Invention of photography and cinema

History
Photography is the process, activity and art of creating still or moving pictures by recording radiation on a radiation-sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or an electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects activate a sensitive chemical or electronic sensor during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically. Photography has many uses for business, science, art, and recreational purposes. The word "photograph" was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek (photos) "light" and (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning [1] "drawing with light". Traditionally, the products of photography have been called negatives and photographs, commonly shortened to photos.

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di described a pinhole camera in the 5th century B.C.,[4] Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments,[5] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965±1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[4][6] Albertus Magnus (1193±1280) discovered silver nitrate,[7] and Georges Fabricius (1516±1571) discovered silver chloride.[citation needed] Daniel Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1568.[citation needed] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[citation needed] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[citation
needed]

Invented in the first decades of the nineteenth century, photography (by way of the camera) seemed able to capture more detail and information than traditional mediums, such as painting and sculpting.[8] Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822[3] by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed by a later attempt to duplicate it.[3] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the first permanent photograph from nature with a camera obscura in 1826.[9] However, because his photographs took so long to expose (8 hours), he sought to find a new process. Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1816 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough to be captured by the long exposure (several minutes). Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his formula, in exchange for his promise to announce his discovery to the world as the gift of France, which he did in 1839. Daguerre continued work on the Daguerreotype in hopes of reducing exposure and furthering the development of photography, eventually culminating in financial discrepancies between the two

and William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret.about. leading to the technology used by film cameras today. the two men discontinued their partnership and retired from photographical research after selling the rights to the Daguerreotype to the French government. He invented the cyanotype process. Because of these discrepancies. the Ferrotype or Tintype (positive image on metal) and the negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt paper. (also called the Camera Obscura} and was able to explain why the images were upside down. Talbot had invented the calotype process. invented the first pinhole camera. . "negative" and "positive". By 1840. George Eastman developed the technology of film to replace photographic plates.W. The first casual reference to the optic laws that made pinhole cameras possible. In 1884. He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819. This became the most widely used process between 1852 and the late 1860s when the dry plate was introduced. Hercules Florence had already created a very similar process in 1832. Herschel in 1839. naming it Photographie.htm "Photography" is derived from the Greek words photos ("light") and graphein ("to draw") The word was first used by the scientist Sir John F. or related radiation. In 1908 Gabriel Lippmann won the Nobel Laureate in Physics for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.men concerning Niépce's original work not being accredited by Daguerre (consider the name "Daguerreotype"). which creates negative images. Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. on a sensitive material.com/od/pstartinventions/a/stilphotography. It is a method of recording images by the action of light. History of Photography http://inventors. Frederick Scott Archer published his findings in "The Chemist" on the wet plate collodion process. He was the first to use the terms "photography". now familiar as the "blueprint". John Herschel made many contributions to the new methods. and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them permanent. was observed and noted by Aristotle around 330 BC. the Ambrotype (positive image on glass). Meanwhile. After reading about Daguerre's invention. Talbot refined his process so that portraits were made readily available to the masses. also known as the Lippmann plate. There are three subsets to the Collodion process. He made the first glass negative in late 1839. Pinhole Camera Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham). a great authority on optics in the Middle Ages who lived around 1000AD. In March 1851. who questioned why the sun could make a circular image when it shined through a square hole.

