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CHM092

CHAPTER 1: ATOMS, MOLECULES AND IONS


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Siti Fatimah Aminuddin, Pusat Asasi UiTM

ATOMS, MOLECULES AND IONS


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Elements and compounds Atomic structure; Electrons, protons and neutrons Atomic number, mass number and isotopes Chemical formulas Naming of compounds Balancing chemical equations

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1.1 ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

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Molecular View of Elements and Compounds

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Classifying Elements & Compounds


Atomic elements = elements whose particles are
single atoms Molecular elements = elements whose particles are multi-atom molecules Molecular compounds = compounds whose particles are molecules made of only nonmetals Ionic compounds = compounds whose particles are cations and anions
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Elements
Most elements have single atoms as their constituent particles The atoms may be physically attracted to each other, but are not chemically bonded together A few elements have molecules as their constituent particles The molecules are made of two or more atoms chemically bonded together by 6 Material Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e covalent bonds from

Covalent Bonds

A chemical bond in which 2 atoms share a single of electron to form one bond. Example: H and H Two nonmetal atoms form a covalent bond because they have less energy after they bonded. H + H H : H = HH = H2

hydrogen molecule
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Elements and Compounds


Elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds n The properties of the compound are totally different from the constituent elements
n

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Formation of Water from Its Elements

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Covalent Bonds in H2O


n n

Other molecules having single covalent bonds, e.g: H2O. The hydrogens share their electrons with oxygen so that O has 8 e- and each H has 2 e-.
Lone pair of electrons (unshared pair)

H O H

Show bonding electrons as a single line; show nonbonding electrons as a pair of Lewis dots

Lone pair of electrons (unshared pair)


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Molecular Elements
Certain elements occur as 2 atom molecules

Other elements occur as polyatomic molecules

rule of 7s

P4, S8, Se8

7A H2 7 N2 F2 O2 Cl2 Br2 I2
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Molecular Elements

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Double Covalent Bond


2 pairs of electrons are shared between 2 atoms. Example: O2

O + double bond

O::O

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Triple Covalent Bond


3 pairs of electrons are shared between 2 atoms. Example: N2

N +

N triple bond

N:::N

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Diatomic Elements

Elements that are naturally in molecules with 2 atoms each. HONClBrIF Existing as diatomic molecule yields a stable octet Gases that exist as diatomic molecules are H2, F2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2 Examples in naming diatomic molecules: H2 - hydrogen O2 - oxygen I2 - iodine
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N2 - nitrogen Cl2 - chlorine

Compounds

Some compounds are composed of ions arranged in a 3-dimensional pattern these are called ionic compounds

each cation is surrounded by anions, and viceversa

Other compounds are composed of individual molecule units Each molecule contains atoms of different elements chemically attached by covalent 16 Material from bonds Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e

Ionic vs. Molecular Compounds

Propane contains individual C3H8 molecules

Table salt contains an array of Na+ ions and Cl- ions

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Ionic Compounds

Compounds of metals with nonmetals are made of ions

metal atoms form cations, nonmetal atoms form anions

No individual molecule units, instead they have a 3-dimensional array of cations and anions made of formula units Many contain polyatomic ions

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several atoms attached together by covalent bonds into one ion

Classify Each of the Following as Either an Atomic Element, Molecular Element, Molecular Compound, or Ionic Compound

Aluminum, Al Aluminum chloride, AlCl3 Chlorine, Cl2 Acetone, C3H6O Carbon monoxide, CO Cobalt, Co

atomic element ionic compound molecular element molecular compound molecular compound atomic element

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1.2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE; ELECTRONS, PROTONS AND NEUTRONS

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

ELECTRON

PROTON

NEUTRON

Charge Occurrence

-1

+
+1 In the nucleus 0 In the nucleus

Outside of the nucleus

Mass (g) Relative mass

9.109 x 10-28 1

1.673 x 10-24 1836

1.675 x 10-24 1839

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1.3 ATOMIC NUMBER, MASS NUMBER AND ISOTOPES

Elements

Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number

the elements are arranged on the Periodic Table in order of their atomic numbers symbol either one or two letters

Each element has a unique name and symbol

one capital letter or one capital letter and one lowercase letter

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The Periodic Table of the Elements


The atomic number tells you how many protons are in the nucleus and how many electrons are in the atom

are one capital letter, like name, like Others are two Some symbols come from the element s C, S, and I. C for carbon. Others letters, andthe Latin name of the element, like Au for gold (aurum) and come from the second is lowercase, like Br and Sr Cu for copper (cuprium)

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Structure of the Nucleus

Soddy discovered that the same element could have atoms with different masses, which he called isotopes

there are two isotopes of chlorine found in nature, one that has a mass of about 35 amu and the other about 37 amu

