1.77551 Total 178 199 DECISION: Reject Ho1 since Fcal at α = 0. 6.287347 SS 94. The problem is serious.661429 F 24.865714 0.376 160.az .686122 0.l. No nation can ignore the threat of cyber criminality and terrorism. August. SUMMARY.676 249 DECISION: Reject Ho1 since Fcal at α = 0.37.408 This implies that Nigerian Police is yet to acquire adequate computer and forensics training to couple with the cyber crime scourge. This may well be the antidote to the fast eroding confidence in e-commerce and international trade in Nigeria.3.408 This implies that bad social values have very serious influence on why Nigerian youths are joining 419 and cyber crime scourge.lit.) at 49 df . prosecuted and punished at first attempt.05 = 2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS All the three null hypothesis tested were rejected implying that there is urgent need for retraining of security operatives.038367 0. The provision of adequately qualified experts will beef their deployment in the Police and Military. CLUSTER II: IMPACT OF BAD SOCIAL VALUES Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Count 50 50 50 50 50 Sum 235 166 177 177 236 Average 4.> fcrit at α = 0.865714 0.) at 249 df = 24. particularly now that the Federal Government has passed the Information Technology Bill for this purpose.54 3.3 df 4 245 MS 23.214286 0.12 0.061.9E-13 F crit 2.0607 P-value 1.05 = 2.[23].7 3.ijar.408488 Total 254. Computer forensics has been around for a while and is rapidly becoming a specialized and accepted investigative technique (in a court of law) with its own tools and legal precedents that validate the discipline.7 3.72 Variance 0.969796 0. CLUSTER III: ENACTMENT OF CYBER CRIME AND 419 ACT Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups SS 48. ISSN: 2078-0257.05 (95% c. 39 | www. Given the enormity of task in cyber crime control and policing. 2010 DECISION: Reject Ho1 since Fcal at α = 0. A law made but cannot be enforced is no law.l.32 3.8 Variance 0.37149 P-value 1.65 This implies that there is urgent need to enact the cyber crime Act promptly enable Nigerian Police battle with cyber crime policing and 419.36 3.02 which falls on the Likert scale of 2 (fairly agree which is very low) which is the second on the scale of priorities on a 5-point scale.36 129. the absence or dearth of trained and qualified computer forensics law enforcement officers. It is strongly recommended that Polytechnics and Universities should establish advanced computer and Computer Forensics training at Certificate.64 df 3 196 MS 16.> fcrit at α = 0.> fcrit at α = 0.74 3.594 0.) at 249 df = 36.650677 Count 50 50 50 50 Sum 235 168 187 190 Average 4.05 (95% c. Cyber criminals will be forced to retreat if a large percentage of fraudsters are arrested. Basically it is a computing profession dedicated to finding the truth.05 = 2.54 4. re-orientation of our social value system and urgent enactment and enforcement of Cyber Crime Act.09E-23 F crit 2.l. The domain of computer forensics is not to assign guilt or innocence but rather to find facts in the form of electronic evidence that can be presented in a coherent way so that others may weight the evidence and then assign guilt or innocence where appropriate.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. there is urgent need for the Federal Government to pay attention to the training of adequate EFCC and police officers in the computer forensic sciences to enhance effective policing of the ever increasing cyber criminals.

