RESEARCH REPORT

THE ROLE OF TRAINING IN IMPROVING EMPLOYEE PERFORMNACE IN AN ORGANISATION
A Case Study of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company

Submitted by: Nangoyi Patience Prepared by: Kabsy Consultancy Services
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© 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration ……………………………………………………. Dedication …………………………………………………….. Acknowledgement ……………………………………………….. Abstract ………………………………………………………………. Chapter 1 ………………………………………………………………. Chapter 2 ……………………………………………………………………. Chapter 3 ………………………………………………………………………. Chapter 4 ………………………………………………………………………… Chapter 5 ……………………………………………………………………………. References……………………………………………………………………………….. Appendix Section

I Ii Iii Iv 1 14 20 22

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DECLARATION

I declare that all the work reflected in this paper is my own and no part of this research report has been submitted to any other institution of learning. All borrowed work has been fully acknowledged through citations throughout the research report.

Student Name: Nangoyi Patience

Signature:……………………………………………………………………

Date:………………………………………………………………………….

Name of Supervisor: …………………………………………………….. Signature: ……………………………………………………………………

Date: ………..…………………………………………………………………

DEDICATION This work is dedicated to my family for the encouragement and support rendered to me during the period of undertaking this programme. Second,

My Mother brothers and sisters who ensured, within the family emerge resources, that I would have a sound primary education which has stood me in good stead up to the level of my university achievement. The parental support shall always stand to be remembered.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The preparation of this document demanded the involvement of many stake holders whose contributions have been fully acknowledged below.

o Iam indebted to the entire faculty of Mulungushi University for accepting me to study at their reputable institution. Special thanks go to Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company for attaching me at their institution during my research field work. o I pay special attribute to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Singoyi for financial support towards my Human Resource Diploma course at Mulungushi University. o On a more academic level, my research supervisor who deserves a special ment. His inclusive and constructive comments made me go to an extra mile in my quest for knowledge. He was my tower for academic excellence during my research, not forgetting all Lectures at Mulungushi University for there critical analysis of my research report making it a factual presentation of the academic work. o Last but not the least I owe special thanks to all my respondents and friends’ for the support renderered during my academic work.

ABSTRACT The Role of Training in employee performance in an organization thesis is the report conducted at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company from 5th August to 14th August 2010.The subject of the research was to examine the impact of Training on the employee performance in an organization. The

research was covered in Kafubu Water and Sewerage catchment area surrounding Vitanda Street in Ndola, Zambia. The objectives of the study were to find out factors affecting employees at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company; to find out what motivates employees to perform very well, to find if policy exists on training and to find out how managers implement training structure to attain organization goals. It was hypothised that, Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company employees perform effectively when they are motivated. The researcher used purposive judgment sampling method in collecting information from the management members and simple random sampling was used to select employees at Kafubu water and Sewerage Company which resulted in the total sample size of 25 respondents. Self administered questionnaire were used to obtain both primary and secondary data from the respondents. From the research it was revealed that; Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company understand training, but only a few were found to be unaware. The research findings shows that, training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. Another role of training in an organization such as Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company as found by the researcher in which 13(52%) out of 25(100%) who said that, training increase work performance of employees. Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Other findings shows that, 48% of the respondents involved in this study show that good wage is one of the key elements of determining employee performance in any organization. Money is a great motivator, it is a fact that most people go to work, and because they are paid for the work they do. However, these basic needs for money will only make a worker turn up and do the acceptable minimum”. 40% of the respondents showed that, staff training brings about work performance in an organization

56% of the respondents revealed that the current policy has not been effective in that it has showed a lot of favoritism in the selection of the beneficiaries. Others indicated that the management only supports a few to further their education and they should be permanent employees who have worked for more than 8 years. Only 44% supported Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company Training Policy as been effective. It was concluded that, Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company employees perform effectively when they are motivated. Therefore, the researcher recommended that managers should motivate their employees as training is concerned and every employee should benefit of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information Training in the organization is very essential and if not handled well can led to ineffective employee performance, therefore employee performance includes activities to ensure that goals are consistently met in effective manner. Employee performance can determine whether employees require training or not. Employee performance may be related to many within the work place, such as overall job, satisfaction knowledge, management, but, there is a define relationship between training and employee performance, as training programs can address numerous problems that relates to poor performance. According To David (1999:97) ‘Training is used to describe the importing of specific practical skills, often manual, to employees whom will be relevant to the employee’s present or next immediate job. “Therefore, managers need to impact employees with the knowledge and skills they need in order to their job effectively. Training programs employee knowledge. An increase in job knowledge means that, employee will feel more comfortable doing this job and will perform at a high level. However, job satisfaction can come from feeling comfortable within the organization, job proficiency and even from the knowledge that an employee can work hard and get promoted. Training program can contribute to all these factors and lead to more satisfied employees who perform at excerption levels. Traning employees in the organization bring about innovation. In other words, employees who have the knowledge frame work, delivered through training, are creative in solving problems both short and long term. According to Bernadine (2007:98) “Training as an attempt to improve employee performance on a current held job or one related to it. Thus, usually means changes in specific goals”. Therefore, employees must be trained to acquire new skills to cope with new technology and probably even more important to cope with change itself, to be more adaptable, acquire attitudes sympathetic to change such training could be part theoretical as well as practical. Deal with the implications and potential, new equipment, be more educational training such as said to be future centered. When training programs are offered as the method to progress in one’s career, they also have an effect on how employee performs. An employee who knows they have a future with the organization is more likely to be high performers. Effective training targets the gap between what is expected and

