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Karsten Jørgensen • Vilde stabel Contemporary LandsCape arChiteCture in norway .
poland 2010 for all enquiries aBout this Book ContaCt: gyldendal akademisk po Box 6730 st. taping or information storage and retrieval systems – Without the Written permission of the puBlisher. inCluding photoCopying.no all rights reserved.no/akademisk • akademisk@gyldendal. no part of this Work Covered By the Copyright may Be reproduCed in any form of By any means – graphiC.gyldendal. olavs plass n-0130 oslo norWay www. eleCtroniC or meChaniCal. . anne vines typeset: the sans light 9/13 pt paper: 130 g arCtiC volume White print: dimograf.1st edition 2010 isBn 978-82-05-40858-6 translated By lynda Christiansen Cover photo: Caroline reistad Cover design and layout: avrio design.
taBLe of Contents preface 7 introduction 8 trends and trend-setters in norwegian landscape architecture from 1920 to 1970 12 norwegian landscape architecture as viewed by four related disciplines 20 an international perspective of norwegian landscape architecture from 1989 to 2009 36 CuLturaL LandsCape in transition 46 urBan environment 102 soCiaL LandsCapes 176 urBan parks 222 epilogue 266 notes 271 .
kjersti erlandsen tofte. Bård magnus fauske. magnus greni. an experienced professor of landscape architecture with a specialisation in projects submitted was so high that another jury end result would have been just as good. editors. the integrity of the book as a whole and the desire to present as broad a view as possible of norwegian landscape architecture were also important criteria. at the erate on the project.prefaCe (nLa) celebrated its 80th anniversary in 2009. as a tribute to this milestone. modern history. during the time of writing and fjordane university College offers courses in landscape planning. all members of the asso- veiseth and Bjarne aasen. this publication represents the huge voluntary effort and strong professional involvement of many of the members. the board of nLa has consisted of anne Bertine fagerheim. and also knew they were father and daughter! Both applicants were surprised to find the other had made a submission. and provided detailed information. the sogn may have made quite different choices and the in the time period that this book was written. the board wished to showcase the role of norwegian landscape architecture by producing this book. Last but not least i wish to thank all those who have generously given economic support to the project and made this publication possible. based primarily on quality. marte Bysting willumsen nLa is marit hovi. 50 were chosen for inclusion. quently karsten has taken on a greater share of and Bjørn amund myklebust enebo. to Lars Berge. request of the nLa leadership. planning. ola Bettum. ingrid sætre. Both experienced and novice colleagues pants in the seminars and the advisors. have helped in the selection process. alf haukeland. ingrid haukeland. and karsten Jørgensen. projects to be included in the book. as well as on behalf of nLa. that they co-oplittle Lukas announced his arrival. the oslo school of architecture and design (aho) and the Bergen school of architecture (Bas) also offer programmes in landscape architecture. yngvar hegrenes. i would like to thank all partici- those who suggested projects. kari mangset. Birgitte hellstrøm. the association’s biggest initiative to date. and the quality of our outdoor environ- two seminars were arranged in 2009 to discuss the content of the book in its entirety and the projects to be presented. eva preede. president of have lectures and undertake landscape architec- science and technolwogy (ntnu) in trondheim at aho. 2007–2010 also including a review of the role of the profesciation were invited to submit suggestions for sion in norway today. although the editor was responsible for the final selection. Jenny osuldsen. are educated at the institute of Landscape archiuniversity of Life sciences at Ås. we also hope that the book inspires and interests anyone concerned with landscape architecture. nLa found both of these applicants interesting. however. have contributed illustrations. and it was agreed. reidun stubbe and arne sælen acted as advisors on the selection of projects. vilde stabel. olav sundt. askild nilsen. and consethe work. tor nilsen. a recently qualified landscape ested writers. ragni Lucie helveg. Bas and at the norwegian university of ture projects. it is to be hoped that students at all these schools will benefit from the book. ragnhild momrak. and of the . marianne thomassen. hilde mangerud. tone moen. were among the applicants. martine wilberg. the quality of the a budget was set aside for the project and an the majority of landscape architects in norway tecture and spatial planning at the norwegian advertisement was published looking for interbook. and students of architecture Christine riiser wist. and project leaders for the architect who had also studied journalism. urban ment in general. the categories used and the projects chosen can and should be grounds for debate. anita nLa is both proud and grateful that this importhanks goes to karsten Jørgensen and vilde stabel tant work has now been completed. a special for their remarkable effort in writing this book. anne Bertine fagerheim president nLa. mari Bergset. those attending were the scope of the project quickly grew from the initial intent of presenting a representative selection of norwegian landscape architecture projects. norwegian association of Landscape architects 200 hundred projects received. trygve Lindheim.