21.crazy nights. pp. 10. Osuagwu O. rightly pointed out three decades ago: “Information Technology has opened up such tremendous vista for modern societies that any failure to master it would mean a life of permanent sub-ordination. (2007) Blocking Credit Card Fraud via Biometric Authentication Systems. NV 89451.com/services.E. 26. Olliverson Industrial Publishing House. M. et.com/term/c/cyber_FORENSICS. Weaver (2006) Biometric authentication. 9. 935 Pennsylvania Avenue. 2. 40 | Baku. American Heritage University of Southern California.com). 20535-0001. NW. For information technology is more than a form of power.” Federal Bureau of Investigation. Ashland. 2002 Alfred C. 3. 24. (2003). 4 (www. Frank.iwar. IEEE Spectrum Federal Ministry of Justice (2004) IT Bill 2004 Noblett. Vol. for UNESCO Scribe. All rights reserved). 2003. Anil K. Bill.23. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Nigeria Computer Society. Prentice Hall.webopedia. Amelia.. 4.S/PhD Dissertation. 17. and Steward.. Course Technology.. San Bernardino. Lawrence A. (2007. Chris (2004). 16. D. Jain & Sharathchandra Pankanti (2006) A Touch of Money. 19.org. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) A U.S.al. Rude. 2010 As A M’bow.(20040) “An Explanation of Computer Forensics. ISSN: 2078-0257. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 14. Concord Owerri June 2007 U.com). 6. August. California. Enfinger. 7. Nelson. El Servier Science. Washington. Edgar Hoover Building. pp. Inc (Forensics-intl. (2003) Management of Information Technology at Periods of Technological Discontinuity. John R.OR] (©2004. Henry B.E.(2002). J. Computers and Security.” National Forensics Center. Judd.E. Azerbaijan . OIPH..S. National Forensics Center.html. 23. Mark M. 8. 15. et. No. (2008) Insight into the New Frontiers of Computer Forensics & Cyber-Criminality ( with Case Studies). 25. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Nigeria Computer Society. 26-28 (www. Nigeria. Thomas. October 2006 Number 271 Page 2 2002/03 British Crime Survey Osuagwu O. Phillips.. New York.Incardtechnologies. No. 2001.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. 11. Osuagwu O. Nigeria.E. FTC survey released in September 2003 URL: www.protegga.al.Fbi. OIPH.C. 774 Mays Blvd.E. The technology which it involves is not just one form of technology among others but an ability to make use of other techniques to give or refuse access to a whole range of scientific data and knowledge and thus to design new models of development”.[25] REFERENCES 1. it is a power system. 22. FIB Anthrax Report (2001) 12. Forensic Science Communications. Wolfe. (2007) Blocking Credit Card Fraud via Biometric Authentication Systems. Michael G. New Technologies.htm “2003 Computer Crime and Security Survey.sciencedirect. p. Willie D. Jones (2006) Blood Test – Vascular Patterns Provide New Means of Identification and Authentication. (2008) Software Engineering: A Pragmatic and Technical Perspective. Osuagwu O. Vacca. 472 Scenic Drive. Boston. Pollitt. Nigeria. (2002) Recovering and Examining computer Forensic Evidence.E. Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations Thomson.htm http://www. and presley. Concord Owerri June 2007 URL: http://www.uk/cip/resources/pcipb/cyberstrategy. 20. (OIPH) Owerri. 2004 [The Computer Forensics Expert Expert Witness Network. http://www. 13. #10 143. (2000) Guidance Seizure Methodology for Computer Forensics. 2. URL: http://www. US. Ltd.gov). Owerri. Owerri.478-499 Osuagwu O. [Ken Baiman (2006). The Essential Guide to Storage Area Networks. 18. 5.html. Incline Village. 2008) Global Internet Terrorism & Fraud Pandemic: E-Commerce Bottlenecks and the Challenge of Computer Forensics. Computer Feb 2006. Osuagwu O.com Computer crime. Robbins. Department of Justice.3.com/seizure. IEEE Spectrum July 2006. Anyanwu E.

        5. Liquids. 3. ritual murder. and armed gangsterism.lit. MACM. Pastes And Slurries Access Data Corp. FTK Access Data Corp. rather than good Behavior.3. particularly in the field of Forensics. We shall be grateful for your cooperation. O.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. PRTK Access Data Corp. FUTO Research Team Leader APPENDIX A2: Cluster I: police computer and forensic training LIKERT KEY: 1. culture and intellect has led the youth to line up for the Evil practice called 419 and cyber criminality 2.Sc? Computing/IT = 5 others =2 LIKERT KEY: APPENDIX A3: Cluster II: impact of bad social values [1] Do not Agree [2] Fairly agree [3] Averagely agree [4] agree to a large extend [5] Fully agree 1. This has become necessary given the negative impact 419 and cyber crime have created for Nigeria. [1] Do not Agree [2] Fairly agree [3] Averagely agree [4] agree to a large extend [5] Fully agree [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] Have you had Computer training? Do you know how to write computer program or interprete it? Have you been trained in Computer Forensics and e-discovery? Have you used the following tools in your crime investigation? Raman Spectrometer For Analysis Of Solids. FNCS. Yours sincerely Prof. DNA ICS Image MASSter Solo Digital Media Exploitation Kit [MEK] Odyssey Advanced Forensic Format (AFF) What major did you specialize at HND/B. ISSN: 2078-0257. August.M. piety are encouraged instead of ill-gotten wealth and promotion of kidnapping. E. The attached questionnaire is intended to test the need to deploy Forensic Science & Technology for resolving National Cyber-Security Challenges. 2009 Dear sir. intellect. MIEEE Professor of Information Technology. FBCS. D.Sc. 4. Re-orientation of national psyche where knowledge. No. FCPN. 2. piety. We feel there is urgent need for massive IT training for the Nigerian Police. This questionnaire is being randomly distributed amongst various levels of Police hierarchy.az .Do you believe that the promotion of wealth no matter how ill-gotten Has led to a social milieu which worships money.ijar. The data collected will be subjected to scientific analysis for the purpose of proving or disproving our research questions and hypothesis. |Osuagwu. honesty.Do you believe that unemployment is the key motivator for the ascendance Of 419 and cybercrime other than (1) above? [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] 41 | www. CITP. PhD.T Federal University of Technology Owerri May 24. 2010 APPENDIX A1: Letter for questionnaire administration Department of I.