what is currently being done. This human performance orientation, especially if delivered through training, makes an employee aware of her goals and how she/he will reach them. However, improving employee performance contributes significantly the quantity and quality of work. Training of employees is an issue that has been faced by every organization for the betterment of their employees, to attend skills and improve their working standards. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The manifestations of inadequate training in organization are often reflected in such circumstances as low productivity, restriction of output, absenteeism, high turnover. The problem goes even worse in that number of employees tend to leave their job and seek for greener pastures in other companies and organizations. A number of survey and studies confirms that, training has a direct relationship with employee performance (Patrick, 2009:76). In another line of thought, Musonda (2010:12) reports that, “good and high production requires much more than employee motivation, effective leadership and management, employee health and safety and other conditions, training is an important factor.” Number of organization have so far incorporated on wage policies, improved working conditions, others like Banks, they even reward hard working employees. Others organizations provides launch and transport facilities to the employees. Despite of all these interventions, the problem of employee low performance still continues. It is on this note, that the researcher was necessited to find out on the role of training has an impact on employee performance. 1.3 Formulation of the Hypothesis It was Hypothised that that training is ineffective in improving employee performance in an organization. 1.4 Identification of Variables Independent Variable: Role of Training Dependant Variable: Employee performance in an organization.

1.5 Objectives of the study 1. To examine the role of Training in improving employee performance in an organization.
2. To identify factors at play in employee performance at Kafubu Water

and Sewerage Company. 3. To find out training Policy of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company and its impact on employee performance. 4. To examine how Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company implements training as a tool in employee performance. 1.6 Significance of the Study The findings from the study will add more information to existing Knowledge on Training and employee performance in an organization. The study will generate information that will help policy makers in Government and the private sector in formulating training policies and improving employee performance in an organization. The research study is a partial fulfillment for an award of a Diploma in human Resource Development at Mulungushi University in Kabwe Zambia.

1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.7.1 Population The target population comprised of management members at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company and employees. 1.7.2 Sampling size The total sample size of 25 respondents was included in the study, which comprised of the following:05 Management members 20 Employees- Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company _____ 25 ____ 1.7.2 Sampling Methods o Purposive sampling was used to select 5 employees from the management members.
o

Total

Simple random sampling was used to select employees that included both casual and permanent employees.

1.7.3 Data Collection • • • • Both primary and secondary data was used in collecting information from the study. Self administered questionnaires were used to collect information from the employees at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company. Interview guide was used to collect information from the management members of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company. Secondary data was collected from books, magazines, newspapers and journals and other office records including the websites.

1.7.4 Data Analysis Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was employed in the study. 1.7.5 Scope of the Study The study covered a period of six years from 2005 to 2011. 1.7.6 Period of the Study The period of the study covered a period of 11 days from 4th August 11th August 2010.

1.8 Operation Definitions

Employee: A person who has been hired to work for somebody or an organization for a specific period of time. Organization: A social entity formed by a group of people who work together toward achieving a common goal. Performance: Carrying duties or tasks as expected. It can also be defined as the rate of output achieved by employees. Production: Ability of meeting the needs of the company by attaining the targeted objectives. Policy: A statement of guide to realize goals and objectives for the proper functioning of the organizations. Training: Refers to applying principal to the improvement of skills, knowledge, attitudes, so as to learn how to perform specific tasks. Salary: A fixed amount of money paid regularly to an employee for services rendered.

CHAPTER TWO LITERETURE REVIEW

In order to comprehend the research topic more clearly, it was necessarily to review literature done by other researcher’s o the same subject. All borrowed work has been fully acknowledged through citations. In order to give preference to the reader the chapter is arranged in subheadings. 2.0 People and Organizations People are an organization most valuable resources and expensive resource, but they are the most difficult element of in an organization to manage. Employees are people with variety of characteristics and react differently in different circumstances. In fact in many ways people are unpredictable. This means that unlike machines, they are not interchangeable, which creates problems for organizations, e.g. a person may work one day but, not the next, or may cope up with pressures one day but fails to cope another day. Work has become an accepted part of the way of almost any society. In order to survive, a modern man must labour by the sweat of his brow and he has settled for what Dunlop has reflects in Aldeburgh (1998:98) as inevitable and internal separation into managers managed”. Human beings have various wants, desires and orientation to work. The first approach to ensuring organization efficiency in meeting its objectives and that of the employees, people must earn money and consequently, they offer their skills in return and expertise for the greatest reward. However, some value other factors more highly and will accept lower pay in exchange for, perhaps status, or more worthwhile post. 2.2 Motivation and Workers. What then motivates workers? Material rewards are consequently one aspect. There are, though, many inducement for example the opportunity for distinction and power, desirable conditions of work, a chance to experience, pride of workmanship, altruistic ideas, pleasant association with others, the opportunity for participation in course of events and feeling of belonging. Money is one of the ways, Government and organizations may meet organization objectives of its employees, inclusive of its objectives.