gradually an image. Talbot made contact prints. He polished the silver and coated it in iodine. This was a negative image. there were over seventy daguerreotype studios in New York City alone. This process created a lasting image. and the subject was rendered in gradations of grey. . and then exposed it to light. reversing the light and shadows to create a detailed picture. Louis Daguerre Fellow Frenchman. and from the paper negative. However. Daguerre bathed the plate in a solution of silver chloride. an English botanist and mathematician and a contemporary of Daguerre.The First Photograph On a summer day in 1827. Then.the daguerreotype. In 1841. When Niepce placed the metal plate in a solvent. Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first photographic image with a camera obscura. Greek for beautiful picture. but the whiter areas permitted light to react with the chemicals on the plate. he perfected this paper-negative process and called it a calotype. Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography. Niepce's photograph required eight hours of light exposure to create and after appearing would soon fade away. The daguerreotype gained popularity quickly. After the image was painted by light. by letting light draw the picture. creating a surface that was sensitive to light. In 1839. he put the plate in a camera and exposed it for a few minutes. he formed a partnership with Joseph Nicephore Niepce to improve the process Niepce had developed. one that would not change if exposed to light. In 1839 after several years of experimentation and Niepce's death. appeared. but it would take him another dozen years before Daguerre was able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing afterwards. He then exposed the paper to light. Joseph Nicephore Niepce's heliographs or sun prints as they were called were the prototype for the modern photograph. naming it after himself . Prior to Niepce people just used the camera obscura for viewing or drawing purposes not for making photographs. Negative to Postive Process The inventor of the first negative from which multiple postive prints were made was Henry Fox Talbot. by 1850. Daguerre and Niepce's son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government and published a booklet describing the process. Talbot sensitized paper to light with a silver salt solution. Niepce placed an engraving onto a metal plate coated in bitumen. In 1829. Louis Daguerre was also experimenting to find a way to capture an image. The background became black. The Birth of Modern Photography Louis Daguerre was the inventor of the first practical process of photography. until then invisible. Daguerre's process 'fixed' the images onto a sheet of silver-plated copper. The shadowy areas of the engraving blocked light.

Dry processes absorbed light quickly so rapidly that the hand-held camera was now possible. Photographers no longer needed portable darkrooms and could now hire technicians to develop their photographs. These films used the modern technology of dye-coupled colors in which a chemical process connects the three dye layers together to create an apparent color image. Using a viscous solution of collodion. y Daguerreotype This experiment led to collaboration between Niépce and Louis Daguerre that resulted in the creation of the Daguerreotype. Frederick Scoff Archer. Wet Plate Negatives In 1851. such as Eastman's. yielding a positive image. Daguerreotypes were the forerunners to our modern film. Dry Plate Negatives & Hand-held Cameras In 1879. wet plates had to be developed quickly before the emulsion dried. Photography advanced considerably when sensitized materials could be coated on plate glass. were another medium that heralded the birth of photography. Emulsions coated on a cellulose nitrate film base. Color Photographs In the early 1940s.Tintypes Tintypes. George Eastman invented film with a base that was flexible. the dry plate was invented. The Daguerreotype was very popular until it was replaced in the late 1850s by emulsion plates. invented the wet plate negative. this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative. the earlier Daguerreotypes had to be exposed to light for up to 15 minutes. However. . In the field this meant carrying along a portable darkroom. he coated glass with light-sensitive silver salts. made the mass-produced box camera a reality. Flexible Roll Film In 1889. Dry plates could be stored for a period of time. A thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material. a glass negative plate with a dried gelatin emulsion. and could be rolled. patented in 1856 by Hamilton Smith. unbreakable. A copper plate was coated with silver and exposed to iodine vapor before it was exposed to light. Because it was glass and not paper. commercially viable color films (except Kodachrome. To create the image on the plate. an English sculptor. introduced in 1935) were brought to the market.