the challenges vironment. in the past two decades an utterly different of climate change have affected all facets of planning. the scope of a landscape architecture project can vary from the design Landscape architecture was born out of the art of gardening.introduCtion this book is about “spaces” .” in other words. arne sælen mnLa scape architecture” encompasses the planning. “landscape” can include everything from industry and transport infrastructure to a ceremonial square or a park for recreation. despite the fact that it affects us all. as perceived by people.1 is defined as “an area. must anticipate the limitations “Landscape. the aim of this book is to increase understanding of the qualities of outdoor space by presenting a selection of market places. indeed. the character of which is the result of the action and interaction of virgin forests to everyday surroundings in towns and cities . roads and residential areas built during the past twenty years in norway. we wish to contribute to a greater awareness of the signed by norwegian landscape architects.the spaces in-between we move through when we are outdoors in a particular place. But while historically the art of gardening had an exclusive character re8 introduCtion . few ever consider the shapes and materials comprising outdoor spaces and the concepts behind these designs. the shaping of outdoor spaces and the cultural landscape has received remarkably little attention as a theme in norwegian professional literature. not least that of our outdoor enset by nature. types of landscape. the moorish gardens of the alhambra and the french baroque gardens of versailles are well known examples of the art from earlier times.from an area dominated by natural and/or human factors. landscapes that affect us daily. “Landfrom vetrlidsallmenningen in Bergen. to a far greater extent than previously. which. all the projects in this book have been planned and deurban culture has materialised in our cities. squares. either in towns or in the countryside. in parallel with this evolution.” according to the european Landscape Convention. or on the way from one place to another. design and maintenance of all of these of the details of a playground to the formation of huge motorway routes and the administration of our cultural landscape.
these parks were open to all. modern city life. eas accessible to everyone. the environment. access to greenery and fresh air. where we travel. such as safety. it is in a reactions as well as our outdoor experience as a whole. focus on the environment as a factor in public health arose during the romantic movement in the 18th century as a reaction to the effects of industrialisation. had created an increase in epidemics and contathe general population. as an all-encompassing art form it deals with the intimacy of our personal is social engagement. contemplate or play. with gious diseases. and as a direct result public parks and pathways were established in most cities during the 18th century. living material that develops and changes over time and with the seasons. and also one of its greatest opportunities. enjoyment and accessibility for all age groups. it focuses on the health and welfare of the public at large. this dependence on the condition of the natural environment is one of the major challenges of the discipline. not least the diversity of plants as one of its most important materials. and at the same introduCtion 9 . knowledge of the specific natural be a deciding factor in the success or failure of a project. comfort. dynamic. landscape architecture embraces our everyday landscape: those spaces to be enjoyed in-between. to provide the population different social classes. the second pillar of the discipline unique position. as an expression of the cultural landscape. as such it is based on social concerns time it places great demands on artistic skill and knowledge of the natural sciences. access to a green environment was seen as a tool to promote the health of polluted air and crowded living conditions.served for the elite. as well as promote respect and understanding between the discipline of landscape architecture is supported by three basic pillars: the first of these Bygdøy kongsgård was established as norway’s first large scale public park in 1837 is its heritage in the art of gardening. the establishment of such public parks towards the end of 1800s led to the new discipline of landscape architecture. can Landscape architecture is a spatial art form using green. having arisen from the movement to make parks and recreation arthird pillar is the interest and concern with nature itself.
