N63
fyxntll
Wlmvmxty pfoOTg
SAGE
ENDOWMENT FUND
THE GIFT OF
lieurtx
m. Sage
X89K
^/jr//..d,.
.
JF
%>....#..
7.3A
68961
The
original of this
book
is in
restrictions in
text.
http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924005003367
SHIP
CONSTRUCTION
AND
CALCULATIONS.
WITH
FOR THE USE OF OFFICERS OF THE MERCANTILE MARINE, SHIP SUPERINTENDENTS, DRAUGHTSMEN, ETC.
BY
GEORGE
Member of
Institution
NICOL,
Surveyor
to
of
Naval
Architects,
Lloyd's Register
of Shipping.
GLASGOW:
5256
E.
KENT &
CO.,
LTD.
1909.
Preface.
advances THE rapid the and
in
that
in
design
best
details
of
ships
is
the
public.
writer's
apology for
is
placing
the
The book
intended
manner some of the proand subsequent management afloat of ships, cargo steamships, and while no claim to special originality is made,
to
explain in a
in
the
building
is
be
hoped that the matter presented will be found up mentioned that publication has been specially delayed
to
to
date.
It
may
so
as
to
include
respects
reference
Lloyd's
latest
rules,
which
differ
in
certain
important
from those preceding them, and are "more readily applicable to the changing
conditions
It
is
of construction."
will
be found useful by
officers
of the Mercantile
apprentices,
is
Marine, ship
of
superintendents,
draughtsmen,
and
shipyard
to
all
whom
the
in
essential.
To
one,
mariner
the
subject
to
it.
may now be
for
said
to
be
compulsory
master
that
those
who wish
in
qualify
the
certificate
of extra
must pass
reasons
an
of
examination
officer
why an
as
and
to
theory
ships.
But besides this, there are other good should know something regarding the construction For instance, it would enable him, if called upon,
at
on behalf of his employers of an old one. Or, if sudden damage, calling for immediate temporary
act
inspector the
the
building
of
to
new
vessel
or
repair
his
vessel
it
were
receive
repairs,
confidence
in
directing
his
crew
in
the
carrying
out
of
In
the
assist
vessel
to
afloat,
a knowledge
at
of simple
theory
would
of
arrive
quickly
satisfactory
conditions
draught,
mere guesswork or a system of trial and error. In other ways also such knowledge would prove useful. The examples chosen for illustration throughout the book have been selected for their practical interest, and every effort has been exerted to
and
stability,
unattainable
by
make
Ltd.,
the
explanations
simple.
J.
L.
Thompson
&
Sons,
by them
indebtedness to
Mr. W.
and he also desires to acknowledge Thompson, B.Sc, for help in reading the proof
;
sheets,
and
in
verifying the
Glasgow, November,
CONTENTS.
Simple Ship Calculations
........
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
Outlines of Construction
. .
II.
.... ....
...
25
42
CHAPTER CHAPTER
IV.
45
.......
CHAPTER
VI.
75
Practical Details
....
CHAPTER CHAPTER
. .
93
VII.
.
.
.177
197
Trim
...
.
CHAPTER CHAPTER
IX.
217
Rolling
Appendix
254
272
APPENDICES.
297
Appendix B
Sines
and Cosines;
Weights
. .
Rates of Stowage
.
.
305 309
Appendix C
Index
Additional Questions
.......
324
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND
CALCULATIONS.
CHAPTER
I.
A
first
KNOWLEDGE
areas
of
the
principle
of
of
surfaces
having
curved
boundaries
in
be
the
only
indispensable
requisites
with
ordinary
ship
calculations.
In view of
the
principle
this
we propose
to
spend
little
time
on these
problems.
subjects,
may be found
ship
or
convenient,
The
area
of
to
straight
curved lines
its
may
some
boundaries.
it
The
unit,
in
English measure,
a
usually a
square
foot,
although
is
and sometimes, although more rarely, as a times taken as In France, and on the Continent generally, the metrical square yard. system is employed, the units of surface being the square metre and square These metrical units have many points of advantage, centimetre, respectively. but as the square foot is more familiar to us, we shall make it the standard
square
inch,
in
our calculations.
The
fig. i,
simplest
figure
of
which
all
we
may
of
obtain
all
the
area
right
is
square,
sides
equal,
and
angles
angles.
feet.
In
If
A BCD
be
in
is
a square,
such as
two adjacent
lines
sides,
length
parts,
and
as
drawn
the
through
the
points
of
division
parallel
to
these
sides,
shown
has
its
figure,
There are, 4 sides equal to a foot, and encloses one unit of area. It is obvious that 36 units in a square having a side of 6 feet. to find the number of units in any square it is only necessary to multiply
therefore,
of one side by
itself.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
for
rule
the
area
is
the
same
let
as
for
the
length
in
this
of
two
feet
adjacent
unequal.
sides
are
multiplied
together,
these
however,
in
case,
As an
feet
example,
the
adjacent
the rule,
a rectangle
be 16
and 8
long respectively.
feet.
By
we have
Fig.
Area =
16x8 =
128
square
bisects
the
parallelogram
A GB
D,
and,
as
we have
just
seen
Area
Therefore, the area of the
area
to
RF
By
this
rule
the
of any
the
triangle
may be obtained
know
and it is seen that we only require and the vertical distance between that side
intersect.
feet,
and a
feet.
vertical
height
of
22
feet,
have an
area
.
of
75 square
The
bounded by
straight
lines
of the foregoing
or
by a combination of
applied
this to
them,
of the
earliest
rules
the
finding
areas
were of
nature.
in
(fig. 4) Bisect A E be a portion of a ship's waterplane. and through F draw a line perpendicular to A E to intersect the curve in 0, FO will be parallel to A B and DE. Join B and D by straight lines, then and FGDE will be trapezoids. A B, F 0, ED are called ordinates to the curve let these lines be represented by the letters y y.2 and f/ 3 respectively and let h be the common distance between consecutive ordinates. Obtain now the areas of the trapezoids and FGDE by ap
Let
ABODE
F,
ABCF
ABCF
Draw B G
parallel to
F,
meeting C
in
then
Area
B0G=
these
BG
G
,
and area A B G F = A
Fx A
B.
may be
2
written
Area B 06 = ^^
x h, and area
A B G F = h x yv
Combining we
get
Area A B
In the same way area
,.
F=
h
(</ x
+ y.2 ).
FGDE ^ (ijz + y)
D Eh (#1+ 2y
2
whole area A B
+ y 3 ).
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
with
fig.
The
rule
may be
applied
to
five
curves
as
in
any
number
of
ordinates.
5.
By
the
rule,
area
ABDE = (y + 2y 2 + y
x
%)
and,
area
EDHJ =
(y>+ 2y 4
x
\y 5 )
ABDHJ = {y +
2y.2
a(/ 3
2</ 4
/ 5 )
This
area
line,
is
bounded
may be
stated
as
follows
To
other,
obtain the
and a curved which is taken as the base of the figure divide the base between the end ordinates into any number of equal parts, and through the points of division draw perpendiculars to the curved line, as in figure 5 measure the length of these ordinates, taking one foot or one inch as the unit of measurement then to the sum of all the ordinates, except the end ordinates, add half the the result, multiplied by the normal distance sum of the end ordinates between any two ordinates, measured in same unit, will be the area of the
any
of
plane
surface,
bounded by
being
three
straight
to
lines
two
the
straight
lines
perpendicular
the
surface,
approximately.
Example.
as
Let
in
length of base
=
=
48
10
feet.
Let there be
feet,
;
ordinates, spaced
directed,
giving
common
1
interval
y.2
;
of
12
and
12
;
let
5
the
4,
value
of
the
ordinates
be
feet
y3 =
16
y=
respectively.
the
calculation
becomes
The
the
area
areas
obtained
enclosed
as
above
is
less
than
the
lines
actual
area
required
by
small
ordinates
is
and the
that
curve,
as
indicated
by the
of
hatched
ordinates,
It
clear
by taking
in
a great
small,
number
is is
hatched
area.
is
areas
but
however
always
greatest
numerous
less
ordinates
may
be,
It
area obtained
that
this
manner
give
than
obvious, too,
this
rule,
the difference
will
w hen the
results
excessive;
to
therefore,
most
accurate
little
when applied
surfaces
curvature.
curves
the
ordinates
should be close
If the curves met with in ship design were of regular form, equations them could be deduced by means of which the correct areas of surfaces Unfortunately, enclosed by them up to any point could be written down.
this
is
it
not
is
so.
No
this
rigid
equation
error
can
is
be applied to
usually
ordinary
in
ship
curves,
as
but
found that no
great
involved
treating
them
parabolas,*
*
and
is
now
the
common
practice.
parabola
may
sides
it
is
also
that
its its
distance
from a fixed
point
line
distance
A.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
as
By an important
inventor,
rule
formula,
known
Simpson's
Rale,
named
after
the
the
area
may be
obtained.
The
may be
stated as follows
baseline,
verticals
of
any chosen
these
draw
into
to
cut
the curve.
between
an
even
the
number
;
of
and
through
the
be
odd
in
number.
omitting
last
Measure
length
of
sum
the
odd
the
ordinates,
first
and
last.
To
the
and
the
ordinates.
Finally,
multiply
the
by onethird
this
will
the the
length
of
common
surface
to
interval
if
it
between
curve curve
in
ordinates
a
give
exact area
of the
the
if
be that of
ship
common
parabola,
and
pro
a close approximation
the
This rule
a
ship's
is
of
immense value
of
and we
shall
(fig.
its
application.
is
Let
ABC
,
7),
be
is
which
the
area
required.
x
The base A G
etc.,
divided
indicated
in
the rule,
7.
y2 y 3
are
drawn
Fig.
is
the
common
interval
We may
It
write
Area A B
frequently
2t/ 7
+4
at
*/ 8
+ &)
ends of
the
the
curvature
to
is
greater
the
waterplane,
and a
approximation
these
places,
the
area
in
is fig.
attained
8.
by inserting
total
intermediate
is
ordinates
as
shown
:
The
area
now made up
of three
Fig.
portions,
8.
as
follows
JL
Area A Area
ED
=
(0i 6
2</H
+ i# 2
</ 8 ).
)
DEF6
j
h
(</ 2
+ 4 </ 5 +
h
2</ 6
+4
</ 7
Axe&FGC =
Combining these
Area A
jiyt
+ Ay&t+y*) =
we
get
j(ii/ 8
ays*
+ #>)
+
portions,
2t/ij
BG = ~{ly x +
ihy 2
+ 4y, +
2</ 4
4 </ 5
+ 2 y6 +
4^7
ijy a
+ 2y 9 + Jy 9 ).
1)
Suppose
with
(/i,
now
that
as
follows:
the
5,
ordinates
have
certain
definite
16*9,
values
beginning
94,
'i,
*i,
n"6,
15*4,
i6"8,
jyo,
feet:
is.
16*4,
14/5,
and that the total length of the plane is 200 by filling in the values in equation (1), but it
the
figures,
as
follows
No.h. of
Ordinates.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
We have seen that to apply Simpson's First Rule to finding the area of any surface having a curved boundary, there must be an odd number of ordinates, and not less than three. It is, however, sometimes necessary to find the area between two consecutive ordinates, as, for instance, between
f/i
and y 2
in
fig.
9.
To do
Fig.
this
we employ another
rule
known
as
the
Eight Rule, which may be stated thus : Five Eight Rule. Three ordinates being given, to obtain the area between any two multiply the middle ordinate by 8, the ordinate forming the other boundary to the space whose area we are finding by 5, and the remaining ordinate by  1 the algebraic sum of these products, when multiplied by TV
Five
the
common
interval
between
the
ordinates,
will
give
the
area
required.
For example
Area A
BCD
(fig.
9)
(Stfi +%*&)
).
and area D C
If
these
be added we
get,
after
rearrangement
Total area
A BEF =
Rule
curve
is
(</ 1
+ 4</a + ffs),
on
the
which
as
shows
first
that
rule,
the
Five
Eight
the
based
that
same assumption
parabola.
the
namely,
that
is
of a
common
Take a
of
interval
practical example.
The
feet,
7 '6
and
8,
respectively,
the
common
being 9
first
feet.
between the
Find the area of the portion of the Tabulating, we get and second ordinates.
Ordinates.
full
waterplane
the area
third
ordinates
were
required,
the
calculation would
S.M.
10
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
find
as
with
areas,
13,
etc.,
we now
as
is
that
surfaces
can
be dealt
for
ordinates,
and
as
10,
13,
16,
etc.,
ordinates
required
by
the
Second Rule;
will
surfaces
those
8,
12,
14,
etc.,
ordinates,
no
single
to.
rule
apply,
and a
a
must be resorted
Take,
for
instance,
ordinates
as
shown
in
figure
10
Examining the figure, we note that the portion A BCD may be treated second rule, and the remainder Proceeding by the first. thus, we get
by
the
DGEF
Area A B C D =
g%
4
+ 3</ 2 441/ 5
3^3
+ ^)
and area
DC E F =
~(y +
2y 6
+ 4*/ 7 + y B ).
so as to get a
common
factor outside
Whole
Calculate
area
A B
EF = (i^ +3#
of
fig.
^
be
+ 4#7 +
12
</ 8 )
the
area
10,
assuming the
167,
24*4,
will
to
feet
apart,
289,
299,
273,
22*3,
and
respectively.
The work
No. of
Ordinates.
be as follows
II to
work
it
out
himself.
Tcheuychkff's Rule.
having curved
Simpson's
the
This
differs
surfaces
boundaries
certain
important
are
respects
from that
spaced,
as
of
in
;
Rule.
The
ordinates,
instance,
not
equally
latter case, but arbitrarily, according to the number of them employed nor are they treated by multipliers. All that it is necessary to do to obtain
the
is
area
to
in
a given
the
case
when
of
the the
ordinates
latter,
have been
these
placed in position,
together,
result
measure
the
lengths
add
divide
the
sum by
of the
number
of the
ordinates,
by the length
figure.
Fig.
11.
As an example,
have
in
six
let
us
find
the
area
to
of
rule,
ordinates
;
spaced
according
Here we
2,
3,
etc.,
the
sketch
the total
length
of the
base
is
Applying the
rule,
we have
No. of
Ordinates.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
It
AND CALCULATIONS.
where
is,
determined.
ordinates,
line.
should
at
be
noted
that
there
is
an
odd
number
of
the
of
one
occurs
the
origin,
that
the
middle
point
base
Table
i.
*3
No. of Ordinates.
u
feet
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
thick.
AND CALCULATIONS.
Let
fig.
The
BCD =
15x25 = 375
square
feet.
If the
would
also
measure
3! times
the
the
this
capacity
in
cubic
therefore
feet
:
the
actual
volume
will
obviously
be
quantity,
volume
= 375*
'5
1312*5
cubic feet
From
this
it
such as that in
14,
it
is
volumes of regular
solids,
;
There are various rules for obtaining the and we proceed to state a few of them without,
these
may be obtained by
referring
to
any work
on mensuration.
1.
Volume
of a pyramid
(perpendicular).
2.
Volume Volume
of sphere
diameter 3 x
~f~~~*
3.
of
an
Ellipsoid
volumes of
Fig.
solids
of
we come next to consider methods of finding the more or less irregular form, such, for example, as the
portion
of
immersed body of a
15
ship.
shows,
roughly, a
a ship's
body
by A
to
waterplane
which
dealt
say
may be supposed
no
it
represented
ED FA.
we have
finding
First,
with
rules
which
admit
of
direct
application
In
the volume
is
proceed as follows
of
assume
the
body
be
divided
by an
odd
number
equidistant
VOLUME.
transverse
15
planes
(nine
is
shown
in
the
figure),
and
calculate
the
areas
of
AFDEA.
scale,
fig. 16, having a length equal, on some and erect equalspaced ordinates to correspond with the transverse sections of the body previously mentioned. On each of these ordinates, which are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., in fig. 16, measuring from the base line H J, mark off to scale the number of square feet in the
Next,
take
horizontal
line,
HJ
corresponding section of
so
obtained,
capacity
the
vessel.
Draw a
will
fair
curve
HL
of the
2 2i2 2 2*3
Let That the foregoing statement is true may be very simply shown. space between any two sections, such as 2 and 3, be subdivided by ordinates drawn through the points 2 1; 2*, 2 3) and where they intersect the Now, since the be drawn parallel to H </, as shown. curve, let lines
the
ordinate at
the
little
represents
2
the
will
area
of
section
of
the vessel
at
that
point,
rectangle
at
2l
2
sections
vessel at
the
points
2.
and
section
In the
22
22
23
and
23
3,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
represent
AND CALCULATIONS.
the
areas
little
will
volumes of
the
vertical
3,
vertical
layers,
of
whose sections
will
be
interval.
2 Xi 22
The sum
22
,
of the
volumes
sections
this
of
at
2
layers
represented
by
etc.,
between
vessel
at
and
will
be
less
than
the
actual
volume
of
the
and the deficiency is obviously represented by the areas of the little triangles But by between the tops of the rectangles and the curve. making the division close enough, the areas of these little triangles can be made as small as we please, so that in the limit the volume of the body, between sections at 2 and 3, will be truly represented by the area of that portion of fig. 14 enclosed by the curve, the bounding ordinates, and the
part,
base
line.
is
Thus
it
is
clear
that,
as
stated
above,
the
total
volume of the
sections
40, 163,
body
represented
by the area
load
line,
L J H.
areas of the vertical transverse
feet,
The
50,
up
to
the
in square
are,
respectively,
o,
400,
is
750,
470,
350,
270,
and
total
o,
them
will
12
feet.
Calculate
this
is
the
be seen that
merely a
question
area of a figure
as
such as
H LJ //,
follows
/rea
of
VOLUME.
shown, the vessel being symmetrical about
of each of the horizontal planes
to
is
17
the
middle
line
plane.
The
some
area
scale,
first
on a horizontal
1
plane
for
which
it
refers.
In
1
fig.
these
areas
are
represented
by B
the
first
waterplane,
FG
for the
fair
curve
GG^D,
drawn through these points will obviously, from our previous consideration, enclose an area representing the volume of the vessel from the keel to the first waterplane; and therefore, to obtain the immersed volume of the vessel, it
is
BCD.
Fig.
17.
W.P.
ew.E
W.P.
4W.P.
beginning
feet,
the upper one, be 8000, 7600, 7000, 6000, 4500, 2800, respectively, and the distance between them be 3 feet, what
at
be the
:
total
volume?
The work
of
finding
this
area
we
tabulate
as
follows
No. of W.P.
'
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
this
point,
for a reason
which
appear presently, we must endeavour to explain an important hydrostatic This law asserts that if any principle known as the Law of Archimedes.
body be
to
immersed
at
in
a fluid
it
will
the
weight of
float
the
volume
of
of
the
body
total
the
surface
the fluid
be pressed upwards by a force equal fluid which it displaces ; and if the with only a portion of its bulk im
will
ioo'x2o'xio', floating
will
in
salt
half
its
immersed,
displace
ioo x 20 x
10000
or 64
fluid.
And
since
we know, or may
ozs.,
easily
lbs.,
by experiment, that a cubic foot and therefore that a ton of salt water
= 35
cubic
feet,
we
are able
to
write
vessel
28 5*7
tons
By
the
Law of Archimedes this weight is equal to that of the vessel and its contents. The following is a simple proof of this important principle. If the body
Fig.
18
represented
by A
it
in
fig.
18
be placed in a
a part of
its
fluid
of greater specific
gravity
than
itself,
will
float
with
shown.
those
The immersed
pressures
portion will
which act
by arrows.
solidified,
on a section
If,
to
the the
plane
fluid
indicated
to
now,
we imagine
body
of
filled itself
of
the
become
this
and the
shape
to
be
top
nonexistent,
cavity
will
exact
the
to
immersed
the
form
with
of
the
the
body.
fluid
If
cavity
be
supposed
fluid
same
and
the
there
surrounding
will
solidified
free
is
be
be a
level
surface,
be disturbed
statical
supposed to .return to its former state and consequently the equilibrium will not
occupying the cavity
the
will
that
to say, the
fluid
effect
as
the
body
in
itself,
since
same
this
it
resultant
at
keeps
weight
each of them
of the
equilibrium.
From
floating
body
is
the
same as that of a volume of the fluid of the immersed portion of the body. This
it,
when a
vessel
!9
is
floated,
he knows that
its
weight,
including
contents,
equal
to
that of
He
and of forming a
will
on which
of
to estimate
the
vessel
carry.
We now
see
the
importance
being
able
to
calculate
the
in
volume of the immersed body of a ship. which this work can be done, and pointed
the use
We
out
the
the
method involving
its
it
of horizontal areas
is
preferable
to
other,
because of
greater
affords
convenience.
This
is
seen,
for instance, in
the ready
means which
of obtaining the
each
of
volume, and therefore the weight of the displaced water at the various waterplanes indicated on fig. 17. These intermediate
although not of special value of themselves, when plotted to corresponding draughts, give a curve from which the displacement at any draught up to the loadline may be read off. This curve constitutes what is known as the displacement diagram.
scale
at
displacements,
As a
practical
example let us construct such a diagram in a specific case. whose waterplane areas were used in the example on page 17.
was there determined to be 88,825 cubic
>25
Con
The
feet.*
volume up
=
a
2538 tons
35
feet.
Referring
now
12
to
feet,
fig.
is
17,
the
volume
to
area
DFG
total
y .
The
the
simplest
1st
and
by way of obtaining this volume is to deduct 2nd plane represented by the area BFG l C
to
draught
of
represented
from
the
volume.
The displacement
1st
rule,
the
3rd
waterplane
to
may be
the
while
for
the value
4th
volume between the 1st and 4th planes should be got by Simpson's 2nd rule, and the result deducted from the total volume. The 1st
the
rule
will
be suitable
being
for
finding
case.
the
displacement to
the 5th
plane, the
half
interval
used in
this
In the following table we show these calthe final results are arranged by themselves
Displacement Calculation.
No. of
Sect.
20
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS
SSS25 x 3
35 x 3
3 2
Q = 2^S
tons.
93800 x
35 x I2
670
tons.
1S68 tons.
^ 43425
ist
x 3
1240 tons.
l8 b 8tonStons.
35 x 3
and 4th
\V. P.
= 578oox3X3 =
35x3
25
=
79
680
x 3
226 tons.
Take is now and let the distance from A to B equal 15 feet; divide it into five equal parts and draw horizontal lines from the points of division. Number these horizontal lines from B downwards. Now measure along these lines, to some convenient scale, distances representing the displace
The
35 x 3 an easy matter.
(fig.
19),
ments corresponding
will give
to these draughts.
fair
19.
SCALE
OF
DISPLACEMENT IN TONS
= io
in
feet.*
horizontal
drawn out
at
at this
a point showing on
1530
it
tons.
ment
could be found.
be constructed,
From
officers
may
to
exhibits
in graphic
in the water,
and may be looked upon as a kind of loading meter by which the officer is able to tell, at any moment during loading operations, the amount of cargo he has got
aboard,
and the
fig.
amount
give
still
to
be
dealt
with
to
bring
the
vessel
to
her
assigned loadline.
In
It will
20
we
an
illustration
of such a diagram
deduced from
is
fig.
19.
a scale of draughts
amount
by the addition of each 2007 tons in her load. The effect on the draught of quantities less than 200 tons is, of course, found by interpolation.
Fig.
20.
22
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
7 feet
AND CALCULATIONS.
aft,
at
and that
it
is
required to ascertain
still
how much
to sink
how much
has
to
be shipped
her to a
mean draught
of 15 feet?
Mean
At At
'
ft.
8 ins.
this
draught there
feet
will
15
mean draught
still
amount of cargo
sirable to
to
be shipped
1736  380
is
de
weight scale
it
can, however, be
diagram, called a "Curve of tons per inch of Immersion," which shows graphically
number of tons required to sink or lighten the vessel one inch at any The weight of cargo shipped, divided by a number read from the diagram, will give the number of inches by which the draught has been altered.
the
draught.
Fig.
27.
23
Mark
off to scale
fair
on each
A
,
and draw a
curve through
420
This
will
To
21, a
scale of draughts
and of tons
lines
erased.
is
Example.
a
If
the of 9
vessel,
feet,
whose diagram
mean draught
is
From
:
the
curve at 9 feet
draught
the
tons per
inch
found to be i6
6,
therefore
additional immersion
JL =
16*6
^
inches.
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.
I.
State the
Trapezoidal
Rule
for
finding
areas
of plane
surfaces
and point out wherein it is inaccurate. The half ordinates in feet of the load waterplane of a vessel are, commencing from aft, 2, 6*5, 9/3, 107, n, n, 10, 7*4, 3*6, and *2, and the common interval between them is 15 feet. Find the area of the plane by using the
daries,
Trapezoidal Rule.
Ans,
21 18
square
feet.
2.
What
is
are the advantages of Simpson's First Rule for finding plane areas, and for
what
11
'6,
curve
What
14*5,
the
of ordi5,
nates?
15*4,
The
i6'8,
17,
l6'4,
9"4,
and
*l.
The spacing
of the
ordinates
is
feet,
find
Ans.
303*6.
Given the values of three consecutive and equally spaced ordinates and the common between them, what Rule would you employ to find the area between the first and second ordinates? If the ordinates in feet are 5, 11 "6 and 15*4, and their spacing n feet, find the area between the first two. Ans. 93*86 square feet.
3.
distance
4.
State
*i,
Simpson's
5,
Second
Rule.
in
To what
feet
class
of curve
does
it
apply accurately?
Given
sides.
2*6,
and 8*3
as the value
of the
half ordinates
of a portion of a ship's
common
Ans,
210*6
square
feet.
5.
Why
Deduce
the
Simpson's
First
Rule due
to
the
introduction
of a half
6.
What
are
First
Rule
for finding
plane areas?
Compare by an
24
7.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Given the areas
of the
in
to
AND CALCULATIONS.
transverse
vertical
the
L.W.
P.
of the
sections of a vessel,
area.
show
that
the volume
sections
displacement
may be
4,
expressed
IOO, 1S0,
as
a plane
260, 242,
If
the
tranverse
vertical
feet,
240,
190,
and the
common
volume of displacement.
Ans.
20,400
cubic feet.
S.
Explain
why
of
it
is
preferable
of the waterplanes
the
a vessel
employ the areas of horizontal sections or waterplanes volume of displacement. The areas are 000, 6000, 4S00, 3600, 2400, 1200, and IOO square feet;
to
is
common
interval
feet.
(salt
12133.
this
9.
What
is
the
"Law
of
Archimedes"?
Law
is
important to
10.
8,
11.
How
is
curve of
"Tons
per inch of
of such a curve?
parallel water
The
areas
are,
of a ship's
sections
respectively,
is
Immersion" constructed? What use is made L.W.P. is 4000 square feet, and the areas of other 3650, 32:0, 2550, and 24 square feet. The vertical
ins.
ft.
"Tons
CHAPTER
II.
Moments, Centre of
MOMENTS. If
less
lever
A B
(fig.
is
obvious
that
the
point at
Fig.
22.
J^
P
supported in equilibrium
equal
the
lies
If
the
weights
at
be
un
balancing
the
point
larger
not be
at
the
middle
but
some
other
position
nearer
weight.
it
In
exact
is
shown
the
position
C may be
P
obtained from
relation
(fig.
23),
n = irn
PR
(i),
Fig.
23.
if
Y
P
where
points
this
P and Q
and A
from
the
B,
and
OB
of application
of
the
weights
fulcrum.
Cross
multiplying,
equation becomes
It
x A
Q,
(1).
from a consideration
of a balanced system
of two
parallel
interest
on a rigid bar assumed to be weightless, two items of may be deduced first, that the position of the point of support must
acting
:
25
26
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
moment
about the point of support on one side must be equal and opposite to
other,
that
on the
Thus,
if
as
indicated by equation
lbs.
(2).
weights of 8 and 12
be suspended at A and
24.
(fig.
24),
the
Fig.
A
>,
II
if
X be the distance
(1),
balancing
point
is
proved by
i.e.,
if inches.
is
the
one required
moments
is
2i x 8
= 14^
;
12.
The
acting
the
following
an important theorem
the re$idta?it
The moment of
on
of a system of parallel forces in one plane a rigid body about any point in the plane is equal to the sum oj
moments of the component forces about the same point. case of two forces acting in the same direction, as in fig.
Fig.
25.
25.
ft
v P
be the points of application of the forces ; join A B and assume the line to be the point about which the moments are to be taken, be horizontal. Let and R the resultant of the two forces, which may be called P and Q. Drop
a
perpendicular
from
to
upon the
be
line
of
action
of
in
the
forces,
which
for
simplicity are
as shown.
It
is
assumed
that
vertical, cutting
them
hold
the points D, E,
and F
clear
the
above theorem
will
if
RxOE
=
or,
PxOD
(P+Q)0E
like
terms,
multiplying
MOMENTS.
Since
27
written
A B
is
parallel
to to
D
be
F,
this
may be
so
PxAC
QxCB.
must be the above theorem. The theorem will, of course, hold if there be any number of forces acting, for if the line of action of the resultant be found, the forces acting on either side of this line may be represented by a single force, and this will reduce the
But
this
relation
we know
true, therefore
We
etc.,
are
now
in
fig.
it
is
necessary to find
P P P&
ly
2i
shown
26,
which, in
the
first
instance,
we
shall
suppose acting
in
Fig.
26.
2o
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
its
vertical trace
to
be represented by the line of the force Plt by a simple moment calculation about this plane we will determine, not the position of the resultant, but only of the vertical plane containing it parallel to the plane chosen as the axis.
To
fully
determine
the
position
we must now
find
another
plane
it
also
is
Clearly, since
in
both planes,
in
fig.
it
shown from
the
plane
containing
P normal
l
to
planes
containing
the
resultant.
To
find
the
other
one we
the
Let these be given by the normal distances y u y<&y& y*  {js, eacn one having same suffix as the force to which it refers. Calling Y the distance of the
we have
fill
2, 4,
7, 9,
5,
for
17
</ 2 ,
etc., this
becomes
4x2
The two
values,
8x46x7
40
7*2
12
X95X
1*4
feet,
10
"
4
line of
X ~
feet
and Y =
determine the
the
The preceding
least
principle
to
admits of
finding
many important
applications, not
to
the
of
which
is
that
the
of centres of gravity,
uhich we must
now
into
an
infinite
number
weight
due
on the various
of the
form a system of
resultant
forces of
which the
total
body
is
the
which the
of the
to
the earth,
called
body.
body is also sometimes defined briefly as the body may be taken to act, no matter what position it may occupy. Thus, in the case of a ship and cargo, the total weight is taken as acting at a fixed point when making stability and other
centre of gravity of a
the weight
The
point at which
of the
calculations.
It
is
frequently necessary in
dealing with
ship
calculations
it
to
obtain
the
is
usual to keep
and
to
homogeneous
at its
the forces due to the weight of the various portions of the lamina must pass
is
in
To
find
the
centre
of gravity
CENTRE OF GRAVITY.
of a triangular lamina such as A
First,
20
follows:
bisect
A C
in
of
all
strips of the
B C (fig. 27), we may proceed as B D. This line contains the centre lamina parallel to A G, consequently the centre of D and
join
of
gravity
gravity of
somewhere
in
it.
in
",
also
be
in
and A E
join
;
E.
The
it
therefore,
is
must be
G where
the lines
A E and
BD
intersect.
at a point onethird of
BD
from D.
gravity
by such
geometrical
is
methods,
owing
the
irregularity
of
the
form.
of
The
usual practice
lamina into an
infinite
number
moments of
and to divide the sum of each series of the total weight of the lamina, each quotient being the distance of a line containing the centre of gravity parallel to its corresponding axis, and the
right angles in the plane of the lamina,
moments by
centre of gravity
itself,
By employing Simpson's
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
it
AND CALCULATIONS.
simplionly necessary to deal with specimen elements, which greatly (fig. 28). fies the work. As an illustration consider the half waterplane A B G Divide A B into a number of parts as shown, and draw ordinates to the curve.
Rules
is
take a strip of the lamina of very small breadth a at ordinate 5, say ; area will be y 5 a, and this may also stand for the weight since the lamina
Now
its
is
homogeneous and
of uniform thickness.
The moment
of this
little
area about
A B
a
as axis will
be
y*a
y*
yi.
With a
little
as base, set
down^2
as
an ordinate below A
B,
and draw
in
the
rectangle
shown
of area at
y5
in the diagram, which will represent the moment of the strip In the same way obtain and plot the moments of elementary areas
little
close
an area A
D B,
which
will represent
the
moment
of the area
AGB
about
of
and consequently, by the principle of moments, the distance the centre of gravity of this area from the chosen axis will be given by
the line
B,
Total
Area Area
AD B
AGB'
As a numerical example, let the above half waterplane be 140 feet long, and let 11 ordinates be taken so as to suit the application of Simpson's First Rule to the finding of the areas A D B and A B. The figures of this calculation are best arranged in tabular form as shown
below.
In the
feet,
first
values in
respectively.
two columns are the numbers of the ordinates and their The third column gives Simpson's multipliers, and
when
far
by these
the
multipliers.
It
will
be seen that so
the work
simply in the
AGB.
The
area
enclosed
the
ordinates,
by the moment curve, the fifth giving the squares of and the sixth the functions of the same when affected by the
multipliers.
No', of
Ordinates.
CENTRE OF GRAVITY.
Using these
figures
31
we obtain
at
once
}
x 4
3
c
4*53 feet
2173 x
It
y
position
of
14
should be noticed that in the calculation the whole squares are employed in the table, the division by 2 being done at the end, as shown.
We
one
line
have,
as
We
at right angles
The
as
principle of
it
moments
usual
to
is
upon
an
of
axis
for
the purpose,
it
the
plane,
will
choose an ordinate about the middle obviously mean a less laborious calculation than if Care must also be taken .to select nr at either end.
is
29.
of
Simpson's
First
Rule
being
applied
in
arriving
moment
curves.
unsuitable
29)
5
Taking No.
as
axis,
the
moment
of
small
strip
at
ordinate
No.
4 will be y 4 Cth, h being the common interval between the ordinates and a At ordinate No. 3, the moment of a strip will be the breadth of the strip.
y3 CtX2h, and
case
so
on
for
strips
at
the other
ordinates, the
little
area in each
interval
it
being
multiplied
common
for
is
is
repeated
at
No. 6
No.
7,
*/ 7
and so
on.
To
a,
construct the
as in
moment
diagram,
the
thus
are,
the
on the other side of A B at the points to which they refer, and fair curves drawn as A H F and FKB in the Evidently, the centre of gravity will be on that side of the axis which figure.
rectangles, each
on a base
32
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
greater
AND CALCULATIONS.
from the
axis
will
has
moment
and
its
distance
be obtained by
;
moments by
thus
Area
FKB
5,
 Area Area A B
AHF
The work of finding the above areas is arranged below. The first four columns are the same as before; in the fifth are the multipliers representing the number of intervals each ordinate is distant from the axis through No. 5; the sixth column gives the functions of the ordinates after treatment by these
multipliers as well as those of Simpson's Rule.
No. of
Ordinates
CENTRE OF GRAVITY.
the portion of the area,
33
CFLE.
The
by dividing
the
sum
moments by
CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. It was shown, when treating of displacement and buoyancy, that the weight of any floating body is supported by the upward pressure due to the buoyancy of the water. Fig. 31 represents in section a ship floating freely and at rest in still water, and indicates the water pressures acting on her. It is the resultant of the vertical components of
these pressures, which act
supports,
and
is
therefore
the
total
weight of
the
vessel.