According to Eldson (1999:24) “Money is a great motivator, it is a fact that most people go to work, because they are paid for the work they do. However, these basic needs for money will only make a worker turn up and do the acceptable minimum”. Money is seen as a primary motivator to improve performance in all situations such as sales person who earns a commission. He or she is motivated to get extra mile in his or her work if there is an increase in pay. A worker in a factory line will work a bit faster where performances related to bonuses are used to maintain productivity. Basic behavior modification is another approach of meeting the organization and employee objectives. The starting point is that most people are influenced in the way their working performance by the desire of reward and punishment (Meister, 1998:78).In this simple behavior model, the organization or the government does not need to take much of human differences because most people react differently to the promise of rewards for compliance with work rules and threat for punishment for breaking them. Management theories have tended to emphasize the reward approach of this model because individuals can be encouraged to become increasing better workers, while the ultimate punishment is dismissal and the worker is lost from the organization. The term used for encouraging workers to meet the expectation for the organization is positive reinforcement. Psychologists indentifies two types of positive reinforcement; extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcements of behavior. Extrinsic reinforcement is outside rewards and influences such as money, extra holidays, company car, Lunch, weekend’s leisure, etc. Intrinsic behavior of reinforcement is inside the reward feeling like finding work interesting, feeling appreciative. As the business world has become more complex and jobs are more technical, many large corporations have turned away from simple on the job training to more formalized education formats. Further corporate structures are becoming more decentralized and diverse, so this new training is important not only to success o the companies but also to their workers. One of the major changes today is found in the values of workers. Employees say that, they want to learn more valuable skills; they can take with them as they move up the ladder or switch to another company. Along with changing values, work place trends will also have profound impact on essential knowledge and skills, requiring appropriate employee’s development programs. Such work place trends include, internationalization, cooperate re organization, frequent job movement, the loss of job security, organization

success based on intellectual capital rather than commitment to a company and dependence on Information Technology. 2.4 Employee Development “Employee development is an increasing focus of firms that are seeking to strategically sustain competitive advantage.” Helping workers polish their crafts is one of the main things company could do to enhance their competitive advantage (Kabaso, 2010:65). Companies are being are encouraged to consider employee development in connection with jobs that entails, specialized skills or advanced degrees, to encourage company growth. In support of this Meerrik (1999:234).Attitudes, values, and capabilities should be the most important element to look for in a candidate; it is easier to polish knowledge and skills through employee development programs than to polish the person’s values and attitudes. In another line of thought, Garger (2002:45) notes that, as we enter the new millennium, the most fundamental shift will reflect a redefinition of training itself. To retain key talent, remain competitive and ensures long term profitability, organizations are making dramatic changes in the way they develop the knowledge and skills of their work force.” Assisting employees with career self management is another strong focus of employee development programs. Companies are facing rapidly changing technologies, increased customer expectations, and escalating competitive pressures while becoming dynamic and interdependent. Because today’s companies cannot ensure life time employment, they should take steps to ensure the life time employability of their employees (Meinster, 1998). Enabling employees to keep up with changes by providing skill enhancement shows an organization’s commitment to their success as well as to the firm success in maintaining a culture that encourages and sustains career self management. Doing this while maintaining employee’s commitment is a challenge for most firms. The skills required now must be continually updated across all industries and occupations to enhance an individual employability. Career self management has become a major developmental focus for employees because it promotes the ability to keep up with the pace with the speed at which change occurs within an organization, as well as industry wide and enables employees to be prepared for the future.

According to Meinster (1998:67) “If a company supports and encourages employees through careers elf management, it may ultimately have more highly skilled and flexible workers because they will understand the need to continuously update their skills.” Meerick (1998:65) believes, “employees and employers alike recognize the value of training as a way to boost skills and meet business needs. Training is being incorporated into employee reward packages as a benefit as well as a necessity for the firm to maintain competitiveness. “In view of Meerick above, it can be said that, without direct involvement of employees in training,, little education and training of staff members will occur, which will impair their future employability. 2.5 Training and employee development In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development (Anthony Landale, 1999). Harrison (2008:98) observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. "Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to be comfortable with. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics, who objected to the idea that people were "resources" — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development", although that was itself not free from problems, "learning" being an over general and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still widely known by the other names. Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities (Rosemary Harrison, 2005). Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds.

Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Dr. John Hoover [2009] points out, "Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer. 2.6 Employee Performance Employee performance cannot be isolated from training. This is because performance is affected regardless of any nature of training. Performance is defined as the ability to carry out and accomplish acceptable standards of work. These standards are set and can be measured against what is achieved. Mamoka (2007:98) defined performance as the ability to discharge skills, acceptable work or task. It is an action behavior or an outcome that an employee should be able to demonstrate after acquiring knowledge, skills attitude etc, from training. From the above we can deduce that performance is something we can easily measure and determine. However, in order to know the impact of performance, it has to be measured.

G.A Cole (2000:98) assets that, performance of an employee on his/her job is judged in terms of three factors and these are:
a. The requirement of the job i.e. duties and responsibilities. b. The employee value of his/her employer. c. The objectives of the organization.

In case of an organization, performance of employee leaves much to be desired because they feel their efforts are not appreciated by the employer frustrations they settle them.

CHAPTER THREE PRESETATIONOF THE RESEACH FINDINGS

3.0 Background Information about the research setting

Kafubu Water & Sewerage Company Location

Location of Kafubu Water & Sewerage Company in Ndola, Zambia

Figure 1. Map of Zambia showing location of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company The research was conducted in Ndola Zambia. Ndola is the third largest city in Zambia, with a population of 495,000 (2008 census). It is the industrial, commercial, on the Copper belt, Zambia's copper-mining region, and capital

of Copperbelt Province. It is also the commercial capital city of Zambia and has one of the three international airports, others being Livingstone and Lusaka. It lies just 10 km from the border with DR Congo. Ndola was founded in 1904, by John Edward "Chiripula" Stephenson just six months after Livingstone, making it the second oldest colonial-era town of Zambia. It was started as a boma and trading post, which laid its foundations as an administrative and trading centre today. The Rhodesia Railways main line reached the town in 1907, providing passenger services as far south as Bulawayo, with connections to Cape Town. The line was extended into DR Congo and from there eventually linked to the Benguela Railway to the Atlantic port of Lobito Bay (which used to take some of Zambia's copper exports but is currently closed). The Ndola railhead was responsible for the town becoming the country's centre of distribution. Before the road network was built up in the 1930s, a track from Ndola to Kapalala on the Luapula River, and boat transport from there to the Chambeshi River was the principal trade route for the Northern Province, which consequently formed part of Ndola's hinterland. Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company, was formed in July 2000 as a joint venture by three local authorities on the Copperbelt Province of the Republic of Zambia, namely the City of Ndola, the Municipality of Luanshya and Masaiti District in accordance with the Water Supply and Sanitation Act No 28 of 1997. The principle objective behind its formation was for it to render water and sewerage services to areas formerly served by the named local authorities. The total number of customers served as at 31st October 2010. Ndola Luanshya 32,217 15,282

Masaiti

381

Total 47, 880 Following a policy directive given in August 2007 to streamline the provision of Water and Sewerage Services on the Copperbelt, the Government of the Republic of Zambia through the Ministry of Local Government and Housing decided to transfer the operations of Nkana Water and Sewerage Company at Luanshya Division to Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company on 1st October 2007. With the take over of Luanshya Division, the company has expanded its operations to the former mine townships and has taken over a total number of 10000 customers. This has increased the customer base for Kafubu Water to 44,600 as at November 2007. Over the past years this number has increased steadily as more connections are being made. At inception, the company was faced with many challenges namely: • • Aged infrastructure Poor raw water quality

Transformation of the service provision regime from that of a subsidized service to that of full cost recovery. Encalculating amongst the customer base a culture of prompt payment for services received, High water wastage along the transmission and distribution networks and leakages at customers’ premises These challenges are still inherent but efforts are on-going to redress the adverse effects of the challenges outlined and eventually realize marked improvements in levels of service. These include; Installation of domestic meters aimed at reducing water wastage at customers’ premises and reduce on unaccounted for water.

Introduction of payment schemes to enable customers pay fro their bills promptly and at the same settle outstanding amounts which the customers cannot afford to pay at once. Rehabilitation of the existing sewerage treatment plants to assure disposal of effluent that is not harmful to the existing environment Improvement of access to portable water by those residing in peri-urban areas through construction of water kiosks with funds received from the Devolution Trust Fund (a basket funding entity created through Statutory Instrument (SI) No. 65 of 2001 under the administration of National Water and Sanitation Council (NWASCO) as provided for in the Water Supply Sanitation Act No. 28 of 1997). 3.2 Background Information of the respondents 3.2.1 Gender Distribution 25(100%) of the respondents were involved in the study,8(32%) were female and 17 respondents representing 68% were male respondents as shown on Table 1 below. Table 1 Gender Distribution of the respondents Gender Distribution Male Female Total Frequency 17 8 25 Total 68% 32% 100%

3.2.2 Marital Status Out of 25 respondents representing 100% of the total sample size, 16 representing 64% were married and 9 making 36% were single as shown on the pie chart below.