Tintypes used a tin plate. such as Joel Rosenthal's photograph. This made them much more suited to portrait photography. The consumer would take pictures and then send the camera back to the factory to for the film to be developed. The posed portraits of World War I soldiers gave way to graphic images of war and its aftermath. Polaroid introduced the Model 95. The film was still large in comparison to today's 35mm film. photography took another huge leap forward. rather than a simple coating on the image plate. These images. It was during this time that bellows were added to cameras to help with focusing. much like our disposable cameras today. . The Horrors of War Around 1930. This allowed him to develop a self-contained box camera that held 100 exposures of film. were less expensive than Daguerreotypes and took only two or three seconds of exposure time. By the mid 1960s. or wet plates. This was the first camera inexpensive enough for the average person to afford. Polaroid had many models on the market and the price had dropped so that even more people could afford it. These dry plates could be stored rather than made as needed. Instant Images At the same time 35mm cameras were becoming popular. y Cameras for Everyone Photography was only for professionals or the very rich until George Eastman started a company called Kodak in the 1880s. which was the most common photography at the time. While these plates were much more sensitive to light. they had to be developed quickly. This allowed photographers much more freedom in taking photographs. Cameras were also able to be smaller so that they could be hand-held. Two of these emulsion plates were ambrotype and tintype.y Emulsion Plates Emulsion plates. Model 95 used a secret chemical process to develop film inside the camera in less than a minute. many photojournalists adopted this style. This style of capturing decisive moments shaped the face of photography forever. Eastman created a flexible roll film that did not require the constant changing of solid plates. These wet plates used an emulsion process called the Collodion process. This new camera was fairly expensive but the novelty of instant images caught the public's attention. the first camera with a mechanical shutter was developed. Ambrotypes used a glass plate instead of the copper plate of the Daguerreotypes. When World War II started in 1939. Dry Plates In the 1870s. Richard Maddox improved on a previous invention to make dry gelatine plates that were nearly equal with wet plates for speed and quality. Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima brought the reality of war across the ocean and helped galvanize the American people like never before. It took until the late 1940s for 35mm film to become cheap enough for most people to afford. This camera had a small single lens with no focusing adjustment. As exposure times decreased. Henri-Cartier Bresson and other photographers began to use small 35mm cameras to capture images of life as it occurred rather than staged portrait shots.

The Digital Age In the 1980s and 1990s.Image Control While the French introduced the permanent image. For the next 30 years SLR-type cameras remained the camera of choice and many improvements were introduced to both the cameras and the film itself. and other manufacturers all offer advanced digital SLR cameras. Smart Cameras In the late 1970s and early 1980s compact cameras that were capable of making image control decisions on their own were introduced. introduced the Asahiflex and Nikon introduced its Nikon F camera. Pentax.com/articles/invention-of-photography. Daguerreotype http://inventors. which later became Pentax. Kodak had produced the first digital camera advanced enough to be used successfully by professionals. professionals and serious amateurs continued to prefer to make their own adjustments to image control. By 1991. Other manufacturers quickly followed and today Canon. These "point and shoot" cameras calculated shutter speed. In the 1950s Asahi. numerous manufacturers worked on cameras that stored images electronically. and focus. While these cameras became immensely popular with casual photographers. Nikon. the Japanese brought easy control of their images to the photographer.buzzle.htm http://www. Even the most basic point and shoot camera now takes higher quality images than Niépce¶s pewter plate. These were both SLR-type cameras and the Nikon F allowed for interchangeable lenses and other accessories. aperture.com/od/dstartinventions/a/Daguerreotype.html . The first of these were point and shoot cameras that used digital media instead of film.about. leaving photographers free to concentrate on composition.