It
now
becomes necessary to state further that the line of action of this resultant, whatever be the position of the vessel, always passes through a certain point, viz., the centre of the immersed bulk, or the centre of gravity of the water that would occupy the same space. This point is called the centre of buoy
Hg.
I
31
ancy.
We now
this
centre
may be determined
in
any
given case.
it
will also
be at mid length,
In a cylindrical vessel floating at even but at J the depth below the surface. keel, it will as before be at mid length and at the same distance below the
surface as the centre of gravity of the transverse section.
In
all
these cases,
the
be easily determined.
In
owing
to
such simple
just as
We must, therefore, resort to moment calculations, methods can be applied. we had to do when finding areas of surfaces enclosed by ship curves,
c
34
3HIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
Take, as example, a vessel of ordinary form floating at a draught parallel to the In setting out to find the centre of buoyancy, we obkeelline (see fig. 32).
serve, in
line
will
the
first
is
plane, the
point required
if
must be somewhere
its
that
to
plane,
be
fully
determined
we know
position
relative
a vertical
To
made
assumed
calculation of
moments
32.
vertical
For the horizontal position, the displacement is supposed divided into transverse in this case, with layers and another calculation of moments made
;
of a
transverse
section
in
the
vicinity of amidships.
It
is
only necessary to
correctly plot the results of these calculations in the middleline plane to obtain
of
areas
specimen layers
only
CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
Let Au
terval
Aj,
35
the
3i
etc.,
common
will
in
a very small
of
thickness
of
layer
taken at each
waterplane.
0,
The moments
2h,
the
about W.L.
as
be
A 2 ah, A 3 a
and so
take
the
on,
volumes
vertical
2, 3,
weights,
(fig.
the density
being constant.
off horizontally
Now
at
any
of
the
draughts
33)
and mark
just
etc.,
planes,
4,
corresponding
moments
i
A 2 h,A 3 2h
little
and
thus
depths a.
fair
rectangles
obtained, starting from the point , will enclose an area representing the total
moment
the
axis
If,
on the other
side
of
E /?,
the
diagram
will
volume of the
vessel
it
below No.
is
waterplane.
:
From
clear that
__ _
below No.
waterplane,
Area Area
ED B
in
square
1800, 3
ft.,
beginning from the upper one, 8000, 7600, 7000, 6000, 4500,
respectively,
and
100,
is
In obtaining the
upper waterplane, in
In the second,
pliers,
distance
all
of the
centre
it
of
is
and
similar examples,
are
the
areas,
fifth
Simpson's multi
and
functions
for
of
areas,
In
the
column
are
the
multipliers
leverage,
and
in
the sixth,
is
functions.
The
process
seen
to
E G B and E D B by
No. of
Ordinates.
Simpson's Rule.
36
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
ot
The
may now be
obtained.
Reverting to
area 33
area
u t HN
_ _
gives
the
distance
1st
1st
and by a simple moment calculation, the fall in the centre of buoyancy consequent on the vessel rising to the 2nd waterplane is derived. In the same way, by first finding the centre of the layer between the 1st and 3rd waterplanes, or between the 1st and the 4th waterplanes, the fall in the centre of buoyancy, due to the rising of the vessel to any of these planes, may be determined. We have here a means of constructing a diagram which will show the variation in the height of the centre of buoyancy with change in the displacement, and from which, therefore, the position of the centre of buoyancy for any draught may be read off. Take a vertical scale of draughts A B (fig. 34), and spot off on it
Fig.
34.
the positions
of the various
centres of
buoyancy
as
calculated
for
the
vessel
when immersed to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc., waterplanes. Through these points, indicated by 6 2) b etc.,
horizontally distances, b 2 h 2
,
b3
/? 3 ,
etc.,
plane and
the points
If
it
the
waterplane to which
/z 2 ,
:} ,
in the figure, set out 3) equal to those between the load watereach centre refers. A fair curve through
is
h etc., will be the locus of centres of buoyancy required. height of the centre of buoyancy at any draught be required only necessary to draw a line on the diagram parallel to the middle line
6
now
the
B,
and
at
distance
from
it
equal
to
that
the
locus
gives
the
the
vessel
As showing the work in an actual case, let us construct the diagram for whose centre of buoyancy at the load draught has already been
CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
determined.
37
Reverting to
fig.
33,
it
will
PEQ
we
the
and
area
DEPN.
The
latter area
may be obtained by
PEQ,
however, cannot be
correctly found
by
this Rule.
In
or
this
19
case
3,
Multiply
io,
the
far
near end
ordinate,
,
by
1,
the
end ordinate, or A 3 by
and the
inter
sum
val
of these products by one twentyfourth the square of the between the ordinates.
common
:
Arranged
in tabular form,
VOLUME.
3
plane,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
and
we must
find
the
areas
;
FEG
DEFH,
which
may be done
thus.
No. of W.P.
CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
the ordinntes, thus enclosing an area which represents the
39
volume of the
as
vessel
below No.
are set
off.
waterplane.
Station 6
is
On
the
moments
rule.
of the layers
moments
curves
Calling
h, the
the
vertical areas
19
A^
A2 A
,
3,
etc.,
moment
at
6 will be zero;
A 5 hct;
of the
section
at section 4,
A 4 2ha; and so on
at
To
8,
the
right
axis
9,
>4
we have
3/7 a,
section
moment A n ha\
case,
section
A s 2ha;
axis,
etc.
As
a
in
the
in
previous
the
moments
are
plotted as
rectangles,
the
base
of the
being,
each
case,
side
rectangle, represented
drawn through the extremities of these little The area enclosed by rectangles on each side of the axis as shown in fig. 35.
are
ADE
and
EFB
each
the
of
these curves
and the
axis
volume on the
side of
refers.
40
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
common
:
interval
is
to the end,
we are able
No. of
Section.
CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
be made
found
for
the
in
longitudinal the
position.
case, as
The
and
in
work,
however,
will
be
more
laborious than
previous
to
areas
must be
corresponding
each
draught,
out,
complete
case.
moment
calculation,
similar to the
one
just
worked
made
each
tal positions of the centre of buoyancy found up to a series of draughts between the top of keel and the loadline, the diagram may be easily con
structed.
vertical
scale
of
draughts
is
taken, the
horizontal
axis,
distances
of
off
are
marked
the
curve drawn
through
these points.
Fig.
36
diagram.
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
Tf
IB.
two unequal weights be suspended one at either end of a weightless lever, find the T. point at which the lever must be supported in order to be exactly balanced. If the lever be 48 inches long and the weights 11 lbs. and 5 lbs. respectively, find the balancing point from the end loaded with 5 lbs.
Arts.
33
on
inches.
2.
If
weights of
5, 8,
11, 13
and
17 lbs.
lie
table of
rectangular
3,
outline,
7
their posi"5
tions
4,
55, 6,
feet,
and
175,
2*5, 3,
275
feet,
find
the
Ans.
3.
579
'4
feet
feet
from
side.
The
equidistant \ ordinates
teet,
of a vessel's watcrplanc,
at
beginning
the
are
in
'2,
64,
10/2,
1 r
'O,
extremities
the
usual
the
distance of
the
Ans. 4*5S
4.
in the
preceding question be 14
feet,
No.
4 ordinate.
Ans.
5.
*43 feet
Define Centre of Buoyancy. The area of a ship's load waterplane is 7000 squaie and the areas of other parallel waterplanes spaced 3 feet apart are respectively, 65CO. 5500, 4000, and 2000 square feet (neglecting the volume below the lowest section); obtain the distance of the centre of buoyancy below the load waterplane.
feet,
Ans
6.
5*03
feet
fall
the
0.1
to
each
of the
the
last,
and
plot
the
7.
Explain
buoyancy?
of buoyancy
100, 180,
As
how you would proceed to calculate the longitudinal position of the centre of a practical example, obtain the position of the longitudinal position of the centre of a vessel, the areas of whose transverse vertical sections arc, starting from aft, 4,
120,
and 8 square
Ans.
feet,
15
feet apait.
I'ji
forward of Xo.
section.
CHAPTER
III.
Outlines of Construction.
AT
details.
this stage
least,
it
is
desirable to obtain an
acquaintance, in a general
of the
of construction
parts
;
the
names of
principal
in
a later
medium
on what
is
known
ships,
the
earliest
iron
when
to
that
material
began
of
construction
due
to
the
great
difference in
the
nature
of the
As a foundathe keel
tion
and
sort
of
backbone
the
there was,
for
keel,
instance,
equal
distances
along the
transverse vertical
convenient
means of
fitting
the watertight
skin
At
their
transverse
If the vessel
might be might
In
fitted
be
for
the
below the upper one, this being necessary for strength, and it convenience of stowing certain cargoes, or of housing
is
passengers.
fig.
37,
which
small
steel
vessel
to.
built
on
the transverse
keel, is
A\ the
a steel or iron bar of considerable depth and thickness. The transmarked F, are angles running from the keel to the gunwale, and associated with bars of similar shape, called reverse frames from the circumverse frames,
stance
of
their
looking
at
in
horizontal
section
A.
to
the
frames as
shown
in
vessel,
deep
vertical
plates
floor
plates,
as
shown.
BB
are
and
42
OUTLINES OF CONSTRUCTION.
resist
43
Vertical
pillars,
any
tendency
to
is
change
resisted
ot
transverse
form.
the
change
tie
in
the
transverse
form
parts
by
means
shape
the
into
of
which
the
the
top
to
and bottom
carry
of
the
structure
together,
is
and
assist
floor
plates
the
cargo.
The
longitudinal
maintained by means
parts
of
the
keelsons
the
and
side
stringers,
which
tie
transverse
together,
distribute
stresses,
and
make
the
framing
one
united
structure.
The
most
Fig.
37.
N*
3492
5587
= 1187
FT
V= 1238
*SHER$TRAKE
v3r
SSX46T0M
J6*J6T03t
36T0 12
*o
TO
'HI
56 to 32
36 to "32
K.7XI*
important part of
floating
all
is
the
outer
plating
to
or skin, which
gives
the vessel
riveted
its
power.
It
will
be seen
consist
of
strakes
of
plating
to
is
The
top
deck
plating or
wood
to give strength,
out.
The
44
connected to the
able
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
shell
AND CALCULATIONS.
elements
of
strength, as
is
it
we
shall
see
when we come
to
consider
the
stresses to
which a ship
the diagram
liable.
From
is
will
For instance, the shellplating is thickest Between the sheer strake, which runs in way of the gunwale or the top deck at side, and the bilge strakes, the plating is reduced in thickness, being a minimum about midway between these points.
not evenly distributed throughout.
the top and at the bottom.
at
is
much
too, are not the same right forward and aft and sizes are only maintained for half the vessel's length, or thereabouts, and then a gradually tapering process is begun, minimum It should be mentioned that local sizes being reached at the bow and stern.
up on the
sides.
The
scantlings,
The 'midship
thickness
requirements usually
demand
followed.
We
shall
this.
Fig. 37 illustrates only the simplest lorm of construction of steel vessels. Departures have been made at different times, called forth by the desire of
and
these departures
considerable
modifications
in the
structure of vessels.
Thus we have
structure,
waterballast tanks.
When
first
introduced
these tanks were mere additions to the ship's load, but they have
now become
incorporated
its
in
the
and, as
we
shall
see,
possible,
is
manner
as
to
modifications
to deal
of the
framing;
these
we
shall
consider
come
So
parts
more
particularly with
to
far
obtain
some
familiarity
with
the
various
of
the
in
of
order
to
follow intelligently a
liable,
discussion
stresses
and
strains
CHAPTER
IV.
and
this
Strains.
we propose to speak of the stresses and' strains to which ships and as the same principles are involved in calculations of the strength of ships and of simple beams, it will help us to begin with the simplest cases and gradually lead up to those which are more difficult. Take a beam A B (fig. 38), fixed at one end and loaded with a weight W tons at the other, and consider the system of forces in operation at any
IN
chapter
are liable,
Fig.
38.
C\
n.
1 %
section.
.I,
j
B
of the
(1)
Take one at x feet from the extreme end beam itself, we have here acting
:
B.
A
A
bending moment
shearing
force
WX
tons,
foot
tons, tending
bend
portion
the
beam
as
shown dotted.*
(2)
W
it
of the
beam
at
CB
to
move downwards
this
relatively to
0.
is
In
minimum
B
is
and a maximum
*
The
deflection
is
45
46
the
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCUTATIONS.
beam from B to A. To express this in a diagram, E F (fig. 39) to represent the length of the beam. At E set up an ordinate E G, representing on some scale the maximum bending moment, W x AB foot tons. Join G F EGF is the diagram of bending moments. From it, by simple measurement, we can obtain the value of the bending moment acting at any point of the length of the beam. For instance, the
sama
for all sections of the
take a line
Fig.
39.
bending moment
the diagram,
at
a section
of the
G F
l
the ordinate
C G2
x
of
to
construct a
force
rect
EL
M F,
on
EF
as
base,
the side
EL
If,
instead
of being
concentrated at
end, the
load
W. be spread
Fig.
40.
evenly over
the
:
surface
of the
beam
x
(fig.
40), at
1
any section X
feet
from
/?,
we
shall
(1)
have
Bending moment
= wX
w X'
foot
tons,
will
foot of length.
(fig.
The
curve of bending
moments
its
now
KRF
39),
and
is
axis vertical.
(2)
Shearing force
wX
tons.
47
The shearing force will thus vary directly with X, will be zero at B and a maximum at A, where it will equal the total load. The shearing force diagram
will
EL
now
beam supported at each end and loaded in case. A B is the length of the beam, W the
At any section x
neglected,
feet
middle.
load in tons,
and
we have
x) foot tons.
41.
A
f*i
y
The bending moment increases directly as X diminishes. It is therefore maximum at 0, the middle of the beam, and zero at either end A B fig. 42 being the diagram. The tendency here is for the beam to become
is
curved convex side downwards, the ends rising relatively to the middle, and it convenient to describe the bending moment as negative, the diagram being drawn below the line to indicate this. Where a bending moment gives
AGS
rise
to
is
for the
the case of beams supported at and loaded at each end or uniformly, it is described as positive, and With regard to the shearing forces, it the diagram is drawn above the line.
convex, as
the
the middle
left
of the
middle, the
tendency
is
cause the
lefthand
portion of the
beam
to
move upwards
and negative
relatively to the
this, 'the
right,
and
at sections
forces
respectively.
This
48
is
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
expressed
left
AND CALCULATIONS.
the
in
the
diagram
by plotting
line,
shearing
for
forces
for
sections
right
in
to
0,
the
of o
and those
sections to
B, as
the
of
below that
line.
The diagram
A GHKL
shown
fig.
42.
As a numerical example,
beam, the reactions
feet to the left of 0,
the
it,
length of the
12
tons.
beam be 20
At a
:
feet,
and the
the
supports
will
each be 6 tons.
we have
foot tons,
If the diagram (fig. 42) had been constructed for this beam, the values above of bending moment and shearing force corresponding to a section 2 feet from the middle of the beam, could have been obtained by reading off the
43), the
bending moments
length of the
will
2
beam
be modified somewhat from that given above. Calling the the load per foot w tons, we have for the reaclion /, and
Fig.
43.
I*
^L
at either
w
/
tons.
At any section
of the
beam, say x
feet
A A
{J
 x)
2
(/*) {lx) =
(P  X
2
2
)
foot tons.
= Iw 
(/
 x)
W = wX
tons.
In plotting the diagrams, we note from the equation above that the curve of bending moments will be a parabola, that it will have zero values at each end of the beam, since X will there be equal to either +/ or  /, and a
maximum
value at
the
line,
middle where X
since
0.
The
shearing
force
diagram
it
is
obviously a straight
will
have
a zero value at
the
and maximum values at the supports. Calling, as before, left positive and those to the right negative, these maximum values are, respectively, +lw tons and Iw tons. Fig. 44 illustrates the diagram for a distributed load, and it should be compared with fig. 42 As an exercise it would be interesting to construct for a concentrated load.
0,
diagram,
in
an actual
case,
sav
that
of
the
49
to
beam
previously mentioned;
but we leave
the student
do
this
for
himself.
for instance,
graphic process
to describe
it
is
the
one
most convenient
to
follow.
We
propose,
therefore,
briefly.
Fig.
44.
For
this
purpose,
loaded uniformly.
diagram of loads.
to
/?,
being so
let us consider again the beam fixed at one end and By the proposed method we must start with a curve or The weight on the beam, including its own weight from much per foot of length, may be represented by the rect
angle A
BCD
(fig.
45).
This load
is
Fig.
45.
on the portion of the beam embedded in it, but we shall only consider the external forces acting on the beam from the wall face outwards. Now, we know that at any point x feet from the end of the beam (fig. that is, the ordinate of the shearing force the shearing force = w X tons 45)
;
diagram equals the area of the diagram of loads from the end of the beam up
So
to the
is
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
a triangle.
Take now the bending moment. For any section of the beam, say at G X X bending moment w X x foot tons, or = shearing force x foot tons,
that
is,
to
G.
To
diagram
moment diagram
it
is
therefore
only necessary
on the beam, to calculate the area of the shearing force end of beam to these points, and to plot the bending moments thus derived on a convenient scale. BLAB (fig. 45), is the form that such a diagram would take in the present case.
to take certain points
from
the
Fig.
46,
The
a
construction
is
Fig.
46
illustrates this
convenient scale
and
DABC
its
the
beam loaded uniformly and sup>A B being the beam drawn to diagram of loads upon it between the
case,
own
weight.
we begin at, say, the lefthand point of support, at which the shearing force is positive and equal to half the load, that is, to half the area of Its value may be plotted as A L. From L the diagram of shearing force falls
DABC
x feet say, from 0, the middle point of the beam, being the shearing force at A minus the load represented by the portion of the area of the rectangle DA BO from A to the section. the half load and the reaction at A are equal, and there is therefore At no
shearing force. At sections A and the shearing force
previously shown.
to the right of
is
the reaction at
negative,
reaching
maximum
value
at
B
x
as
For the bending moment of a beam loaded as described from middle, we have deduced the equation
at a section
feet
Bending moment
/
(P 
and
Bending moment =
(/
 X)
which obviously expresses the area of the shearing force diagram from A to the
point considered.
length, to
plot
as
ordinates
and
to
draw a
fair
curve through
their
extremities.
AM B A
As
the
the bending
the
same
principles apply,
to consider the
place,
take
to
say,
completely
built,
and with
cargo,
all
boilers,
but without
bunker
coal,
or
machinery consumable
and assume her to be floating freely and at rest in still water. moment's consideration will make it clear that a tendency to longitudinal straining, with which we are here dealing, must be principally caused by the
Fig.
47*
wv
action of the vertical forces
pressures
acting upwards,
made up of the vertical components of the water and of the weight of all the particles in the mass of In fig. 47, ILL is a diagram of loads for a the vessel acting downwards. We shall show in detail, presently, when we consider the im"light" vessel.
portant
the
case
of a ship
among
waves,
are
constructed; in
meantime it is sufficient to note that fig. 47 shows weight in excess of buoyancy at each end and amidships, and elsewhere, except at one point forward, The excess of weight is obviously due to the buoyancy in excess of weight. small volume and the great weight of the structure at the extremities, and to the concentration of the machinery amidships, and the excess of buoyancy to the empty holds. In fig. 47, diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments are also
shown.
The curve
of shearing forces at
any point
in
the length we
know
to
be the area of the curve of loads from either end up to that point, reckoning the portions of area above the axis positive and those below negative. In the
present case, the curve takes the form
SSSS.
moments
are given
The diagrams
Institution of Engineers
represented by figures 47 and 48 are taken from a paper read before the and Shipbuilders, by Mr. Bergstr6m in 1 889,
52
forces from either
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
the length at which they occur.
end up
to the points in
We
about
MM
tlie
maximum
at
about the
middle
or
holds,
and a minimum
as
at
middle length.
becomes
(fig.
considerably modified.
It is
The
is
curve 01 loads
now
line
shown
at L
L L
48).
the
in
excess,
out
mainhold.
after
holds,
buoyancy
again
predominant,
Fig.
48.
while weight
is
in
The
maximum
values,
one
forward
and one
tending to
strain
the
opposite directions.
as
rule,
inconsiderable
sea.
It is
a vessel in
rrjus'i
still
withstand
is
Fig.
49.
Let us try to conceive for a moment the position of a vessel when in a If the waves be of regular form and speed, the vessel may, at a seaway.
given
She may be traversing the be in one of several positions. a line at right angles to the crests, or be rolling in the trough between or she may occupy some intermediate position with her length at an the waves The bending moment will be different in oblique angle to the crest lines.
instant,
in
waves
the
hull
for
the worst
55
Of
is
the condition in
first one, in which the vessel is assumed at It wave crests, has been most frequently investigated. which longitudinal straining is greatest, and may, therefore,
in this respect
Fig.
50.
Taking the
of these
is
first
condition,
fig.
we note
that
it
has
two
critical
phases.
One
indicated in
49,
the end of a
in
a wave, the
being at midlength.
The
when
the vessel,
Fig.
51
complete with bunker coal and stores as well as cargo her worst condition in has a trough amidships and a crest at each end (see fig. 50). this case
presently,
in the
when we
cases.
to
is
construct
the
diagrams, the
bending
the
two
The
relatively to
Fig.
52.
ends, as
to
shown
in
fig.
51,
sink
relatively
to
the
ends, as
and with the hollow amidships, to cause the middle in fig. 52. These strains are known as
Diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments for a vessel situated as figs. 49 and 50, are constructed on the assumption that the waves are stationary, and that the problem may be treated as a purely statical one.'
indicated in
54
SklP CONSTRUCTION
AND
CALCtJLAflON.
No note is ordinarily taken of the fact that the quick passage of waves past a vessel, particularly one of relatively fine ends, has a tendency to develop
her, altering her virtual weight and buoyancy from moment, and consequently directly affecting the magnitude of the It may be bending moment, and, therefore, the strains brought upon her. mentioned that, where they have been specially allowed for, these vertical
moment
to
oscillations
strains.
In these diagrams,
is
is
known
than at
compared with those in still water, although and greater in the hollows the corresponding depths in still water, due to the effect of the orbital
that
particles
in
found impracticable so
is,
far
to deal with,
although clearly
and of rolling motions, on the bending moments. they may have considerable influence
pitching
and
'scending,
It
is
obvious, then,
that
diagrams as
ordinarily
constructed
are
only
ap
When so employed, they are most valuable as a guide in new designs determining the lines to be followed in making departures in construction.
Taking a
vessel, then, in
the
condition
as in the
exhibited
in
fig.
49,
viz.,
with
wavef
water,
crest
amidships,
we
begin,
simpler case
of
the vessel in
still
by constructing a curve of loads. Such a curve, we know, shows the of the forces of weight and buoyancy at all points in the length, and to obtain it we must first find the values of these forces. A curve of It is only necessary to calculate the buoyforces of buoyancy is easily drawn.
difference
and then
The diagrams
in
a diagram, whose
by figures
base
54,
line
represents
are
the
length
of the
represented
51.
53,
and 5$
from
referred
to
on page
t In these calculations it is usual to assume the wave and a height of j of its length.
to.
the
55
ordinates
at
cor
to
mark
off
responding points.
deal
first
with
the
by calculating the weight per frame space of that which is continuous at chosen points throughout the length, and plotting the results on the same scale as employed for the buoyant forces at corresponding points on
hull
material,
points, superimposing
tunnel
The
irregular
weights
are
conveniently
in
plotted
as
rectangles
on bases
to
the
diagram corresponding
of
that
occupied by them
on the
vessel.
In
the
case
bulkheads,
however, the
weight
is
and of
plotted.
homogeneous cargo of a density to completely fill the holds and bring the been assumed. This is usual in strength calculations, as it would be obviously impracticable to exactly allow for a general cargo, owing to the difficulty of obtaining the positions and weights of the various
a
vessel to her loadline has
portions of
it.
curve or
It
diagram
is
of a very irregular
form, as will be
figure.
curve must be equal in area to the curve of buoyant forces and have of gravity in the same vertical
If the area
line,
centre
not
float at the
;
assumed
if
the case
their
centres of gravity be in
operation,
be
in
showing
the
assumed line to, be wrong also as to trim. Having got the curves of weight and buoyancy quired, we note that the actual load on the vessel
to
at
correspond
as
is
re
any
point
the
$6
SklP CONSTRUCTION
at
AND CALCULATIONS'.
that
is
the
point;
at
numerous ordinates and plotted to the These differences, same scale as the diagrams of weight and buoyancy, give a curve, or diagram of loads, marked L L L in fig. 54. The conditions of equilibrium required in
measured
this line
case are
shall
that
the
area
of
the
portion
line
;
of the
diagram
above the
base
equal
the
area
below that
shall
centres of
gravity of
the
be in the same
forces
is
vertical.
To
construct
the
curve
of shearing
the
a simple
matter,
since the
of the end to any point, is way, the curve of bending moment shearing force at that point. In the same These two curves is obtained by integrating the diagram of shearing forces. take the in the case assumed that of an ordinary welldeck cargo steamer
area of the
the value
forms
SSS
and
MMM
in
fig.
54. forces,
is
the
two consecutive
is
50),
the
in the
Fig.
55.
now
BBB
*(fig.
53).
The
curve
curve
of loads
will,
of course,
be
weights being in excess amidships and the supporting forces in excess at each end (fig. 55), the tendency being, as already pointed
out,
to
moments
to
give
rise
to
stresses
in
in
the
and
is,
to
con
sequent
tendencies
change
of
form
the
structure.
of
course
rupture,
important to prevent the stresses on the materials becoming sufficient to cause and the tendencies to change of form from becoming actual permanent
We shall show presently that this may be done in three ways by increasing the weight of materials; second, and preferably, by judicious disposition of materials third, by design of structure.
deformation.
first,
;
To
'
simplify our
explanations,
is
we
a
shall
angular
*
beam
that
A
the
for.
ship
reall y
huge
stores,
beam
Except
assumed consumed
previous
case
musi
now
be allowed
kfcStStANCE TO
CHANGE Of fOkM.
shearing
stresses
57
what
is
true
is
for
the
simple
and bending
be of some
stresses.
moments,
A BCD,
56,
is
will
assume
to
elastic material,
such as
Fig.
A
Draw a
lines,
horizontal line at
little
it
mid
at
height,
ad, bd, at a
distance
the
at
mid length also draw two vertical Now, place this beam on supports middle and observe what happens (fig. 57).
and
at
apart.
The beam
at
will
DC
will
E F,
the line
mid
height,
the
beam,
will
have
its
length
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS
bending moment has
l
.
Now
stress
the
to
stress
1
due
to
the
external
obviously in
creased a 6
There is thus a compressive a b\ and reduced dc to d l G on the upper part of the beam, and a tensional stress on the lower part.
the strains are
Since
to
zero
at
the
middle,
being
unchanged
it
length,
that
the
stresses
must
be
correspondthe
stress
at
ingly reduced.
Also,
is
clear
the
strain,
and,
therefore,
any point
to the distance
ef;
the strain at b
is
double that at
is
The
surface
of which
ef
a portion
of
brium of the
the portion of
known as the neutral surface. Let us now consider the equilibeam as loaded in fig. 56 at any section such as ac. Taking beam to the right, there is, as we have seen, an external bend.
ing
moment due to W.2 No other external forces are acting, if we neglect the beam itself, so that this moment must be counteracted by the sum of the moments of the molecular forces of the portion of beam to the left acting at the section. Besides these moments there is due to the load
weight of the
Fig.
59.
move
the
righthand
is
portion
counter
beam upwards
relatively
to
the
left.
This
shearing force
acted
fibres of
material to shearing.
We
shall return
is
In fig. 59 we show enlarged end and side views of the section a C. a section of the neutral surface and is called the neutral axis at ac.
there
is
HA
At
NA
no
stress
due
to bending.
and pull the beam, as As the beam does not move in the direction of its length, these horizontal stresses must neutralise each other, that is
cular stresses push
line
the mole
Pulling stress
+ pushing
at
:
stresses
(1).
We
with
its
stress
varies
directly
stress
therefore,
we know the
at
any one point either above or below HA, we are able to write down equation (1), because in materials such as steel or wrought iron the resistance to compression and tension, within the elastic limits,
is the same. bending moment and the area and form of the section of the beam, we are able to find the internal stress at any point
When we know
the
external
resistance to Change;
of the
neutral
at
of
form.
say
59
section.
axis.
Let
Calling
us
the
it
find
it
at in
2
unit
distance,
one
inch
at
this
from
the
s,
stress
will
tons
s tons,
per
square
inch
point
be
will
be
ys
tons.
this
On
the
a small portion ol
area
a, at
distance
from
the
neutral
axis,
stress will
be
ysa
and the
tons
be the sum of
all
such elements
we may
therefore write
Total pushing and pulling stresses at section a C = S^yct tons, where the symbol 2 signifies that the sum of the elementary forces is taken.
Now
there
must be no resultant
is
stress
acting
at
the
section,
so
that
s^yct
0.
But ~yct
axis,
the
moment
area
to
of
the
area,
and
for
this
to
be
zero,
the
neutral
about which the moments have been taken, must pass through the centre
the
of
gravity of
of
the
section.
This
fixes
the
neutral
axis,
and
is
an important point
from
this
remember.
To
get
now
the
the stress at a
axis
as required,
we must equate
axis
to
sum
of
the
moments
internal
at
stresses section.
M, the external
bending moment
the
At any distance y inches from NA, either above or below, the moment of 2 the stress acting on a small portion of area a is syaxy sy a inch tons.
And
for
the
whole
section
we
a
is
may
write
Sum
of
moments
:
of
internal
stresses
= 2(/ 2a
inch tons.
2*/
2
it
is
called
I,
moment
be represented bv
and the
8,
internal
sI=M.
So
that
NA,=
M
j
stress at any point in the section, it is only by the distance of the point from the neutral axis. necessary to s Thus, if y inches be the distance of the upper or lower surface of the beam from NA, and p be the stress there, we shall have :
To
find
the value
of the
multiply
Maximum
This
the
compressive or tensional
is
% =p=y j.
(2)
the
formula which
strength
It
of
beams and
girders,
must always be employed when dealing with such as ships, and is worthy of careful
stress
study.
varies
directly as
M, the external
a
bending
moment, and
stress
is
Consequently,
this
with
given
bending
moment, the
reducing
It
is
it.
reduced
by increasing
a
quantity
and increased by
loaded
that
easy
now
to
is
understand why in
ship
or
other
beam
is,
reduction of stress
effected
by increasing the
sectional
area,
the
60
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
by changing the design.
increased.
merely
means
area
that in
modulus
is
Increase of
sectional
directly increases
moment
of inertia /;
the
same
will
effect
is
remote from
the
neutral
;
axis.
affect the
modulus
in
two ways
effect
will
y% however, the
the stress.
It
is
on the whole
reasons
at
be to increase
case
of
a
for
these
that
in
the
is
desirable
to
have
at
the
thickest
plates
the
plates,
upper
deck
the
neutral
stringers
and
a
is
sheerstrakes,
and
the
keel
and
bottom
the
and
the
thinnest
axis axis
plates
in
deck and
formula,
bottom,
vicinity
of
at
ship.
indeed,
tells
us
that
the
neutral
it
there
moment, and
a
horizontal
might be reduced
indefinitely.
place
in
the depth
sliding
or
shearing action,
which
is
de
to point
of the
to
opposite
has
maximum
more
value.
To
is
counteract
this
straining
needed
in
the vicinity of
We
shall
deal
fully
is
Another reason against thinning down too much the side plating of ships found in the consideration that when rolling excessively at sea, the sides
frequently
may
become,
called
approximately at
to
least,
the
top
and
bottom
of
the
girder,
and be
upon
To
know
we must
three things.
We
at the section
containing the point, the position of the centre of gravity of the area of the
section,
of
the
sectional
area
in
about
detail
centre of gravity.
ship,
We
propose to
show
how
the work
done
shall
in
the case of a
plex a girder,
we
two practical examples of simple beams. how the external bending moment may we may therefore assume this item as known. Take then
take
or
steel
one
first
case,
beam
of rectangular
section
20 feet long,
inches
deep,
and
3
its
middle of
under a bending moment of 600 inchtons at the length, and let us determine the maximum stress on the material.
inches
thick,
stress
formula,
viz.
In
the
ins.
above
beam
the
centre
of
gravity
is
at
middepth
therefore
in
is
moment
this
centre of gravity,
,
61
Substituting
the
the
area
of the
section
and h the
full
depth.
^6X12X12
1
^432
in.
and
therefore
600 p =
x 6
8'3
Fig.
60.
>
Taking the strength of steel at 30 tons per square inch, this stress allows a factor of safety of rather more than 3^, which, in most cases, would be too The form* of section above given low, 5 to 6 being common for ship work.
is
by no means the most economical for steel beams. This material admits of many forms, and to show the great importance of distribution
means of increasing the strength of beams against bending, let assume the length, depth, and sectional area, and therefore the weight, to us The only additional work remain as before, but the form to be as in fig. 60.
Within
elastic limits
is
mild
steel
by no means true of all materials. Cast iron, for instance, will withstand a wood, on the other hand, has times greater stress under compression than under tension In such cases, for maximum strength on minimum weight, greatest strength under tension.
:
Fig.
61.
special
design.
The
axis
of
moments must
weaker
side
still
pass
through the
by concentrating the For example, beams loaded at the middle and material on that side near the neutral axis. supported at the ends, if of cast iron, to be of economical design should^ have cross sections,
stress
but
the
may be
reduced on the
fig.
61,
62
to
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
of inertia of the
is
be done here
is
to find the
moment
is
new
at midheight.
The formula
for
the
moment
/= BH 2bh
s
12
where
the
is
the
full
breadth,
depth of beam, h the distance between the flanges, B and b the breadth from the outer edge of the flange to the
full
fig.
60
/= nx
t
_?
in.
12
We
therefore have
Stress at top

872
for
various
reasons,
girders
of
this
section are not usually rolled with flanges of greater width than 6 to 7 inches.
Taking them at 7 inches, and increasing their thickness to if inches say, 3 with the same weight of material, a girder of 18 inches depth and i T F inches web could be obtained. The moment of inertia of such a girder would be 1685; and, under the same bending moment of 600 inchtons, the stress on the upper and lower flanges would be
600 x 9
~i68T~~
p =
3' 2
Let us turn now to the case of a floating ship. We have seen obtain the external bending moment, and to apply the stress formula,
how
it
to
only
remains to determine for the material at the transverse section under the maximum bending moment, a method of fixing the position of the neutral axis, and
of calculating the
the neutral
position
axis
may
moment of inertia about that axis. Now, as we know that passes through the centre of gravity of the sectional area, its therefore be easily found. As we shall see presently, the calculais
tion involved
for the
moment
in
of inertia.
In setting out
find
the
moment
and
of inertia
we must bear
mind
that
we
longitudinal direction
strains.
to
be
that only continuous material lying in a considered as available for resisting longitudinal
length
we must
therefore choose
as,
moment
of inertia calculation,
Careful note should be made of the fact that would be at this section. material under tension must be calculated minus the area of the holes for the
rivets
joining
plating,
the
beams
to
the
deckplating,
63
the rivet,
plate.
for,
are
must be reduced on account of the butts, which strakes, also on account of the bolt holes. For compression the full area is taken. In modern cargo steamers continuous wood decks are seldom fitted, and there are none in the vessel
In the case of tension,
usually
this
whose moment of
inertia calculation
is
given below.