Marital status of the respondents

Single 36%

Married 64%

Married Single

Figure 2 Marital status of the respondents 3.3 PRESENTATION OF THE FINDINGS IN RELATION TO THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The researcher had four main objectives as presented below:1. To examine the role of Training in improving employee performance in an organization. 2. To identify factors at play in employee performance at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company. 3. To find out training Policy of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company and its impact on employee performance. 4. To examine how Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company implements training as a tool in employee performance. 3.3.1 To examine the role of Training in improving employee performance in an organization. The researcher involved the all total sample size of 25 (100%) in the study in examining the first objective that was the main aim of the research. Figure 3 Role of training in an organization

R of T iningina org nisa ole ra n a tion
60 50 40

P cen e 30 en tag
20 10 0 Promotes efficiency Maintain Competitiveness

Maintain Competitiveness Increase employee perfomance Promotes efficiency

R o T in ole f rain g

5 (20%) said training promotes work efficiency in the organization,13(52%) said that, training role in an organization is mainly in increasing employee performance and 7 respondents representing 28% said that training maintain competitiveness of both employers (organization) and the employees themselves as shown on the bar chart above in Figure 3. 3.3.2 To identify factors at play in enhancing employee performance at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company. In order to fully comprehend the main objective of the study, the researcher also had to identify factors at play promoting employee performance in an organization. Table 2 Factors at play in enhancing employee performance at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company Factors at play Good Wages Frequency 12 Percentages 48% 12% 40% 100%

Good working conditions 3 Staff training Total 10 25

As presented above on Table 2, 25 respondents were interviewed representing 100% as shown on Table 2 above. 12 respondents representing 48% said that good wage is a key and one of the most important priorities in enhancing employee performance at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company. 3 respondents representing 12% said that good working conditions that includes providing launch, transport, leave days and social amenities to workers is one of the prerequisites to employee performance. In another school of thought, 10 respondents representing 40% said that staff training enhances employee performance e in an organization. For if one has not been trained he/she cannot do the work effectively.

3.3.3 To find out training Policy used by Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company and its impact on employee performance. Figure 4: Training policy used and its impact
Im pact of the T rainingPolicy

4% 4 5% 6

E ctive ffe

N e ot ffective

Kafubu water and Sewerage Company training policy covers two types of training; that includes:
a. On job training

b. Off job training

25(100%) respondents were involved in examining the impact of the training policy as shown on Figure 4 above.14 respondents making up 56% of the sample said that the current training policy is not effective in that, there is a lot of favoritism and only a few are supported with education support and paid leaves. 11 respondents representing 44% of the sample indicated that, Kafubu water and sewerage company training policy is effective in that, it covers the basic requirement of any training programs that includes induction, departmental meetings and external conferences to its employees.

3.3.4 To examine how Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company implements training as a tool in employee performance. All the 5(100%) of the management members were involved in the study that included the 1 Commercial Manager, 1 Human Resource Manager and 1 Human Resource Officer and the other Manager involved was a Customer care Manager. This is as shown below: Table 3 Process used in implementing the training programs at Kafubu water and sewerage Company. Training Process Step 1: Self assessment Step 2: Assessing employee current & work experience Step3:Identify development activities Step 4: Putting the plan in action Frequency Percentages

5

100%

Out of the all total ample size involved in the study 5(100%) shows that Kafubu Water and sewerage training policy process it has mainly four steps as described more in detail as below. Step 1 - Self-assessment The employee identifies his or her skills, abilities, values, strengths and weaknesses. To conduct a self-assessment: Use the many self-assessment tools found on the internet. Compare your knowledge, skills and abilities to those identified in your job description. Review performance assessments (performance assessments are often used as the starting place for developing individual development plans). Ask for feedback from your supervisor Step 2 - Assess your current position and your work environment The employee does an assessment of the requirement of his or her position at the present time and how the requirements of the position and/or organization may change. To conduct a position assessment:
o

Identify the job requirements and performance expectations of your current position. Identify the knowledge, skills and abilities that will enhance your ability to perform your current job. Identify and assess the impact on your position of changes taking place in the work environment such as changes in clients, programs, services and technology.

o

o

Based on your analysis in Steps 1 and 2, use the sample Individual Development Plan form to answer the following questions: o What goals do you want to achieve in your career? o Which of these development goals are mutually beneficial to you and your organization? Write what you would like to achieve as goals. Select two or three goals to work on at a time. Set a time frame for accomplishing your goals.