If. Rasmussen Walgenstein. The ancient aspiration of representing reality was met by photography in 1839. An argument on the galloping of horses and a bet of 25. refers to a mirror placed at the opening of a well. Lincoln and M. However. today we would have been refering to him as the inventor of cinema. With its quick movement and drawn images. . Muybridge constructed a structure constisting of 30 cameras. In the decade of 1920-1930. There. In 1825. the Belgian physician Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau constructed the Anorthoscope and soon after that the Phenakistiscope. when playing with the elements of shadow and light resulted in leaving the viewers absolutely dazzled. Paris constructed the Thaumatrope. We have optical experiments reappearing after the Rennaisance period. ³Spilia´) can be traced back to the roots of photography. In 1834. in 1878. which stopped their further development. within which one can see images and hear talks from the life of humans on the planet Earth. who in one of his fiction stories about a trip to the moon. Bradley. devised a system with mirrors. was seemingly an idea of Sir John Herschel. with the name Zoetrope. Just a little bit earlier. Eadweard Muybridge was known for his photographic studies of movement and governor Stadford asked for his input in order to prove his beliefs. Up until this point. human knowledge had given everything it needed to.000 dollars of the governor of California was the reason for Muybridge to be placed under the spotlight. It was then time for Thomas Edison and Louis and Auguste Lumières to invent cinema. In 1816. parts of which where painted with different colours. Heron. The first to describe it is the hisouiths Athanasius Kircher in his work µArs Magna Lucis et Umbrae¶ (µThe big Art of Light and Shadow¶). the later inventor of stereoscopical photography Sir David Brewster constructed the first kaleidoscope. The µMagical Light¶ was the precedent of the transparency projectors and with its many varieties and developments it was still used and was quite popular until the 19th Century (lanterna magica). This series of photographs made Muybridge famous and gave birth to the idea of cinematic cameras. The need for the representation and recording of movement as well as that for the narration of mesmerising stories reached their complete expression through photography. it resembled a cartoon. The person who came close to the cinema like no one else. until it came back by William F. Its fathership is claimed by many. we can definitely consider him to be the father of cartoons. all of those activities came to an end. whose shutter would open up by a thread split by the horse as it passed right in front of them. You can read more on the inventions and breakthroughs that followed in the field of photography. which. Christian Huygens. due to their understanding as idolatrous and devil¶s workings by the Christians in the Middle Ages. its magical walls host the most extraordinary sights. which was also known in the market as Phantasmascope or Fantoscope. instead of his drawn paper tapes he had thought of actually showing film with his Praxinoscope. we meet with the ancient greek writer Loukianos. the big inventor of ancient times. which. However. The most important invention of that time was that of the ³Magical Light´. Reeves. Plato¶s ³Cave´ (gr. William George Horner made a system which he called Daedalum and was forgotten for over 30 years.The origins of cinema The invention of cinema is a result of various ingenious invetions in numerous scientific fields. was the French Emile Reynaud. Ptolemeos is the one who first constructed a device of optical tricks (Ptolemeo¶s Disc) which was effectively based on the movement of the disc. in THE ORIGINS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Dechales.

Because of his special interest in sets. The exploits of Shivaji and his contemporaries and their patriotic encounters with their opponents formed the recurring themes of his 'historicals' which invariably had a contemporary relevance to the people of a nation.com%29. are revealed slowly through choreographic movements of painted glass slides in a lantern. he chose episodes from Maratha history for interpreting in the new medium and specialised in the historical genre. As the title indicates the subject is again a mythological from the Mahabharata. These tales. with the blessings of the Maharaja of Kolhapur and released the first significant historical Sairandhari (1920) with Balasheb Pawar. who were fighting for liberation from a colonial oppressor. with accompanying live sounds have been an age old Indian tradition.pdf history of indian cinema Pre-cinema age Telling stories from the epics using hand-drawn tableaux images in scroll paintings. Hollywood returned Ananthanarayanan Narayanan founded General Pictures Corporation in 1929 and established filmmaking as an industry in South India and became the single largest producer of silent films.eBookByte.Keechaka Vadham.popularly known as Baburao Painter formed the Maharashtra Film Co.presumably the first 'social satire' on Indians obsessed with Western values. Another film made in Madras . And with that another genre of Indian cinema known as 'the contemporary social' slowly emerged.Valli Thiru-Manam (1921) by Whittaker drew critical acclaim and box office success. as it did elsewhere. which create illusions of movements. even till today. And so when the Lumire brothers' representatives held the first public showing at Mumbai's (Bombay) Watson's Hotel on July 7. costumes. The possibility of reaching a large audience through recorded images which could be projected several times through mechanical gadgets caught the fancy of people in the performing arts and the stage and entertainment business.com/admin/upload/History/The%20Oxford%20History%20Of%20World%20Cine ma%20%20%28www. Baburao Painter followed it up with another significant film in 1925 . The attack against the false values associated with the Western way of life and their blind imitation by some Indians was humorously brought out by Dhiren Ganguly in his brilliant satirical comedy . was keen on getting hold of the Lumiere Cinematograph and trying it out himself rather than show the Lumiere films to a wider audience. Kolhapur in Western Maharashtra was another centre of active film production in the twenties. The first decade of the 20th century saw live and recorded performances being clubbed together in the same programme. dance and popular theatre on the cinema movement in India in its early days. The Indian viewer took the new experience as something already familiar to him. The strong influence of its traditional arts. design and painting. In 1919 Baburao K Mistry .England Returned (1921) . mostly the familiar stories of gods and goddesses. the new phenomenon did not create much of a stir here and no one in the audience ran out at the image of the train speeding towards them. In Calcutta. is probably responsible for its characteristic enthusiasm for inserting song and dance sequences in Indian cinema.http://www. Hiralal Sen photographed scenes from some of the plays at the Classic Theatre. The public reception accorded to Wrangler Paranjpye at Chowapatty on his return from England with the coveted distinction he got at Cambridge was covered by Bhatwadekar in December 1901. Harischandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar. Kamala Devi and Zunzarrao Pawar in stellar roles.ebookbyte. 1896. Regional Cinema The first film in Southern India was made in 1916 by R Nataraja Mudaliar. who happened to be present for the Lumiere presentation.Savkari .the first Indian topical or actuality film was born. Such films were shown as added attractions after the stage performances or taken to distant venue where the stage performers could not reach. music.