14 1.Do you believe that the 419 and the cyber crime syndrome Has negatively affected Nigeria’s image in the comity of nations And has led to absence of confidence in the e-payment system And e-commerce and you believe this situation has to be arrested Promptly? [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] APPENDIX B: Output of questionnaire analysis of variance Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Q1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 Q2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 Q3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 Q4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Sum 57 58 65 60 101 Average 1. Do you believe that mass creation of jobs for Nigeria youths Will better do the miracle than question 3 above? 5.571429 0. Do you think the absence of Enabling Act to tackle cyber crime is responsible for the rising incidence of cyber crime and 419? 2.259592 0.408488 42 | Baku.3 1.11606 P-value 5.3.622449 0.02 Variance 0. Azerbaijan .© Journal of Mathematics and Technology. Do you think the Enabling Act should give Police the Authority to Arrest any suspect. [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] [1] [2][3][4][5] APPENDIX A3: Cluster II: enactment of an enabling act LIKERT KEY: [1] Do not Agree [2] Fairly agree [3] Averagely agree [4] agree to a large extend [5] Fully agree 1.16 1.914 0. Do you believe the general spirit of corruption in the civil service Has influence on the behaviour of the youths which have joined The 419 and cyber crime . August. No.2 2.163673 0.327429 F 21. Do you feel such a law should be deployed urgently? 3.02 df 4 245 249 MS 6. ISSN: 2078-0257. seize the computers And prosecute the suspect in the court of law? 3. 2010 3. Do you think the introduction of Social Security as obtains in the US and Europe will help to steam the 419 and cyber crime syndrome? 4.65E-15 F crit 2.

lit.969796 0. August.214286 0.37149 P-value 1.ijar.12 0. ISSN: 2078-0257.686122 0.9E-13 F crit 2.661429 F 24.74 3.77551 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total Total SS 48.36 129.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology.7 3.3.8 Variance 0.676 df 3 196 199 249 MS 16.az . 2010 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 CLUSTER 2: SOCIAL VALUE Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q1 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 Q2 2 3 3 4 5 2 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 5 2 3 3 4 5 2 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 5 2 3 3 4 5 2 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 Q3 3 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 2 3 3 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 2 3 3 2 Q4 3 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 2 3 3 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 2 3 3 2 Q5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Count 50 50 50 50 Sum 235 168 187 190 Average 4.36 3. No.64 178 254.650677 43 | www.

571429 0.37149 P-value 1. August.259592 0.214286 0.622449 0.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology.9E-13 F crit 2. 2010 CLUSTER III: ENACTMENT OF CYBERCRIME BILL Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Q1 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 Q2 3 3 3 4 5 2 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 5 2 3 3 4 5 2 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 5 2 3 3 4 5 2 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 3 Q3 4 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 2 3 3 4 Q4 4 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 3 3 3 4 4 5 3 4 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 5 5 3 4 5 2 3 3 5 Sum 235 168 187 190 Average 4.14 1.12 0.02 On Cluster I: Computer Training SS Df MS F P-value F crit 44 | Baku.8 Variance 0.2 2.77551 MS 16. Azerbaijan .7 3.36 3.74 3.163673 0. ISSN: 2078-0257. No.661429 F 24.650677 RESULTS: Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 ANOVA Source of Variation Count 50 50 50 50 50 Sum 57 58 65 60 101 Average 1.3.3 1.02 Variance 0.16 1.686122 0.969796 0.

686122 0.327429 21.05 (95% c.64 df 3 196 MS 16.l.8 Variance 0.05 (95% c.36 129.37149 P-value 1.77551 Total 178 199 45 | www.865714 0.ijar.lit.3.36 3. Cluster III: enactment of cyber crime and 419 act Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups SS 48.) at 249 df = 36.408488 DECISION: Reject Ho1 since Fcal at α = 0.214286 1.0607 P-value 1.214286 0.09E-23 F crit 2.05 = 2.az .> fcrit at α = 0.l.32 3. ISSN: 2078-0257. 2010 Between Groups Within Groups Total 27.74 3.72 Variance 0.3 df 4 245 MS 23.408 This implies that bad social values have very serious influence on why Nigerian youths are joining 419 and cyber crime scourge.22 107.> fcrit at α = 0.54 4.12 0.876 4 245 249 6.© Journal of Mathematics and Technology.650677 Count 50 50 50 50 Sum 235 168 187 190 Average 4.9E-13 F crit 2.865714 0. August.408 This implies that Nigerian Police is yet to acquire adequate computer and forensics training to couple with the cyber crime scourge.7 3.969796 0.05 = 2.7 3.287347 SS 94.676 249 DECISION: Reject Ho1 since Fcal at α = 0.061.914 0.594 0.376 160.656 80.11606 5.654286 F 36.408488 Total 254.65E-15 2.038367 0. No.) at 49 df . Cluster II: Impact of bad social values Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Count 50 50 50 50 50 Sum 235 166 177 177 236 Average 4.54 3.661429 F 24.

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