Step 3 - Identify development activities Identify the best ways to achieve your development goals. o What methods will you use? o What resources will be required? Step 4 - Put your plan in action Once you have prepared a draft of your individual development plan: Review your plan with your supervisor for his or her input and approval. o Start working on your plan
o Evaluate your progress and make adjustments as necessary.

o Celebrate your successes

CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS

4.0

Introduction to the chapter

In this section, the findings from the case study as presented in the previous chapter are well considered in depth in relation to the research objectives. With the aid of the results of chapter three, the researcher analyses the results by paying particular attention to the hypothesis. Testing of the hypothesis has also been given due considered at the end of the chapter. 4.1 General information of the respondents. As shown on Table 1 of Chapter three 68% of the respondents were male and 32% were female of which 36% were single and 64% were found to be married.. The researcher generalized the findings of high number of male as compared to female to have been as the result of the nature of the company. Most men are known to be familiar with technical work as compared to ladies. A high number of employees was found to have being in a marriage relationship, this can be seen from Figure 2 in which 64% of the respondents were married as compared to 36% of the respondents who were single. This also shows that most employees at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company are matured employees who have a family with them. Therefore, when one

is married is likely to have a positive attitude towards work. This supports the literature review presented in chapter two of this paper in which Aldeburgh (1998) said that, “Human beings have various wants, desires and orientation to work.”In the researcher views having a family is one of the want and being that an employee has individuals to taker care of, he/she will offer his skills, time and intellectual abilities in exchange of money at the end of the month.

4.1

FINDINGS IN RELATION TO THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 4.1.1 To examine the role of Training in improving employee performance in an organization.

As presented in chapter three of this paper on Figure 3, it is shown on the pie chart that 5 (20%) said that training promotes work efficiency in the organization and specifically Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company of the Copperbelt. In support of these findings are Meinster views on training as reflected in the literature review in which he said that, Enabling employees to keep up with changes by providing skill enhancement shows an organization’s commitment to their success as well as to the firm success in maintaining a culture that encourages and sustains career self management. Doing this while maintaining employee’s commitment is a challenge for most firms. The skills required now must be continually updated across all industries and occupations to enhance an individual employability. In can be therefore generalized that, Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.

Another role of training in an organization such as Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company as found by the researcher in which 13(52%) out of 25(100%) who said that, training increase work performance of employees. Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Employee development is an important focus of today’s world of

organization. Kabaso (2010) notes that, “Employee development is an increasing focus of firms that are seeking to strategically sustain competitive advantage.” Helping workers polish their crafts is one of the main things company could do to enhance their competitive advantage (Kabaso, 2010:65). Training for employment is very important. In a modern economy like our own the nature of work is constantly changing. New technologies mean that new work skills are constantly required. To succeed in business or in a career, people will need to be very flexible about where they work and how they work, and to constantly change the range of skills they use at work. Companies are being are encouraged to consider employee development in connection with jobs that entails, specialized skills or advanced degrees, to encourage company growth. In support of this Meerrik (1999:234).Attitudes, values, and capabilities should be the most important element to look for in a candidate; it is easier to polish knowledge and skills through employee development programs than to polish the person’s values and attitudes. Another role of training and development in an organization as presented on Figure of chapter three of this paper is that training increase competitiveness. When one is trained in various skills, it will put him at the advantageous side to compete with the other employee with fewer skills.

It is often seen that those who are highly trained are displacing those who are less trained. In support of these findings, Garger (2002:45) notes that, as we enter the new millennium, the most fundamental shift will reflect a redefinition of training itself. To retain key talent, remain competitive and ensures long term profitability, organizations are making dramatic changes in the way they develop the knowledge and skills of their work force.” Assisting employees with career self management is another strong focus of employee development programs. Companies are facing rapidly changing technologies, increased customer expectations, and escalating competitive pressures while becoming dynamic and interdependent. Because today’s companies cannot ensure life time employment, they should take steps to ensure the life time employability of their employees (Meinster, 1998). Enabling employees to keep up with changes by providing skill enhancement shows an organization’s commitment to their success as well as to the firm success in maintaining a culture that encourages and sustains career self management. Doing this while maintaining employee’s commitment is a challenge for most firms. The skills required now must be continually updated across all industries and occupations to enhance an individual employability. Career self management has become a major developmental focus for employees because it promotes the ability to keep up with the pace with the speed at which change occurs within an organization, as well as industry wide and enables employees to be prepared for the future. According to Meinster (1998:67) “If a company supports and encourages employees through careers elf management, it may ultimately have more highly skilled and flexible workers because they will understand the need to continuously update their skills.”

Meerick (1998:65) believes, “employees and employers alike recognize the value of training as a way to boost skills and meet business needs. Training is being incorporated into employee reward packages as a benefit as well as a necessity for the firm to maintain competitiveness. “In view of Meerrik above, it can be said that, without direct involvement of employees in training,, little education and training of staff members will occur, which will impair their future employability.