As already mentioned, the conditions dealt with in these strength calculations are those depicted in figs. 49 and 50. In the first case, hogging
strains
usually
predominate
in
in
ordinary
vessels,
the
tension
compression.
below.
in
Since
the
the
rivet
holes
require
be
for
deducted
hogging
from
the upper
material
moment
of inertia calculations
strains,
and from the lower material in that for sagging strains, obviously a separate calculation is needed for each case. Dr. Bruhn* has pointed out that the necessity of two calculations may be obviated by obtaining the moment of
inertia without correcting for the rivet holes, the stress
The
results obtained
by
this
method do not
is
differ
much from
those
by the
ordinary
one,
while
the work
less.
detail
how
to
find
the
moment
the
to a
hogging bending
tabulated,
moment.
It
will
sectional
areas
are
sum
a
of
as an allowance for
line
holes
the
a frame.
instance,
is
It
will
also
inertia,
first
obtained
;
about
that
position
neutral
of
axis
the
neutral
axis
being unknown
is
between the
the value
next
determined,
axis,
and
is
that
of the
is
moment
assumed
axis,
which
property of the
moment
I=
I  A
x
h2
Where / = moment of inertia about neutral axis. I = moment of inertia about assumed axis. A = area of material in section.
x
of inertia for
This principle is also employed in the first instance to obtain the moment each item about the assumed axis. For items of small scant
depth of
girder,
the
moment
of inertia
is
expressed
their dis
with

sufficient
by the squares of
Institution of
See his paper on Stresses at the Discontinuities of a Shifs Structure^ read before the Naval Architects in 1899,
64
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
tances from the axis as in column 7. In the case of the side plating, however, and the vertical parts of the double bottom, such as the centre girder, margin plate, and intereostals, the figures of column 6 have to be increased by the
moment
that
is,
of
inertia
of
axis
through
its
centre
of gravity,
TV
A d\ where d
and A the
sectional area
The moment
on
material
at
of inertia
any
distance
either
above
or
below the
neutral
axis,
is
p =
y.
should
units
be
like
a ship,
in
feet,
special
are
being in foottons, A in
sq.
inches,
/ in
feet
and inches 2
Moment
of Inertia Calculation.
o".
Assumed
16' o"
deck, 36' 10
feet.
Items.
65
Items.
66
of the
instance
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
displacement
:
AND CALCULATIONS.
length,
multiplied
by the
we
5l_
shall
Maximum
and
if
bending moment
96000
ft.
tons:
35
we use
this
figure with
we
shall
on the
vessel
strain
pe
To
out, a
M r
~y
/ =
QOOOO
I2314
= 779
new moment
to
of
inertia
calculation
is
necessary, otherwise
detailed.
it
the work
is
With regard
built to
resist
may be
said that,
local strains, and are probably too strong, considered as floating At anyrate, their actual calculated stresses, of which records are available, show these to be very small indeed. In 1874, Mr. John investigated the longitudinal strength of iron vessels of from 100 to 3000 gross tonnage, on the basis of Lloyd's scantlings, the following being some of his results
girders.
:
Upper Deck.
1*67
IOO
5 00
3"95
5'2
IOOO 2000
5*9
3000
Later calculations for steel vessels of large
to strength,
size,
8*09
satisfactory as
show maximum stresses of between 8 and 9 tons and even higher The Servia, a passenger and cargo vessel of 515 ft., had a calculated stress at the upper deck of 10*2 tons per square inch when on the wave crest, and of 8 o4 tons when in the wave hollow, while the Maurelam'a*, of 760 ft. length, is stated to have a calculated maximum stress of 10*3 tons on the top member. It should be added that a special high tensile steel was largely used in the construction

With regard
plating
efficient
is
to compressive stresses,
it
is
liable to
therefore not so
this
particularly
It
stresses
has
been pointed
fully represent
out
that
stresses,
the
above,
are
figs.
not the actual stresses experienced by the vessel, since the conditions of
49 and 50 do not
example,
if
those of a vessel
among
waves.
The
results,
In the case of a proposed vessel, for the calculated stress be not greater than in existing vessels whose
*
for
November, 1907.
SHEARING STRESSES.
recoids have been satisfactory, the scantling arrangements in the
67
new
of
ship
may
be considered adequate.
calculated
stress
If
it
be much
have
the
greater, so as to
approximate to the
signs
in
vessels
which
clear
shown
most
manifest
weakness
for
when on new
service,
it
From
our previous
the
considerations,
be
that
will
economical
at
position
material
/.*.,
to
far
resist
bending,
possible
be either
the
stress.
the
top
it
or bottom
will
of the
vessel,
as
as
from
neutral axis, as
there
be
of
maximum
efficiency
in reducing the
SHEARING STRESSES. We come now to consider the We have already explained how the
may be obtained
effect
of shear
values of such
at all points in the lengths of beams, including floating under various systems of loading, and we have now to determine the stresses caused thereby.
vessels,
Fig.
62.
If
the vertical
:
shearing
force
at
any
section
be
taken
as
F,
we may
obviously write
Mean
where
stress per
square inch /
F_
'
is
if
the
example,
shearing
a rectangular
number of square inches of material in the section. For beam of section 8 inches by 4 inches be under a
force
of 64 tons, then
Mean
The
from
64
8x4
tons.
of the
shall
section
mean
62
stress,
as
we
now proceed
at
In
fig.
we have
the diagram
of bending
ported at the
each end.
supis
maximum
at the point
zero values at
68 each end.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
A x A 2 and A 3 A^ the bending moments
nearer
vertical sections
may be
the divide
the
read from
diagram.
Section Aj A 2 being
the neutral surface,
midlength
has
to
greater
bending moment.
/!//!/,
may be considered
is
the
beam
in tension
and
lower in compression.
Consider
now
the
equilibrium
63.
beam A
RLA
Z,
There are pulling forces acting on the end A r R As the former section is under a greater bending
the
stresses
will
moment than
tending
to
the
latter,
also
be
greater.
There"
will'
thus
be a force equal to
the
difference
of
the
the
total
1
forces
acting
on the ends
midlength.

move
is
the
portion
of
beam A R
force
L Az
the
towards
This action
Clearly, the
balanced
by a
this
shearing
over
bottom surface L
the areas
force
it
R.
magnitude of
shearing
top
as
of the
will
ends A X
zero,
R and A 3 L
will
At
the
of the
beam
the
shearing
/I/,
be
and
gradually increase
RL
approaches
where
will
be a
Fig.
63.
SHEARING STRESSES.
69
4
/ = Moment of inertia of the whole section (in inches q = Stress per square inch at the given point. b = Breadth of beam in inches at the given point.
shear stress was found above to be
stress intensity at the neutral axis
:
).
Let us apply the formula to the case of the rectangular beam whose mean
2
tons.
Substituting values,
we get
for the
16 X
x 12 x 64 3
=
in
4 x 32 x 64
1
stress
is,
this
instance,
The above is for a simple beam of rectangular section, but the same In the may also be applied to the more complex case of a ship. latter instance, of course, the beam is of hollow section, and b will be twice
formula
the thickness of the shell plating.
It
is
which
the
to
is
maximum
end
;
shearing
stress
may be
considerable.
We
see
now why
it
is
inadvisable
unduly
axis.
or
to
longitudinal
neighbourhood, as
the
shear
stress
gives
rise
tendency
the
edge
of
one strake to
slide
over
that
of
the
next.
Recent experience with large cargo vessels has shown that the usual plan of is only sufficient for vessels up to a certain size, 450 or 480
Lloyd's
feet
in,
length.
Longer vessels
will
in
the
fore
and
after
TRANSVERSE STRAINS. So
strain
far,
we have
come upon
has been customary to consider stresses which tend to change the trans
verse
longitudinally.
and
partly
effect of their
known for any vessel, the diagonal direction may be predicted. Unfortustresses of ships is a complicated one, and we
stresses
are
cannot do more here than indicate generally the external forces which operate
on a
vessel
so
as
to
alter
resist
deforming tendency.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
still
Consider in
this
is
water
(fig.
64).
The
hull surface
towards a general
Taking the transverse components of the water pressures, these obviously tend to force up the bottom and press in the sides, as shown exaggerated in fig. 64. Such tendencies, however, are prevented from becoming actual strains by the internal framing. The comparatively thin shell plating, which might yield under heavy water pressure, particularly in the way of an empty compartment, is kept in shape by the frames, rigidly
deformation
of the
vessel's
form.
floors at their top and bottom ends reand supported between these points by hold stringers and keelsons. In way of the bottom, the deep floors, spaced at comparatively short intervals, and fitted, in the first instance, as supports to the cargo, are splendid preservers
of the form.
The
floors,
Fig.
64.
TTTrrr^
strong pillars, and in this
ture
is
way a
it
stress
communicated
to
as a whole.
which comes upon one part of the strucProbably the most efficient preservers
steel
bulkheads.
rigid,
Where
these
occur
and care should be taken to spread this excess of strength over the space unsupported by bulkheads by means of keelsons and hold stringers. Docking Stresses. A vessel when docked or when aground on the keel
considered as absolutely
may be
particularly
if
loaded, has
to
withstand
severe
transverse
tresses.
The
re
action
of the
up her bottom
This
is
up a considerable transverse
will
bending
shown,
65.
There
be
tensile
;
stresses
if
and
the
floors,
due
The
floors
transverse strains.
as possible at the bilge,
7i
and should be
this
carried well
is
up the
sides.
In vessels
to
the
deep wing brackets, which bring the resisting powers of the side framing into
operation.
The
be arrested by the
pillars, if efficiently
Fig.
65.
stresses to the
deck beams,
which
will
will resist
together.
and
be taken
Fig.
66.
of transverse straining
Transverse Stresses due to Incorrect Loading, A preventable cause is that due to the manner in which heavy deadweight
Frequently, the heaviest items are
instead
secured at
the
of the
vessel
of being spread
little
weight to carry.
The
straining ten
72
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
on
as
This condition
is
illustrated in
full
fig.
66, the
and the
tie
lines
the
vessel
and bottom of the structure, but not unfrequently the rivets connecting the pillars at top and bottom have been sheared in places with consequent dropping of the bottom
pillars
will
The
the top
Transverse Stresses due to Rolling. We have pointed out that it is when among waves at sea a vessel meets with the most trying longitudinal stresses, and it may now be added that tendencies to transverse straining are also greatest then. These latter stresses probably reach maximum values when a vessel is rolling in a beam sea, and they are obviously due to the resistance
which the mass of the structure offers to change of the direction of motion o each time the vessel completes an oscillation in one direction and is about to
return.
The
stress
is
Fig.
67.
deck and the sides, also to close the bilge on one side and to open Such a racking strain is exhibited graphically in fig. 67. other.
it
on the
The
parts
of
the
structure
most
effective
in
preventing
this
change of
bulkbar,
if
transverse
bulkheads,
is
web frames
included
efficiently
or
partial
the
ordinary side
frames, in which
the
reverse
connected to the frames and beams, and fitted well into the corner formed by the side plating and the deck. Change of form at the bulkheads is practically impossible, if
size,
of good
they be
fore
stiffened
sufficiently
this
against
collapsing;
side
be given to
point.
The
frames, owing
to
their
position
and
close
mum
floors
spacing, offer powerful resistance to racking, but in order to attain maxiefficiency they should be securely riveted to the beam knees, and the
or tank
brackets should
sides.
These brackets
that
virtually
is
well
known
reducing
the length
rigidity
TRANSVERSE STRAINS.
73
structural
local
stresses,
Local Stresses.
vessels
Besides
other
longitudinal
have
to
resist
straining
tendencies
their
causes.
For
example, the
engines
and
boilers
with
together
form a heavy
permanent load on a comparatively small fraction of the length, and thus give rise to considerable local stresses. These are provided against in various ways, some details of which are given in a later chapter. It may be said that the general principle is to increase the strength of the structure in way of the
loaded zone,
and,
Other stresses due to the propelling machinery are those brought on the by the action of the propeller itself. These are most severe
the vessel
is
and pitching among the waves, and consist chiefly propeller and checking of the same, as it rises out of and sinks into the water. The parts that suffer most are the connections of the stern frame to the vessel, and it is highly important, therefore, that these should be made amply strong. We shall see presently, when we come to consider details of construction, what the usual
when
rolling
Panting Strains. These strains, which are usually developed in the shell forward and aft, where it is comparatively flat, consist of pulsating movements of the plating, as the name indicates. They are partly due to blows from the sea, and partly to the resistance offered by the water to the vessel's
progress as she
is
is
An
not so
she
is
much
troubled
by these
full
strains
as
a finelined
passenger steamer,
a tendency to
for
slower,
and her
flatter
resist
flexibility
than the
usual
form of the
to
The
means taken
if
is
to
fit
well to
the
shell plating
and framing
with a short
plating.
aft.
the
vessel
be
fairly
large,
the
stringer
should be associated
tier
movement
in
in the
A A
shown
the chapter
on
practical details.
somewhat akin
full
shape of loose
rivets
They are now recognised to be and generally shattered riveted connections. due to the pounding which a vessel receives from the waves as she rises and
falls
after
lift
among them. As might be expected, a voyage made in ballast trim, for the
It
is
they are
with
terrific
force.
wonderful
that
pounding,
repeated
throughout
is
interests,
Lord Muskerry,
minimum
loadline
to
74
seagoing vessels,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
although,
for
AND CALCULATIONS.
reasons,
various
there
was no practical
result
therefrom.
Strains due to Deck Loads, etc. These loads consist of steam winches, The resulting stresses can windlass, donkey boilers, steering gear, etc. usually be counteracted by an efficient system of pillaring, with perhaps a few
the
extra
beams
if
The Racking
sufficient
sailing vessel
sailing
by
stresses
In
vessels
not of
to
mast
to the
stringers,
to all of
which the
tieplates
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
i.
IV.
Given a beam fixed at one end and loaded with a weight tons at the other, describe the system of forces acting at any section, neglecting the weight of the beam. If the beam be 10 feet long and the load 2 tons, plot the diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments, and give numerical values for a section 4 feet from the free end of the beam.
96
tons.
Referring to the previous question, if the given load be spread evenly over the beam, indicate the forms which the curves of bending moment and shearing force will then take.
2.
beam 20 feet long supported at each end has a. load of 3 tons concentrated at a 3. point 2 feet from the middle of the length. Draw the diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments, and indicate the value of the maximum bending moment. Ans. Max. B.M. = 1728 inch tons.
Assuming the load in the previous question to be evenly distributed over the length of the beam, calculate the maximum shearing force and bending moment, and indicate the points in the length at which these are in operation. f Max. S.F. = 1*5 tons acting at ^ ns \Max. B.M. =90 inch tons actingpoints of support at middle. Show that diagrams of S.F. and B.M. may be derived by a graphic process, and 5. employ in your explanation the case of a beam fixed at one end and uniformly loaded.
4.
Explain how to construct a curve of loads for a ship floating in still water, and state you would apply to prove the accuracy of your work. What is the connection between curves of loads, shearing forces, and bending moments, 7. and show in one diagram the approximate forms these diagrams would take in the case of a cargo vessel floating *' light" in still water.
6.
what
tests
boxshaped vessel 200 feet long, 30 feet broad, 20 feet deep, floats in still water at 8. If the weight of the vessel be 1000 tons uniformly distributed, and if a draught of 10 feet. there be a cargo of 715 tons uniformly distributed over half the vessel's length amidships, draw the curves of S.F. and B.M. and state the maximum shearing force and bending moment Max S F = *78'5 tons. Ans * ns
_J
'
feet tons.
vessel in previous question are plating \ inch thich, find the greatest stress to which the material is subject 1 hogging moment of 8000 feet tons. Ans. '82 tons per square inch.
9.
If the sides
composed of
under a
steel
maximum
10. Assuming a cargo steamer in loaded condition to be poised on the crest of a wave sketch roughly the curves of loads, shearing force and bending moment.
11.
maximum
12.
Referring to the previous question, at what points approximately in the length will the shearing forces act and where will the maximum shearing stress intensity be developed?
shearing
Taking the box vessel of question force of 400 tons, find the mean
shearing stress.
,
maximum
13.
and assuming her to be under a maximum shearing stress over the section, and also the /Mean shear stress = '66 tons per square inch. \Max. shear stress = 1*82 ,,
8,
,,
local strains to
liable,
CHAPTER
V.
NOT
the least
among
the
many important
ship,
is
points to be settled
type.
by an owner
in deciding
upon a new
suitable
as to cost,
ship may be may be strong enough, have good speed and deadmay prove herself very unsatisfactory, if not an utter
the question of
trades.
is
aware of
this,
and
is
Nowadays, an owner who knows his requirements can usually get them But this was by no means always the case. At one time it seemed to be thought that ships must be built to certain fixed
carried out in this matter.
designs,
to
be adapted to
suit
a vessel's arrangements
made
to suit
much annoy
ance, inconvenience,
and expense.
in oversea trade, however, but
more
construction
from
wood
to iron,
and iron
to
steel
spirit
of the age,
type, until
excellence,
and
become almost
purpose intended.
variations
The
to
their
this evolution
vessels
in
present
stage
viz.
development
trades
;
the
following directions,
of
in
strength suitable
for
different
(2)
general
outline
and appearance
(3)
in
disposition
(4)
in
internal construction.
STRENGTH TYPES. It
of great
density, for
for
:
economical
that cargoes
space
in
comparison with
weight, such as
carried
in
;
iron
ore
or
cargoes, should be
strong
vessels
having great
draught
hold space
general
and cargoes of less density, such as grain, cotton, wood, and light
be accommodated
capability.
cargoes, should
less
in
of relatively
their
greater
hold
capacity, but
deadweight
Thus, until
recent
revision,
schemes of scantlings
75
for
76
viz.,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
threedeck,
spardeck,
AND CALCULATIONS.
types.
and awningdeck
Of
these,
the
firstnamed
was the strongest, and was reckoned to be able to carry any kind of cargo to
any part of the world on a greater draught than any other type of vessel of equal dimensions. With regard to the spar and awningdeck types, we have
the
authority
of
the
late
Mr. Martell, a
former
chief
surveyor
to
Lloyd's
The upper
weather
accommodate passengers,
side
and
the
deck
built
and
of
the
shell
plating
and
framing
light
above
the
construction.
But although
thus
smaller scantlings
than the
corresponding three
lighter vessels
were not of
their
less
hence also
the leading
so
that
thinner
on the
vessel.
In the development of ship construction, the foregoing types have undergone modification. In Lloyd's latest Rules, only two distinct standard types are
mentioned,
viz.,
the
still
full
scantling
vessel,
type.
The
latter
has
draught and large capacity, but has otherwise been greatly improved.
FORM TYPES. With regard to changes of form, it must be admitted that body of the modern cargo steamer is no thing of beauty. The sentiment which demanded fineness of form and grace of outline has passed away under the
the
From
*6
with displacement
and the nicely rounded topmore or less vertical sides and bluff ends, with displacement coefficients ranging from '8 upwards. Certainly this side of the development of cargo ships has not proceeded on
coefficients
of from
to
we have come
to sharp
bilges,
aesthetic lines.
Appearances apart, however, and considering making standpoint, the changes have been in searches of the late Dr. Froude and others, and vessels, has shown that at moderate speeds like
ordinary cargo
vessels
money
the
right
direction.
The
re
be overcome in propulsion is largely due to surface friction, the element of wavemaking resistance only becoming As a considerable increase in displacement and important at higher speeds. in deadweight capability can be obtained by a moderate increase in therefore surface, the easiest and cheapest way for an owner to increase the earning
resistance
to
the
the
speeds of
is
obviously to
fill
aft,
and
this
has
of the day.
Of
An
much even
In general, vessels
floor
of
'8
blocks
and upwards
In some
should have
.
small
of
and
relatively
sharp
bilges
amidships, thus
77
followed.
It
former
this
full
rules,
scantlings,
to
cargo vessels with abnormally fine midship sections, thus causing the ends
to
be very clubby.
But such
vessels
when
steer
built
invariably proved
unsatisin a
factory.
difficult to
and
therefore
unmanageable
seaway, also harder to drive, than vessels of 'similar block coefficients designed
on normal lines. Under the new rules the girth does not influence the numerals, and there is now no temptation to design freak ships of the kind mentioned; still, owners should not take too much for granted in ordering their cargo "tramps," but should see that they get a maximum of good design with
any given conditions.
More striking than the changes of the underwater forms, and those which have caused cargo vessels to be classified into various form types, have been those
due to the imposition of deck erections on the fundamental flushdeck steamer. Very early in the history of the iron merchant ship, the necessity of
affording
some protection
to the vulnerable
latter
bridge
erections.
Then
the
obvious advantages of
latter to
be raised an
space
from
below and
fitted
in
a forecastle, this
erection
seas,
incidentally forming
release
and the
of the
under deck making a desirable addition to the carrying capacity. Finally, poops were fitted, experience showing the necessity of raising the steering platform
from the
level of the
upper deck.
characteristic of
arrived
at,'
today (see
68).
The
in
1890,
considerable reductions
as,
freeboard
could
in
their
thereby be
gained, and,
particularly
provided
they
had
openings
end
bulkheads,
which,
68.
Fig.
69.
e&e
73
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Fig.
AND CALCULATIONS.
70.
Fig.
71.
&6
^
i>
Fig.
72.
The obvious advantage of having a continuous side and deck, and the admirable shelter which the enclosed space would afford for cattle, etc., very soon produced the suggestion to fill in the former gap between forecastle and bridge; and this was rapidly carried into effect when it was found
that
0j
by
having one or more openings in the deck with no more than temporary means of closing, the space would escape measurement for tonnage. In this way the shelterdeck type (see fig. 70) was evolved a type in recent years much run upon for large cargo vessels, and which, as previously mentioned, is now a standard of Lloyd's rules.
Other modifications have consisted of short bridges on longer ones and on these can hardly be considered as constituting distinct
types.
For
the
smaller
classes
of
cargo
carriers
all
who
somewhat
special
type
is a one or twodecked vessel with the' main This raising of the after deck was undoubtedly due to considerations of trim. It was found that owing to the finer form aft and the large amount of space taken up by the shaft tunnel, the tendency
deck
aft
raised (see
fig.
71).
when
correct this state of things the hold was increased by raising the deck. While the quarterdeck has certain advantages, such as good trim and general handiness, it has some drawbacks, one of which is the difficulty of
this.
To
space
sufficiently at the
to
double the
shell
plating
break of the main deck. The usual and overlap the main and quarter deck
stringers at this part being also overa steel deck or part steel deck, the latter
stringers in
lapped.
In vessels of a
79
overlapped where broken to form the quarter deck, and the two portions connected by substantial diaphragm plates. The doubling of shell and overlapping of stringers
is
The
good the
foregoing, or
loss
something equivalent,
It
is
is
of continuity.
to make amount of
fitting
first
cost of
much broken
still
stowage
space;
yet,
of
all,
for
some
trades
type
remains a strong
favourite.
Another modified type, in some respects the opposite of the last in that it leads to an increased hold capacity forward over the normal type, is the It is to be supposed that with ordinary cargoes this partial awningdecker. type would trim badly, but it appears to have been found very suitable for It was at one time very popular, but of recent special light bulky cargoes.
years has not been
much
in,
in evidence.
fig.
The
awningdecker
forward well
the
strength
is
shown
the
in
72.
It is
filled
maintaining
at
case.
is
One
clear
un
doubtedly the
really part of
modern system of
the hull proper,
the
materials
of
construction.
structural
in estimating the
longitudinal
strength.
It
is
bridge
erections
of
which must withstand the structural bending stresses acting on the vessels of which they form part. Moreover, it follows from the principles expounded in the previous chapter, that the heaviest longitudinal materials should be placed at the deck, stringer, and sheerstrake of an erection, whether
substantial lengths,
it
shelter
deck, as the
moment
of inertia of
which
of
maximum
Modern
vessels are
now
required to be built in
way by
the rules of
old practice of making superstructures of light and massing the strength at the second deck from the top being disbuild This may be considered to mark an important advance in the continued.
to
the
construction
Fig.
be of a wide
reaching character.
73*
is
the midship
and
the characteristics
thin
side
framing,
numerous
tiers
keelsons.
The expansion
opening
See an interesting paper on "Structural Development in British Merchant Ships," by Foster King, in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects for 1907, to which the author is indebted for particulars in preparing some of the sketches in this chapter.
Mr.
J.
So
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
trades,
AND CALCULATIONS.
of vessels
to
for
up of new
and the
specialising
first
to
various
modifications in
their
The
dry ballast
led
to
the
adoption
of
water
ballast
tanks,
which,
ultimately
becoming
fitting
incorporated in the
structure,
73,
accompanied the
in
of
In a later chapter
we
shall
deal
may be
the
An
structure was
Fig.
73.
tier
of
fifth
beams, required by the construction rules of or sixth frame of plate webs having face
stringers
hold
being deepened to
come
in line
with the inner edge of the plate webs, and the whole forming a strong boxlike arrangement which amply made up the deficiency caused by the omission of
the hold
beams
(see
fig.
74).
This
style of construction
and
is
still
loss
of stowage
general
abandonment
found
Si
82
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
natural
the reduction in
development which came, although not quite immediately, was size of the hold stringers, which, as stowage breakers, were
obnoxious
for
all
found not
alone
less
than the
the
webs.
was
sufficient
demands
and owing
is
to their
axis,
me
ship against
hold stringers of
years
ago,
and
frames
in
76
shown the
them
side
present day.
Their work
tripping,
now
to
to
keep
the
the
shell
in
position,
prevent
and
stiffen
76.
Recent experiments made by Lloyd's Register have gone to show that a frame depth of 7 inches (the limit of the experiments) there is no tendency to side tripping, and since then vessels have been built with a re
up
to
duced number of hold stringers, and in a few recent cases with none at all. Whether the hold stringer will ultimately disappear from the modern ship This, it may be said, as an element of construction remains to be seen. by some naval architects, but the general feeling seems is the view taken
to
be in favour of
its
retention
in
a modified
of
steel
form.
sections
in
Improvements
the
in
the manufacture
recent
years,
and
by the
classification
societies,
have
made
33
of
parts,
possible
for
builders,
following the
line
of simplification
to
still
the demands of shipowners for large holds clear of and numerous hold stanchions. Hence has come the wellknown singleVessels of a size ordinarily requiring, by Lloyd's former deck type {see fig. 77) and two steel decks, have been built with a rules, three tiers of beams single steel deck and one tier of beams, the structural strength, transverse and longitudinal, being made good by deepening the side frames and inPurely creasing the scantlings of the deck, shell plating, and double bottomfurther
satisfy
beams,
stringers,
Fig.
350'
77.
51'
0"
LINT 0f_BBI0CEJ)KK
singledeck
vessels
in
size
feet,
until
they
it
have attained
likely
lengths
of 350
feet,
and
appears
the
advancement
it.
will
still
the
In Lloyd's
of
latest rules,
depth
about
31
feet
provided
for,
but
as
78
illustrate?
a type which
the
may be
considered to
It
the
tran
stage
towards
pure
single decker.
has
bulb
angle
framing
.84
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
in
association
this
with
arched webs
Many
proved
vessels
of
type
have
been
built
highly
satisfactory.
The
firm.
designers
of this
type are an
important Wearside
hold
With the removal of hold stringers and beams, the presence of numerous pillars A middle line row for most became specially objectionable.
is
trades
perhaps
no great
drawback,
but with
the
increased
breadths
at
Fig.
SS.
350' 0"
78.
49'
0" X
28' 0".
Lig0F_8RUCE_DECK
tendant
day,
on
the
steady rise
in
general
dimensions,
the
now
the
order
of
the
and the side, with For a time, and up to a the ordinary construction, became imperative. certain point, the case of vessels with breadths beyond that at which quarter
additional
rows
of
stanchions
between
middle
met, without resorting to the latter, by increasbeams and ot the middle row of pillars, but a limit was soon reached, and the question of the omission of pillars had to Hence arose the system of fitting wide be reviewed from other standpoints.
stanchions are
the
necessary, was
ing
scantlings
of
the
35
Centre
in
line
in
association
with
deck
girders.
pillars
rows
of
spaced
in
with
each
hold are
cases
say,
now
the
four
fonnd
centre
vessels
of
50
breadth
the
and
hold.
upwards.
In
some
by,
row has
heavy
great
been
pillar
omitted,
whole
work
being
done
specially
columns
in
each
The
in
convenience of the
latter
arrangement from a
it
stowage
stand
over the
common
arrangement,
Fig.
SS. 340' 0" x 45' 6"
27'
3"
and
34'
3".
A
of any
few vessels
kind,
have been
to
built shall
so
as
to
pillars
and
these
we
refer
presently
of
shipowners,
genius
Of
of
important
the
wellknown
type
Messrs.
Doxford.
the
79
shows the midship section of one of these vessels, and differences between them and those of ordinary form.
illustrates
striking
86
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
outward form
at
The
principal
departure
is
in the
the
topsides,
which,
up with a moderate tumble home, are curved inwards, forming a central trunk or turret. The working platform is on the top of this turret, which runs forward and aft and contains all hatches, deck machinery, derricks, and everything requisite for efficiently working the vessel. The internal framing of the majority of these vessels (see fig. 79) is on
instead of being carried
but in recent cases the hold beam and webframe system no hold obstruction principle has been carried out, hold beams and pillars being entirely omitted, and the strength made good by fitting deep webplates
the widespaced
;
Fig.
SS.
350'
80.
x
26'
0"
50'
0"
3"
and
33'
6".
with
fig.
sides,
and tank
top,
as
shown
in
Among
its
the
this
it
type
are
selftrimming
safety
which
the
make
to
all
well
suited
bulk
cargoes
as
the
greater
which
affords
to
vulnerable
openings,
such
than
hatches
ordinary
ventilators,
etc.,
;
owing
turret
being
much
higher
the
weather deck
increased
its
greater stiffness
better
it
and longitudinal
of
to
strength,
owing
to its
shape
distribution
possible
longitudinal
materials,
87
nice appearance,
Although it cannot be said that these vessels have a must be admitted that they have been a long time in service, and seem to be increasing in popularity as purely cargo boats. Another type, of which there is now a considerable number afloat, is This class is of normal single deck Messrs. Ropner's patent trunk steamer.
it
is
a central trunk
running
foreandaft;
the
top
of
etc.
the
latter
forms
is
the
working
deck and
is
fitted with
hatchways, winches,
The
Fig.
ship
81
x
25'
60'
0"
3"
and
33'
3".
at
hatchway ends, and the trunk This strongly built centre stanchions.
the
is
stiffened
like
ship,
the turret
specially
suitable for
(see
fig.
81).
is
is
its
In
hold
space.
is
plated
in,
the
vessel
This corner space is well adapted for ballasting purposes, the high This type is of position of the ballast conducing to steadiness in a seaway.
88
SkiP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
Co Em CO N X
Co
39
longitudinal
strength
and is also well suited to resist the tendency to up when a vessel is labouring in a seaway. Self
trimming also forms the chief claim to distinction of the vessel shown in fig. It is seen to resemble the last type somewhat with the corner tanks away; 83. and on the latter account is not so efficient from a strength standpoint.
As
aft
in
the
Ropner trunk
vessel,
the
ship
is
worked from a
is
central
foreand
platform.
Still
that
this
devised by Mr.
Henry
Burrell.
Like
the
other
vessels
just
referred
to
one
is
self
Fig.
SS.
305'
84. and
30'
3".
trimmer, and, as well as the upper trunk, has the corners at the bilges
(see fig.
filled in
84) and the inner surface sloped towards the centre, thus obviating the
the
broken stowage space which might otherwise occur at the bilges. Incidentally, corners thus cut off from the holds form a desirable addition to the
capacity.
ballast
The
deck,
sides
no hold
pillars.
more
or less
from the foregoing, but in general not sufficiently to make it necessary to refer One design, however, that of Mr. Isherwood, is of such distinctive to them.
and
its
being singled
out.
This
type
is
go
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
longitudinal
AND CALCULATIONS.
in
this
framed on
system,
and
respect
recalls
that
famous
work of Scott Russell and Brunei the Great Eastern. Like with widely the new ship has main frames and beams running foreandaft, There is, however, no double skin on the spaced transverse partial bulkheads. type, except that the sides, the inner bottom being of the normal presentday main
internal framing
Fig.
is
85
shows
this
the
midship
section
of
mediumsized
cargo
steamer
to
It
framed
consist
on
of
system.
The
at
bulb
angles
beams and frames are seen wider spacing than on the transverse system.
longitudinal
should
the
settlings
of
the
frames
are
gradually
Fig.
85.
increased
greater
towards
the
bottom of the
of
vessel,
where
they
have
to
withstand
loads, the
intensity
increasing in
proportion to
the
The
transverse
strength
is
made
up
by strong
transverses
or
partial
bulkheads attached to the shellplating between the frames, and stiffened on The transverses are spaced from about their inner edges by stout angles. 12 feet to 16 feet apart in ordinary cases, according to size of vessel, the
largest
vessels
previously mentioned,
floors
with
intercostal
transverse
latter
in
line with
and
also
to
resist
come on
the
claimed for
this
type
of vessel,
several
afloat
that
has
greater
in
first
strength
is
and
point
this
less
weight than
as
the
normal
from
type.
The
greater
saving
weight
cost
of great
importance,
apart
any reduction of
which
may represent, it means for the and therefore increased earning power.
vessel
deadweight
capability
Fig.
86.
vessels.*
Fig.
86
is
a section
viz.:
steamer framed in
this
way, the
dimensions of which
inches;
are,
length,
depth
at centre,
29
feet.
355 feet; breadth, extreme, 49 feet, 5 The longitudinal frames from the deck to
the bottom they
are bulb
long,
of plates
and bars
inches
the spacing
is
29
oil
inches.
The beams
30
the
feet
angles
spaced
27
apart.
fitted
The main
in
tanks
are
and
each
for
tank
between
boundary bulk
figs.
92
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
heads. The transverses are fitted to the shellplating between double angles and have heavy double angles on their inner edges. The longitudinal frames and beams and longitudinal stiffeners on middle line bulkhead are cut at the transverse bulkheads and efficiently bracketed In way of the thereto in order to maintain the continuity of strength.
is
fitted
for
transverses
are
fitted
the
middle
these
are
and
the
longitudinal
efficiently
girders
in
long
lengths
between
transverses,
and
attached
thereto.
The remaining
transverses
stopped at the deep girder in the double bottom next the marginplate, and
are
then
fitted
is
intercostally
fitted
marginplate
intercostally
between the longitudinals to the centre line. The between the transverses, and connected to
collars.
them by doubleriveted
watertight
the
comparison
of
this
of
longitudinal
stress
acting
amidships
vessel
with
that
acting
on
this
an
oil
than
the
latter.
In
spite
of
there
stated
to
18J per be an
estimated
saving in weight
of materials,
CHAPTER
V.
Practical Details.
keel
may be
of
keel
considered the
fitted
full
ship's
structure.
The
simplest form
in
iron
vessels
consists
of
a
it
forged
is
bar
running
into
almost
the
length of
the
vessel.
At the ends
scarphed
the
stem
rib.
and
sternpost,
three
longitudinal
The
bars
forming
87.
PUTE
STRAKX
together by These scarphs are frequently riveted up previous to the fitting of the shell by means of small There is an objection to the tack rivets, so as to allow the keel to be faired. tack rivets, in that, if it be necessary to remove a keel length, use of
the
keel
are
fitted
in
lengths
averaging
about
40
feet,
joined
93
94
say,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
for
AND CALCULATIONS.
repairs
after
grounding,
to
to
be
removed
the
in
order
plates on both sides of the keel have knock out the tack rivets for this reason The main rivets connecting the scarphs together,
;
and
also
keel
to
to
of large
in
diameter, spaced
five
diameters
as
in
apart,
centre
centre,
and arranged
Fig.
style,
88.
fig.