in 1997 cultural landscape was again taken up in the discourse attached to the norwegian year of Cultural heritage. a policy plan was published as architecture. citing specific projects evolved from fragile beginnings early in the 19th century to the period covered in this book.now2 environment. finally. among other things. all of these challenges necessitate an cities in all countries. for ex- ample in relation to the use of energy for transport. the then minister of Culture Åse kleveland presented government white paper nr 61 called “Culture in our times” in 1991–1992. more than half of the world’s of megacities (cities with a population of more than 10 million) are a major challenge. urbanisation and the growth global warming and the threatened loss of natural environments and biological diversity present new concerns in relation to the organisation and use of the landscape. based. environmental problems are closely linked to the planning of our physical environment. in eastern asia alone.” in 2004 the european Landscape Convention came into effect in norwegian the design of densely populated areas. followed by “environment as culture: a plan of action for the aesthetic qualities of the public environment” in 1992.norwegian landscape architecture is in a phase of growth. on an increased focus on the value of a supportive daily environment. 23 (2001–2002) entitled “a better environment in towns and cities” highlighted “green belts. increased demand for knowledge about the sustainable development of landscapes and the purpose of this book is to look at landscape architecture in a broader context. together with a number of similar documents produced during the past twenty years. the first chapter presents the history of norwegian landscape architecture. there is also international focus on landscape architecture. have contributed to drawing attention to landscape architecture as a key discipline in shaping the future of society. the government white paper no. cities and the landscape. outdoors areas and good city spaces are decisive for the quality of the physical emphasising that high quality and sustainable development should be incorporated into town hall park in Lørenskog by Bjørbekk & Lindheim Landskapsarkitekter as (photo: magnus greni) landscape management. as they relate to the development of the discipline: how norwegian landscape architecture 10 introduCtion . all these initiatives. population now live in towns and cities. in 2009. towns.
in the hope that it will provoke debate and discussion. Bergen and trondheim. and evaluation of threatcomplete theoretical introduction and are not included in this book. important aspects of landscape architecture. strategic planning for future development. projects are presented in four different categories: cultural landscapes in transi- tion. these types of project demand a more it is important to maintain a debate about landscape architecture: new insights about nature itself. they describe landscape architecture from various perspectives: the past ten years have been characterised by an increase in multi-disciplinary co-operation on development in towns and cities. recreational areas are discussed. residential areas. from finmark oslo. do not result in built projects. one way to contribute is to select and discuss best practices. social landscapes. and plans. changing priorities. as well as the relevance in the north to agder in the south. develop and improve practice. such as consequence analysis of major landscape interventions. schools.1989 to 2009. and new art forms mean that there is a constant need to cal discourse. the second chapter presents a series of interviews with representatives of closely linked professions. the relationship between norof the third chapter. the works selected represent a wide range. amongst other projects. ened environments. the projects are presented in the form of photographs. wegian landscape architecture and landscape architecture in the wider world is the theme Chapters four to seven present projects built in norway between 1989 and 2009 which it is hoped in their entirety represent both the quality and the breadth of the field in this country. with the greatest emphasis on projects in and around from Lyngheisenteret in Lygra by feste landskapsarkitekter as (photo: Jan feste) of the projects for the discipline. and city parks. brief commentaries on the background and preconditions. the discipline develops and grows through an open and criti- introduCtion 11 . transport and production landscapes. urban environments. this book is an effort to do just this. which presents a discussion with three landscape architects who are familiar both with norwegian landscape architecture and with the discipline internationally. in each category some of the projects that have impacted on the development of the profession in norway are reviewed. everyday landscapes.