Even when Shantaram took up stories from the past. The film has title cards in English and Malayalam.Pash (The Indian Shylock) .org/wiki/History_of_film http://en. These directors entered the film industry during the 1930s and '40s. Duniya Na Mane (1937) was about a young woman's courageous resistance to a much older husband whom she had been tricked into marrying.Rajeswari Film. got into a legal tangle and was withdrawn after its premiere. a region rich in culture and intellectual activity. directed by P V Rao. The first feature film in Tamil. Less prolific than Bombay based film industry. Titled Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra. Nagercoil. Indian Cinema Starts Talking In the early thirties.wikipedia. and Punjab Mail (1939). The fight for independence. V Shantaram was arguably the most innovative and ambitious. The Golden Fifties Fifties saw the rise of great directors like Mehboob. He dealt with issues like cast system. Alam Ara produced by Ardeshir Irani (Imperial Film Company). It could perhaps be called the first women's lib film in India. 1931 was the first Indian cinema with a sound track. the film was entirely banned by the colonial censor on the ground that it treated a sacred subject irreverently and dealt with controversial politics. Had it not been for the legal embargo. From his first talkie Ayodhya ka Raja (1932) to Admi (1939). he used these as parables to highlight contemporary situations. which were traumatic years for the Indian people. around 122 feature films were made in Calcutta in the Silent Era. it was clear that he was a filmmaker with a distinct style and social concern whose films generated wide discussion and debate. Keechakavatham was made during 1916-17. global fight against fascism all contributed to the ethos in which the directors grew up. sing and dance. Based on a celebrated novel by C V Raman Pillai. Guru Dutt and Raj Kapoor who changed the fate of Indian cinema.an attempt at realistic treatment of the Indian peasant exploited by the greedy moneylender. famines. under Shri. the film would have had a great impact on the regional cinema of the South. also the first in entire South India. religious bigotry and women's rights. Mumbai became the hub of the Indian film industry having a number of self-contained production units. the film recounts the adventures of the crown prince and how he eliminates the arch-villains to become the unquestioned ruler of the Travancore State. released on March 14. the silent Indian cinema began to talk. While Amirt Manthan (1934) opposed the senseless violence of Hindu rituals. changing social mores. Admi (1939) was one of Shantaram's major works. the first Bengali feature film in 1917. Dharmatama (1935) dealt with Brahmanical orthodoxy and cast system. Indira.org/wiki/Cinema_of_India . Originally titled Mahatma. some of which are taken from the original text. Amarjyoti (1936) was an allegory on the oppression of women in which the protagonist seeks revenge. directed by Nataraja Mudaliar.wikipedia. http://en. Miss Frontier Mail (1936). Bimal Roy.M A (1934). was remake of Phalke's Raja Harishchandra. it was directed by Rustomjee Dotiwala. Among the leading filmmakers of Mumbai during the forties. Anarkali (1935). The thirties saw hits like Madhuri (1932). In Bengal. Marthandavarma (1931) produced by R Sunder Raj. A few of the title cards and action make obvious reference to the Swadeshi Movement of the time.

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