4.2.2 To identify factors at play in employee performance at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company. As presented in chapter three of this paper on Table 2, it is presented that, 48% of the respondents involved in this study shows that good wage is one of the key element of determining employee performance in any organization. The findings can be supported with Eldson (1999:24) who wrote to say “Money is a great motivator, it is a fact that most people go to work, and because they are paid for the work they do. However, these basic needs for money will only make a worker turn up and do the acceptable minimum”. It can be therefore said that, money is seen as a primary motivator to improve performance in all situations such as sales person who earns a commission. He or she is motivated to get extra mile in his or her work if there is an increase in pay. A worker in a factory line will work a bit faster where performances related to bonuses are used to maintain productivity. 10 respondents representing 40% as shown on Table 2 shows that, staff training brings about work performance in an organization. Basic behavior

modification is another approach of meeting the organization and employee objectives. The starting point is that most people are influenced in the way their working performance by the desire of reward and punishment (Meister, 1998:78).In this simple behavior model, the organization or the government does not need to take much of human differences because most people react differently to the promise of rewards for compliance with work rules and threat for punishment for breaking them. Management theories have tended to emphasize the reward approach of this model because individuals can be encouraged to become increasing better workers, while the ultimate punishment is dismissal and the worker is lost from the organization. The term used for encouraging workers to meet the expectation for the organization is positive reinforcement. Psychologists indentifies two types of positive reinforcement; extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcements of behavior. Extrinsic reinforcement is outside rewards and influences such as money, extra holidays, company car, Lunch, weekend’s leisure, etc. Intrinsic behavior of reinforcement is inside the reward feeling like finding work interesting, feeling appreciative. As the business world has become more complex and jobs are more technical, many large corporations have turned away from simple on the job training to more formalized education formats. Further corporate structures are becoming more decentralized and diverse, so this new training is important not only to success o the companies but also to their workers. One of the major changes today is found in the values of workers. Employees say that, they want to learn more valuable skills; they can take with them as they move up the ladder or switch to another company. Along with changing values, work place trends will also have profound impact on essential knowledge and skills, requiring appropriate employee’s development programs. Such work place trends includes, internationalization, cooperate re organization, frequent job movement, the loss of job security, organization

success based on intellectual capital rather than commitment to a company and dependence on Information Technology In summary, material rewards are consequently one aspect. There are, though, many inducement for example the opportunity for distinction and power, desirable conditions of work, a chance to experience, pride of workmanship, altruistic ideas, pleasant association with others, the opportunity for participation in course of events and feeling of belonging. Money is one of the ways, Government and organizations may meet organization objectives of its employees, inclusive of its objectives.

4.1.3 To find out training Policy of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company and its impact on employee performance. As shown on Figure 4 of the previous chapter, it was found by the researcher that Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company uses two forms of training i.e. job training and off job training. The pie chart on Figure 4 also shows that, Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company training policy are not effective. This is in relation to 56% of the respondents who said that the current policy has not been effective in that it has showed a lot of favoritism in the selection of the beneficiaries. Others indicated that the management only supports a few to further their education and they should be permanent employees who have worked for more than 8 years. Only 44% supported Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company Training Policy. It can be analyzed that, in the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with

organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development (Anthony Landale, 1999). Employee performance cannot be isolated from training. This is because performance is affected regardless of any nature of training. Performance is defined as the ability to carry out and accomplish acceptable standards of work. These standards are set and can be measured against what is achieved. Mamoka (2007:98) defined performance as the ability to discharge skills, acceptable work or task. It is an action behavior or an outcome that an employee should be able to demonstrate after acquiring knowledge, skills attitude etc, from training. From the above we can deduce that performance is something we can easily measure and determine. However, in order to know the impact of performance, it has to be measured. 4.1.4 To examine how Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company implements training as a tool in employee performance. As presented on Table 3 of Chapter Three, four steps were found to be in place at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company to include the following:1. Self assessment 2. Assessing employee current and work experience. 3. Identify development action 4. Putting the plan in Action

The researcher recommended Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company to have included the main key features needed from an employee to ascertain capacity and needs of training. In number of organizations wrong people have been sent for training instead of the right people. This ends up in employee inefficiency at the end of the day. In relation to the literature review Garger (2002:45) notes that, as we enter the new millennium, the most fundamental shift will reflect a redefinition of training itself. To retain key talent, remain competitive and ensures long term profitability, organizations are making dramatic changes in the way they develop the knowledge and skills of their work force.” Assisting employees with career self management is another strong focus of employee development programs. Companies are facing rapidly changing technologies, increased customer expectations, and escalating competitive pressures while becoming dynamic and interdependent. Because today’s companies cannot ensure life time employment, they should take steps to ensure the life time employability of their employees (Meinster, 1998). Enabling employees to keep up with changes by providing skill enhancement shows an organization’s commitment to their success as well as to the firm success in maintaining a culture that encourages and sustains career self management. Doing this while maintaining employee’s commitment is a challenge for most firms. The skills required now must be continually updated across all industries and occupations to enhance an individual employability.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.0 SUMMARY The Role of Training in employee performance in an organization thesis is the report conducted at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company from 5th August to 14th August 2010.The subject of the research was to examine the impact of Training on the employee performance in an organization. The research was covered in Kafubu Water and Sewerage catchment area surrounding Vitanda Street in Ndola, Zambia. The objectives of the study were to find out factors affecting employees at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company; to find out what motivates

employees to perform very well, to find if policy exists on training and to find out how managers implement training structure to attain organization goals. It was hypothised that, Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company employees perform effectively when they are motivated. The researcher used purposive judgment sampling method in collecting information from the management members and simple random sampling was used to select employees at Kafubu water and Sewerage Company which resulted in the total sample size of 25 respondents. Self administered questionnaire were used to obtain both primary and secondary data from the respondents. From the research it was revealed that; Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company understand training, but only a few were found to be unaware. The research findings shows that, training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. Another role of training in an organization such as Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company as found by the researcher in which 13(52%) out of 25(100%) who said that, training increase work performance of employees. Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Other findings shows that, 48% of the respondents involved in this study show that good wage is one of the key elements of determining employee performance in any organization. Money is a great motivator, it is a fact that most people go to work, and because they are paid for the work they do.