46 KulturlandsKap i endring .
smøla vindpark represents the latest form of energy development in norway. have been ground-breaking in terms of the natural re-growth of verges right up to the hard shoulder of the road. a “weakness” of the natural landscape developed because the notions of preservation and conservation. this approach is also typical of the project at kvilesteinsdammane. which is often about facilitating conservation through active land management. and Ørnesvingen. its “strength” lies in the fact that the value of this landscape is so obvious to everyone that it has been easy to argue in favour of investing resources to prevent its ruthless exploitation. hellelåga. tanum Cemetery and the haga golf Club are examples of suburban cultivated landscape. not least due to a commitment by the norwegian public roads administration to high-quality road projects in recent decades. in addition to preserving existing landscape. which formed the basis for this upswing. and providing a great driving experience. something which we look at but are not a part of. a tradition based on the best of norwegian cultural landscape management.CuLturaL LandsCape in transition the spectacular norwegian landscape has been both a strength and a weakness for norwegian landscape architecture. while the project “environmentally prioritised roads” at vollen is characterised by more pragmatic and robust attitudes. this situation has now changed. fløitrappene in Bergen is also based on a romantic idea about landscape. and windmills will probably not face corresponding challenges in relation to landscape that damming and hydro electricity development did. focus on the landscape as an aesthetic object. also served to stifle creativity in the discipline. the sami parliament project represents a moderate and subtle approach to that magnificent landscape. which introduced a phase of repair that followed the major development phase of norwegian hydro electricity expansion. this was an important reason why the development of norwegian hydro electricity led to a huge boost for the discipline in the late 1960s and the early 1970s. the national tourist routes projects akkarvikodden. Lofast and oslofjord. however. and the goal of this type of project is to make interventions invisible. 47 . the two major projects.
among other things. and in a variety of publications and websites of the department of public roads and rail transport. Currently six of the routes have been approved as fully-fledged national tourist routes. 1. roger mathisen. akkarvikodden). the tourist routes will be made up of a total of about 1. 66 nationaL tourist route .600 kilometres. also in both exhibitions and publications of norsk form called Detour: Architecture and Design along 18 National Tourist Routes in Norway. 8. 2006. node rådgivende ingeniører as photos: arne o. and has contributed to a form of “urbanisation” of nature. heLLeLÅga and Ørnesvingen norske turistveger. akkarvikodden at reine in Lofoten. the project will be completed in 2016. food and information will be available on all of the selected stretches of road. steinar skaar.national tourist route • akkarvikodden. and accommodation. manthey kula ans (toilet building. and vary in length from 27 to 194 kilometres. hellelåga and Ørnesvingen. however. inge dahlman. Arkitektur N no. 2009. amund Johne. the vision underlying the initiative is controversial. elaborate picnic areas with art and architecture playing a key role. have managed to highlight and focus on existing natural environments and landscape attributes in a way that responds to the modern tourist’s desire to experience something more . the national tourist routes project comprises eighteen sections of road to be upgraded with. heLLeLÅga on the heLgeLand Coast and Ørnesvingen at troLLstigen in geiranger Completed: 2005 – 2006 Commissioned by: statens vegvesen turistvegprosjektet nordland/møre og romsdal Landscape architects: Landskapsfabrikken by inge dahlman (akkarvikodden and hellelåga) and smedsvig Landskapsarkitekter (Ørnesvingen) architects: nordplan as (toilet building. emphasised by architectural gems located in some of the most spectacular scenery in the country37. arne smedsvig published inter alia in Byggekunst no. the goal of the project is to increase tourism and thereby strengthen local industry and settlement in rural areas. 3rw arkitekter (Ørnesvingen) and ingrid torkildsen (akkarvikodden) artist: may eikås Bjerk (Ørnesvingen) Contractor: mesta as and Christie and opsahl as (Ørnesvingen) Consultants: fredriksen as. hellelåga). many of the rest area projects. three of the projects are presented here: akkarvikodden. high-tech architecture has been chosen for most of the sites. it has been referred to as “postcard landscape” and a master’s thesis from the department of Landscape planning at umB written in 2009 by kristin evjen discusses the project’s national romantic perspective. moen.a sort of “added value” to the travel experience. minimum standards have been defined for roads.