87,
although
zigzag
to
riveting
is
occasionally
adopted;
in
the
latter
case,
care
must be taken
It
keep the
will
be
to
seen
the
this
keel
has
by referring to fig. 8 7 that the only connection that main structure is through the riveted connection to the
this
garboard strakes.
For
reason
it
is
frequently called
a hanging keel.
Fig. 89.
BAR
RIDER PLATE
HvEEL
The
vessels,
vessels.
is
sometimes
floors,
fitted in association
and a
vertical
plate
and four
floors
in
larger
In the largest
plate
and a foundation
on top of
95
is
which
is
depicted in
fig.
87, but
seen to
already
have
no
direct
connection with
the
From what we
the
know
we must
separately,
see that
one.
as
Bending
if
the keel
resistance
rigidly joined.
Moreover, the
floors
lying
at
right
the
line
of stress
give
to trip,
plan
shown exaggerated in fig. 88. The weaknesses pointed out in the above may be largely corrected by fitting plates between the floors, from the
Fig. 90.
FOUNDATION
PLATE
,_
96
It
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
will
AND CALCULATIONS.
be observed that a practical difficulty crops up in the riveting to the garboard strakes, in the case of a side bar keel, as five There are two thicknesses of plating require to be united by the same rivets.
of the
keel
rivets, of size and spacing similar to the bar keel, and as it is punch these holes before fitting the plates, it can be imagined that very careful workmanship is needed to keep the rivet holes concentric. As a matter of fact, they are frequently more or less obstructed. In such cases,
rows of such
usual to
before
riveting,
the
holes
The
objectionable
a
holes
that
It
is
is
to
say,
of driving
so as to clear a known, and has been proved many times in practice, that the bruising which the material round the edges of the holes gets by drifting, renders it brittle and therefore liable
tapered
bar
round
steel
or
drift
punch
into
them,
should
rivets
not be encouraged.
resulting in
to
all
consequence.
keels
is
An
objection
entail.
common
It
is
projecting
the
increase of draught
in
which they
always
a vessel,
and
Fig. 91.
FLAT PLATE
KEEL
FLOOR
INTERCOSTAL'
The
reason,
of course,
is
that
many
ports will be
which would otherwise be closed. what is called a flatplate In this case, the ordinary shellplating is continued under the dealing with. vessel instead of being stopped on each side of a projecting keel the middle
to adopt
;
open to a vessel, if of shallow draught, These considerations have led many owners keel in preference to the one we have been
line
strake
is
increased
(see
in
thickness,
91a).
and
considered to
be
very
inefficient
is
keel,
but
it
usually fitted
plate,
vertical
centre
the two
for the rigid vertical bar of the ordinary conjunction with an intercostal or continuous being connected together by double angle bars.
With an
tinuous
centre
intercostal
floor plates
are
continuous
with a con
centre
plate
plate,
they
side.
are
severed at
middle
the
line,
on each
In
both
;
cases
floor
this
prevents any
keel,
movement
rolling
flatplate
It
is
the
reducing property
of the
lost.
the
custom, however, in
modern
caroo
97
bars
or
rolling
to
make up
(see
figs.
for 75,
this
by
is
fitting
longitudinal
chocks
at
the
bilges
76,
etc.).
The
bottom
flatplate
type
of keel
frequently fitted
where there
is
a double
(fig.
91b).
As
much
with
more
case,
satisfactory
connection with
the
the
centre
plate
is
obtainable
than
except
in
always
necessary,
until
the transverse
number
angles
when double
half length
amidships.
Fig.
91a.
CENTRE THRO
PLATE
KEELSON
Fig,
91b.

DOUBLE BOTTOM
qS
SHJP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
Length.
stem
beams,
to
The
after
length
part
(L)
is
to
the
of
the
sternpost
be measured from the fore part of the on the range of the upperdeck
to
except in awning or shelterdeck vessels, where it is on the range of the deck beams next below the awning or
be measured
shelter deck.
Breadth.
the
vessel.
The
of
breadth
(B)
is
to
be
the
greatest
moulded breadth of
from the top
except
in
Depth.
of keel
to
The
top
depth
(D)
at
is
to
be measured
of
at
midlength
beam
side
uppermost
continuous
taken
of
to
deck,
awning
vessels, where it may be below the awning or shelter deck, provided the height
or
shelterdeck
the
deck next
decks
the
'tween
Fig.
AWN
1
92.
BRlOCEQECK
feet
B and D
vessel.
are
indicated in
fig.
92,
which shows an
thus
midship section
these
of a
From
The
the
transverse
number = B 4 D Longitudinal number L x (B 4 D). number regulates the frame spacing and
Transverse
taking
a
vessel
the
scantlings
feet
of
floors.
Thus,
of
45
feet
breadth
28
and
28
depth,
we have
Transverse
number = 45
in
4
73.
And under
the
this
number we
inch
find
24 Jfor
appropriate Table of the Rules that inches, and the floors 30 inches deep at
the
middle,
of an
thick
length
amidships,
tapering
to
38
of an
inch
at
ends.
Lloyd's numerals.
99
The
i.e.,
scantlings
size
of
the
frames
by the
of the
vessel,
is
is
unsupported.
The frame
are governed by the transverse number, and also by the extent to which the frame assumed to be supported at the first tier of
at
the
bilge.
Reverting
to
fig.
92,
is
the
tier
Two
one assuming a
beams
the
to
exist
unsupported
at
from
the
below the upper deck, another assuming the frame to be It will be observed that bilge to the upper deck.
line
bilge
is
measured from a
Fig. 93.
In
the
this
case
is
there
is
an inner
scantlings
bottom
of
when a
for
vessel
has
ordinary floors,
line
The
this
fig.
rules
frames
of
values
of
d up
to
27
feet,
limit
purely
of
singledeck
different
vessel.
In
is
93
the
framing
of
three
singledeck
vessels
dimensions
given,
scantlings
increase
of vessel.
The
side
number
plating,
and bottom
stringers,
lower deck
IOO
stringer
plates,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
It
is
plating. to
also
giving
the
proportions
length
depth
in
fixing
scantlings
of
the
upper works.
The importance
out
in
of distribution
is
of materials
in
Chapter
decks,
IV. }
fully
recognised
the side
at
and depth of girder, pointed Thus the heaviest Rules. and deckplating of upper, awning, and
the
at
and of long
vessel
in
bridges.
these
parts
are
in
a deep
than in one
proportionately
shallow.
for
to
be measured
at
the
top deck
is
side
in
cases,
bridge,
when
the depth
to
be taken
at
to the
The
scantlings
beyond
the ends
of a
long bridge, are to be determined by taking the depth for proportions to the
upper deck.
Shallow vessels, which
taken to the upper
have
lengths
equal
to
to
or
exceeding
bridge
of
the
3J
depths,
deck, are
or
this
required
compensation
in
As
the
deck becomes
depth
those
of
the
deck,
means a
case
of the
substantial
increase
vessels,
In
the
still
shallower
of
namely,
having
has
lengths
to
laid
exceeding
carefully
14
depths,
question
the
longitudinal
strength
to
be
considered,
be
before
them.
to
FRAMES. Next
fundamental part
of.
the
frame
is
As
is
previously explained,
at
the
to
point at which
it
37 and
74).
Frames of
built
Lloyd's Rules
size
may
In
be spaced from
special
cases,
20
to
2>Z
inches apart,
according to
inches,
if
the
of vessel.
the spacing
fore
may exceed 33
from a
to
fifth
made.
the the
At the
is
end,
the
vessel's
collision
bulkhead, owing
liable
at
sea,
the
pounding
stresses
which
exceed
this
part of
inches,
vessel
the
27
unless the frames are doubled to the lowest tier of the beams.
the frame spacing should not be greater than 24 inches.
In the peaks
bars,
i.e. %
a
as
Chapter III.;
or
it
may
;
consist,
many modern cargo steamers, of a single angle or bulb angle or it may be of channel section, with the addition, in the case of a large vessel, of a Lloyd's Rules provide tables of scantlings of frames of these reversed angle. In fig. 94 the side framing required for the vessel marked A styles. various
in
fig.
93
is
The
the
part
foreandaft
flange,
of
frame
is
riveted
to
the
shellplating,
is
and
lower
transverse
vessels
having
the
ordinary
floors,
at
its
attached
to
floorplate.
When
construction
consists
of
frame
FRAMES.
101
to
it
latter
is
riveted
the
frame
on the
the
sides
of
the
of
to
the
turn
of
the
bilge,
whence
sweeps
along
top
edge
the floor,
stiffened at
becomes an
efficient
transverse girder.
at
the centre
covering angle
The frame
buttstraps,
and are placed back with the frame, the floorplate being between. These heelpieces should be so fitted as to bear on the top of the keel, when of simple bar type, as in this way stresses due to docking or grounding are communicated
or heelpieces, as they are called, are usually about 3 feet long,
back
to
Fig.
94.
directly to
the framing; .without unduly straining the rivets connecting the keel
strakes.
to
the
garboard
length
Heelpieces
the
are
only
fitted
for
threequarters
the
vessel's
amidships,
line
form
is
at
the
ends
Where
is,
the middle
keelson
it
of course, impracticable to
them.
beams,
special
attention
and deckstringer
in this neigbour
102
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
hood is most efficient for resisting the transverse racking stresses to which, as we have seen, a vessel may be subjected when rolling among waves at sea.
a transverse rib
edge,
it
consists
of a
stiffening
on
its
inner
is
known
six
as
web
the
Lloyd's
with
comat
intermediate frames,
to
be substituted
heavier frames
tier
of
beams
fig.
In
fig.
95, the
largest
It will
frames.
Fig.
95.
SECTION
SECTION SHOWINt
SHOWING
WEB FRAME
INTERMEDIATE FRAME
'iNTERWlDiATCl
TfUMES / 6V5V4ZBA
webs
as
to
the
shellplating
and
to
that
angles
are
to
stringers.
When
and
bulkheads,
shell
develop
their
full
efficiency
should
have
substantial
connection.
Rules,
Thus webs
Lloyd's
angles
require
24 inches and above, in vessels built to double angles to the shellplating, or equivalent single
rigidly
its
double riveted.
A
beams,
at
the
or
deck
tank
by
side
its
connection
to
the
floor
connection,
forms
WEB FRAMES.
girder of
103
comparatively
short
span,
at
least
when
stringers,
it
which are
to
only
properly
the
held
at
the
bulkheads.
web frames continuous and the side stringers done. At the junction of each web and stringer, the discontinuity of the latter is made good by a double angle connection to the webs, and by fitting a stout buttstrap to the stringer face bar (see fig. 95). Web frames are attached by bracket knees to beams at their heads, the knees being double riveted in each arm and flanged on their inner edge. At the lower part, when associated with an ordinary floor, the inner edge of the web frame is swept into the top edge of the former, the
is
advisable
make
is
intercostal,
and
this
usually
connection to
nection
angle angle
(see
is
the
floor
being
to
an
overlapped
bottom,
riveted
it
one.
When
of
the
con
to
be
the
made
margin
the
an
bar
inner
should
consist
riveted
on
bar
to
plate,
with, in addition,
or
from
top
of
the
web on
will
to
inner
bottom
plating
fig.
95.)
FLOORS.
bending
the
line
These
vertical
plates
be
observed
to
have a
maximum
sides,
middle
line
are greatest.
depth
threequarters
the
From
its
this point,
the upper edge of each floor sweeps into the line of the inside of the frame,
terminating at
height
is
line
equal
to
twice
the
depth at the
frame,
middle
line.
There
of a
one such
indeed,
vessel
floor
at
each frame,
floor,
is
and
small
reversed frame
acteristic
vessels,
forming,
a transverse girder,
which
the
most charin
feature
built without
in
an inner bottom.
Except
the
at
floorplates
are
fitted
buttstrap
the
middle
line,
or
is
alternately
fitted,
line.
When
it
a vertical
through centreplate
the
are
fitted
close
against
on each side, a riveted connection being made by double vertical angle bars, The loss of transverse strength due to cutting the as shown in fig. 90. floors is also partly made good by a horizontal keelson plate fitted at the centre line on top of floors, referred to when dealing with centre keelsons. When
inner
bottoms
are
fitted,
this
part
of
the
structure
undergoes
considerable
modifications, as
we
shall
see
presently.
as
SIDE KEELSONS.
floors
As
well
line. The main and floors in their correct relative positions, intercostal plates are fitted between the floors and connected to the shellplating and to double angles on top of the floors. These intercostal plates need not be connected to the floors, but in order
function
to
develop
their
full
efficiency
should
be
fitted
close
is
between them.
In
considered sufficient;
vessels,
27
feet
and under 50
for
feet
in
breadth,
sizes
In
96,
side
keelsons
vessels
of various
are
to4
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
50
feet
BILGE KEELSON.
in
In
as
far
vessels
of
and under
is
54
feet
breadth,
side,
addition
to
bilge
keelson
aft
required
on each
and should be
like
forward and
as
practicable.
This keelson,
shell
a side keelson,
(see
fig.
plate
connected to the
plating
96).
Fig.
96.
tied
together,
in
and
stresses
to
some
angles angles
extent
riveted
distributed
to
con
sisting
small vessels
vessels
of single of
similar
reversed
with
and
latter
in
larger
to
associated
an
side
plate
this
connected
the
shellplating.
all
Lloyd's
Rules
to
require
these
of
type in vessels of
sizes.
According
Fig.
Regulations, the
number
97.
SECTION
AT A.B.
~^r~
of
side
stringers
feet,
\_y
depends
is
B on the value of
very
small
vessels,
^u
s^7~
d.
i
When
is
this
is
feet
and
less
than
feet
feet,
14
to
that
in
one
sufficient;
is
21
feet,
two
are
necessary;
20
feet
three
All
should be
fitted.
keelson
and
stringer
plates
BEAMS.
105
be
fitted
in
long
lengths,
and
to
obviate
any sudden
discontinuity
of
the
strength,
plates
adjoining butts
each
other.
Both
sisting
feet
and bars should be strapped at the butts, the anglebar straps conof bosom pieces of the same thickness as the keelson bar and two long, having not less than three rivets on each side of a butt (see fig. 97).
BEAMS. A
strength
in
(see
tier
of
beams
of
is
always
;
fitted
so
as
to
tie
beams
ship
are
have
scribed
pages
72).
The number
of tiers
it
of beams
also
is
question
is
of
which she
intended.
Fig.
98.
ELEVATION SHOWING STRINGER FACl ANCLE.,
Passenger boats usually require one or more decks below the upper one for
purposes of accommodation.
cargo,
ever,
Many cargo vessels, owing to the nature of their need one or more 'tween deck spaces; in most cargo boats, howas has been said elsewhere, the desire is for deep holds, clear of beams
also
or
other
obstructions.
in
this
Lloyd's
latest
in a previous paragraph, they allow him, up to a certain point, to design his vessel entirely clear of beams below the upper deck, if he so wishes. The value of tf, in such a case, will, of
designer
matter.
As was seen
course,
be
(see
relatively
fig.
great,
side
framing relatively
heavy
it
93).
This
just
the
for
penalty
is
obviously
its
one;
each
governed by
span.
Io6
Spacing of
beams, such as
in
is
Beams.
According
to
Lloyd's
Rules,
complete
tier
of
regulating
scantlings of the latter, may consist of Beams at every frame. (2) Beams at alternate frames. (3) Beams widely spaced up to 24 feet apart. In arrangements (2) and (3) the beams are heavier than
the
(i)
in
(1)
and
in
(3)
broad
stringer
must be
fitted
heavy
stringer
fitted
face
bar, and large horizontal and the beams (see fig. 98).
on the ends of the beams with a gussets must be fitted between the
Lloyd's
:
Rules
require
beams
to
be
at
every
At
all
At upper decks of singledeck vessels above 15 feet in depth. At unsheathed upper decks, when a complete steel deck is required
by the Rules.
(4)
(5)
shelter
awning
vessels
over
450
feet
in
Under
erections,
breadth,
less than 66 feet upper deck beams may be on alternate frames, except
At
the
sides
in
hatchways,
including
steel
those
iron
of
engine
and
boiler
openings,
unsheathed
or
decks.
Elsewhere,
only
if
deck
beams
may be spaced
27
two
frame
spaces
apart,
but
the
is
inches.
easy to grasp the reason for close spacing the beams on unsheathed With thin decks and widely spaced beams, the plating would probably sag between the latter, which would make the decks most unsightly; with beams at every frame the sagging tendency will be very slight. The close beam spacing in way of hatches is necessary in view of the heavy weights which may be brought upon the deck there during loading operations. When a wood deck is laid, beams may be at alternate frames (except as above stated in vessels over 450 feet). In this case, the steel deck is supported between the beams by the wood deck, the deck fastenings for the wood deck being fitted between the beams. The beams forming the weather
It
decks.
off
water quickly
those
of the
are
to
sometimes
weather
cambered
decks
is
and
sometimes
straight.
The
of
usual
camber given
or
\ inch per foot Lloyd's Rules allow the beams of weather decks to be
with
less
of
length
beam.
fitted
without camber
vessels (30,000 continuous deck
than
the
if
usual
at
amount,
in
the
case of
of
large
longitudinal
is
number)
least
half the
length
the
arch,
top
it
covered by erections.
On
might be thought
that
been pointed
BEAM
out,* the
sides
SECTIONS.
io 7
of a
ship are
be the
the
case.
are
fitted
of
different
according
99.
to
required;
in
most
of
these
section
being
E, are
for
included
Sections
A and
at
and
large
vessels,
every frame.
G
for
is
ordinary
to
section,
however,
special
beams
to
built
are
used when
are
beams
fitted
are
be
the
the
fitted
it
is
and J
very
only
the cut
where
to
extra
strength
sides
is
required.
vessel
In
way
is
of
the
machinery,
material
binding
of
the
together
usually
for
much
away owing
necessity
of
;
providing
ample
space
it is, therefore, of importand boilers ance to make any beams that may be got across the vessel in that locality as strong as possible; beams similar to those just mentioned are is a form of beam found suitable (? usually fitted, with satisfactory results. for the ends of hatchways, the angle bar being, of course, fitted away from
the
hatch
opening.
In
general,
where
heavy permanent
deck weights
adopted
will
are
carried,
specially
strong
beams
are
needed,
and the
section
be
that
dictated
Fig.
In
order
to
obtain
the
special
strength,
and
the
as
to
allow
of
substantial
knee
connections
between
depth
frames,
reduced
great
in
towards
extremities,
The
reasons for
having
part
of a
shall
ship
BEAM KNEES, We
fitting
now
beam
seen to
knees.
common,
fig.
and very
It is
efficient
is
good,
into
is
shown
at
100.
consist
fitted
the angle
between the
the
top
of
beam and
Sometimes
well
to
riveted
to the
frame.
lightness,
is
and
inner
hollowed.
any
of the
beam
sections
given
above.
Another way of forming a beam knee is to cut away the lower bulb for a end of the beam, and weld in a piece of plate or bulb This plate, the knee being afterwards trimmed to the size and shape required.
short distance from the
is
called
a slabbed knee
*
(see
fig.
101).
is
exercised,
the
ioS
welds
of
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
these
the
AND CALCULATIONS.
;
knees
bracket
will
give
trouble
for
this
reason
this
style
is
not so
popular as
knee, nor as
Fig.
the
to
describe.
In
100.
BEAMS AT
EVERY FRAME
C.
Six
TIMES
Fig.
101
Fig.
102.
this
last
case,
is
split
of th^
depth, as
102,
turned down;
BEAM KNEES.
a piece
is
I09
of plate
to
cut
shape and
it
welds, but
it
is
welded into the space so formed, and, finally, the beam size. This knee also depends on the quality of the stronger than the previous one, and has a fine appearance
is
is
are mainly met by the shearing strength of the rivets, must be sufficient in number and diameter. Lloyd's Rules require that in knees under 17 inches deep there shall be not less than 4 rivets of finch diameter in each arm, while knees 40 inches deep require nine finch diameter rivets in each arm the number varies between these limits for
stresses
known As the
as
a turned knee.
these
number
be needed
for
The depth and thickness of a beam knee varies with the depth of the beam, and the position of the latter in the ship. Generally, beams which form the top of a hold space are required of maximum depth, the distorting
stresses
being greatest
at
these places.
Hence,
in steamers
where there
is
but
beam knees are of greater depth than if there were intermediate decks. The upper deck beam knees in vessels which have a range of widespaced beams below the upper deck, are to be of the scantlings of
a single tier of beams, the the knees of an upper
deck
of
tier
where
are
it
is
the
only one.
In sailing ships,
for
beam knees
beams *of mentioned
than
those
at
all
tiers
beams
in
to
be the same as
one
tier
upper deck
It
similar
scantling
steamers
require
in
having
only.
that
Lloyd's
the
Rules
necessary
at
beams
in
sailing
ships
tier
to
may be be heavier
These
bulktherefore,
of
same lengths
fitted
steamers
sailing
having
one
only.
requirements
are
very
as
vessels
have
no watertight
they
are,
heads
except
one
rigid
the
extreme
forward
end
without the
of her bulkheads,
transverse stiffening which every steamer possesses in virtue and need the bracing given by beams of special strength and
depth
depth
of
knees.
All
of the
full
of the
beams at every frame are to have plate moulded depth. Thus, in vessels 23 feet and under 24 feet depth, the knees are to be 33 inches x 33 inches and in vessels 26 feet and under 27 feet, 42 inches x 42 inches; the knees Deepening the knees for vessels of intermediate depths varying between these. strengthens the frames by shortening the unsupported length ; it also stiffens the vessel at the deck corners and arrests any tendency to change of form that might develop when the vessel is labouring among waves at sea. BALLAST TANKS. Nearly all modern cargo steamers are constructed to
In large singledeck vessels the
varying in
size
bracket knees
with
the
load
in
waterballast
in
when
peak tanks,
purpose.
deep tanks, or
all
the
Frequent^,
it
these
methods
some other space specially devised for are employed together in a single
steamer,
when
is
no
Ballast
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
tanks
are
AND CALCULATIONS.
in
sailing
not
usually
to
fitted
ships,
as,
unlike
steamers,
they have
long
voyages
perform
and load and discharge comparatively rapid means of ballasting are of little use.
ballast
tanks" in
sailing
ships
is
the
cost.
Still,
for so doing,
double bottoms, and even deep tanks, have been installed in sailing ships.
When
devised
many more
refer, for
economically carrying
adopted.
plating
now
generally
shell
From
and
the
the
first
tops
of
the
in
made
employment.
In the
were usually
only in one or two holds, and to obtain an adequate ballast capacity the tanks
Fig.
103.
BALLAST TANKS.
reversed frames with plugs of wrought iron, the latter being tightly
place
and
Ill
wedged
to
into
carefully
caulked.
Neither of
these
methods was
found
be
of the
decided
at the bilges
margin was
difficult to secure.
Both of these objections were eventually overcome by severing the main and reversed frames at the tank margin, and fitting a continuous bar directly on to the shellplating, the loss of transverse strength being made good by
fitting
on
to
the
tank top.
of
its
System
the
introducer,
in
principle,
the
margin in
all
vessels having a ballast tank extending over the greater part of the length.
In
the earliest vessels built, on this system, the angle connecting the marginplate
to to
the
tanktop
by an
angle
bar
now,
the
flanged
at
the
Fig.
104.
FRAMED
CONTINUOUS W.T.ANGIE
REV.
FRAME CUT
top and the shell bar brought outside the tank, improvements which have led
to
much
better workmanship.
Fig.
a point of importance
breaks.
is
the
To
stop the tank structure abruptly at any point would accentuate the
to
of the double
bottom,
to
scarph the
of
three
latter
for
some
distance
(Lloyd's
Rules require
minimum
It
scarph
frame
spaces),
and
to
connect
them
to
the
very soon
came
to
ballast
tank con
tinuous,
and
by the tank topplating would greatly increase a against foundering, in the event of grounding on a rocky bottom
also that the material required for the construction of the tank, being at a con
112
siderable
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
distance
AND CALCULATIONS.
axis, would be very efficient in resisting These considerations led to the adoption of a continuous ballast tank in many vessels, and when later, the Board of Trade consented to measure the depth for tonnage in such cases to the inner bottom
from
the
neutral
plating, a foreandaft
The
fitting
of a
part
full
double bottom became the rule in cargo steamers. length tank brought immediate changes in the internal
of the
hull.
framing of
the length
this
It
was
now found
possible
to
reduce the
depth of the tank as compared with that of one extending over a part only of
;
but this
made
it
came
to
be generally adopted.
system,
There are two principal methods of constructing a double bottom on this The first consists of illustrated in figs. 105* and 106* respectively.
girders
longitudinal
suitably
spaced,
and
floorplates
fitted
at
alternate
frames,
bars.
the
girders
by angle
By Lloyd's Rules
34
feet
is
whose breadth of tank amidships is under 28 feet, and two between 34 feet and 50 feet in breadth, whose breadth of tank amidships is between 28 and 36 feet. Sometimes the parts are flanged in
breadth,
in
vessels
although the cost is thus somewhat reduced, there being and less riveting, there is a loss in rigidity, for which reason flanged work here is not very common. In way of the engine space, owing to the great vibration there due to the working of the machinery, the floorplates are fitted at every frame and stiffened at their upper edges by double reversed bars floorplates must also occur at the boiler bearers. As a rule flanged work is not resorted to in this region.! Before and abaft the engine space, at those frames to which no floorplates are attached, brackets, which in mediumsized! vessels should be wide enougn at the head to take three rivets in the vertical flange of the intermediate reversed angles for 4
lieu
of angles,
parts
but
fit
fewer
to
the
vessel's
length
amidships,
are
fitted
to
the
centre
girder
resist
and
margin
plate,
the stresses
set
waves.
up by the action of the water ballast when the vessel is in motion among The reversed bars in way of these intermediate frames are riveted to
;
and the inner bottom slightly increased The side girders and floors are pierced with manholes
parts
thickness in
lieu.
to
all
of
the
tank,
a
is
;
considerable
saving
in
weight
being
also
thus
it
effected.
The
centre
girder
others,
forming as
is
has,
therefore,
heavier scantlings,
not
re
duced by manholes except perhaps at the extreme ends, and is stiffened top and bottom by heavy double bars (see fig. 105). In the earliest vessels built on this plan, the longitudinals were continuous and the floors intercostal, the
* Figures taken
t See Remarks on Stiffening of Double Bottom at Fore End, p. 116. X When the longitudinal number is 20,000 and above.
BALLAST TANKS.
former,
113
axis,
it
owing to
the
their
distances
from
the
neutral
being
usual
considerable
the
floors
elements in
to
longitudinal
strength.
Nowadays,
is
for
simplicity
a
of
to
longitudinal
which,
modern
the
vessels,
latter
calculations
in
to
be
still
ample.
in
An
arrangement
short
a great
increase
the
stiffness
bottom,
comparatively
floorplates
girders.
strength
and
rigidity
than
long
foreandaft
Fig.
105.
PLAN
23"
*
H,.^^. EL
BRACKET
SIDE GIRDERS
=H*J.
/* 1
1
ft
I
or
in
CENTRE GWOtR
LZ
ti
^^TfF""^
When
as
longitudinals
are
continuous,
efficiency
as
strength
elements
may not be
possible,
and those
the
rule
girders
shifted
well
of
each
other
transversely.
When
vessels
which exceed 26
is
inner bottom
fig.
vessels exceed 400 feet, and in singledeck moulded depth, the above plan of framing the not considered adequate, and the second method, shown in
lengths
of
feet
106,
should be adopted.
In
this
case,
ii 4
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
to
AND CALCULATIONS.
margin plate on
each
side,
while
the
The
floorplates
and side
are the
floors into
each cellular
Fewer side girders required by this plan, only a single one being necessary on each side of centre if the ballast tank be under 36 feet in width and the breadth ship under 50 feet, and only two if the tank be under 48 feet and
space,
girder
plate.
of
the
the
number being
girders with
proportionately increased in
closer floors gives
the spacing
of the
the
approxi
mately the
in
the
previous
The
intercostals
are
Fig,
106.
PLAN
and the
floors,
as well
and
to angle bars
have angle connections to the centre girder and the marginplate; the centre girder attachments, consisting of double angles for half length amidships when the transverse
number reaches
or exceeds
66.
In the
latest
vessels
of this
size,
single
angle attachments between the floors and centre girder have sometimes been It is seen that as regards the inadopted, the flanges being double riveted.
ternal framing of
is
somewhat
increase
strength,
less
of
breadth
modern
vessels,
demanding
considerable
transverse
and of the greatly enhanced stiffness of the bottom on account of the numerous deep floorplates, it would appear that the continuous floor on every frame method of construction is the better one, particularly as the
BALLAST TANKS.
"5
absence of the bracket work required at the intermediate spaces in the previous plan renders the work of simpler construction. This arrangement is at anyrate a
favourite
with
many
builders,
who have
frequently
adopted
size.
it
in
much
Rules
smaller
vessels
than
recognise
the
greater
the
tank,
shellplating
requiring it owing to their strength of this plan over the previous one by allowing (except the flat keel and garboard strakes) in way of the
those
Lloyd's
when
52
to
'66 '66
when
the
plating
exceeds
of an inch in
thickness,
no reduction
is
allowed.
Fig.
107.
Il6
increase in breadth
single bars with
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
double bars or equivalent
for
this
and depth,
doubleriveted flanges
quickly
become necessary
this
pur
pose, over
some
to
the
fore
end
attention
in
respect,
demand double
length
angles
from
the
the
stem
of
is
vessels
of
moderate
fitting
size.
Besides
the
foregoing,
at
with
growth
vessels
additional
strength
becomes
to
necessary
the
tops
the the
tank
margin,
which
provided
by
gussetplates
of
In recent instances,
results.
good
106,
Detailed
are
at
shown
every
in
figs.
105,
and
in
107.
These
case by
or
angles
to
are
fitted
fifth,
fourth, third,
second or single
each
of
size,
the limits of
d,
being fixed
the
number and
value
i.e.,
length
unsupported
frame.
little comment. Lloyd's be arranged in longitudinal strakes and the butts shifted well clear of each other and of those of the longitndinal girders, when these are continuous, and this is usually done. In some districts, notably the N.E. coast, transverse strips have been fitted under the watertight bulkheads to allow the building of the latter to be proceeded with at an early stage of the
The
fitting
commended.
To
is
sometimes joggled
the
seams, but
been raised to the depression thus caused in the surface, as forming lodgments for water, particularly where ceiling is laid, rapid corrosion
resulting
this
in
consequence.
is
thickness
of
plating
to
reduced
at
is
increased
in
space
give
additional
but
more
particularly
allow
for
<the
corrosion
Structural
not bestowed
centre
girder
vessels, in
efficiency in double bottoms would not be obtained were care on the riveted connections. It is especially important that the
at
the
less
butts
except in the
case
of
small
and
side
than treble riveted amidships, very large vessels they should be quadruple riveted.* The butts of
must not be
girders,
riveted,
and
in
laroe
vessels
treble
riveted.
The tank
topplating
strength,
is
an
important
riveting
element
in
both
the
longitudinal
for
and transverse
consideration.
and the
of the
of butts
line
careful
The
in
butts
middle
in large vessels
they should
be treble and
of inner
the
largest
vessels
quadruple
riveted.
The
for
re
maining
* In
riveting
butts
bottom
plating
are
to
be
double
riveted
half
of butts
Lloyd's Rules, and also in those of the British Corporation, the requirements as to and edge joints at any part of a ship are fixed by the thickness of the
part.
plating
PEAK TANKS.
length,
strake,
vessels,
17
and
in
large
vessels
treble
riveted. stresses
The edges
are
of
the
middle
in
line
where
the
transverse
bending
greatest,
except
this
small
should apply
to the clear
middle
line
strake.
All
the
overlapped.
On
foreends
resist
page 73 reference was made to special stresses which come upon the To of full vessels when sailing in light trim among waves at sea.
If
built
these stresses, such vessels are provided with extra strengthening forward
in
on the
cellular
tively closely
at
alter
nate
are to
be
fitted
to every frame,
doubled from
a
fifth
plate
from
the
bulkhead
the
to
of
the
length
the
aft,
also
three
for
strakes
of plating next
to
keel are
If
maintain
with
their
midship thickness
floors
ward
frame,
the
the
collision
bulkhead.
built
continuous
shellplating
at
every
as
in
the
frames are to be
;
doubled,
special
and the
increased,
last
case
but in addition,
to
intercostal
girders
must be
fitted
of
for
a depth equal
half that
ward
in
as
practicable.
this
region
are
in
be
of
closer
spacing
than
elsewhere.
It
should
be
of
mentioned that
girders
full
vessels
having
floors,
ballast
tanks those
constructed with
longitudinal
if
on top of ordinary
and
in
necessary.
PEAK TANKS, In
ballast
;
now
in
some
cases,
the
forepeak
is,
is
also
so
constructed,
but more
;
rarely.
The
like
they are
weights situated at the extreme ends of a lever poised at the middle, and
this
respect.
for
work,
we have
load.
to
set
up by the
rivets
does not
lie
on the
but
presses immediately
on
on the frame
the structure
for
this
not to exceed 5 diameters. It is not usual to increase the shellplating or framing in thickness, as owing to the shape at this part these
of such rivets are
amply
strong.
the
hold
bulkhead,
however,
and of considerable area, care has to be taken to prevent bulging ; this is done by thickening the lower plating if the tank is a deep one, and making the stiffeners heavier and closer spaced than at A centre line bulkhead or washplate is required in all ordinary bulkheads. such compartments, to prevent the water from damaging the structure by
requires
special attention
being
flat
surface,
vessel's
and
to
minimise
which such
free
surface would
have on a
stability.
Such
n8
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
of
usually
consist
ballast;
ordinary
hold
compartments
one or two of them are freWhere one only is required, quently fitted in large modern cargo steamers. the compartment immediately abaft the engines is usually adapted for the purpose where there are two, they are generally placed one at either end
;
of the
When
Fig.
situated
thus,
the
machinery being,
108.
SECTION
ELEVATION
BRACKETS
us
' j
Tj/
PECK
(TVT
y
PLAN.
of
course,
assumed
amidships,
the
water
ballast
has
its
greatest
power
in
but
increased.
stiffeners
of strengthening is followed here as in the peak deep tanks being larger, the stiffening has to be correspondingly The end bulkheads must have heavy vertical and horizontal
of
bulb
angle,
in
or
other
section,
to
fitted
on
opposite
sides
and
deck,
the
one case
the
double
bottom
and
II 9
and in the other, to the ship's sides. A centre line division is required, and must be of strong construction, as it takes the place of pillars, as well as acting as a wash plate. It should be connected by double angles to the deck and double bottom, and have substantial, closepitched stiffeners bracketed at top and bottom. Cases have occurred in which the action of the water has swept this bulkhead entirely from its boundary connections, showing the need of having the latter specially strong. The deck forming the top of the tank is required to have beams spaced on every frame, and there should be large beam knee connections to the sides, as severe strains have been found developed at this part due to the action of the water in a partiallyfilled tank, when the vessel has been in motion at sea. Midway between the centre line and the ship's side, runners are required under the deck beams, and, in order
PLAN
to
tie
the
exerted
top and bottom of the tank by the contained water when the
pillars
together, against
vessel
is
the
lifting
forces
in
row of strong
plating
is
are required.
in
The
side
riveting through
tanks,
and
shell
of close
pitch
way of deep
ship's
as
the
is
load
acts
directly
on
the
the
shellplating.