However, these basic needs for money will only make a worker turn up and do the acceptable minimum”. 40% of the respondents showed that, staff training brings about work performance in an organization 56% of the respondents revealed that the current policy has not been effective in that it has showed a lot of favoritism in the selection of the beneficiaries. Others indicated that the management only supports a few to further their education and they should be permanent employees who have worked for more than 8 years. Only 44% supported Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company Training Policy as been effective. It was concluded that, Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company employees perform effectively when they are motivated. Therefore, the researcher recommended that managers should motivate their employees as training is concerned and every employee should benefit of Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS In line with the research problems presented in this paper, the researcher now recommends the following:1. Employees need to be motivated at all levels, that there is a need of increasing their pay, offer good working conditions and provide training

opportunities to its employees in that motivation is a key to employee work performance. 2. Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company management should not show favoritism in the selection of the trainees and employee to sponsor but rather should conduct the proper assessment. 3. Refresher courses should be organized from time to time of the employees. Management should take into consideration that employees need training to master skills, knowledge and behaviors emphasized in training programs to apply them to their day to day activities in order to improve employee performance.

REFERENCES

Alde

burgh

(1998)

Employee

Performance

and

Personnel

Management, Steeling Publishing Private Limited, New Delhi, India.

Bernadine (2007) Training and its role in Development, Chicago, Macmillan, United States of America. Cole GA (2000) Management Theory and Practice, 6th ed, London, Martin Inc, London. David (1999) Dual Perceptions of HRD: Issues for Policy: SME’s, Other Constituencies, and the Contested Definitions of Human Resource Development, Florida, and Heinemann, United States of America. Dr John Hover (2006) Human resource development as national policy. Advances in Developing Human Resources, London, Hewitt, United Kingdom. Eldson (1999) The Handbook of Human resources Development, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Kabaso (2010) Impact of Training and Development in Employee Performance, A case Study of Lukanga Water and Sewerage Company, Kabwe, Kabsy Consultancy Services, Zambia. Mamoka (2007) Trends Toward a Human Resources Development, Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, Vol. 12, No. 2, p7, Lusaka, Ministry of Education, Zambia.

APPENDIX SECTION QUESTIONAIRE FOR EMPLOYEES
Introduction

My Name is Nangoyi Patience studying Human Resource Management and Development. The purpose of this study is to examine the Impact of Training in enhancing Employee Performance. Please note that all the information reflected in this paper is strictly confidential and it shall be used for academic purposes only.

1. Gender Male

Female Married Divorced College/University Secondary

2. Marital Status: Single

3. Level of Education: Primary

4. Describe the role that you play in this organisation? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……. 5. When where you employed in this organisation? ………………………………………… 6. Did you receive any induction training when you joined Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company? Yes Sewerage Company? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………… 8. Do you have any training policy in this organisation? Yes No
9. Describe briefly what the policy state on selecting employee for training?

No

7. If yes, how has the training enhanced your work performance at Kafubu Water and

…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …….
10. Mention any THREE Opportunities/Training Programs/Workshop that you have

attended in the past 6 months that has enhanced your employee performance?

i. ii. iii.

………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11. Who paid for the training? ……………………………………………………………. 12. Apart from work, do you have intentions of studying some distance programme or going to further your programs? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 13. What does you is the main motivating factor to employees in an organisation? Good Working Conditions Good Working Conditions Good Wage Policy
14. What do you think should be done to improve the current training policy in your

organisation? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ….. 15. Any other Comment, Please write below: …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …….

APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR KAFUBU WATER AND SEWERAGE COMPANY MANAGEMENT MEMBERS Respondent Number:……………………………………. Position/Dept: ………………………………………… Gender: ………………………………………..
For researcher use only

1. How can you describe the essence of the work that you do? 2. What challenges have you met so far in your profession? 3. Have you managed to solve them? 4. Do you have training and development policy at Kafubu Water and Sewerage Company? 5. What strategies has the organisation employed to motivate the work force in your company? 6. What have been the organization strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in you work force? 7. What has been the role of the Human Resource in Training and development?
8. What do you think is the role of training in enhancing employee work performance at

Kafubu Water and Sewerage? 9. What are the effects of inadequate training in the organisation efficiency? 10. What are the organisation strategic planning of training and development in the next 5 years from now? 11. How do you intend to achieve these goals? 12. Who are the other cooperating partners or stakeholders in the Training and Development programs? 13. In your own opinion, what do you think should be done to improve the current training policy in this institution?

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