Kolumnetittel 67 .
68 norsKe turistVeger .
the three projects described here show three different approaches to the task. and has little significance in relation to other activities in the department. Both the near and distant landscapes are in focus at the same time. a beautiful place to stop and take a break.the national tourist routes project is essentially a project of limited scope. and structured waterfalls. we humans are in control. Ørnesvingen offers a break on a difficult stretch of road with hairpin bends. rather than the design of the various picnic spots. visitors can walk down the long stairs and dip toes into the water. due to the value of the landscape itself. the design and materials used. But there are thousands of other equally beautiful places. benches of white concrete.” heLLeLÅga differs from most other picnic spots on the national tourist routes (nt) series in that the design here invites a greater degree of contact with nature. seem to send a soothing urban message that says: “yes. wooden decking. a bench on a patio beside the fjord between the steep nordland mountains is a reminder of this. yet a landscape that is magnificent in every direction. Kolumnetittel 69 . and the important thing is to find peace and harmony in one’s own inner landscape. or sit out on the rocks and enjoy the silence and the view over the fjord. the subdued design emphasises that it is a public space. it is interesting that it has attracted so much attention. both nationally and internationally. akkarvikodden is the most meditative space. both financially and in terms of traffic volume.
The highest level starts in the east with the facades of buildings. The area dates back to medieval times which provided inspiration for the project.5 metres. Because of the sloping site the ground was levelled into three flat sections to accommodate various activities. house facades in Munkegata on the other three sides. which used to be a demolition site between Munkegata and Schweigaardsgate. Are røysamb. Berit Hartveit The Munkegata project. Each level is divided by a 70-centimetre 128 MUNKEGATA . bounded by Schweigaardsgate on the one side. The demolition site was designated as a public park and the street classified as a pedestrian street with through traffic in the project. and descends down to a gable wall at the western end.MUNKEGATA MUNKEGATA IN OSlO Completed: 2003 Commissioned by: Oslo Municipality Friluftsetaten (Agency for Outdoor recreation and Nature Management) landscape architect: Oslo Municipality Friluftsetaten by Aaste Gulden Sakya Contractor: Oslo Vei AS lighting design: Arkitektskap AS. Artist: Viel Bjerkset Andersen Photo: Arkitektskap AS. and traversed by Munkegata itself. situated in the older section of the city of Oslo. includes the road called “Munkegata” and the site of Munkegata 4. This part of the city is a preservation area with strict reservations against digging which had to be respected during the work because of possible disturbance of archaeological remains. The project area is on sloping ground with a height difference of 2. The main concept had been to create a large rectangular urban park.
kolumnetittel 129 .
consisting of three sculptured seats and an oak bench mounted on the wall backing the apple orchard. The lower level is an open lawn for picnics. The street furniture is simple. The market area has a hard surface and is part of the street space of Munkegata itself. and together with the medieval history of the area has provided inspiration for the design. a place for playing and different activities. whereas the apple orchard is bounded by an 80-centimetre double-sided wall that separates it from traffic. The apple trees provide lace-patterned light effects on the green grass at this level. which gives the space a different dimension and is particularly attractive in the evening. The name of the street.” translates into Monk Street. “Munkegata. These three levels have different contents and features. wild flowers. On the next level is gravel. A delicate ceiling made up of 64 small lED lights covers the span between Schweigaardsgate to the north and across to the houses in Munkegata. 130 kolumnetittel . The play of light is regulated from a box in the square. with room for outdoor seating at the cafe on the corner and bicycle stands. and plantings include herbs. with beds of rhubarb and hops. and traversed by Munkegata which slopes through the site. sunbathing and ball games. a market and an apple orchard. iris and roses. the latter climbing up a 7-metre high wire pergola to create a green wall. The upper level is divided into two parts. Motifs from monks’ gardens have been used for the vegetation. The stone labyrinth on the lawn widely used by children in the area is also a theme copied from the Middle Ages.embankment wall extending across from the pavement of Schweigaardsgate to the walls of the buildings facing onto the square.
smooth sheets of granite.Universal design and accessibility have been an important concern in the project. Munkegata is a small and uncomplicated project. but it has added surprising and poetic qualities to an everyday urban landscape. All levels of the park have ramps from both sides. Plenen grusplassen eplehagen torget MUNKEGATA 131 . so that everyone. can use the park. and Munkegata which traverses the park is made up of cobblestones inlaid with large. either on wheels or on foot.