At the
watertightness
secured in
much
same way as at the margin of a double bottom. A continuous bar is fitted and caulked to tank top plating and shell, the side frames, which have, of course, to be severed, being bracketed to the tank top (see fig. 108); sometimes, where the side framing consists of frame and reversed frame, only the reversed frames are cut, the frames being doubled in the vicinity and watertight
collars
fitted
;
in
for
this
last
case,
the
severing
at
of
the
reversed frames
(see
fig.
is
further
compensated
by
fitting
brackets
alternate
frames
109).
120
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
for the
AND CALCULATION^.
is
obtained by means
is
required
line.
OTHER TANKS. As
arrangements
well
as
the
foregoing,
in
many
ballast.
steamers
special
in
have
been
devised
for
carrying
water
Thus,
the
cut
82).
Harroway and Dixon type of vessel, corner spaces under the deck off from the holds, and specially strengthened for this purpose (see
In
the
Burrell
(see
fig.
are
fig.
type
84).
the
ballast
In the
space
have been
to
specially
in
system, which
ship
in
consists
are built up and utilised for water Ropner Trunk type, portions of the trunk The M'Glashan strengthened to the same end. continuing the double bottom up the sides of the
bilge
corners
latest
the
of
height
these
of the
deck,
is is
also worthy of
mention.
thus
The
chief point
for
favour
arrangements
the
high
position
secured
the
centre
of gravity
of the water
ballast,
TESTING OF TANKS. On
watertightness
completion,
ballast
tanks
are
tested
for
Each compartment
by a
head
of
of
a double bottom
to
water ballast
is
pressed
water
the
in
height
actual
of
bear
service.
of water
less
feet
waterline as being the greatest pressure it need Peak tanks and deep tanks are tested by a head above the top of tank, but the head must in no case be
load
than to
the
height
of
the
load waterline.
of
pillars
PILLARS.
been pointed
stresses
The
It
importance
in
ship
structure
ties
has
already
out.
struts
and
they communicate
from one part to another, and thus cause the strength of the various
structure
act
parts
of the
ones,
strain
together.
liable
Short
pillars
are
more
effective
at
than
long
less
as
the
latter
are
to
collapse
by side bending
much
than
that represented
Pillars are,
in
a vessel
feet long
of 55 feet
beam
pillars,
the latter,
if
just
under 8
and supporting a beam of a third deck, should have a diameter of 4 inches, and if just under 22 feet a diameter of 5! inches; intermediate lengths having diameters between these. The strength of pillars should also advance with
the loads they have to bear;
for
instance,
load to support, may be under second or third decks below the upper deck, which may, therefore, have heavy loads of cargo to support,
those
fitted
In
the
side
pressure
of
liable to
bend the
as
pillars unless
As
of the
well
as
acting
struts
and
ends
ties,
pillars
beams they
beam,
of the
support.
at
A
its
pillar
below the
fixed
rigidity
;
rect
angular
strength
fixed
supported
latter
there,
double
ships
the
and
greatly
increase
beams
in
have
ends, but
middle
line pillars is
except as modified by this circumstance, the strength value of equally great. If two pillars be fitted to a beam so as
PILLARS.
to divide
its
121
is
span
a third of
its
original value,
for
correspondingly increased;
is
and so on
any
number of
for
pillars,
pillars.
Use
of this
made
instance,
beams 43 feet and under in length require only a centre row of but when they exceed this length, two rows become necessary; when
of
the
length
beam exceeds 60
feet,
an additional
row
is
required,
placed
Fig.
110.
Fig.
111.
1
Fig.
u
112.
17
Fig.
113.
^
Lln_
Fig.
115.
Fig.
114.
Fig.
116.
in
one at the centre line, and another at each quarter breadth of the vessel, those At the ends of the the latter rows being hence called quarter pillars.
the
vessel, as
beam
decreases
in
length, the
number
of rows
of pillars
may
be correspondingly reduced. Where there are several decks, the various rows of pillars should be arranged as nearly as possible over one another, in order to rigidly join the upper and lower parts of the ship's structure.
forms
part
of
the
heads
vessel
and
to
of
pillars
are
governed by the
nature
of
the
of
the
^
122
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
and
is
which
connection
but has
the
is
made.
;
Figs,
no
first
in
illustrate
two
methods
is
of
the
not so
common
so
the
beam round
Figs.
the
relieves
rivets
when
to
the
pillar
is
under tension.
respectively.
112
it
is
necessary
the
have
under
them
in
way of the
so
as
to
support
Fig.
117.
^^^p^^vt
i
^tm
Fig.
118.
Fig.
119.
^^
U
Fig.
120.
Fig.
121.
Fig.
122.
Fig.
123.
_V
intermediate beams.
M
by
this
be of
other
;
approved
it
These runners should consist of double angles, but may Figs. form. 114 and 1 15 show two styles of the
be observed that the attachment to the beams is lug; where the beams are of channel section 116 is a suitable form where the pillars have to
is
beam runner
means of a
is
will
riveted
angle
unnecessary.
for
Fig.
be
on
reeled
line
shifting
boards, as
in
cargo vessels.
The
plan
adopted
is
to
fit
consecutive
123
opposite flanges of the channel runner, thus forming two lines between which the shifting boards may be reeved. Where intercostals to the deckplating
are
are
also
required, as
in
widely
figs.
in
various
ways,
figs.
117,
118,
and
119,
126 and
127, showing
some of
these with
pillar
head attachments.
strong girders
stresses.
The
beam
the
ties into
eminently qualified to
The
heads.
A common
or
to
one
is
shown
the
on
to
consist
of
to the deck
the
beam, as
case
may
124.
be.
favourite
method when
Fig.
<&?
s^&>
ALTERNATIVE PLAN
/
/
SHOE BEVELLED
72117/ /T7VSf?S7K
'
SSaZSaSS
^wwwy;^
the
heel
to
lug
the
is
to
rivet
or
tee
figs.
pillar
to
flange
(see
121
steel
and
lags
This plan
latter
is
sometimes followed
to
to to
are
the
allow of the
facilitate
heel
of the
pillar
being
123)
the
caulking of
the latter
of pillars should consist of at least two finch they reach a length of 18 feet or a diameter of 4 inches there should be three rivets in each end. Pillars 5 inches or above in diameter
rivets.
When
require
a fourrivet connection
at
the
ends.
124
Pillars
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
are
AND CALCULATIONS.
be
portable
;
frequently
required
to
in
for
example,
they
must
be
removed
the
heels,
when
these
loading
many kinds
plan in
fig.
(see alternative
124), but
particularly
at
are
figs.
found
can,
impracticable
or
un
124 and
125
are resorted
When
strut.
in
either of these
ways a
pillar
of course,
only act as
several
rows
of
closeranged
pillars
valuable
to
vessel
as
regards
her
strength,
from
point
of view
of
all
stowage
cargoes,
they
the
are
obviously
somewhat
of
drawback.
With
almost
pillars, particularly those in the wings, must give rise to a conamount of broken stowage, and although by splitting up the cargo they prevent damage through side pressure when the vessel is rolling, many
siderable
Fig.
125.
WOOD DECK
owners
in
have
of
sought
a
to
dispense
requiring
with
say,
them where
three
possible.
For example,
pillars,
it
vessels
breadth
complete
rows of
to
is
permitted,
substitute
instead
line
With
pillars,
this
modified
at
arrangement,
deck,
of
however,
two rows in the wings at wider spacing. beam runners, having intercostal
fitted
attachments
the
each
must be
in
way of each
pillars
line
of
quarter
scantlings
latter,
the
intercostals
and
being
governed by the
spacing
load.
of the
In Lloyd's Rules,
pillars
of wide
spaced
and of the
trades,
their
heads.
For many
spaced, the
as
have been found to be too numerous, and the centre row dispensed with, and a very wide spacing aqlopted for the quarter has been
pillars
WIDESPACED PILLARS.
pillars,
125
being
fitted
in
some
vessels
not
the
aside
even in long
and the loads communicated to the pillars, by means of runner girders of enhanced strength, and the greater stresses brought upon the pillars have been met by making the latter of special size and construction. 126 and 127 illustrate two Figs. arrangements to Lloyd's requirements. These pillars, it will be noted, are
holds.
In such
cases
supported,
Fig.
126.
/BEAMS
HANMELS
GIRDER
IO*3V3V60
DOUBLE CHANNELS
PILLARS
12
DIA*
PLATING 54"
TANK TOP
FLOOR
INTERCOSTAL GIRDER
This
is
necessary
similarly
for
rigidity,
and when
pillars
cannot
be
so
placed
they
must be
the tanktop.
OUTER BOTTOM.The
shellplating.
Its
is
the outside
to
give
being spread
like
the inner
126
framing
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
in
and securely
riveted
thereto
parts
every
direction,
resist
it
binds
the
the
whole
stresses
to
efficiently
severe
brought upon them when the vessel is in lively motion among waves at sea. Every part of the shellplating is of importance, but owing to their positions
must be of greater comparative strength than others. We have greatest longitudinal bending stresses come upon the upper and lower works, and the least in the vicinity of the neutral axis; so that,
parts
some
seen
that
the
Fig.
127.
with
the
vessel
upright,
at
the the
sheerstrake
at
the top,
and the
neutral
keel,
garboard,
and adjacent
material
least.
strakes
bottom,
are
most
of
severely
at
about
midheight
the
stressed,
while
is
the
position
the
axis
stressed
It
has also
been pointed out that the above conditions become modivessel, the sideplating is raised
fied
towards the
top
the
girder
increased
stress;
away from the neutral axis and has to sustain a much this, and the fact that the longitudinal sheering stresses
OUTER BOTTOM.
where they occur in the length, are
a
27
maximum
at
the
neutral
axis,
must
be borne
the
are
mind when apportioning the scantlings to the various parts of shellplating. Towards the ends of the vessel the structural stresses less than amidships, and the thicknesses are reduced; this applies to all
in
longitudinal
materials
in
a ship.
societies
The Rules
strake,
of
all
classification
to
upper turn of the bilge to the sheerstrake being of smaller scantlings. Of course, in certain places, where severe local stresses may be anticipated, special strength is introduced. Thus, the afterhoods of the strakes which
come on
part
the
sternposts
stresses
in
steamers
are
retained
of
midship
in
thickness
to
withstand the
of
the
propeller
plates
brings
upon
that
structure.
For the
the
in
immediate
thickness
vicinity
called
are
increased
beyond
is
same
it
strakes midships.
to in
thickened
forward
where
the
has
take
the
chafe
anchors
is
and
in to
some
special
ice
vessels
plating
the vicinity
of the
stem
thickened
withstand
pressure.
shellplating
The
are
of a vessel
For example, in a small vessel, say one 90 feet or 100 feet in length and under 10 depths to length, with a longitudinal number under 3350, the shell scantlings in fractions of an inch would be keelplate, amidships '44, ends "36 garboard strakes, where there is a bar keel, amidships '34, ends '30 ; shellplating, from flat keelplate or garboard strake, to strake below sheerstrake, amidships '30, ends '26; sheerstrake '32 strake below '3, ends '26. In a cargo steamer of average size, say about 360 feet long, with a proportion of length to depth of between by the
size
governed
of
the
latter.
11
lings
and 12, and a longitudinal number of 28,400, the corresponding would be keelplate, without doubling, '94 to "66 garboard
:
scant
strake
to
with
bar
keel,
'64
to
'54
from
;
flat
keelplate
or
garboard
strake
upper turn of
sheerstrake,
62
bilge,
"6o
to
"46
below
In
*6o
to
'44;
sheerstrake,
72
the
to
'44;
strake
is
below
at
sheerstrake,
to
'44.
In
each
sets
case,
the
second
if
thickness
keel
that
the
ends.
each
of
these
there
of
scantlings,
strake
;
and
sheerstrake
omitted,
is
comparative
taper
uniformity
throughout
be might
the
the
small
vessels,
small
amount of compared
the
towards
those
are
the
the
ends
in
the
scantlings
of
the
with
of
other.
Structurally,
great,
end
the
tear
thicknesses
in
smaller
vessel
probably
too
but
for
as
even
of
maximum
prevents
larger
thicknesses are
small,
the
necessity
in
of allowing
the
wear and
the
liberal
reduction
permissible
heavier
material
the
vessel.
arrange
Having decided upon the scantlings, the next point of importance is to the end joints of the plates forming the various strakes. These should be disposed in such a way as to avoid having too many weak points
128
In
the
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
Rules
stipulate
same
strakes
transverse
section.
Lloyd's
to
that
joints
in
ad
joining
strakes
at
least
one space
clear.
They
also
demand
or butts
of the
sheerstrake
Fig.
128.
\1
l
!
i
i
'
Ui
i
iii
i I
'
,l
i
'
' ,
i *
'
'
r
i
I;,;
;
ji
1t
i
Hi^J
#E Jh
I
:!
'
^Ufr
1 :
1 :
ii
ii:
' I
^iirn
strake strake
ship clear
by a
like
same
128
This
latter
precaution
the
keel
strakes,
only
separating
them.
Fig.
of joints or
It will
butts
Lloyd's Rules.
Fig.
tt~i
I 1 I
ii
I
"
'
'
Tri
'
1
~1
nUUj
1
I I
l!
<
Tfry^
' I
1
'
rt'^
I
if 4t.i 1
l
I ,
I I
L
1
, I
4fr.4 ^^I't it
I
I
1
' I I 1 I l
I ' 1
1
!
ihTTi
1
l <
^m ......
j
'
*
,
++M4 rm
between may be
than
that
joints
4+r4 lj44JUj3r^hrnrrn
same frame
length,
It
iLUWJJiUiJULU'JiilL
which
to
^^tiUJr
space.
occur in the
Nowadays, as plates
disposition
rolled
almost
any desired
a
is
better
not,
of
joints
of
fig.
128
is
easily
obtainable.
however,
necessary
to
have more than a certain number of passing strakes between consecutive butts in a frame space, no more, indeed, than is required to ensure the same strength
OUTER BOTTOM.
at
129
rivet
a line
of
end
joints
as
at
line
of
frame
holes,
is
the
latter
being
there unavoidable.
In strength estimates,
of
course, allowance
rendered
frames.
to
the
actual
joints
by
the the
edge
rivets
must be made for the assistance between the joints and the
in
By
calculation
best arrangement
be arrived at;
as
perfectly qualified
Figs.
devise
an
altogether
different
disposition
of
joints.
129
and
130
illustrate
built.
A
breadth.
in
arranging
lead
shellstrakes
is
the
question
of
in
their
plates
to
saving
in
riveting
and
the
work of erecting fewer plates being required for the ship than where the There are obstrakes are narrow they are naturally popular with builders. jections to their use, however, in that the lines. of weakness which occur at
Fig.
130.
the
butts
are
increased
thereby,
and
that
the
edge
laps
being
fewer
than
where the strakes are narrow, there is some loss of longitudinal stiffness. For these reasons excessively wide strakes are not adopted by the best shipObviously, plates may be broader in large than in small vessels, builders.
as
there
a
will
still
be a
of
in
sufficient
number
20
feet
of strakes
fix
in
the
former case to
give
good
at
shift
butts.
Lloyd's
Rules
in
the
maximum
and
at
breadth
inches
of
in
strakes
vessels
48
inches
vessels
depth,
66
The methods
131),
several
objections,
it
the
principal
of tapered
at
the
frames
was,
therefore,
aban
now
universal raised
this
and sunken
style
An
obvious
advantage of
of frame
that
number
slips
are
required,
which,
being
parallel,
3o
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
Other advantages consist
and more
easily
fitted.
the
increased efficiency of construction consequent on having, at least, half the plating directly secured to the framing without packing, and in the possibility
Fig.
132.
of fitting
all
the
inside
strakes
simultaneously instead
In
of one at
a time, the
method
or
many modern
plates
being
OUTER BOTTOM.
dished or joggled at the edges (as shown in
surfaces
directly
fig.
131
133), so as to bring their inner
on
to
the
flanges
of
the
frames.
are
more
and
as
efficient
less
riveting,
there
thicknesses
It
to
join,
has also
little
is
very
is
in
against the
there
the loss
of
Fig.
133.
Fig.
134.
ft
This
depression,
too,
it
should be noted, causes a reduction in the internal Moreover, there is no saving in workmanship, as
to
joggling of the
plates has
fitting
of
the
packing.
Its
diffi
On
the
score
of appearance alone,
many owners
sherlplating,
object
to
the system.
cc*st
greatest drawback,
however,
is
and
the
of collision
or grounding,
these
become
necessary.
132
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
also
be obviated by joggling the frames (fig. As the plates are not dished, there is a saving in displacement 134). represented by the weight of the packing pieces; also, there is no loss in in
The
fitting
of packing pieces
may
Fig.
135.
ternal capacity.
able,
In the case of
repairs, if
ordinary way.
in
this
many
owners.
OUTER BOTTOM.
In
133
instead
at
other
special
vessels,
strips
of
overlapping,
(see
fig.
the
135).
the seams
;
By
greater weight
also entails a method double the number of rivets is required it than the common of material and is considerably more costly method. The flush joint has a decidedly good appearance, but obviously the
this
its
use in
to.
The number
vessel.
of
rows
of
rivets
required
in
the
longitudinal
seams
of
is
the
plating,
size
the
thickness
rivets
is
craft, in which the shellplating is less than 36 of an inch from the keelplate to the strake below the sheerstrake, a single
is
row of
region
sufficient;
in larger vessels, in
'46
required in
its
the
seams.
The
importance,
Until recently, doubleriveted seams were considered sufficient even for the
largest vessels, but for reasons already given {see
and upwards,
plating
is
page 69), in vessels of 480 feet where the thickness of the sidenecessary to
treble
rivet
less
than
'84
of an
inch,
it
is
now
the
seams
in the fore
and
480
after
The seam
to
riveting
at
of vessels
these
of
from 450
84
feet to
feet
in
length,
also
be increased
parts,
proportionately
to
their
length.
must be treble riveted for i the and treble riveting at seams. The end joints of shellplates may be formed either by butting or overlapping examples of single, double, and treble riveted joints, formed in both these ways, are shown in fig. 137. In making the sketches, overlappededge seams on the raised and sunkenplate system have been assumed with the edge seams formed otherwise, there would be some differences in the details of the end joints. The question of the number of rivets is decided by the percentage of strength required in the joint compared with the solid plate. In no vessel, however, should the end joints of the shellplating be less than double riveted. With increase in size of vessels, the need of greater longitudinal strength has made it essential to resort to treble and quadruple riveting at the end joints.
inches
in
thickness
length midships.
vessels, especially when the proportion of length to depth is double buttstraps treble riveted are required for the end joints of the sheerstrake and neighbourhood.
In the largest
excessive,
in
In comparing overlapped joints with those having buttstraps, notable points reduction in number of rivets, saving in weight
:
and reduced cost of construction. It has been objected that the projections due to overlaps cause a drag on a vessel's speed, on account also that the overlapped joint has not of the dead water which they create
of
;
the nice appearance of the flush type with the strap inside
34
cost
has,
for
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
quite
of
the
established
the
supremacy of
former.
joints,
stress,
straps,
have a tendency to
stress
resultant
not passing
to
middle
of
thus
causing
bending
action
be
Fig.
137.
OUTER BOTTOM.
Fig.
i3S
138.
SECTION AT AB.
Cat away where dotted in
way
of edge lap.
Fig,
139.
TZ3
SECTION AT AB.
Dooted part cut
away
for
breadth of edge
lap.
136
generally
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
thus
the
effected with
AND CALCULATIONS.
joints,
overlapped
the
if
same cannot be
the
said
for
those
is
of
all
butted
type.
In
to
the
latter
it
case,
will
opening
it
at
the
seam
at
wide,
an attempt
recaulk
but make
brittle
break away.
better
way
to
deal with
first
such a case
is
with a suitable
this
cement,
taking
care
to
and makes the joint watertight. With overlapped end joints, some difficulty is experienced in obtaining good work where crossed by the seams of adjoining strakes. Until a few years ago, the usual method of construction was to resort to packing pieces,
restores the flush appearance
but
great
this
caused
unfairness
in
the
landings
at
it
each
lap
joint,
and,
unless
care were
taken
in
fitting
the
packing,
is
could
not
in
be
satisfactorily
caulked.
139.
A
plate
method now
first
largely
adopted
to
that
shown
figs.
138
and
In the edge
the
figure,
which
to
refers
is
of one
in
way of the
so
as
joint
of
the
lap,
allow
the
landing
of
the
outer
strake
to
evenly on
joint
to in
inner
In the case of a
this
scarphing of
difficulty
an inner strake a similar plan is followed (fig. 139). An objection the seams at the end joints is found in the increased of executing repairs, where, as may sometimes be the case, the
machinery may not be available.
shellplates
requisite
surfaces
left
care must be taken to shear from the faying which come together to form a joint or the rag by shearing must be chipped off, otherwise it will be difficult to close
In
working
i.e.,
the
surfaces
the
work.
at
To
edges
it
facilitate
caulking,
plates
planed
and
is
at
insides strakes
necessary to plane
When
plates
are
to
number
found
quickly
in
thoroughly
close
the
joined,
otherwise
difficulty
will
be
obtaining
satisfactory riveting.
RIVETS AND
show
itself
RIVETING. Nowhere
in
will
lack
at
of the
efficiency
riveting.
more
the
hull
of
a
well
vessel
than
The
thicknesses
shifted
of the
materials
may be
if
distributed,
and the
joints
carefully
The
rivets
be weak, the straining of the and render her leaky and unseaworthy. depends on the aggregate sectional area of the
the
riveting
latter,
in
used,
centre to centre, on the style of the and on the material and workmanship.
The number
a
single,
of rivets
treble,
in
a joint varies
according as
the
is,
latter
is
to
to
be
the
double,
or
that
according
the
We
should
have
already
indicated generally
joint
be employed in a ship,
riveted
compared with the unpierced when and where each class of and we now propose to deal with the
butt
as
details
of these
connections.
137
be governed by the thickness of the adequate shearing strength had alone they join. If the provision of to be considered, widespaced rivets of large diameter might be fitted, but for watertight work the distance between the rivets next the caulking edge,
sizes
The
of rivets
may be
said to
plates
especially in
will
thin plates,
great,
otherwise
the water
pressure
cause
;
tendency to
in
is
the
also
plate
rivets
a
of
comparatively
the
close
pitch
action the
caulking tool.
For the
plate.
same
the
line
of
the
rivets
next
caulking edge
of
strake
than
plates
joined,
their
would greatly exceed the strength of the material between them and the edge of the pla'.e, and the connection would consequently To fail, when under stress, by the rivets tearing through the plate edges. prevent this happening, a maximum diameter of rivet is fixed at about twice With the rivet at one diameter the thickness of either of the plates joined.
shearing strength
the
plate,
it
shearing
strength
of
the
rivet
approximately equalled
is
by the
resistfail
As
of
plates
rivets
increase
in
in
of
ships,
the
diameter
the
maximum
given above.
efficiency
Obviously, there
a limit to the
size
of
rivet
which can be
in
worked by hand, and when great strength is required and machine riveting is not available, this is obtained by
A
than
any case
to
is
fixed
diameter
much
less
as
the
punch
liable
crush up
In the subin
steel
1
joined table
It
we
or the
give Lloyd's
rivets
ships.
will
be seen that
or
inch
inch
to
in
thickness
keel
thereabouts.
sheerstrake,
T
These
heavy plates
ordinary
are
usually
restricted
machine riveting may be employed, but in the big Cunarders Lusitania and Mauretania^ the riveting of a large part of the shell was done by special hydraulic machines with gaps
the
w here
sufficient
to
take
the
full
width
at
of
strake,
the
strakes
being
fitted
and
riveted
up complete, one
a time,
and consecutively.
T38
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
and end
joints
of deckplating, in end
overlaps,
in
of
shellplating
where these
are
quadruple riveted
double
buttstraps,
and
foreandaft
and tieplates, in the athwartships of inner bottom plating, and elsewhere. In some posifor
tions,
spacing
of
in
than
required
watertightness.
Thus
3
the
rivets
in
the
J
end
joints
shellplating,
where
buttstraps
are
fitted,
have
the
joints,
and of
3J
with
the
thus
left
overlapped end
rivets
joints,
overlaps,
is
are
pretty
in
severely
there
to
is
still
of
strength
the
material
between
them
prevent
the
of the
demand
it,
work
tight
keels,
is
extended to
five
The
rivets
in
bar keels,
bulkhead frames
as
the
rivets
are
large
and the
machines,
which
effectually
close
enough
obtain
to obtain
good caulking.
a
closer
line
is
done by hydraulic the surfaces, the spacing is found close In the case of bulkhead frames, although to
riveting
is
usually
watertightness
rivet
pitch
might be desirable,
the
to
resort
holes.
to
it
of
weakness through
through
the
frame frame
rivet
The
;
that
ordinary
rivet
holes
the
to
way of the
closer pitched
bulkhead frame
rivet holes is
made up
by doubling the shell in way of the outside strakes in the vicinity of the bulkhead, or other compensation is made. When unhampered by the necessity
for
caulking,
we
find
that
the
spacing
etc.,
is
widened.
distance
In the
frames,
rivets
beams,
keelson angles,
bulkhead
stiffeners,
the
between
may be
in
seven diameters.
certain
In the case
of
frames,
this
spacing
becomes modified
viz.,
circumstances.
to
When
up
the
frames
are
of
widely spaced,
rivets
is
26 inches
and
is
upwards,
to
make
inches
of
5
the
number
to
their
spacing
must
be
reduced
deep,
6 diameters.
A
a
similar
reduction
required
its
viz.,
and above,
channel
a
develop
full
When
spacing
each
the
axis
frame
consists
to
bar
bar,
the
must be reduced
shell
diameters, because
liable
plating
are
to
relatively
high
the
stress,
due
to
the
neutral
latter
of
the
drawn
towards
inner
edge of
the
by the reversed
this
out.
rivets
oil
In
is
way
to
Experiments carried out by Lloyd's Register have borne of deep ballast tanks, and peak tanks, the spacing of
5
frame
bulk
be
6
diameters,
and
in
way of the
to
oil
compartments of
that
vessels,
diameters
apart,
owing
rivet
the
circumstance
the
is
weight acts
directly
on the
shell
plating,
much
few
variety in the
methods
styles
and points of
rivets
of
the
commoner
139
as in
shown
in
fig.
140.
in
The
first
rivet
marked A
tank
are
is
known
and
the
pan
type,
and
pan
rivets
employed
is
the
shell,
decks,
top,
handwork
thus:
generally
where strength
the
consideration,
usually
made
The
fits
head
is an efficient form, the shoulder under the head giving it power when riveted up. The rivethead marked B is in favour with some
good binding
tightly
shipbuilders.
into
It
is
when hammered
of the
the
hole,
and
independently
frequently
laying
up
process;
with
panheads,
affecting the
such
hammering
etc.,
brings
a strain on the
rivet
is
head without
times
shank of the
tops,
rivet.
The plughead
to
its
someit
used
for
decks,
tank
but
owing
it
lack
of strength
has
of
Clearly
has
liable
and having little or no shoulder, under severe stress it At G a snap form of head be drawn through the rivet hole.
is
j^,
indicated.
It
is
occasionally
is
employed
in
handwork
at places
in
etc.
sight,
where
flush
a nice
appearance
is
desired,
The
head
is
(see F)
required.
plating
It is a somewhat expensive form to work, as, of course, the must be countersunk to receive it, but it has fair holding power and
makes
efficient
work.
the commonest,
Of
It
is
rivet points
it
and most
as
efficient,
as,
is
(see
D).
In general,
is
associated
with
a panhead,
for
usually
finished
flush,
slightly
convex,
shown,
in
maintain
the
strength.
Being
point
for
giving
in
the
the
this
The widening
point
is
of the
hole
drill
the plate
of
called
ing
each
hole
after
punching.
The
are
sometimes
the
this
adopted
flush
(see
heads
G).
It
employed.
Usually
snap
head
it
point,
while
14
looks
well,
is
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
always
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
of
reliable.
The manner
off, is
using
the of
snap
this
;
tool,
with
which
the the
the
is
point
finished
the
is
cause of
much
loose.
frequently
snap
result
that
many such
is
rivets
afterwards
riveting,
work
but
The snap
are
style
of
used in machine
This
is,
the
results
then invari
squeezes
joint.
the
rivet
thoroughly into
point
The hammered
to
indicated at
shape,
it
A and B
necessary
rivet
is
very
as
in
order
to
obtain
the
conical
is
to
subject
to
the
material
fill
thoroughly
the
At a tap
where the point
In
inserted
fitting
rivet
is
is
illustrated.
is
really
is
a bolt, and
is
used
It
frequently employed in
connecting shell plates to stern frames at the boss and at the keel.
tap
rivets,
the
holes
are
first
threaded,
the
is
the rivet
being then
rivet.
fitted
to
When
the
sufficiently
tight
the
head
rivets
chipped
are
off
and
the
the
rivet
caulked.
In shipwork generally,
bars
the
holes
are
for
made
the
in
plates
and
and
The
from
in
positions
spaced
reason
left
off
i.e.,
or
marked from
surfaces
this
templates,
the
place.
is
faying
surfaces,
which
come
is
together
when
fitted
One
for
taking
precaution
to
frequently
the plate or bar after punching, shall be clear of the jointed surfaces
is
another
to take
of the riveting.
As
and
is
well
known, a punch
its
in
penetrating a plate
makes a
so
fitted
smallest
are
to
punch
that
enters,
plates
which
holding
be
than
joined
together
the
are
corresponding holes
finished rivet
having thus
much
greater
power
if
it
up the
(see
fig.
140).
in the
A
tion
deteriora
of
the
vicinity
of
the
hole
thereby caused.
lia
This deterioration takes the form of break away when through bility to
rivet holes are
brittleness,
stress
the
rivet
steel
having thus a
the
bears
upon
it.
When
t
removed. The by annealing the plates after punching, t\e. heating them to a cherry red and then allowing them to cool slowly. Drilled holes are not largely employed in shipwork because of the greater
countersunk
this unsatisfactory material is largely
strength
may
also
be
restored
cost.
Drilling,
unlike
but
the
cone
shape which
got
by punching
as
at
drilled holes
by
intervene,
the
are
of
some
large
vessels,
the
holes
in
place
I4 1
By
this
good
been frequently experimented upon with a view to obtaining the conditions of maximum efficiency. Iron rivets are found to have maximum shearing strength
when
to
in
iron plates
in steel plates
their
shearing
strength
is
less
finch
falls
effect
This appears to be due to the increased shearing Iron rivets are, however, much used of the harder plates upon them.
tons in steel plates.
ships,
in
steel
as
easily
worked
than steel
rivets,
and
their
deficiency in strength
rivets
readily
made up by increasing them in number. Steel Indeed, the excellent results when carefully worked.
is
quality of
workmanship
This
is
in riveted connections
is
of
first
importance.
A
while
the
friction
which
exists
together.
takes
to
the
rivets
cooling,
causing
contact
press
on
one
another.
shown that the frictional resistance caused by and heads are countersunk, is 9*04 tons per with snap heads and points, the rivet, and by finch rivets, 4*95 tons In hydraulic work 1 inch tons. rivets, 6 "4 tons, finch, 472 results were
Careful
iinch
experiments*
have
rivets,
when the
points
the
frictional
strength
is
greater.
It
is
stressed
this
resisted
by the
stress
in
case
not be
under
to
be no movement
in
the joints
and there will therefore disturb the caulking and cause leakage.
at
all,
Of
is
course,
frictional
resistance
has
its
highest
efficiency
only
this
is
when
care
taken in
fitting
the
plates
the
efficiency
of a joint
When
blind
not done
One
holes.
fruitful
cause of
are
or
partially blind
As mentioned above, rivet holes are usually marked from templates, Oband the plates and bars are punched before being erected into place. viously, to obtain an exact correspondence of holes with so many separate
processes
is
a most
difficult
matter,
so
that
even in work of
of
line
;
fair
quality
When only slightly unfair, the holes may be This tool should not, however, be by using a steel drift punch. holes which overlap to any great extent, as the tearing of the driven into steel by the punch has a very pernicious effect upon it, much the same, indeed, as that caused when punching the plates in the first instance, i.e.,
corrected
the
material
to
found
out
in
careless
work,
the
becomes
brittle
and
liable
is
to
fracture
under
stress.
The
best
way
use
cure
partially blind
holes
to
rivets
of increased
DECKS.
*
Next
to
Naval
Architects for
142
portant
features
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of
a ship's
structure.
the
purpose of
also available
as
flat
to
may perform
this,
it
the
various
operations
required
position
working the
ship.
But,
besides
occupies
commanding
as
We
saw,
when
members of a beam
as
are of great
value
in
resisting
longitudinal
bending
axis.
tendencies,
they
occupy positions
such as the hull
In a
beam
or
girder,
ship,
the
top
member
;
is
of this deck as an item in the 'Tween decks, although they may not be disposed so suitably as the upper one to resist longitudinal bending, are yet splendid stiffeners of the hull, tying the sides together and offering powerful resistance to racking tendencies. These intermediate decks are a
parts
of
the
shellplating
the
strength
is
therefore
obvious.
necessity
in
large
passenger
space
vessels,
the
off
sleeping
and
other
accommodation
In cargo
being
vessels
provided in the
purposes
thus
cut
some kinds of
trading
are
holds without
obstructions, such
as
now much favoured (see Chapter V.) The minimum number of plated decks
structurally
ship,
speaking,
varies
according
her
size,
i.e.,
taking
Lloyd's
Rules,
number.
sailing
vessels,
Of
the
small
steamers and
no
steel
it.
deck may be
In such a case
necessary
watertightness
of
or
the
holds
may be
the
secured
by covering the
with
beams
with
wood
flat
deck,
caulking
seams
oakum and
pitch.
A
a
finer
of steel.
and
is
pleasanter
to
walk
upon,
for
which
is
reason
it
is
always
turally.
in
deck
steel
required
are
strucdesiris
hot
climates
able,
as
of
the
sun's
rays
on
to
unsheathed
decks
such as to make
of
almost
steamers,
impossible
The decks
on account
ordinary
cost,
tramp
however,
steel
are
of the
and because a
than
or
iron deck
for
steel
found to stand
in
much more
small
knocking about
vessels
one
is
of
wood,
of
which
or
reason
iron,
many
cargo
for
the
upper
deck
fitted
although
uncalled
by
considerations
of strength.
is
the stringer;
tiers
of
is
connected to
fitted or not. These plates form a margin by means of which, through the medium of an angle bar, the shell plating. At weather decks this bar is continuous;
at intermediate
decks the stringers are slotted out to allow the frames to pass is obtained by means of short, inter
DECK DETAILS.
costal lugs
143
between the frames, a continuous angle bar, however, being fitted by way of compensation, along the stringer just inside the frames. In fig. 141 the usual methods of fitting stringer plates at an upper and at As will be seen, in conjunction with the an intermediate deck are illustrated.
shell
plating,
it
forms a powerful Tshaped girder eminently adapted to resist The upperdeck stringer plate is
The end
vessels;
largest
joints
of this
strake
in
larger
ones, treble
riveted,
even in small
while in the
the
latter
essential;
vessels,
trebleriveted
are
required.
in
fig.
Both
142.
methods of forming a
stringer
end
arc
shown
Fig.