The observed mass is a weighted average of the weights of all the naturally occurring atoms

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the percentage of an element that is one isotope is called the isotopes natural abundance

Isotopes
All isotopes of an element are chemically identical n undergo the exact same chemical reactions n All isotopes of an element have the same number of protons n Isotopes of an element have different masses n Isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons n Isotopes are identified by their mass numbers, which is the sum of all the protons and neutrons in the nucleus 29
n

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Isotopes

Atomic number

Number of protons Z Protons + neutrons whole number A

Mass Number

Abundance = relative amount found in a sample

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Example of isotope: Neon


Symbol Number of Number of A, Mass Protons Neutrons Number
20 Ne 10
21Ne 10

Percent Natural Abundance 90.48% 0.27% 9.25%

Ne-20 or Ne-21 or Ne-22 or


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10 10

10 11 12

20 21 22

22 Ne 10 10

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Practice Complete the table

27 13 Al

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Practice Complete the table

13 6C 96 42 Mo 27 13 Al 133 55 Cs

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Example 2.3b: How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are in an atom of ?
Given: 5 therefore A = 52, Z = 24 Find: # p+, # 2 Cn0 e, # 4 r Conceptual Plan: atomic symbol number

5 2 2 4

C r
# e # n0

# p+

atomic & symb Relationships: in neutral atom, # p+ = # emass ol mass number = # p+ + # n0 numbers
Solution: Z = 24 = # p+ # e = # p+ = 24

A = Z + # n0 52 = 24 + # n0 28 = # n0

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Check: for most stable isotopes, n0 p+

Reacting Atoms
n

When elements undergo chemical reactions, the reacting elements do not turn into other elements
n

Statement 4 of Daltons Atomic Theory

n n

This requires that all the atoms present when you start the reaction will still be there after the reaction Because the number of protons determines the kind of element, the number of protons in the atom does not change in a chemical reaction However, many reactions involve transferring electrons from one atom to another

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Charged Atoms
When atoms gain or lose electrons, they acquire a charge n Charged atoms or groups of atoms are called ions n When atoms gain electrons, they become negatively charged ions, called anions n When atoms lose electrons, they become positively charged ions, called cations
n
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Ions and Compounds

Ions behave much differently than the neutral atoms

e.g., the metal sodium, made of neutral Na atoms, is highly reactive and quite unstable; however, the sodium cations, Na+, found in table salt are very nonreactive and stable

Because materials such as table salt are neutral, there must be equal amounts of charge from cations and anions in them

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Atomic Structures of Ions


Nonmetals form anions For each negative charge, the ion has one more electron than the neutral atom

F = 9 p+ and 9 e, F = 9 p+ and 10 e P = 15 p+ and 15 e, P3 = 15 p+ and 18 e

Anions are named by changing the ending of the name to -ide fluorine F + 1e F fluoride ion 38 Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e oxygen O + 2e O2 oxide ion

Ion Charge and the Periodic Table


The charge on an ion can often be determined from an elements position on the Periodic Table n Metals always form positively charged cations n For many main group metals, the charge = the group number n Nonmetals form negatively charged anions n For nonmetals, the charge = the group number 8
n
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Practice What is the charge on each of the following ions?


potassium cation sulfide anion calcium cation bromide anion aluminum cation

K+ S2 Ca2+ Br Al3+

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Practice Complete the table

Al3 +

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Practice Complete the table

Mg2 + Al3 + Br

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Example 2.5: If copper is 69.17% Cu-63 with a mass of 62.9396 amu and the rest Cu-65 with a mass of 64.9278 amu, find the atomic mass of copper
Given: Find: Conceptual Plan: Relationships: Cu-63 = 69.17%, 62.9396 amu Cu-65 = 100-69.17%, 64.9278 amu atomic mass, amu

isotope masses, isotope fractions

avg. atomic mass

Solution:

Check: the average is between the two masses,


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closer to the major isotope

Practice Problem
There are two isotopes of Gallium: Ga-69 with mass 68.9256 amu and abundance of 60.11%; and Ga-71 with mass 70.9247 amu and abundance of 39.89%. Calculate the atomic mass of gallium.

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Practice Ga-69 with mass 68.9256 amu and abundance of 60.11% and Ga-71 with mass 70.9247 amu and abundance of 39.89%. Calculate the atomic mass of gallium.
Given: Find: Conceptual Plan: Ga-69 = 60.11%, 68.9256 amu Ga-71 = 39.89%, 70.9247 amu atomic mass, amu isotope masses, isotope fractions

Relationships:

avg. atomic mass

Solution:

Check:

the average is between the two masses, closer to the major isotope

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