BAKKELøKKA SCHOOL BAKKELøKKA SKOLE. 3. Skanska Hus Award: Skolebyggprisen 2002 Photo: Kim Müller. 2006 182 BAKKELøKKA SCHOOL . FAgErSTrAND AT NESODDEN Completed: 2002 Commissioned by: Nesodden municipality Landscape architect: østengen & Bergo Architect: NAV AS Contractor: Tronslien AS. østengen & Bergo AS Published inter alia in Byggekunst no. Selmer Vermlandsbygg AS.
BAKKELøKKA SCHOOL 183 .
which commissioned the school. The school is built in a dense forest area with visible whaleback rock in the terrain. alder and as- 184 bakkeløkka skole .Bakkeløkka School. in three parallel classes. To the east on the higher side of the stream is mostly pine and spruce. Each side of the stream has to some extent different vegetation. has 270 eighth.to tenthgrade students. The municipality of Nesodden. whereas on the west side is mainly deciduous forest of birch. not far from Oslo at Fagerstrand at Nesodden. laid down strict regulations that the landscape and vegetation should be protected as much as possible. and a stream passing through the grounds.
the school nevertheless allows youngsters and the local community genuine contact with nature. which becomes more like a park. have been preserved in their natural environment for the benefit of the school. At Bakkeløkka School vegetation has been chosen to enhance the appearance of a wooded forest. form a varied environment for teaching as well as for socialising in various groups. and these. Surface water is shed outwards to the surrounding natural vegetation. At Bakkeløkka School a much more demanding strategy has been employed to retain the woodland character. Natural forest is often too fragile to allow several hundred students access on a daily basis. like floating paths made of wood. regrettably this happens far too rarely for most children.pen and rows of trees. learn about hydrochemistry. often leading to substantial changes in the character of the landscape. together with common tables and benches. The forest footpaths with small bridges over the stream tie the school. shingle. The main materials used are asphalt. and study flora and fauna. with car parks and sports arenas at the upper end. BAKKELøKKA SCHOOL 185 . The school site is designed to allow nature studies and ecology classes to be held outside the classrooms. and even though the buildings are too large and dominating to be hidden in the trees. and grass is only to be found on the verges and ditches. protect the fragile forest bed and allow movement between the zones with dry shoes. natural rock. and are tempted off onto small footpaths into the forest. The terrain of the site slopes down to the southwest towards Oslo Fjord. where students can take water samples. so that children can be given the opportunity to study nature closely every day. together with the stream. so one or another form of preparation is usually required. The entire site invites students to find their favourite places to nurture their own interests. In their stead are patches of wild flowers. Here there are no typical beds of flowers. Damage to nature is prevented by low walls or curbstones. The natural setting. or simply sit quietly and meditate for a moment. The small bridges. either in rain or where the ground is moist. On the way to the school buildings from the car parks we cross over the stream. sports arenas and car park together in a harmonious and varied composition. together with an arrival area leading to the two buildings and the two asphalt school yards. the whale-back rock formations and the walls. and non-toxic impregnated wood.
NLA WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE FOLLOWING SPONSORS WHO HAVE MADE THIS BOOK POSSIBLE: Vestre AS Oase Fontener AS H. Westfal-Larsen og hustru Anna Westfal-Larsens Almennyttige fond Statens vegvesen Statsbygg Vest-Agder county council Oslo municipality Bærum municipatity Drammen municipality Stavanger municipality .
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