141.
SECTION
UPPER DECK
SECTION
DECK BELOW UPPER DECK
PLAN
PLAN
S~7
_l_q1
~_"b_ _0 _
<n
L]J
IS*. l'_
Ul
.0
L^j
144
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Fig.
AND CALCULATIONS.
142.
oi
io o o o O
DECK DETAILS.
the
are
other, or
is
*45
made.
Tieplates
of
the
same
thickness
as
the
stringer
plates
of
the
deck
on
which
they are
fitted.
If a steel or iron deck is to be fitted, the tieplates are, of course, dispensed with, and the deck plating, which is usually considerably less in thickness than the stringer plates, is arranged in foreandaft strakes of considerable
deck plates
the ends.
in ordinary
for
rivet seams. The end joints of merchant vessels are invariably overlapped, and should
be double riveted
unsheathed, the
The seams
are
usually singleriveted
overlaps.
When
decks are
as
Fig.
144.
ELEVATION
SECTION
4
_l1ii 2 J?
I
? _^_ ......
_?
o o
^COAMING
THICKENED PLATING.
O
o
o
.
jo
"
'o/[
i
^i
SjK
PLAN
^CASING STIFFENERS
t
'f
* 
o~o
o ilTl
l'o
Ho'o
oo
II
Tf
DECK BEAMS
For the same reason the foreandaft strakes this allows of better drainage. should be fitted clinker fashion, and the seams so placed as to impede drainage When decks are to be covered with to the scuppers as little as possible. wood, the clinker arrangement makes the fitting of the deckplanking more difficult; in such a case, the raised and sunken system of deckplating allows
of better work.
steel
In
many
decks
beams, but
has been objected that the depressions thus caused in the it deck form lodgments for drainage water.
surface of the
At
all
deck openings compensation has to be made for the cutting away of this compensation depending on the strength
146
required
in
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
AND CALCULATIONS.
latter
purposes, and
been fitted for strength In some cases increase in thickness of the strake of plating alongside the openings is found sufficient; The strake in others, where the openings are very large, doublings are fitted. upper deck of large of plating alongside the machinery openings on the
deck,
and
whether
flat
the
has
not
merely as a
to
walk on.
vessels to
Frequently, it is strengthened sufficiently so as is an important one. make, when combined with a strong vertical coaming plate, a rigid girder
well
adapted to
resist
longitudinal
strains
(see
fig.
144).
The
cautions
corners
of large
and unless
pre
taken there
is
is
vessel
under severe
taken
at
this,
usual precaution
as well
as
to
fit
corner
doublings
as
the
upper deck
within
the
same range
at
shelter,
the
being greatest at such places, girders should be fitted under the decks in line with the hatch coamings, to which they should be efficiently
stresses
joined,
or abreast
of them,
if
not
in
the
same
line,
in
the
vicinity
of
the
weak
hatch corners
usually fitted
Gutterways are
these are
to
be
laid
they are now required by Lloyd's Rules. round the margin of weather decks where with wood. They are formed simply by running an a
fixed
angle
it
bar foreandaft at
the
stringer
plate.
distance
from
are
the
ship's
side,
and
with
riveting
to
Steel
gutterways
frequently coated
cement
as
WOOD
of steel
or
DECKS.
iron,
In
fitted
laying
wood
tier
deck, whether
it
be on top of one
important
that
tfre
or
merely on
close
of
beams,
the
it
is
In way of the tieplates and stringers in a nonplated deck, and of the edge seams and end laps where a deck is plated throughout, the underside of the planking should be
metal
work.
planking should
down on
be scored out so as to obtain a solid bearing and an even upper surface. With a plated deck oh the raised and sunken system, the planking fitted over
the sunken strakes of the plating.
is
thickness
is
made up by
slips of
WOOD
wood, but
this steel
is
DECKS.
47
wood and
deck
laying
causes
to
happens
pitting
most objectionable, as spaces are thus left between the decks which a slight defect in the caulking of the wood become receptacles for the lodgment of water; when this Before and general decay of the steel deck quickly follow.
steel
work should be coated with a suitable preservative composition, such as Stockholm tar powdered with Portland cement, and each This plank should be separately coated with tar before being bedded down. prevents the likelihood of lodgment spaces for water existing between the
planks
the
metal
and
wood
teak,
to
cause
it
decay.
The
oily
best
wood
and
is
for
weather
suited
is
decks
to
is
undoubtedly
used
less
as
is
of
it
an
is
nature
well
stand
somewhat expensive.
vessels,
it
Pitch pine
are
frequently
It
is
weather
decks
of
cargo
where
required,
these
as
sheathed.
costly
is
pine
so
deck must be
but
it
thicker
is
than
a
one of
grain
therefore
teak.
Pitch
fairly
pine
does
not
wear
pine
uniformly,
of
hard
is
and
durable.
Yellow
makes
It is
deck, and
much used
in passenger steamers.
Fig,
146,
therefore
extra
requires
it
frequent
renewals.
in
On
this
account
decks
of
and
have
because of
the
its
cost,
is
seldom used
this
cargo
vessels.
to
hard
side
planks uppermost;
the
Three intermediate planks should separate butts in the in places. same frame space. The plank butts should be of vertical type {see fig. 146) and arranged to come between beams where a steel deck is fitted, and on They should be fastened with bolts the beams where there is no steel deck.
holes
at
is
a steel deck
it
and
to
perfectly
flat,
when
6
exceeds 6
inches
inches in
breadth
broad,
it
Between
and 8 inches
;
considered
sufficient
planks are over 8 inches broad, two bolts and nuts are required.
should be galvanised, and should have their heads well bedded in white lead, When screwed up from below, the heads should with grommets of oakum.
be
sufficiently
fitted
until
the
is
wood
is
thoroughly seasoned.
at the
likely to
open
seams and
148
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
of cutting
to
the
of using.
months.
be seasoned for required where a satisThe above periods of seasoning are not
Pitch pine
should
factory
It
artificial
method of seasoning
is
adopted.
in
litosilo,
Decks
must be
to
at least
main compartment of a
it.
vessel
allow
of
cargo
shipped
into,
In
to
the
latest
cargo
for
steamers
hatchways are
measure
so as
be suitable
ment,
of 16
Lengths of 24 to 28 feet, and breadths are common, while these dimensions have frequently been exceeded.
in
We
large
gaps
deck from
the
it
this
framing
of
to
vertical
coaming
plates
foreandaft
carried
down
direction forming an abutment for the and those fitted athwartships stiffeners to the continuous hatchend beams, to which they are securely riveted. The conneccoamings and the severed beams is effected by tion between the hatch means of angle lugs, fitted single where beams are at every frame, and double where they have a two frame spacing (see fig. 147). Lloyd's Rules require
deck beams,
those
foreandaft
beams
that
have been
cut,
that
to
there
shall
7
J
be three
9^
rivets
in
each flange
of
these
lugs
when attached
to
beams
to
inches
is
deep, the
12
four where
the
depth of beam
10 to
is
inches.
as
The
deckplating
fitted
so
by means of a strong angle bar. In nonplated decks broad tieplates are fitted on the beam ends and against the coamings, and in this way a strong Tshaped girder is obtained round the edge of It should be mentioned that when decks are laid with wood, the opening.
attachment being secured
the
vertical
project
flange of the hatchcoaming bar is fitted of sufficient depth to h inch above the wood, so as to facilitate the caulking of the latter. Weather deck hatch coamings (see fig. 147) should be of considerable
height above
seal
weak covers which heavy seas which in rough weather frequently fall upon the deck. On upper decks, coamings should have a minimum height of 2 feet except under awning or shelter decks. In
the
deck so as
to
the
openings from
receiving
the
full
force
of
the
deck and
height
liable
the
aft
end
of
the
forecastle
2
between the front of the bridge on the upper deck, the coaming
should not be
to
less
than
feet
flooding.
CARGO HATCHWAYS.
situated
149
water/line,
hatch coamings
inches.
in
may be
efficient
.the
of reduced height;
they need
exceed
18
plates,
order to be
inroads
as girders
sea,
and
as
against
from
should be of
feet
length
should be
36
of
16
of
an inch thick;
end coamings
Fig.
147.
ELEVATION
'5
those
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
from
loss
18
of
feet
The
lower
of
strength
is
decks
inch,
24 feet, a depth of 20 inches is considered sufficient. due to reducing the depth of the hatch coamings at made up to some extent by increasing the thicknesses by '04
to
an
as
compared with
are
upper
for
deck
hatches
of
the
same
decks.
length.
Round
style
it
corners
usually
of
preferred the
for
hatches
on
weather
but
the
This
has
at
makes the
also
less
fitting
wood
is
convenient
fastening
otherwise
it
obvious advantages.
the
To
is
tendency
deck
to
strain
hatch corners
less
Round
Fig.
148.
ELEVATION
DETAIL ATA..
'
3Ji3t<46
DETAIL AT CO.
7T.yr'
SECTION AT A.B.
KJlj'iTTi.r'ir
fffTT
to
ft"
corners are
less
likely
damage cargo which may collide with them ; they The same advantages of having round corners,
'tween
148).
do not extend
type
to
to
usually
of square
(fig.
In
order
strengthen
hatch
coamings
against
inroads
from
the
sea
and to provide adequate support to the wood covers, portable athwartship In hatches 10 and under 16 feet long, one such beam, beams are fitted. of a plate with double angles at top and bottom, or other equivalent formed
section,
is
required;
in
those
of
16 to
portable
beam
CARGO HATCHWAYS.
becomes a webplate extending double angles top and bottom.
are
to
151
of
the
girders
the
bottom
coamings,
of
this
fitted
with
Two
webplate
description
required in hatches from 20 to 24 feet in length. These portable beams are frequently bolted between double angles riveted to the coamings, when they .act as ties as well as struts, and to some extent compensate for the gaps in the deck made by the hatch openings occasionally, they
;
are
149.
SECTION AT
AB
WATCH COAMING
N
STFTE.NqTHENE.0
LlLU OP
PILLARS
SECTIOM
THRO
MAI.' OlAMr
SECTION THffO*EP,
Webplate
in
beams
the
thickness to
in hatchways below the upper deck should be equal coamings to which they are attached, and should extend
to the lower
Where
in
the
case of 'tween deck hatches, the webplates are to be a quarter deeper in the middle than at the ends, and stiffened top and bottom by double angles.
The
top angles
already hinted,
form lodgments
1^2
for
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
the wood covers, but, as previously mentioned, heavy seas frequently fall upon the deck, and the covers have to sustain a substantial share of the This is provided by fitting weight; they therefore need additional support. strong steel or wood foreandaft bearers. In small hatches from 6 to 10
feet
is
sufficient;
in
larger hatches
three
more
if
in
the
breadth
are
required.
to
The
afford
foreandafters
should
fit
mediate webs,
than
or
2
any,
inches broad.
bars
To
support the a
the
wood
rest
are
is
fitted,
giving
to
bearing
surface
if
inches
broad.
riveted
hatch
rest
of a
single
special
(see
section,
when it As well
is,
of course,
at
continuous
of
for
the
length
of the
hatch
fig.
147).
at
as
the
top
coamings,
mouldings are
frequently
fitted
the
bottom on the inside to take the chafe of cargo. The latter requirement is sometimes met by flanging the lower edge of the side coamings, instead of fitting mouldings. At weather deck hatches, to ensure watertightness, strong tarpaulins are fitted over the wood covers, usually two or three to a hatch, one placed above another. The tarpaulins are secured in position by means of flat iron bars wedged into cleats riveted to the hatch coamings, round which they are spaced about 24 inches apart. In many recently built cargo vessels hatch beams have been fitted all in one direction, i.e., either all athwartships or all foreandaft, the direction being that of the shorter dimension of the opening, which, in ordinary cases, is
athwartships.
Lloyd's rules
now
webs
3
for
from
12
to
20
feet.
The
way.
supports
at
wood
bearing surface
inches
broad.
Fig.
watertight
viz.,
tank,
an
8feet
straining
or
showing a
larger
feet
To
and,
simplify
con
watertight
hatchways
are
are
made no
feet
than square
absolutely
as
neces
Usually
out,
they
about
are
to
already
pointed
the
middleline
abreast.
deep
they
tanks
provided,
fitted
two
bulb
The coamings
(fig.
is
hatchways
are
frequently
built
consist
of
deep
angles
but
of
sometimes
substantial
It
is
of
plates
and
angles.
The
back
cover
at
a

plate
feet
stiffeners
fall
about
or
spacing.
secured
in
position
at
by nuts and
the
joint
to
is is
bolts,
nuts
and watertightness
rubber. a
effected
To
gain admission
the
tank
without
in
by packing it removing
the
latter.
hatch cover,
watertight
manhole door
access
to
usually
fitted
vessels are
fitted
give
the
'tween
decks.
load
153
to
of bale goods,
holds
are
being
say,
filled
through
square,
is
be stowed
When
for
side
do not exceed,
opening
in
feet
the
it
the
shellplating
provided,
for
short
distance
and
fitting
stout
compensation by doubling the strake above angle around the edge of the
cutting
Fig.
150.
SECTIONAL ELEVATION
DETAIL OF FASTENING
ALTERNATIVE
OF SECURING
METHODS
COVER
RUBBER
SPUN YARN
BOLTS SPACED
"
6"
APART
opening.
close
The door
;
is
sometimes secured
however,
strong
of
by bolts
are
and nuts
inside,
at
sufficiently
the
backs
one or two
size
the
door;
is
and
to
obtain watertightness
the joint
used.
154
In
very
certain
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
vessels
AND CALCULATIONS.
in
in
those
in
engaged
the
ship's
the
side
cattle
trade,
for
instance
large
doors
are
fitted
in
way of
in
the
bridge
or
shelter
'tween
decks.
These doors
make
for
big
gaps
the
sideplating
is
and
for.
Usually the
shellplating
doubled
spaces,
some
are
distance,
fitted
say two
in
frame
end of
web frames
also
the
'tween
decks at
The
shell
doublings
make good
the longitudinal
Fig.
151.
ELEVATION
SECTION
THRO
DOOR
DOOR
FRAME
DOOR
NAME
6*6x60"
strength,
restore
the
Fig.
loss
entailed
gives
fitted
in
the
cutting of the
cattle
side
151
as
details
of a
door
12
inches
deep,
in
a large
modern cargo
hatchways
be also provided.
This
is
specially
DERRICKS.
*SS
steamers whose economical working demands the utmost despatch in the loading and unloading of cargo. Sailing ships usually make long voyages and are seldom in port; they can, therefore, afford to spend a longer time there than
the
less
more
is
ubiquitous
steamer.
latter.
gear
seldom
fitted
in
Moreover, their working expenses are much For these reasons an expensive system of cargo sailing vessels. Handpower winches are considered
is
sufficient,
usually
The
may
consist of (i)
ordinary derricks
with steam winches, (2) hydraulics derricks, (3) steam cranes, (4) electric cranes. Electrical appliances, although frequently proposed, have not yet come much
into use.
fitted
in
Fig.
ELEVATION
152.
and slew quickly, and thus minimise the time a vessel need remain in port important consideration where a vessel has to be loaded and discharged every day or two, or even more frequently. Moreover, steam cranes may be placed anywhere about the deck. They take up a great deal of room, however, and are more expensive than steam winches and derricks, for which reasons they are seldom fitted in ordinary oceangoing cargo vessels. Hydraulic derricks are sometimes fitted on firstclass passenger steamers, as they work
an
They
pumping engine
is
head of water.
The system
vessels
is
that
The
if
latter
may be
five tons,
constructed of
wood
or
steel
if
for
small
lifts,
say,
from three
to
commonly
fitted.
They
are hinged,
practic
156
able,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
on the masts, which, in cargo steamers, are now little else than derrick One derrick and winch per hatch is sufficient where the holds are of moderate size where they are large, however, and where loading or discharging can be carried out on both sides of the vessel at once, two derricks and
posts.
;
Fig.
153.
OUTREACHlS FOR
DERRICK.
SPANS
PLATING "50
DERRICK
TABLES
We thus see that in the usual arrangement, with a winches are necessary. hatches, the former may have to support four large derricks mast between two In special cases, where separate derricks are with their respective loads. for hoisting and for slewing, the number of derricks per mast may employed
exceed
four.
In
fig.
152
is
derricks
on masts.
57
winches
must
in
line
be
placed
with
careful
regard
to
the
derricks.
winding
drums
with
the
derricks.
ship,
Double winches
should
be
placed on each
side of the
centre of the
to pass.
man
the
To
to
frequently
dispensed with,
barrels,
it
and
of
to
ensure
leads
the
winding
the
axis
the
middle middle
these
in
line. line,
Frequently,
as
is
preferred
are
the
;
winchmen
to
observe operations
cases,
the
(fig.
this
by means of snatch blocks on decks, or, better, by extending the derricks out transversely on tables With 153), so as to come in line with the middle of the winches. arrangement it is desirable to have the point of suspension in each case
direct leads
the
difficulty will
slewing
is
the
latter.
This drawback
is
found, for
instance,
derrick
is
rake,
and no arrangement
it
made
derrick
forward
there
is
to
lie
;
overboard,
and if aft on the mast, to lie over the middle of the hatch considerable power being required to slew the derrick, particularly if loaded, against either of these biassed directions. The advantage of plumb derricks is therefore obvious, and some vessels are built with vertical masts to this end.
When
on
it
a mast
is
situated
too
to
being sufficiently
side,
it
long
plumb the
to
centre,
and swing
side,
clear
of
the
ship's
becomes necessary
the
resort to the
hatch
and
the
ship's
may be
they
lifts
easily
obtained.
has
in
outweighed considerations
and
the
now
to
be found
will
many
Where
height,
should be
made
of
considerable
otherwise
excessive
stresses
be
This can be
by drawing a diagram of
lift
forces.
ordinary
cargo,
should be 20 inches to
feet.
24
in
incises
Large
the
thickness
To
deck.
give
rigidity,
desirable;
where
Fig.
this
brackets
must
be
fitted
to
the
fitted.
154
appurtenances as ordinarily
be stiffened locally in way of steam winches, by fitting plating on the beams, If winches are to be placed and by supporting the latter by special pillars. on a wood deck, the part under each winch should be of hardwood, or the wood deck increased in thickness locally, as the wear and tear is great at
i58
these
riveted
places.
to
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
bar
is
Sometimes a
steel
angle
fitted
the
deckplating, the
the
spaces
bare.
Fig.
154.
winch
raised
sole
plates
are
either
bolted
stools.
directly
to
the
steel
is
or
the
iron
better
deck,
one,
or
as
on
or
channel
the
bar
The
latter
plan
the
stools
stiffen
59
working of the winches. In ordinary cargo steamers, which have, as a rule, unsheathed decks, winch stools like the above are commonly fitted. The steam supply and exhaust pipes to the winches (where the exhaust
steam
is
returned to a tank in the machinery space) are usually led from the
the line
iron
supported
on
stools
of
cast
or
wrought
(fig.
except where
they can be conveniently held by clips riveted to the casings or to the hatch
coamings.
the
deck to the
it,
mend
Sometimes separate exhaust pipes are led from each winch across ship's side. This latter plan has only cheapness to comas the cloud of escaping steam always present about the deck
is
most objectionable.
solid
To
protect
fitted
the
winch
a
pipes
from
the
damage,
masts
are
plate
or
sparred iron
covers are
over them.
sailingship
MASTS.
the
hull
In
probably
as
important
as
itself,
since
her
power
of
locomotion
value,
depends
on
them
in
much
reduced
Fig.
155.
some
the
classes
first
of
steamers
having
masts
the
none
of
at
all.
As seems
and
fitting,
therefore,
"we shall
consider
the
sailingship,
afterwards indicate
modifications
usual in
case
of a
steamer.
In a modern sailingship of average size, the masts, like the hull, are constructed mainly of steel, their diameters and scantlings being graduated in accordance with the strains they may be called upon to bear through the
action
of
the the
windpressures
lengths
on the
sails.
is
As
the
the
vary with
fix
of the
masts, length
natural
scantlings,
and,
in
compiling tables of
with
the
latter,
followed.
feet
long has a
maximum
feet
diameter of
of masts
96
long
the scantlings
lengths
between
these.
less
sail
area
reduced
diameters
and
scantlings
are
therefore
allowed in
of a mast and
the
deck, as
the
the bending
moment
the
is
towards
end,
diameter
and
thickness
the
plating
are
somewhat
i6o
reduced.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
circumference of a mast
is
The number
of plates in
the
governed
by
practical
considerations.
Lower
masts, with
;
a rule length of 72 feet and those above this length should usually overlapped at edge
in
These
latter
plates are
and end
should be
is
joints
sometimes
outside, as
the
are
butted,
which
case
the
straps
fitted
made
156.
ELEVATION.
PLAN.
As
are
end
joints
very
in
important,
and
in
all
cases
should
is
be
trebleriveted
above
the
deck;
riveted
way of the
but in
housing
doubleriveting
masts
loss
fitting
by
is
which
long,
meant
the
part
of
the masts
permitted.
feet
double
under 84
of
internal
considered
is
sufficient,
provided the
stiffening
effect
due
to
made good by
angle
bars.
Above 84
very great.
length,
double
riveted seams are required as well as internal stiffening angles, as the bending
moments on masts
Rigidity
is
of this
length
may be
given to masts by securely fixing them into the hull, and stayFig. 156 shows the modern method of ing them by means of steel wire ropes.
MASTS.
161
the
deck
at
which
this
is
usually done.
in
the beams,
which,
be observed, a stout plate is fitted on nonplated decks, must have a breadth equal to three
As
will
This plate
(fig.
is
riveted to the
beams and
through
(in nonplated
143),
which unite
it
and
the
stresses
communicated
from
the
mast
the
wedging.
riveted
greater in diameter than the mast is and when the mast is shipped the space between this ring and the mast, the plating of which should be doubled in this neighbourhood, is tightly wedged with hard wood. Above the deck the wedging is neatly rounded, and a canvas cover or coat, usually double, is bound to the mast and over the ring to prevent leakage of water into the hold space.
bulb
angle
the
ring
about 4 inches
to
deckplate,
The doubling
to
of
for
the
mast
at
the
deck
is
to
give
strength,
but particularly
the
vessel
compensate
the
corrosion
and
pitting
wedging,
material
being
there
inaccessible
is
i.e.
when
1 2
is
under special survey. When the mastplating be removed before the third special survey,
about every
years.
At the heel the mast should be supported on a strong stool, as very great downward stresses are communicated to the mast through the rigging, and if due provision be not made to resist these the mast may be forced downwards, the plating at the heel crushing up or the stool collapsing if not efficient Such movement of the mast would cause the rigging to become slack and valueless as a support against bending. Where a mast is stepped on a centre keelson, a good stool may be contrived by fitting a strong plate immediately under the mast, and supporting it by brackets connected to the keelson and floorplate on each side of the middle line. For wedging purposes a ring is fitted on the plate round the mastheel, and to keep the mast from turning, an angle or tee lug, riveted The mastheel plating to the plate, is fitted through the bottom of the mast. 2 feet up from the bottom. is usually doubled for about The main portion of a mast, and that upon which the principal diameters and scantlings are fixed, is known as a lower mast, but above this These upper spars there are a topmast, a topgallant mast, and a royal mast. are sometimes constructed of wood, but in modern sailing vessels of fair Lower masts and topmasts are occasionally size steel topmasts are common.
built
as
single
tubes, but
separate, the
the
manner indicated
of wood, passes
masthead, and
is
fid,
which passes
riveted
for
through
to
the
heel
topmast
and
rests
the
lower
the
mast.
This
overlapping
on method
strong
is
cheekplates
sometimes
adopted
topmast with the upper portions, the topgallant and royal masts but where the topmast is of steel usually consisting of a single wood spar the upper spar is frequently housed into its upper end.
uniting
;
The
scantlings
of
steel
topmasts,
like
those
of
lower
masts,
vary with
l62
the
bars.
joints,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
length.
AND CALCULATIONS.
should have internal
singleriveted,
Topmasts 38
those
feet
stiffening
of topmast plating
masts,
may be
the
of lower
and
for
riveted.
Obviously,
as
so
tall
a
it
mast such
to
its
we have
work
of supporting the
and
wire
sails
and
are
resisting
We
Lower
the
have
masts
mentioned
are
ropes
used
loop
for
purpose.
the
stayed
laterally
by shrouds, which
Fig.
round
mast
at
157.
PLAN OF TOP.
to
the
gunwale, where
they are
size
attached to chain
are
also to
fitted
riveted
to
the
sheerstrake.
Shrouds of smaller
below the
to
the topmast
sides,
and
topgallant
to
mast.
the
ship's
but
are
fastened
the
mast just
masttop
topmast
trestletrees
respectively,
necessary
crosstrees.
spread
being
as
obtained
shrouds,
and the by
the
means of
the
masttop
and topmast
As
well
upper spaces are further held by backstays fastened to the gunwale and to In a foreandaft direction the masts are stayed to one another the mast.
by powerful
run
wire
to
to
ropes
at
various
heights.
The
stays
of
the
foremast
at
are
their
down
the a
forecastle
deck,
this
the
upper
ones
being
is
attached
allow of
lower ends
bowsprit
also
arrangement,
which
to
sufficient
spread in
the
stays,
permits
of largesized
staysails.
BOWSPRIT.
Obviously,
as
in
all
163
staying
this
rigging
will
have
little
value
if
it
be
the
slack,
that
case
the
mast which
first
receives
the
stresses
due
to
wind
the
pressure
might break before the strength of the wire could be called upon.
Cases are
stays
all
on record of masts
respect.
collapsing
through
lack
of
efficiency
in
in
this
To
vessels should
be provided with rigging screws of simple design, by means may be readily tightened up at any time.
BOWSPRIT.
structed
In
and
of
modern
as
it
sailingvessels
of
fair
size
this
spar
is
con
of
steel,
has
to
withstand
to
considerable
it,
bending
of
stresses,
due
for a
to
the
pull
the
maststays
attached
the
latter,
it
is
is
built
substantial
of plating;
indeed,
Usually
aperture in a
bowsprit
is
housed
in
the
forecastle,
through
the
an
transverse
fitted
at
foreend
abutting against
upper and forecastle decks, and strongly bracketed to the main deckplating. To secure it in position, the bowsprit is wedged in way of the knighthead
plate,
angle rings
Internal
being
fitted
to
the
latter
wedging.
in the
stiffening
angles
are
fitted
when
fitted
vertical
diaphragm
either
plate
is
some
distance
the
way beyond.
way of the wedging and extended The end joints of the bowsprit plating
;
outside
inside
the
forecastle,
they
may
is
being
at
housed
its
in
the
forecastle,
the
bowsprit
and bedded on the forecastle deckplating, to which it is securely connected by strong angle bars the forecastle deck being stiffened in this neighbourhood by fitting the beams The outer part of a bowsprit when fitted as a separate on every frame. The latter is usually built of wood and is fitted spar is called a jibboom. Frequently, in large modern sailingthrough the capband of the bowsprit. ships the bowsprit and jibboom are made of steel in one length, when it
sloped away on the lower side
afterend
;
is
capbands at
of wire shrouds, and strong on the stem and the underside the foreend of the bowsprit and jibboom.
to
eye attachments
YARDS. The
usually pitch pine.
steel
and the
one above
of
it
are
of
the
same material
the
this.
the
is
mast.
The
of course, in
middle, and
taken at ^
lower topthe
latter,
;
length
at
the ends
is
tapered to half of
When
built of steel,
yards
sail
joints.
The
to
usually fixed
the
upper topsail and upper topgallant yards are attached to parrel hoops which
164
fit
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
loosely
AND CALCULATIONS.
position
A
ings.
on the mast, thus admitting of each yard being hoisted into by means of appropriate running gear. special feature in the masts and yards of sailing ships are the mount
of a
to
These are very elaborate and are made of great strength, as the safety might be seriously threatened if even one stay attachment were give way, on account of the increased stress which would thus be brought
vessel
others.
on the
masts
of
steamer
do not
call
for
As has been
said,
in
derrickposts
in
for ornament; incidentally, they can be usefully employed as and standards for signal lamps, etc. The main function of masts sailingships, which is to carry sails, has been almost done away with in
steamers.
sails
No
yards
or
squaresails
are
now
carried
all
fitted
not
propulsion
vessels
but
to
give
steadiness
are
in
rough
This
In
of
many
has
modern cargo
in
even
these
omitted.
omission
sails
and there certainly seems a lack of economy use the power of the wind for propulsion when it is availquarters,
effect
able.
The
Owing
steadying
of
sails
when a
a
vessel
is
in ^a
seaway
are
is
well
known.
to
their
auxiliary
character,
steamer's
masts
of
smaller
a sailingship.
Where
only are
carried,
Lloyd's
Rules
to
permit the
diameters to be
this
fifth
less,
correspond with
the working
of
reduction.
It
masts, whose
derricks,
main duty
scantlings.
derricks,
withstand
the
strains
due
to
the
breadth of the ship should be considered in fixing upon the diameters and
The broader a
therefore,
is
vessel,
the the
in
greater
will
and,
the
greater
this
bending
Rules
say,
stresses
present no notice
a
taken of
the
for
mast
for
has,
to
they
are
their
work.
customary
heel
make a
is
steamer's
masts
sail
of
pole
is
type,
i.e.,
in
one
piece
greater
from
topmast
this
head.
As
being
the
that
fitted
spread
unimportant,
royal
no
height
than
necessary, so
topgallant
into
and
masts are
Frequently,
into
finishing pole
the
topmast.
topmasts
are
of
wood,
and
made
to
ship
telescope
fashion
the
upper ends of the lower masts, appropriate gear being provided for the purSuch an arrangement is demanded to allow of the vessel passing pose.
under bridges
like
in
reaching ports
of the
like
Manchester.
mastplating
masts,
may be
singleriveted,
those
of
a sailingship's
must be
trebleriveted
above
the
W. Veysey
Engineers
in
February, 1909.
MASTS OF STEAMSHIPS.
deck or partners, and doubleriveted
of
in
165
the
housing.
When
of
the
masts
fitting
are
considerable
riveting
length,
the
strength
should
be
augmented
each
by
and
the
securely
internal
angle
bars
up
the
middle
plate
in
round.
steel
The
the
say,
masts
on each
to
fit
side,
with
two foreandaft
This
is
Instead of the
closespaced shrouds,
is
better
still
possible, as
much,
in fact,
to
as
will
permit the
swing
clear
to
of
the
side.
For access
masthead.
pointed
for
the
the
mast, or
to
shrouds
may be
fitted
at
closespacing
at
with
ratlines
the
The need
the case
of strong work
ships,
the
mastheels
has
been
of sailing
and
similar
as well
Fig.
158.
as
the
bending
to
in
stresses
already
referred
to,
the
working
of
the
derricks
give
rise
considerable
downward
steps.
thrusts,
steamers
should
therefore
be
strengthened
brackets
to
way of mast
fitted
If
these
girder,
come
unless
on
the
an
the
inner
bottom,
should be
to
the
centre
mastheel
centre
happens
girder.
floorplate
is
with
Fig.
stepped on a tunnel.
usually
consists
The
stiffening
way of the
plating,
at
is
step,
which
in
of stout
steamer's
is
anglebars
to
the
not
shown
the the
sketch.
masts
similar
are
to
usually
that
wedged
the
upperdeck,
and
all
arrangement
very
given
in
to
ship,
vertical
or
athwartships,
which,
separate of
little
one
those
are
another.
Many
to
"of
these
cabins,
as
partitions
are
value
built
structurally,
as
of
wood between
of iron or
the
steel,
only intended
act
screens
of
lightest
de
scription.
66
are
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of
AND CALCULATIONS.
structurally
their
partments,
therefore,
immense importance
interest
be of
in
to
consider
principal
will,
lead
ing
features
their
construction.
partitions,
watertight,
which are usually placed transversely, are strongly so that in the event of a compartment being
shall
containing bulkheads
joints
tight
the
into
and
for
have
the
adjoining
of value
i.
compartments.
enough to prevent the fluid escaping Generally, main watertight transverse bulkheads
:
are
following reasons
As
rigid
Elements
in
of
Strength.
so
that
Where
also
they
occur
prevent
the
hull
is
practo
tically
transversely,
they
effectually
any
the the
tendency
deformation
framing,
efficiently
little
that
to
direction;
side
they
afford
support
to
longitudinal
latter
/>.,
the
stringers
and
keelsons,
when
are
them.
The
to
keelsons,
indeed,
of themselves have
but
as
rigidity,
braced
the
the
bulkheads
they
the
become
hull
to
efficient
girders,
and
the
stresses
brought
of
upon
the
massive
of
bulkheads,
structure
2.
thus
spreading
strength
the
latter
over
the
region
the
lying
between them.
Their
they
fire
importance in
this
respect
as
with
their
from
each
other.
total
Many
vessels
having been
bulkheads.
saved from
destruction by
medium
of their
3.
ing
of the
if
As Preventatives Against Foundering Consequent on the PiercHull by Striking a Rock or Otherwise. We are already
the
effect
familiar with
on the
flotation
of bilging
seen that
the vessel.
may be
of
sufficient to sink
a sufficient
the
is
lengths
therefore
compartments by
fix
obvious.
the
With the machinery one at a short disamidships, for instance, there should be at least four tance abaft the stem, one at each end of the machinery compartment, and With the machinery one placed at a reasonable distance from the sternpost. a minimum of three watertight bulkheads might be allowed, the afteraft, bulkhead forming one end of the machinery compartment. Of the above divisions the forward one, which is fitted as a safeguard
number
of
bulkheads
required.
is
It
should not be
the
placed too
far
aft,
or
the
of
buoyancy due
the
vessel
to
to
bilging
peak
the
comhead.
partment
may be
sufficient
it
to
cause
go
down by
to
be
fitted at
The
collision
vessels,
bulkhead, as
it
is
immense service in saving called, abled them, though seriously damaged by collision,
proved
of
It
to
make a
is
may
bulkhead
the
only one
BULKHEADS.
fitted
167
transverse
in
sailing
ships.
In
this
case
the
strength
is
made up
to
otherwise,
side
and the question of cost, to mention no other, has put any idea of fitting numerous bulkheads. The importance of the bulkheads which isolate the engines and
the
one
boilers
from
other
cargo
to
is
spaces
cargo,
also
scarcely
if
needs
were
bilging
emphasis.
The chance
tight
of
fire
is
and
damage
It
there
no
the
efficient
divisions,
clearly
apparent.
quite
necessary that
that
machinery
selfcontained,
so
the
of neighbouring
fires.
not
boiler
so
as
to
isolate
which may be
the
the
stern
after
it
caused by the breaking of the stern tube, or by general vibration due to the
action
Usually,
it
is
placed
near
enough
of
to
bilging
coma
Incidentally,
forms
consideration
when
the machinery
placed
aft.
Although no surveyor to the Board of Trade, under the existing regulations, could refuse to grant a declaration of survey that the hull, even of a
passenger
fitted
steamvessel,
whatever
her
to
length,
was
sufficient
for
her
work,
if
with
bulkheads equivalent
the
foregoing,
such
an arrangement can
With increase in be considered satisfactory only in small steamers. bulkheads very soon become desirable, partly because of the need of providing greater transverse strength, but as this may be met otherwise, mainly because safety in the event of fire or bilging demands an
clearly
size,
additional
adequate subdivision of
the holds.
Lloyd's
length,
latest
Thus we
vessels
find,
taking
feet
Rules
for
reach
285
in
five
bulkheads
necessary,
the
distance
room bulkheads being subdivided. In vessels of 2>35 feet tne a fter hold is in turn subdivided, making six bulkheads, the number of watertight bulkheads becoming seven, eight, nine, and ten, when vessels reach lengths of 405, 470, 540, and 610 feet respectively.
between the
collision
and
boiler
>
Obviously,
the
question
of
subdivision
is
of
first
importance in purely
system
fore
of watertight bulkheads.
built but
Few
while
firstclass
there
now
can
float
sea,
open
with
this
the
some
of
in
have
better
subdivision,
account,
as
few
these
have
of
been
subsidised
by the
they
Government
to
act
auxiliary
cruisers
time of war.
fitting
point
of
great
importance
in
the
bulkheads
the
is
that
one compartment may cause sufficient sinkage to submerge the tops of the bulkheads, in which case the water would find its way into all the compartments
should extend
well
line
;
above the
loadwater
otherwise
bilging
of
* In the report of the Bulkhead Committee ot 1890, the highest class of subdivision given as that which would enable a vessel to float safely, in moderate weather, with any two compartments in open communication with the sea.
is
63
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
and thus sink the vessel. In general, bulkheads should extend to the top deck of the main structure. In vessels with continuous superstructures, such as an awning or shelter deck, the bulkheads (with the exception of the collision bulkhead, which should extend to the awning or shelter deck) are usually stopped at the deck below, i.e., the upper deck, in virtue of the greater freeboard and reserve buoyancy of this class. In the 'tween decks of these vessels, a deep web frame or partial bulkhead is to be fitted on each side
immediately
over
the
watertight
bulkheads,
or
other
efficient
strengthening
must be provided.
an
ordinary watertight
bulkhead may never be called upon to sustain the pressure due to a compartment on either side becoming filled, it must be constructed strong
enough
of
to
It
substantial
and be strongly
i.e.,
Lloyd's
Rules require a
'46
from 8
in
to
12 feet,
and of
feet,
of an inch
in
those
from 44 to
or
50
i.e.,
in very large
vessels.
The
horizontally,
and
singleriveted,
work,
i.e.,
4I diameters
plates
apart.
come
down
for the
breadth
of
slips.
Bulkhead
heads).
Committee of 1S90
In the former
is
now
usually
(see
followed,
the
stiffeners
being
bulk
also
stiffening
of collision
stiffeners
were be arranged horizontally as well as vertically a crossbracing arrangement which assured the strength of the bulkhead in a transverse as
Lloyd's
Register,
Rules of
bulkhead
required
to
well
as
in
a vertical
the
ship's
direction,
sides,
making
it
efficient
to
resist
pressures
tending to
stiffeners
is
force
which a purely
vertical
arrangement of
entirely vertical
By
is less
than by the
of stiffeners
less
vertical.
Still,
the advantages of an
arrangement
is
are considerable.
To
than the width, stiffeners are shorter and therefore more efficient arranged than
vertically
when arranged
upon
to
horizontally
the
at
rigidity
of girders
varying
in
may be
called
withstand
is
the
closelypitched vertical stiffeners bracketed to the tank top are effectively placed
to resist this.
The
spacing of
stiffeners
in
ordinary
watertight
bulkheads
the
should
not
exceed 30 inches.
may depend on
vertical
stiffeners
bulkhead's
to
ability
to
withstand
dashing about of
the
the
fore
peak through
of
collision,
this
spacing of
case
there
should
side,
also
be
horizontal
consisting
bulb angles
on the opposite
CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS,
spaced 4
are
short,
feet apart,
69
As
they
the
vessel
being narrow at
this
part,
add immensely
in
to
the
rigidity of the
bulkhead.
oil
compartments
fulfilling
vessels
designed
be
of
extra
strength,
the
main
function
of
must be able to resist the pressure of the mass of fluid which the compartment contains, the speed of the vessel being communicated to the fluid in a compartment through the bulkhead at its afterend also, as any compartment on occasion may not be quite full, its bulkheads should be strong enough to
ordinary bulkheads
in
sufficient
structural
strength,
they
stresses
which the
rise
dashing
to.
about of
large
masses
of
in
for
partlyfilled
Lloyd's
Rules
provide scant
lings
the bulkheads of
Frequently, the
stiffeners.
edges
of plates
of somewhat narrow plates, must not be more than 30 inches. There is here a saving in riveting, and fewer parts require to be put together; this system is therefore rather popular, especially as experiments have shown the arrangement to be as strong as the ordinary one, and as mild
This
entails
vertical
arrangement
since
the
distance
between
stiffeners
steel
may be
are
stiffeners
readily flanged
cold.
Lloyd's
stiffeners
12
the
and connected
fig.
159).
10 feet apart,
trip
bulkhead plating and to a bar on the These intercostals, which are to be spaced should greatly stiffen the bulkhead by preventthe
part
on the
of the stiffeners.
stifTeners
In Lloyd's
the
full
are
shown
into
to
vary with
that
depth
bulkhead
as
governing
the
maximum
pressure
could
come upon
When
the
bulkhead
is
divided
zones
by the
abutment of steel decks, the scantlings of the lower stiffeners, that is, those between the tank top, or in single bottom vessels, the top of floors and lowest laid deck, are governed by the full depth as fixing the intensity of 'Tween deck the pressure, and the length of the stiffener as fixing the load. stiffeners are, in the same way, governed by the distance from the top of the
decks, and by the length of the and 'tween decks, except the upper This follows from the 'tween decks, should be bracketed top and bottom.
part
of
the
'tween
stiffener.
in
way of holds
is
50 per cent,
and five times more rigid than one with free ends. Lloyd's Rules permit bulkhead stifTeners, in small vessels, to be fitted without end brackets, provided their scantlings be increased beyond the tabular requirements. In oil vessels, which are generally built without inner bottoms in way of the oil holds, the knee brackets at the lower ends of the bulkhead stiffeners should be fitted between the floors to the shell. At the edge every watertight bulkhead should have a strong connection
170
to
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
shellplating,
AND CALCULATIONS.
one
is
inner
bottom
is
(where
to the
fitted),
are
job,
frequently fitted
shellplating
but
it
becoming
is
increasingly
common,
less
cargo vessels, to have instead large single bars doubleriveted in both flanges
arrangement
is
cheaper and
probably not
strong.
Lloyd's
for
both methods.
Fig.
159.
to
way
for
ot
outside
st rakes,
as
compensation
for the
closer spaced
tight
necessary
the
caulking
liners
through
bulkheads.
When
shell
or
of
or
strakes
knees between the shellplating and the bulkhead in way are necessary, except where the hold stringers are 5 feet
joints
apart.
The
on
one
side
only of a
bulkhead
require
to
be
CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS.
caulked.
I7 1
angle
and keelsons pass through bulkheads, caulked fitted on the watertight side, and to give a finished Frequently, hold appearance, plate collars, uncaulked, on the other side. stringers are stopped at the bulkheads, and the longitudinal strength is made good by fitting substantial bracket plates connected to the bulkhead by angles, and to the stringers by a riveted lap (see figs. 159 and 160). The subordinate bulkheads of a ship, such as screens and casings, do
Where hold
stringers
collars
should be
not
call
for
a lengthened
description.
They
are
constructed
of
light
plates
and
bars,
the
former
having
singleriveted
joints.
They
tightness
are
is
not
usually
watertight,
fitting
and
where
perforated
by beams,
take
dust
secured
by
plate
collars.
Where
screens
of side
for,
called
and
with
thickness
of
plating
stiffeners
of substantial
the
the
latter
being
fitted
line
thereto.
Where
A
to
centreline
interfere
bulkhead
is
unduly with
division
siowage, and,
is
continuity of the
when
a splendid
longitudinal
deflecting
to
stresses.
When
quarter
riveted
to
machinery casings
they
in
'tween
decks
built,
have
the
take
the
place
of
pillars,
must
be
strongly
and
stiffeners
should
be
the
beams.
is,
of
course,
desirable
should be
the
intact,
a hold
cut
in
is
then at
its
highest.
In some
however,
doorways
of
them.
For instance,
to
need
of
a
for
direct
means
access
must be from
the engineroom
the
shaft
tunnel, calls
head
the
coal
fitted
it
at
the
afterend
of
the
engineroom,
Again, in
where the tunnel abuts upon it. a reserve coal bunker lies immediately before
doors
must be
cases
fitted
so that the
may
at
the
stokehold
level
in
all
floor.
In hold
special
doors
of
have
been
ceiling
the
watertight
to
bulkheads
hold
of
a vessel,
when
deck.
has
been
the
in
desired
foregoing,
to
pass
from
in
without
going
are decks,
on
so
Besides
particularly
at
passenger vessels,
height
to
doors
frequently
that to
made
their
watertight
bulkheads
get
the
the
in
'tween
the
passengers
may
readily
from
place
place
region
devoted
accommodation.
In designing doors
for watertight
bulkheads
it
is
necessary to
remember
one placed near the foot of a bulkhead would have to withstand considerable pressure, if from any cause a compartment on either side of it The framing of the doorway and the door itself are became flooded.
that
therefore
substantial
made
specially
strong.
Usually
is
these
parts
are
of
cast as
iron
also
of
thickness.
The
door
made
of
wedge
shape,
the
172
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
it
AND CALCULATIONS.
joint,
groove in which
metal
to
works,
which
of
is
a a
metal
one,
being
As
in
the
case
bilging
door would quickly become inaccessible, arrangements must be provided for working them from a high level. Doors in engine and boilerroom bulkFig.
160.
SECTION
UrPERDECK.
rr
331
SECTION CF
SIDE STRINGEff
from an upper platform doors in other bulkheads Where doors open in a vertical direction (fig. worked from the deck. are 161) the apparatus for working them commonly consists of a vertical shaft with a screw at one end working in a fixed nut in the door. Where they
heads are usually wrought
;
173
at
its
a horizontal
direction,
the vertical
shaft
is
fitted
lower end
door.
into
'tween
decks
need not be
of
plates
to
Usually, so
they
consist
as
hinged
operated
to
the
bulkhead and
either
secured
the
by snibs
fitted
be
readily
from
side
of
bulkhead.
is
The
joint
made
watertight
162).
STEMS,
STERNPOSTS,
AND RUDDERS. In
Fig.
merchant
the
161
BULKHEAD
DETAIL SECTION
OF
DOOR FRAME
l t4t j
DOOR
COVER PLATE
FORMING GROOVE FOR DOOR
stem
.
consists
of
solid
forged
bar
of
iron
or
steel,
or
of
rolled
hull.
steel,
of
suitable
breadth and
thickness,
Nowadays,
are usually straight above the loadwaterline with a slight rake say, two feet forward, to minimise the effect of a collision, should this happen, and to overcome the impression of falling aft at the head which a quite The clipper stem, so common at one time, is now vertical stem gives.
stems
in sailing ships, as it is a suitable construction on steamers and also has a fine appearance, it is always found. When associated with a hanging or bar keel, the stem becomes a continuation of the same, being connected to it by a vertical scarph similar to that em
seldom
built
with a bowsprit,
"keel
bar.
When
the
keel
is
of centre
T74
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS*
through plate or side bar type, a modification of the ordinary vertical scarph
is
adopted.
is
By
referring
to
fig.
163,
stem
bars,
this
it will be seen that the afterend of the ends of the centre girder and the two side
The total length of which together make up the thickness of the keel* scarph should be about eighteen times the keel thickness, Or double the
Fig
162,
DETAIL
SHEWING FASTENING
RUBBER PACKING
DOOR
35 PLATINC
BULKHEAD
TAPERINCTQ^'
DETAIL AT HINGE
OVAL PINHOLE
"
HORIZONTAL SECTION
ALTERNATIVE
BULKHEAD
PLAN
^^^^^^
length
of
scarph
required
the
for
an
ordinary
points
bar
the
keel,
flat
to
allow a
bars.
reasonable
distance
several
between
terminating
of
side
There are
ways of making a connection between a stem bar and a flat plate 164 shows one adopted by many builders. The lower part of the stem is carried three or four feet on to the fore length
keel.
Fig.
of
the
keel,
STEMS.
175
in
and
is
turn
are
riveted
to
the
floors.
The
lower ends of the frames in this vicinity extend below the top of
line
shown dotted in the figure, and the fore end of as to come under the stem and yet fay against the ship's side. The keelplate may be said to end where it rises on to the side of the stem (fig. 164), as in front of that point it becomes an ordinary strake of shellplating. The preceding is an efficient plan, and obviates the necessity of tapering down and spreading out fanlike the afterend of the stem a more costly arrangement, but one which gives good work and formerly frequently adopted. It will be observed from fig. 165, which
bar to the
is
keelplate
dished
so
illustrates
this
method,
the
that
the
keelplate
is
dished round
the
after
part
of
it.
the
stem, and
in
Thence, as
the
keelplate
is
lifted
on
to
the
side
of
Fig.
163.
END
OF
CONTINUOUS CENTRE
GIRDER
(NTERCOSTALS ALS
Vr^jsrTT"
TACK. RIVETS
STEM
KEEL
t
SIDE
BARS
\
E
SCARPH
to
it.
the
Through
riveting
is
also
adopted at the
is
afterend
the
stem,
if
is
practicable,
otherwise
tap
for
riveting
resorted
to.
The
stem,
to
centre
keelsonplate
carried
intercostally
for
to to
the
sketch,
or
in
lieu
of a
tongue
bottom
bars
tapriveted
the
stem.
well as
As
with
the
structure
by means of the keel connection, the stem is thoroughly bound by the main shellplating. The strakes at their forward
rivets
(see
length
will
ends are arranged to lap on each side of the stem, and to pass through all three thicknesses are employed be noticed that the shellplating
;
sufficient
in
It
fig.
166).
is
kept back
1inch
the stem
this
is
to
At
least
of
re
quired to connect the shellplating to the stem, and these should have the same
176
spacing as the keel
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
rivets,
viz.,
AND CALCULATIONS.
Below the load
it
is
it
there liable
is
severe
strains
by grounding
In practice
its
or
it
collision
is
above
that
point
usually
reduced somewhat.
area
has
threequarters
facilitate
maximum
latter
is
To
damage
at
the
event of
to
the
made
in
about the
light waterline.
Fig.
ELEVATION
collision
164.
8ULK
/LINE OF
FRAME HEELS
SECTION AT CD.
LOOKING
SECTION AT A. B.
LOOKING F0RW
An
NTfR COSTAL
They are fitted to join the parts together and fairing, but they are a drawback when a portion of the stem has to be removed, as plates on both sides of the stem have to be taken off in order to punch them out, for which reason they
using tack
the
rivets
in
stem scarphs.
erection
for
purpose
of
are
frequently
omitted.
sternpost
STERNPOSTS. The
In
it
forms
the
also
afterend
in
sailingships
for
hinging the
In
singlescrew
for
steamers,
part
of
the
for
ship
becomes
more
complicated,
in
addition
providing
facilities
176a
the
hull
at
this
rudder,
point,
must
be
supported
by
it.
Moreover,
the
strain
caused
this
by
the
continual
Fig. making the post and its connections to the hull of ample strength. of this 167 shows the stern frame of an ordinary cargo steamer. The stem vessel is 11 inches by 3 inches, and the increase in strength of sternpost necessary, for the reasons given, is represented by the increase of the thickness
Fig.
165.
ELEVATION
tNDOFKCEL PLATE
Fig.
166.
which
inches,
is
joined
while
to
the
shellplating,
to
9
is
inches,
the
breadth
remaining
the
rudder
post,
which
not
called
upon
this,
may be 9^
in
inches x 9 inches.
Besides
which come
plates,
upon the
round the
the
stern
propeller
post,
are
augmented
while
the
are
still
further
thickened.
of
rivets
The
large
shellplating
attached
to
frame
by two
rows
of
diameter,
increased
below
i>]6b
AND CALCULATIONS.
the
tachment
The hull atover 350 feet in length to three rows. improved by securely connecting the upper arms marked A and B* in fig. 167 to floorplates, also by extending the arm G well forward, and connecting it to the keelplate and middle line keelson. The size of the aperture is fixed by the diameter of the propeller, for It is of the efficient working of which ample clearance must be allowed.
vessels
further
Fig.
167.
down
as
possible
so
as
to
is
ensure
when
the
post,
much
15
reduced.
in
For
that
this
reduced
per
with
area being
part
increased
cent,
of
the
propeller
has
frequently
is
to
*Arm B
number
STERN P9STS.
stand
for
176^
of
severe
grounding
the
rudder,
stresses.
the
or
afterpost
is
hanging
the
basis
for
which
should
necessary
braces
gudgeons
to
are
provided, as
shown.
rudder.
of the
These
In
be
the
spaced
rudder
to
sufficiently
close
properly
support
Lloyd's
of
Rules
tabulated
stock
;
distances
in
are
provided
of
the
on the
diameter
the
Rules
be spaced 4 feet apart in vessels of 10 feet depth, and 5 feet 6 inches apart in vessels of 40 feet depth and upwards, the spacing in vessels between 10 feet and 40 feet depth being
British Corporation,
found by interpolation.
diameter of the
sidered in
association
Gudgeons should have a depth equal rudder stock. These details of the sternpost
with
to
to
are
j^ of the
best
conit
the
rudder.
When
frame
vessels
in
are
of
piece.
large
size
becomes
as
impracticable
make
the
stern
one
Moreover,
outside the hull proper is most liable to damage, it facilitates and makes them less costly, if this portion can be easily disconnected from the remainder. We, therefore, usually find that stern frames in large modern singlescrew steamers are built up, as shown in fig. 168,
the
part
repairs
with
scarphs
the
as
shown.
The upper
joint
can
be
disconnected without
dis
turbing
length
main
structure, while
of the
lowermost strake of
and be secured by four rows of rivets. It should be said that stern frames are built as just described, ue. in several pieces, only when they are made of cast steel but there seems no good reason, except the extra expense and difficulty of forging the scarphs, why, in ordinary simple cases, forged stern frames should not be so made,
y ;
considering the
advantages accruing
said
in
thereto.
A
bodies
regard
to the
relative
and forgings
permit
standing
stern
frames,
rudders,
steel
etc.
The
such
rules
of
the
to
classification
the
use
of
cast
for
items,
subject
their
with
certain
tests,
and
as
castings
are
cheaper
owner's
than
forgings
they
there
are
are
populaf with
objections
for
some
in
builders.
But,
are,
from
for
an
standpoint
reliable
to
castings.
They
latter
instance,
not
as
as
forgings,
in
while
flaws
the
are
rare,
the
and
these,
though
not
disclosed
by the
parts
usual
in
tests,
are
sure
to
manifest
themselves
subsequently
when
the
are
place
and doing
effectively,
their
work.
may
in
frequently be
quickly,
its
and
re
flaw
steel
casting
simply means
cause
loss
which,
in
addition
to
considerable
It
is
expense,
to
state,
may
to
the
ship.
only
fair
Of
as
in
where the forms of stern frames and rudder are complicated, the case of some war vessels and large passenger liners, steel castings
course,
to because
are
resorted
forgings
are
quite
impracticable.
ij6d
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
far,
AND CALCULATIONS.
So
screw
mention.
made
as
steamers,
but
those
of
modern
in
twinscrew
the
vessels
call
for
special
case
of
small
vessels,
the
stern
Fig.
168.
PLAN OF RUDDER
ARM
frame proper
propeller
is
of
the
familiar
Lshape
fitted
to
saiiingships,
the
projecting
shafts
is
being
supported
in
figs.
by
means
170.
of a
A
the
bracket
first
on
each
it
side.
This
form
illustrated
169,
In
figure
will
be
STERNPOSTS.
observed
shell,
176*?
that
is
the
upper
which
doubled in the
palm of the bracket is fitted directly on to the vicinity, and the lower one is throughriveted
Fig.
169.
SECTION
LOOKING AFT
DETAIL AT
UPPER PALM
DEPTH
WAY
OF
PALM
Fig.
170.
DETAIL AT
UPPER PALM
ANCLE COLLAR
i 7
6/
being
fitted
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
across
part.
AND CALCULATIONS.
way of the palms,
fitted
plates,
the
ship
in
to
give
is
the
necesto
it
sary rigidity
at
this
riveted
round the
is
strut
where
riveted to a projection
Very
often,
order
to
keep the
as
lines
of
shafts
near
the
middle
latter
line,
well
as
protect
the
propellers, the
are
screw
cases,
aperture
thus
becoming necessary.
with
The
is
usual
arrangein
fig.
ment
171.
in
such
when
associated of
brackets,
in
as
shown
The
aperture
must be
sufficient
width
foreandaft
direction
Fig.
171.
to
take
both
propellers;
it
need
us,
not,
however, be
so
high as
for
single
line.
screw, the
take
palms
of
the
easily
the
whole
together.
very neat.
The
the
different
foreandaft
positions
arrived at by
making
shaft
bossing
longer
other.
The A
is
not
suitable
that
in
be
attained.
Experiments
serious
have
shown
tion
the
projecting
for
brackets
cause a
augmentaof
of resistance.
was found,
instance, in
one
case, that
a twin
PROPELLER BRACKETS.
176^
screw vessel of fine form, the propeller shafts of which were encased in tubes supported by two sets of struts, that the resistance caused by the tubes
amounted
of the
.
set of struts to about 10J per cent. Various attempts have been made to overcome this objection by giving a suitable shape to the arms, which from a more or less circular section, in early vessels, became of a flattened oval shape in those more recently built. The results obtained in this way were better,
to
4J per
cent,
and by each
total
hull
resistance.
still
serious.
The
lines,
strut
resistance
the
disturbance
of
the
stream
an
attempt
was
made
right
to
eliminate this
vessel
round the
shafts,
up
Fig.
172.
to
the
stern
frame, thus
allowing the
costly,
streams
otherwise
fast
an
plan,
is
although
somewhat
as
has
proved
vessels
now As
the
reducing
resistance
to
speed,
bossing
it
hull
round twin
end.
adds much to the strength also obviates the possibility of any lateral strain being
as
shafts,
at Bremerhaven,
model of the liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, when tried in the experimental tank was found to have 12 per cent, more resistance with propeller brackets than
with shaft bossing.
when
fitted
176/1
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
an integral part of the
of
When
hull
fin
properly
Fig.
constructed
172
the
in
bossing becomes
section
structure.
it
shows
the
method
from
constructing
ship's
the
to
is
as
line
is
sometimes
shafting
in
is
called
where
way,
the
distance
will
the
side
the
of
considerable.
As
and
it
be seen, each
side
for
main frame
carried
down
is
the
ordinary
to
at
shaped
fitted
and made
overlap
a bar suitably
some
distance
which
the normal
frame
line.
The
Fig.
173.
PLAN
S1DL
ELEVATION
STERNPOST
framework
bossing
is
strengthened by webplates,
not
as
shown.
All
the
frames in the
For a considerable distance the eccentricity in form may be met by bossing out the main frame, the object being to obtain the required shape and strength as economically as possible.
need
be
built
in
this
way.
of
forming
steel
bearings
for
the
shafts
and a termination
as
the
bossing,
is
special Fig.
casting,
this
sometimes
frame
described
spectacle
frame,
fitted
173
shows
associated
with
an
ordinary
STERNPOSTS.
propeller
figure
7 6/
frame
having an
aperture
fairly
common
is
arrangement.
;
In the
it
the
spectacle
frame forms
rudder
part
of
frequently
is
it.
complete
without
controls
axis
RUDDERS. The
direction of her
is
that
part
of
in
vessel
which
the
movements when
turns
is
afloat
and
of
motion.
As
and
it
the
as
about
rudder
which
takes of the
vessel
in
the
vicinity
amidships,
the
is
at
either
end
The
it
afterend
is
is
most convenient
there.
for
the purpose,
and, with
a few exceptions,
always placed
the
rudder
vessels,
is
is
hinged
in
about
an
axis
at
its
168,
174);
area
in
war
and
ships,
what
is
fitted,
it.
that
about a third of
latter
before
The
it
advantage of
the
star
board.
reason to debar
to
their
adoption
power.
the
in
ordinary
cargo
type
vessels,
'as
owing
steer
common
frame of
can be operated
by a
ing gear
Fig.
a modern cargo steamer of large main frame or stock with arms at right angles to it, the latter being spaced close enough to afford sufficient support to a heavy plate which gives the contour of the rudder. The arms, which are forged or cast with the rudder frame, are arranged on alternate sides of the plate, as shown in the sketch. The rivets attaching the arms to the rudderplate should be of large size, and the arms kept back a little from the outside edge of the plate to protect them from being torn off. The rudder is attached to the stern frame by means of bolts or pintles, which ship into gudgeons on the afterpart of the stern frame. These gudgeons are forged or cast solid with the stern frame, and are afterwards
168 shows
is
rudder
size.
It
bored out
in
at
as
required,
care
being
a
true
taken
axis.
to
keep
their
centres
line
so
that
also
rudder
may have
Formerly,
the
rudder
pintles
were
forged
Fig.
It
74
shows a
stock
is
of
rudder
that
frequently
are
fitted
in
modern
fitted
vessels.
has
circular
and arms
spaced
separate
forgings
one
case,
at to
each
allow
fitting
pintle.
This
about
wider
double
the
spacing
are
of
the
previous
for
which
the
arms
is
made
relatively
heavier.
In a
the
the parts
on,
is
shrunk
groove
stresses
key being
to
arms
turning.
to
Usually
fit
cut in
it
stock
for
rudderplate
into,
on
arms
in
the
some extent
Fig.
is
relieved.
is
The weight
of the sternpost.
the
The
with
socket for
the others,
bottom
pintle
176;
but
sufficient
allowed
to
prevent
un
shipping.
To In the present instance, the depth of the socket is 4 inches. minimise friction, the bottom of the pintle is rounded, and a suitable bearing
provided
by
fitting
hemispherical
of
steel
disc
into
the
it
gudgeon
to
socket.
Experience
with
this
style
bearing
has
not
shown
be
completely
Fig.
174.
ARMS AT PINTLES
^^
satisfactory.
The
the
weight of the rudder soon produces wearing, which then becoming greater than
to
if
is
usually
uneven,
the
friction
The
enable
hole from
the
heel of
to
Rudder
what shorter
refer
pintles
alike
except
the
pintle
the
bottom
pintle,
fits
one,
to
which which
is
someshall
is
than
the
others,
and
"lock"'
we
presently.
The
part of each
which
into
the
rudder frame
RUDDERS.
tapered from bottom to top, to prevent
of the pintle
its
176/$
On
driven
the head
a large nut
is
fitted,
which secures
by a
as
steel
in position,
any slackenthrough
against
nut,
pin
which
is
shown.
To
prevent accidental
must be devised. A simple plan the top one with a bottom collar Another point of importance
to
make one
176).
of the pintles
preferably
rudder
(fig.
for
the
satisfactory
working
of the
is
to provide a
means of
limiting the
Referring to
seeri
fig.
177,
which shows a
of the rudder
that the
movement
Fig.
175.
beyond a certain inclination is checked by widening out one of the gudgeons on the sternpost and altering the shape of the rudder stock in the vicinity, so that each surface may bear solidly on the other at the required angle. In a very large vessel two such stoppers would be needed, and they should be fitted so as to distribute the pressure equally over the sternpost. Stoppers must also be fitted on deck, the rudder movement being here controlled by stopping the quadrant or tiller arm. Where a good brake is fitted to the tiller, or the quadrant is geared on to the steam steering engine, no deck
stops
are
necessary,
the
control
The
for.
cargo vessel,
is fitted in an ordinary be observed that only bare essentials are provided Where an owner does not object to extra expense in order to obtain is
foregoing
and
it
greater
efficiency,
For instance,
it
is
advantageous
T76/
to to
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
line
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
lignumvilae
(fig.
bush
also
gudgeons with
the
pintles with
brass
or or
178),
brass
gunmetal
(fig.
179).
parts,
the rudder
made The
to
be renewed with
maintained.
little
easily
objection
carrying
the
weight
to.
of
rudder
on
the
bottom gudgeon has already been referred overcome by causing the rudder to bear on several or on all the gudgeons, circular discs or washers of white metal being inserted between the rudder lugs
This
has
sometimes
been
for
this
purpose.
Another plan
is
to
fit
solid
washers,
coneshaped at bottom, into each gudgeon, with pintles having tapered points to suit. The weight of the rudder is thus distributed over all the gudgeons,
and there
these
can
be
little
or
no
side
movement
of
the
rudder.
By both
arrangements,
of
it
course,
is
rudder
than
when
more power will be required to turn the supported on a footstep bearing only, but this is
Fig.
176.
Fig.
177.
is
an
efficient
steam
steering
gear.
Occasionally
rudders are fitted which do not bear on the gudgeons, the weight being taken
floor.
by a thrust block inside the vessel, usually fitted at the level of the transom With balanced rudders this is the invariable plan, the bottom pintle,
where there
is
one, serving
merely as
guide.
The
when
fitting
of an
it
internal
bearing
to
cost,
but
greatly in size and weight, it becomes necessary means of shipping and unshipping them without disturbing the steering gear and inboard stuffing boxes. It is customary, in such cases, to fit a coupling just under the counter, and this is found to answer the purHorizontal couplings, as illustrated by figs. 168, 174 ancj pose admirably. 180, are common, although others of a vertical type are sometimes fitted (figs. With such an arrangement, to unship a rudder it is only 181 and 181a).
When
rudders increase
to
devise a simple
RUDDERS.
necessary to unscrew the pintle nuts,
thus
allowing the pintles
to
t 7
6m
drop
out,
and
to
tackle, the
moved
out of
usual
position.
178.
Fig.
179.
i i
Fig.
180.
is
usually formed
by a
single
still
heavy plate
previously
is
described
design
another
followed,
to
the
plan,
once
universal,
and
i76
182.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
Each
side of this
frame
filled
is
in
wood
or cement.
This
style
is
Fig.
181.
vertical
M'LACHLAN'S
coupling
.9 0IA'
Fig.
181a.
'WEDGEW0OD5 SCARPHED
coyPLirsci
vH
BOLTS g lDlA'
not
so
strong
as
that
as
of
the
single
plate;
it
is
also
more
liable
to
decay
through
corrosion,
the
inside
surfaces
of the
rudderplating
are
obviously
RUDDERS.
inaccessible
for
1760
chief
cleaning.
vessels
it
These were
in
is
the the
reasons
of
type.
its
abandonIn
special
ment
cases,
its
in
ordinary
favour
of
singleplate
such as yachts,
appearance.
still
retained for
Fig.
finer
182.
The
latter,
sizes
are governed
by the area and shape of the and the speed of the vessel. Knowing these particulars, the twisting moment can be determined and the requisite diameter for the head of the rudder stock calculated. The
aggregate sectional area of the^arms supporting the
single plate
on the
it
bending moment
be sustained, but
this
requirement
from the
sea, to
which the
suffi
The
cient
for
sizes
to withstand these
tear,
wear and
The
strength of the
numaxis
moment
the
of whose
about
torsional
rudder
of
to
the
strength
the
rudder stock.
principles
which must be
Of
of
a ship
at
is
to
be
built
to
Lloyd's
part
Rules, the
as
such
calculations,
all
on
are
the
builder
detailed
events,
unnecessary,
are
pro
dimensions
of
rudders
tables.
is
In these
ous
the
in
speeds
under
of
numbers
which
represent
product
of of
the
the
pintles,
and
the
distance
SECTION THROUGH A
fitted
B.
As
in.
are
sometimes
to
at
navigate
These
rudders
to
are
usually
designed
of the
come
inside
the
line
of
or
the
less
stem,
and
follow
the
shape
vessel,
being
thus
more
176/
buoyant
purposes,
of a
(fig.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
183).
AND CALCULATIONS.
is
The rudder
in
stock
carried
to
is
the
As a bow rudder
is
mainly for
when not
bolt.
use
it
locked in a foreandaft
strong
Fig.
183.
CHAPTER
VII.
FROM
the
floating
.
I.
and
II.,
we know something
fig.
of
is
operation
at
when,
still
as
depicted
in
184,
vessel
freely
and
or
rest
in
water.
We
or
know,
for
instance
t
total
upward
forces,
buoyancy,
mus
equal
the
total
weight
That the resultant of the downward forces acts through <?, the centre and the resultant of the upward forces through B, the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid, already denned as the centre of buoyancy.
of gravity of the weights,
It
is
now
these
Fig.
184.
IL_
forces
must act
in
the
same
vertical
line,
for,
if
coincide, a turning
moment would be
force
in operation to
to
to
act
upon the
weights
185.
No
by
LX
have
fore
lifted
on
one
;
side
is,
must
the
be
volume
equal.
immersed
on
the
other
that
wedges
W\S
and
SL
As the immersed body is now altered in form, the centre of buoyancy no longer at B but takes up some new position B and as there has been no change in the disposition of the weights, the centre of gravity G The two equal resultant forces act clown through is not altered in position.
is
x
177
78
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
lines
G,
and up through
distance
acting
respectively,
their
of
in
action
having
a
the
perpenturning
original
dicular
GZ
between
vessel
them,
as
drawn
tends
the
figure.
The
to
moment
on the
obviously
to
restore
her
Fig.
185.
position,
and
the
she
centre
is
therefore
said
to
to
be
in
stable
equilibrium.
position
in
fig.
Next,
suppose
say,
of
gravity
be
raised
from
the
184
cargo
by pumping
out
ballast
tank,
and
by putting
quantity
of
Fig.
186.
into
the
'tween
decks
in
order
let
to
keep
will
the
or by
some
fig.
other
means.
First,
G become
act
exactly
M
and
(see
186).
As
before,
the
weight
downwards
through
the
Fig.
187.
buoyancy upwards
posite
will
in
the
line
B M.
2
The
line,
forces
will
therefore
act
in
op
directions
in
the
same
In
vertical
this
and
being
will
equal
in
magnitude
neutralise
each
other.
case
there
be no lever tending to
79
which
is
will
not
tend
of
to
depart
from
its
inclined
position.
The
raised
vessel
lines,
is,
condition
said
to
be
one
at
fig.
neutral
will
above M.
causing
glance
187
be inclined as before.
a heeling
resultant
in
act
in
different
operation
this
on the
heeling
vessel.
There
to
right
between
from
the
moment and
not
that
the
tendency being
the
initial
now,
the
but
her
further
position.
is
With G
unstable
vessel,
when
in
upright
position,
in
We
floating
thus
vessel
see
that
the
relation
between
or
the
points
G and
M
is
in
entirely
called
the
metacentre
from
being
rise,
if
;
the
meta
limit
of gravity
It
G must not
defined as
a condition
of
stability
may be
follows
Definition of Transverse Metacentre. If a vessel be floating upright at rest and in equilibrium, at a certaifi draughty and be then inclined through a very small angle\ the point in which the vertical line through the
new
centre
of buoyancy
metacentre
intersects
the
middle
line
of the
ship}
is
called
is,
the in
transverse
at
that
draught.
For
It
it
every
draught
there
also
ordinary vessels, a
different
position
of metacentre.
is
The
for
point
changes
with
upright.
to
usual, however,
and
if
sufficiently
correct
practical
purposes,
assume
as
fixed
inclinations
up to
the
10 or 11
distance
degrees.
This
is
we know
,,,
x BZ
Hf x
QM
..
Sm
I,
W, the displacement, being given in tons, and G Z or G M in feet. This is known as metacentric stability, G M being called the metacentric height It must be borne in mind that this method applies only up to the beyond these it is unreliable, as M changes rapidly in angles above given
;
position,
is
and G
has no longer
its
initial
value,
which
is
the
actual
that
in
many
cases
considerable
error
would be
involved, even
for calculating
the
moment
of stability.
is,
many
for
determining whether or
tanks
may be
safely shifted
in
may
be run up, or, in the case of a vessel carrying oil in bulk, how the loading In conducting the first of these operaof cargo should be proceeded with. tions, there need be no inclination from the upright exceeding that for which
the
moment
of stability
may be
written
W
so that in order to
shift
GM
x Sin
ft
it
the
vessel
with
confidence,
is
only necessary to
l8o
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the value
great
AND CALCULATIONS.
sufficient.
of
G
to
is
In
the
two
its
last
operations
enough
if
allow for
the
reduction in
value
due to
We
to
the vessel be of
known
type,
furnish
good
basis
from which
predict
the
probable
nature
of
angles
of inclination.
The
great
G and
M
or
will
now be
of
manifest,
his
and
in
a shipmaster ought
available.
know
for
every
sea,
condition of
lading
vessel
what
the
GM
influences
controlling
the
position
Obviously,
and we
shall
show presently
M,
however,
is
any given
of
the
The
point
waterplane.
relatively
the point
may be
M
'
I
1
I/
is
the
moment
of
of inertia
of
the
waterplane
about
its
middle
line
axis,
The numerator
to
righthand
:
member
of
this
equation
may be
ex
Imagine
be divided into an infinite number of parts, and the distances of the centres of these elements from the middle line ascertained; then, if each of these small areas be multiplied by the square of its distance from the axis, and the
sum
moment
the
of inertia required.
Although
inertia in
it
involves of an
some
calculation
to
obtain
above
moment
for
of
the
case
of the
figure
boundary
line
of the
may be
circle,
quickly obtained
as
any
of simple form
such as a square, a
or a triangle,
established
We
Here
this
inertia of
is
R3
moment
length
of
of
where L
is
the
the vessel,
the
height
of the
transverse
metacentre above
we have
L x B*
LxBxD
15 feet;
i2
0'
If the actual
length,
draught,
12 x 15
CALCULATION OF BM.
Almost as simple
that the expression for half the previous value,
a
131
is
case
occurs
when
the vessel
is,
of constant triangular
The
waterplane
as
before,
is
a rectangle,
so
obviously only
BM
We
therefore
B2
LxBxD
6D
its
transverse
metacentre at twice the height above the centre of buoyancy of another having
a rectangular section,
the
Moreover, in a vessel of
greater height above
lute height of the
triangular
extreme dimensions in each case being the same. section, the centre of buoyancy is at a
the
metacentre
on
this account,
still
further increased.
lie
Now,
the
between
just
considered,
the
and,
effect
neglecting
for
the
moment
influence
position
lines,
general
of
the
transverse
metacentre
may be
is
important to
note in the
on
stability,
have always
high
meta
centres.
A
axis
unique
occurs
where the
vessel
is
a floating
as
cylinder
with
its
horizontal.
In
ordinary vessels
the
metacentre,
we have
seen,
may
In this case, however, be considered as a fixed point only for one draught. the vertical through the centre of buoyancy will intersect the middle line
at
the
that,
since
This
part
will
be apparent,
the
centre
if
we consider
to
of a circle, a normal
any waterbuoyancy,
line
through
intersect
middle
point
line
will
pass
through
of
and
for
the of
middle
of the
of section.
for
Thus,
trans
a vessel
cylindrical
section,
there
only one
position
the
verse
metacentre.
In
applying
the
formula
BM =
rj
to
shipshaped
bodies,
/.
the
work,
as
is
number
cubes of the
ordinates,
measured
the
at
the
the
points
latter
of
in
division,
as
feet,
ordinates
twothirds
of a of
new
the
curve,
and
so
line.
find
area
of
square
quantity
moment
obtain the value of the height of the transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy, this moment of inertia, as we have seen, must be
To
divided
by the volume
of
the
ship's
displacement
practical
in
cubic
feet
up
to
the
As
l82
in
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
order
in to
AND CALCULATIONS.
us,
impress
particular
the
method upon
vessels,
full
BM
two
cargo
both
of
we shall modern
inches;
calculate
type.
the value
first is
of
The
coefficient,
feet,
feet,
inches;
tons.
is
the
inches,
4535 work
have
We
in
deal
table
with
the vessel
when
first
in
condition.
The
given
the
below.
In
the
and
second
columns we
numbers of the half ordinates of the loadwaterplane, reckoning from the after end, and their breadths as measured at the points of division in the third column are tabulated the cubes of these half ordinates, and in the fourth and fifth, Simpson's Multipliers and the products of these multithe
;
pliers
with
the
cubes,
respectively.
No. of
J.
Ordinates.
APPROXIMATE CALCULATION OF
No. of Ordinat.es.
1!M.
183
1^4
treated,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
ship's
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
displacement
may
always
be
written
the form.
Using
bM
may become k may rise to
it
I/' C t
LttD=
even
X
2
D~ H Dwhile
in
fine
'09,
;
in
vessels
of
full
form
low as
us
*o8,
or
less
ships,
such as yachts,
As a
for
test,
apply
the
approximate
calculations.
formula
to
the
two
examples
which we have
full
made
~
^2
detailed
vessel,
which
has
ends, k
=
=
^ = 7
87
'
*o8o6
and therefore
BM
In the
larger
0806 x
the
39
5 Q
X
^
'
9 5
677
feet.
1858
vessel,
finer,
ends
ot
the
load
waterplane
and
BM
0818 x ^
*LL =
2725
of
9 40
feet.
centre
figures
seen to approach
the
actual
very closely.
is
In order
to
for
necessary
know
2o
In approximate calculations,
as
vessels of ordinary
may be taken
vessels.
varying between
and
line,
of the
latter
mean moulded
figure
draught, measured
for
full
the
being used
as
While
metacentre
it
is
vessel's
transverse
when
her
load
draught,
it
is
frequently
necessary to
know
tion
is
it
for
other draughts.
critical one,
For some classes of vessels the launching condiand the amount of GM available then should be known.
of
vessels
Cases
are
on
record
capsizing
through
deficient
stability,
while
being launched.
for
known
is
that
called
"lightship,"
complete,
including
machinery,
but
is
without
bunker
coal.
This condition
GM
that
for
the
when laden
Still
when
in
ballast.
Modern
cargo
vessels
frequently
perform
voyages
in
ballast
trim,
will
and
calculations
give a value of
GM,
DIAGRAM OF METACENTRES.
185
is
essential to
gravity.
Thus we have, including the loaded one, four conditions for which it know the positions of the transverse metacentre and the centre
of
is
To
specially, as
The
curve of metacentres
is
usually plotted
which the curve of centres of buoyancy is the two curves at any point being the value of
draught.
for
we shall show afterwards). on a diagram, such as fig. 188, on also drawn the distance between
at
the
corresponding
is
the
same
as
the
to
be already
Fig.
188.
plotted.
That
is
is
to
say,
referring
to
off
fig.
188,
B.
the
height
of
for
various points
draughts
calculated
etc., is
and
spotted
on A
Then each
refers,
of these
},
M^
s,
between
is
the load
and a curve
y
drawn
through them.
To
line
AA
at 45
to
the vertical
where the load waterplane intersects A B. To obtain, now, from such a diagram, the value of B M at any draught, BE say, it is only necessary to draw a horizontal line at that draught to intersect the line AA x aX some point Elt and to draw through the latter point a vertical line
A B
is
to the
after
curves of
little
at
B and
BE.
It
will
be
clear,
consideration, that
is
the
height
of metacentre above
the
i86
In
structed
fig.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
diagram,
floating
189
this
are
shown,
for
in
one
curves
of
metacentres
cross
con
in
way
prismatic
bodies
having
of
sections
of
rectangular,
0.
triangular,
and
circular
form,
to
marked
It
is
respectively
R /?,
7",
The
full
curve
marked
This diagram
for
applys
is
cargo vessel
will
ordinary form
with
the
falls
lines.
very instructive.
triangular
locus
as
of
a vessel of
diminishes
as
section
to
straight
the
of
draught
vessels
characteristic
be
found
the
dia
grams
fine
they
approach
very
light
draughts,
the
immersed
for
volume being then more or less triangular in form. cular section, as might be expected, is a horizontal
ciding
The
locus
line,
cir
straight
coin
with
the
centre
of
the
section
for
all
draughts.
The curve
for
the
Fig.
189.
vessel
of
for
the
ordinary ship in
being convex to
as
the
base;
to
say,
the
position
of
M
02
at
first
falls,
the
is
vessel
lightens.
For a boxshaped
of
vessel,
M=
as
,
so that, since
constant,
the of
value
the
M
of
continually
increases
is,
diminishes.
curve of metacentres
centre
therefore,
entirely
due
the
fact
that,
at
infull
first,
the
buoyancy
in
falls
BM
of
creases.
This
peculiarity
the
metacentres
if
of
vessels
the
position
rises
be
draught
although
another
while
vessel
from
will
load
the
of the
initial
stability
be
reduced,
will
the
" freeboard,"
height
deck
above
the
waterplane,
be increased.
187
GRAVITY.
METHODS OF FINDING THE POSITION OF THE CENTRE OF A knowledge of the position of the transverse metacentre at
any draught, as provided by such diagrams as the above, is of itself of no value whatever in predicting a vessel's initial stability. For example, we may
have two similar vessels with identical curves of metacentres, and yet
load
at
the
draught
one
may have
already,
excessive
it
initial
stability,
and
the
the
other
of
be
unstable.
As
to,
stated
is
is
the
relation
between
In
the
positions
vessels
and
G which
the the
of
paramount
as to point.
;
importance.
stability
similar
just
referred
condition
latter
has
stable
been
entirely
influenced
by the
have
position
of
In
the
vessel
the
heavy items
been placed low down in the other, the opposite has been the case. This shows how much the behaviour of a vessel at sea depends on those
of her
stowage.
determined very easily by means of an experiand being thus known for a given condition, the effect of a new As disposition of cargo on the initial stability may be closely estimated. This is well as by experiment, G may be found directly by calculation. the method employed by the naval architect in the preliminary stages of a
ment,
ship's
G may be
of
at
the
fixed
weights.
In warships,
displacements,
yachts,
and
other
for
vessels,
which
sail
practically
constant
the
estimate
the
centre
stability
of gravity must be very carefully made, since on completion cannot, without great expense, be
vessels
In
freightcarrying
the
of
stowage
6,
of
its
cargo,
as
we
have
greatly influences
the
final
position
and
its
"lightship"
position
therefore
importance.
elaborate
in
all
We
method
ing,
cannot,
of
fact,
work,
is,
details
the
calculation
consistship's
finding
however,
perfectly
simple
in
principle,
in
of a huge
moment
is
calculation, in
weight,
including
her
cargo,
multiplied
by
distance
from
two
datum
by the values obtained when the sum of each of these systems of moments is divided by the total weight of the vessel. The datum lines are taken in the
middleline
plane,
as
obviously,
lie
since
both sides
in
of
the
ship
are
alike,
the
centre
of gravity
must
to
in
that
briefly
plane.
consists
we now proceed
a weight
centre across
of gravity, of
explain,
vessel
by moving
ship's
the
deck,
observing
the
consequent
upon the
the
position
M
is
and thence deducing the value of GM. From this, since is known, the height of G may then be determined.
it
is
first
place,
the
vessel
floating
quite
freely,
not
aground
at
any
point,
or
by neighbouring vessels, or too tightly moored to the quay. Indeed, it would be better if moorings could be unloosed altogether. The condition of the vessel should next be noted. If she be "light," the holds, ballast tanks, and bunkers, should be empty. If some coal still
remain in the bunkers,
it
unduly
hampered
should
be
trimmed
level
so
that
its
weight
and
IO
position
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of centre
of gravity
may be
require
determined.
to
of
all
items which
may
still
etc.,
correction
made
in
the
effect
on the
final
position of centre of
If
gravity
these
weights.
the
vessel
should
be
be
will
carefully
sounded,
or
and
is
any
got
loose
water
pumped
to
out.
ballast
tanks
holds
particularly
detrimental
such
ready.
a straight
For a vessel of
so
as
to
size,
the
tons,
ensure
definite
when
been
weight
is
moved
with
across
lighter
the
deck.
Successful
experi
ments
have
carried
out
heeling
weight,
when
the
dis
Fig.
190.
tance
considerable,
as,
up of a heavy weight into a short distance, or vice versa. The plumb line is usually hung in the middleline plane of the
convenient
place,
when
the
holds
are
empty,
is
at
a hatchway,
the
line
marked on a straight edge arranged for With a loaded vessel this will, of course, not be possible, but a maststay, if screwed up tightly, will do quite well to suspend the bob weight from, and a straight edge on which to record the movements of the latter could be fitted in a suitable position near the deck. The method of conductceiling.
ing the
actual experiment
may now be
on
each
described.
side
In the
first
place, half
at
the
heeling
weight
is
arranged
of
the
upper
deck,
is
place
The
vessel
in the upright
89
carefully
where
the
plumb bob
crosses
the
straight
edge
190).
the
ship,
side is then moved through a distance a feet across shown, causing the plumb line to move out of the centre and
take
up a position R K.
other
in
Now, moving
the
heeling
weight
from
one
side
structure
move
the
same
direction
is
G G\=
moved
clearly
777,
in
where
the
weight
in
in
tons,
a the distance
it
is
feet,
and
W
the
the
total
displacement
vessel
line
;
tons.
The
point
G\
is
the
is
centre
of gravity
of the
in
the inclined
of
the
the
condition.
resultant
Since
there
force
equilibrium,
in
upward
of
action
buoyant
of this
must be
line
vertical
GJH
and
it
M
is,
being
intersection
vertical
with
middle
line,
by
l
definition,
the
metacentre.
therefore,
From
inspection,
triangles
N R K and G M G
are
similar,
and
GM
The
inclination
JV_R
distance
get
GG,~N K*
being very small,
line.
the
NR
may be taken
as
the
length
of the
plumb
We
length
therefore
GM =
This
is
of^umbline
(uncorrected),
x0fly
all
the
metacentric
the
height
and
of
that
remains
the
to
be
line,
done
is
to
obtain
position
of the
centre
of gravity
the
above
base
to
deduct
this
distance
at
this
from
draft,
the
as
height
transverse
metacentre
of
line
diagram
metaof
Corrections
weights,
are
for
afterwards
made
allow
for
the
removal
the
if
inclining
and
the
addition
weights,
such be necessary to bring the vessel into the desired condition. It is the custom with certain shipbuilders to heel their vessels
position of the centre of gravity
for
the
when
in the
first
previously
mentioned,
the
viz.,
the
and
is
conditions.
With
with. to
other
shipbuilders
"lightship"
for
condition
light
the
is
only
one
dealt
The
the
information
shipmaster, to
centre
or
obtained
the
condition
for
frequently
supplied
be used as a basis
of the
in
of gravity
when
in
ballast,
when
a
put
fully
strict
loaded.
any actual service condition, such as when In these estimates it is, of course,
of the
necessary
to
have
account
weights
of
the
various
items
of
on board, with the positions of their centres above the base, or any other datum line, and to combine the whole in a moment For ballast conditions, particularly where the ballast consists calculation. of water in fixed compartments, and for loaded conditions with homofor loaded conditions with geneous cargoes, this method is quite 'reliable
cargo
or
ballast
;
miscellaneous
feared
that
cargoes,
however,
required
it
is
not
so
satisfactory,
as
it
is
to
be
of
the
care
to
ascertain
the
weight
and
the
centre
190
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
would not always be exercised
centre
care,
of gravity of
his
the
mark.
stability,
To make
when
a
special
sure
of
the
condition
with
regard
to
initial
fully
shipmaster
can
always
resort
to
heeling
which
we
reliable.
As a
practical
let
us
take
the
at
case
the
of the
smaller of the
page
feet
182),
whose nietacentre
load
draught we
have
found to be 675
of a
heeling
loaded are
available.
including the
line
displacement of 4535
feet,
tons.
was 23
five
inches
long.
lot
stay
and
of
weights, arranged
two
lots
tons,
of the
deck, at
equal
distances
feet.
The
of
the
NK
of
the
the
plumb
line
caused
to
by moving
one
portion
weight across
starboard, was
found to be 6\ inches.
in
its
across
the the
old
of
and
have
an
observation
to
taken
of
line,
plumb
line.
It
should,
course,
returned
the
middle
but
scarcely
did
so.
The
port,
other
portion
the the
of the
inclining weight
from starboard to
;
and
In
resulting
deflection
of
the
plumb
the
line
noted
it
was
taken,
5!
inches.
calculation,
the
mean
of
observations
was
viz.,
inches.
Now
1
4535
"*
and, therefore,
GM
positions
23*5
x '0363
=171
feet.
Assuming the
to
of
the
:
nietacentre
of
buoyancy
be given, we
base line
Height of centre
of buoyancy above
line
line
The
correction
ship,
and
necessary.
effect
ship's
gravity, the
of
removal
to
the
latter
point.
Calling
inclin
including
height
of
the
inclining weights
W, the
weights
/;,
W,
uncorrected
of
of
the
of
centre the
of
gravity
above
the
base
the
height
the
centre
gravity
inclining
weights
above
CALCULATION OF GM,
the
191
(the weights being
in
tons,
base /;
and heights
in
above base
WxhWx Ww
H*2 = 4535
x
1
/
'
319 2iZ
21 x 10
2
= 1377
feet.
There was a
the
slight fall
in
due
to
M, the
height of
height
The
corrected metacentric
thus
became
the
15*5
1377 = 173
already
feet.
To
raising
vessel
estimate
or
lowering weights
is
on board,
or
removing
altogether,
now
Assuming 250 tons of cargo are to be discharged from the bridge 'tween decks of the above vessel, at a certain port, find to what extent the centre of gravity and metacentric height will be affected. Taking moments about the
base
line,
we have
above base
New
To
get
is
)~
4525 x 1377
45
25
250 x 26*5
2
altered
plane.
G M, we must allow for the fact that the position of by the change in displacement and in the form of the waterAssuming no change of trim to take place
the
corrected
Change
in draught
=
The new draught
metacentres
line
is
is,
5
1
1
therefore,
1875 0*95 =
17*8
feet.
From
the
curve
of
the
feet,
15*8
= 278
feet.
As a
i.e.,
ready for
sea,
of gravity being 20
inches
keel.
be available,
us
find
the
as
GM
tons
in in
of
cargo
distributed
shelter
follows:
6420
tons tons
of
cargo
lower
bunkers.
holds,
'tween
of coal
Deadweight
Total displacement
tons.
192
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
find
Turning
this
to
the
displacement scale we
the draught
corresponding to
displacement to be 27 feet 6 J inches to bottom of keel. The transverse metacentre above the base line at this draught (from diagram) is 235 feet.
To moment
obtain
the
position
as
of
:
the
centre
of
gravity,
we
must
make
calculation,
follows
193
feet;
at
this
draught
is
2325
so
that
GM
The burning
to
23*25  22*56
'69
feet.
out of the
coal
initial
stability.
As there would be draught to spare, it might be considered desirable run up some water ballast in order to bring G M to about its previous
Let
of
to
sufficient
value.
water
inches.
be
the
supposed
base,
admitted
the
to
lower
of
the
vessel's
centre
ballast
gravity
3
feet
Then,
assuming
centre
gravity
of
the
line,
and taking moments about we have, representing the weight of the ballast by B
be
2
above
that
(14874
from which
, . ,
B) 22'3i '
= 14874
x 22*56
n B =
ballast
=183 J

tons.
The added
the
would increase
draught
'04
3J
inches,
and from
therefore
rise
halfanincb,
98
feet.
New
value
of
GM =
"69
'25
4
INITIAL STABILITY
centric
height,
APPROXIMATE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE EFFECT IN THE DUE TO ADDING OR REMOVING WEIGHTS OF MODERATE AMOUNT. In order to make estimates of a vessel's metaor
initial
stability,
like
the
foregoing,
considerable
data
must on
of
its
be available.
tion.
In many instances a
rule*
shipmaster
may
not
still
have
find
this
informaeffect
By an approximate
initial
he
may,
however,
the
the
stability
of
raising
or
lowering,
adding or removing,
the the
a
its
moderate
centre
weight,
gravity
provided
he
knows
the
its
amount
If
to
and
be
distance
of
from
in
the
feet
loadwaterplane.
weight
rule,
in
tons,
and h
at
distance
from
loadwaterplane,
by
to
this
the
stability
an
inclination
tons,
of
degrees will
be from
affected
the
extent
at
it,
x h x Sin 6 foot
the
correction
or
being
decrease
the
waterplane,
removed
the
the
conditions
tons
be
opposite
of
these.
stability
Thus,
of
the increase
the
effect
running
to
in
183
will,
of
this
ballast
on the
initial
vessel
it
referred
above,
by
approximate
2)
x
method,
be
to
by the amount
(2604 
= 4399
x
By
is
the the
exact
method,
that
viz.,
Righting
the
Moment =W
after
GM
x Sin
0,
the
increase
that
difference
before,
between
is
stability
adding
the
ballast
and
existing
'69) Sin
foot tons
= 4492
the
approximation
is
a good
one.
Wm. Whyte
in
Institution of
194
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
to
As a
board
the
at
at
initial
further
example, suppose
be taken on
be to reduce
feet
above
the
loadwaterline.
The
effect
will
which foot tons, by the amount (200 x n) Sin If the cargo were re2200 x '1736 = 3819 foot tons. moved instead, the initial stability would be increased by the same amount. This method only gives reliable results when the addition or removal of
stability
is
10
degrees
the
weights
causes
no appreciable change
question
of
in
the
form of the
loadline.
of a
minimum
of
value of
has
difference
opinion. the
fact
Those who
that
confronted
sea,
with
great
conduces
subject
vessel,
to
bad
behaviour
as
will
to
the
of rolling.
On
the
other
crank
and
an
altogether
unsafe
is
to
one. The only secure manner of dealing with vessels in this respect compare them with others whose performances at sea are known, and
to
suggested.
must be
from
carefully
considered
from
the
point
of
is
view
of
what
vessel, If
ma}
the
be expected
'since
each
vessel
on active
after
service.
This
specially necessary,
G M cannot be
consideration
is
readily altered
the
completion of
platform,
the
weights being then fixed and the displacement more or less constant.
only
as
to
the
obtain
steady
at
gun
is
should be small,
If,
minimum
of
to
of
rolling
motion
such
sea
thereby assured.
to
however,
of
the
other
inertia
considerations
the
their
intervene,
as
in
liability
lose
portion
loadwaterplane
design,
when
initial
action,
to
which
some war
vessels,
owing
ficed
are
subject,
the
steady
of
and
It
is
sufficiently
large
value
eventualities.
warships,
to
but
beyond our province to fully discuss the subject as affecting coming to the case of trading merchant vessels, there seems
of of
be
consensus
in
opinion
in
favour
of
limiting
to
to
the
foot
minimum
when
of
filled
value
of
GM
steamers
about
medium
size
one
the
with
homogeneous cargo, which just brings them are on record of vessels which have given a with smaller metacentric heights, when loaded
instance,
loadwaterline.
Cases
good
as
account
vessel
is
themselves
above.
In one oftquoted
the
GM
was as
low
as
'6
feet,
yet
the
proved
to
herself
in
The
this
have a margin
given above.
is
on the side of
For
order
safety,
and
considered
has
the
to
be provided in oceangoing
value value
of
height
minimum
under
of course; a
much
a
higher
requisite,
in
that
they
give
may
3
will
not
3^
be
canvas.
The
a
best
authorities
to
feet
minimum
ballast
value,
and
where
homo
geneous cargo
not admit
of
this,
should
be carried.
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
VII.
195
VII.
changes
in
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.
vessel
as
is
floating
at
rest of
in
still
is
water;
raised.
discuss
the
the
character
of
the
equilibrium
2.
the centre
transverse
gravity
Define
the
metacentre
centre
feet
write
down
the
formula
state
its
for
the
height
of
in
the
transverse
metacentre
above the
38
of
buoyancy,
and
numerical value
the
case
of a
rectangular vessel
broad, floating on
even keel
at
a draught of 20 feet.
Ans.
3.
'Oi
feet.
What
is metacentric stability?
vessel of
foot
height of 18 inches;
calculate
the stability in
4000 tons displacement has a metacentric tons at an inclination of 10 degrees. 1041*6 foot tons. Ans.
4.
The
*2,
68,
96,
ico, I0'2
io*o,
feet,
9*9,
%%,
and
8 feet,
and
tons.
half ordinates
introduced
at
the
ends
are
'8,
and
7 '3
respectively.
Find
the
height of the transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy, the displacement being 530
Ans.
5.
'46
feet.
floats
in
still
water with
all
its
axis horizontal.
Show
that
the metacentre
6.
at
the centre
of
of the
section
for
draughts.
and triangular section, respectively, float on even keel same breadth at the waterline. Show that the height If of metacentre above the centre of buoyancy in the first case is half that in the second. the breadth be 35 feet and the draught iS feet, what are the values in the two cases?
prisms
rectangular
at the
Two
Ans.
7.
567
feet;
11*34
feet 
A
to
feet
raft
is
supported
by,
and
rigidly
attached
to,
two
rectangular
pontoons
is
placed
wide and floats half immersed when the raft is laden. Calculate the metacentric height, assuming the centre of gravity of raft and lading to be 3 feet above the
parallel
Each pontoon
feet
and 2
waterline.
8.
Ans,
6*83
feet.
Explain an approximate
above the centre of buoyancy, and work out the numerical value cargo steamer of 48 feet beam and 25 feet draught.
9.
Ans.
its
7*36
it
feet.
How
is
a.
uses
Construct such
to
water,
assuming
be 30
broad and 20
10.
feet
deep.
of ^ vessel
the
is
The displacement
moved 8
feet
400 tons
find
centre
the
of gravity 3
the
tons be
across
deck,
inclination
of the
vessel.
Ans.
degrees.
n.
Explain
find
ship
(2).
By By
calculation.
experiment.
12.
The
centre
of gravity
of a certain
the
is
found
at
to
be
16 feet above
at
viz.,
the base;
feet,
600 tons
10
feet,
are
15
and 500 tons at 11 feet above the base; the following weights 600 tons from 2 feet, and 100 tons from 14 feet above the base.
Ans.
Calculate
new
16'39
feet
19^
13.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
in
initial
How
stability of a
vessel
due
to
raising
or
lowering,
adding or removing,
Accurately.
Approximately.
14.
to
running in
from
of ballast
at
feet
above
the
to
base,
of
cargo
30
begin
Stability
increased
660
tons approximately.
CHAPTER
Trim.
the
VIII.
IN through
of trim.
previous
small
chapter
angles
we examined
in
the condition of
direction
;
vessels
transverse
in
the
is,
present
with
propose to
deal
with
longitudinal
inclinations
that
W
The
in
vessel in
fig.
191
is
through a distance a
W^
and
WL
represent,
flotation
stern
after
the transference.
stem, as shown.
at
the
and
W Wv
books
In
fig.
called
the
of
change
of
trim,
and
the
the
finding
of
this
for
any
enin
proposed
condition
explain
\
lading
constitutes
trim
problem.
that
We
shall
deavour to
text
two
methods
so
well
of
solution
one
It
ordinarily
given
the
191,
other not
the
known.
point
of intersection
the
of the
new and
most
cases,
the
old
water
lines
is
at
length.
Y
actually
coincides
is
with
little
the
aft
waterplane
length
;
W L^
197
which, in
it
a
to
of the
middle
the
however,
is
sufficiently
correct
assume
I9S
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND
CALCULATIONS*.
the
SLj and S
ferring
to
to
be
equal,
and
this
simplifies
work
somewhat.
Re
the
figure,
obviously
Change of trim =
WW
the
L L
= (W.S + S = length of
tan Q.
(i).
Now
the
vessel
the
to
movement of
be
weight a
causes
the
x
of
gravity
of
drawn
aft
through
distance
GG
given
by the
equation of the
GG
=
r,
(W
tons),
and the
is
resultants
vertical
forces
of weight
librium,
act
Gv
This
is
indicated in
191, as also
the
of
IV.
is
called
the
longitudinal
height,
shall
metacentre,
latter
and the
of
Gm
the
the
longitudinal
in
metacentric
as
Q,
the see
being
considerable
importance
trim
is
problems,
clearly
we
the
presently.
The
angle
between
two
lines
inclination
lines,
and therefore
GG = Gm
X
tan
0,
or
Gm
tan
= = =
^w
so that
tan
W x Gm
Change of trim
Length of loadline
Q,
From
(1)
tan Q
/.,
we
obtain
the
relation
Change
I
of trim
.
WxGm
of trim
{2h
which
weights
is
the
due
to
any given
shift
of
already
on
200
board.
formula.
One
Take a
vessel
Gm
aft
is
190
feet,
and
feet.
the
effect
on the
a
little,
flotation
due
to
shifting
50 tons
through
80
Transposing
and
introducing
the
quantities
given,
we have
Change b
of trim
50 x So x 200
2000 x 190
therefore
^'1
feet,
'
The
draught
forward
aft
will
be
reduced,
approximately,
increased
were found
the
to
that
in
this
inches above
water
when
the
original
feet
aft,
condition,
the
to
minimum
immerse
weight
the
required
be
shifted,
say,
120
so
as
just
screw,
would be
W =
i'ij
23*715 ' J
tons.
TRIM.
199
In dealing with
questions
like
the
foregoing,
and indeed,
the
in
working out
the
it
frequently saves
time to find at
it
outset
moment
in
alter
1
trim
one
inch.
foot,
To do
since
this
is
only
in
necessary to
feet)
substitute
(2)
inch
(or
T\
are
for
"change of
trim,"
and
after
transposing,
Avrite
down
moment
c
L
required.
Thus,
Moment
to alter trim
ii
1
inch
x a
= r
L x 12
Gm ~
foot tons.
W
and using
for
x a
158"? foot
tons,
'
this
figure
we
get
same
aft
results
as
before
feet
the
,
effect
of shifting
50
tons
through
80
:
Thus,
Change b
In
the
the
of trim in inches
....
is
Trimming moment
tt
Moment
as
change
of
x 80
s
inch
158*3
to
2*:.
second
tips
question,
the
there
trim
total
necessary
submerge
propeller
18
inches,
must be a
trimming moment of
the weight,
18 x 158*3
know
that
/,
may be
moved 120
feet
obviously
W =
The moment
in
it
2849*4
1
20
= 2V7S
is
tons
to
it
alter
trim
one
inch
thus seen
to
be very
values
useful,
and
order to have
is
all
frequently
in
{see
found
convenient
to
plot
it
curve
to
of
its
with
varia
tion
draught.
fig.
In the calculations
as,
is
usual
employ B
instead
of
Gm
and
the
191)
the various
draughts
unknown, and B m,
readily found.
for
The
difference between
practical
as we shall see presently, may be G m and B m, however, is usually small, moments thus found are sufficiently acis
curate.
The
as
an exercise,
data.
call
reader
any case
equation
the
(2)
special
explanation
is
17),
already
described
metacentre.
as
longitudinal
metacentric
height
m
the
being
the
longitudinal
The
179
will
point
is
obviously analogous to
familiar.
we are already
also
In
if
fact,
definition
given
on
be
page
apply
points
to
m,
for
transverse
the
word longitudinal
substituted.
;
The
M and m have similar functions in respect to stability but vessels have enormous righting power in a longitudinal direction^ and detailed calculations
of longitudinal
is
stability
are
therefore
in
unnecessary.
with
The
principal
use
of
found,
as
illustrated
above,
dealing
1 .
questions
in
of trim.
CALCULATION OF B m
(fig
191). As
200
metacentre,
the
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
height
of the
AND CALCULATIONS.
metacentre
is is
longitudinal
first
:
found
above
used,
viz.
Bm =
but here
ni
is
the
moment
its
of
inertia
of
the
waterplane with
shall
respect
to
transverse axis
through
the
centre of gravity. of
We
ordinary
vessels
;
calculation
is
rather
more laborious
form, this
length
is,
/,
than
is,
in
the
previous case
for
however,
6,
not
so.
Take,
d.
example,
192
at
boxshaped
the
to
vessel
of
breadth
course,
and
draught
Fig.
shows
waterplane,
which
line,
is
of
right
angles
the
middle
12
the
axis
of the
moment
of inertia
l about x x
= Pb
Fig.
192.
is
Ibd
3
_P_
i2d'
feet,
Bm
If
it
b
b
12
d~
be given that
150
feet,
and d = 15
then
If
in
this
Bm
vessel
j2
ICO X
12 x
of
KO
15
7
125 J
feet.
were
of
constant
circular
section,
with
its
longitudinal
axis
numerator
the
expression giving
less.
Bm
have
Bm
Simplifying and
substituting
12
values
Bm
CALCULATION OF Bm.
201
nature
of
the
outline
Coming
of the
plexity into
to
ship
forms,
we
find
that
the
varying
waterplane and
the
of the
calculation.
No
To
simple
find
formula
is
available
it
for
the
moment
this
quantity
is
the
application
Simpson's
moment
calculate
to
some chosen
the
to treat these
moments
This
the
as ordinates
area,
new
curve,
and
area
of
the
latter.
subject of
further
correction
be In
is
explained
presently,
gives
better
moment
inertia
required.
The
foregoing
may,
fig.
perhaps,
be
understood
a
by a
a load
simple
graphic
explanation.
193,
axis
ABO
in
represents
half of
waterplane of a vessel.
is
xX
is
the
to
be calculated,
and
usually
taken
of
the
midlength.
Fig,
193.
The
ordinates
interval
6 b 62 63 between them is
,
etc.,
are
numbered
the
from
aft,
and
the
common
a,
h.
Calling
breadth of each
little
strip
we
about x X
62 b3 b4
b5
strips
= = = =
x (4A) 2 a
62 x
(3//)*
63 x
64 x b5 x
0. = gb 2 h 2 a. (2hfa = 4b h a, {hfa = 6 4 A 3 a. 0. a = 0.
a
2 3
of area
on the other
line
side
XX may
moments
2
be found.
of
inertia
AC, the
base in
0,
the
strips
a,
are
erected as
rectangles,
the
the
small
Fair
breadth
and the
ordinates,
the
quantities
963 h% 4& 3 /?
etc.
enclose areas as
drawn through the tops of these rectangles shown, which, added together, represent the moment of inertia
curves
202
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
inertia
is
Now,
gravity
the
axis
of
the
moment
area.
of
must
so
contain
placed,
the
centre
of
of
the the
waterplane
case,
If
XX
not
which
generally
would
of the
be
correction
must
be
viz.,
made.
This
is
done by means
= / + Ak2
of the
where
is
the
moment
of
its
inertia
plane
about
area
of
an
axis
through
axis
the centre
of gravity,
moment
of inertia
XX
h the distance between these axes, and Applying this formula to the above case,
tance k
t
A
it
the
waterplane.
is
necessary to
centre
this
find
the
of
dis
which
is
obtained
if
the
position
of
the
ot
gravity
the
plane
is
known.
obtained
We
7h
latter
point,
and,
having
written
value
of
the
required
quantity
may
be
at
once
down.
the
transverse
for
B M.
to
scarcely calls
explanation.
the 470 feet vessel for which we have The table below exhibits the full work, and It may be mentioned, however, that columns
and
are
its
introduced
centre of
determine the
the
area
of
the
axis
waterplane, and
at
the
5
in
position
also
of
as
gravity from
assumed
ordinate
(fig.
No.
193)
that,
moment
interval
of inertia
diagrams
volves
areas
the
square of
the
introduces
as
cube of the
the
moment
of inertia,
shown below.
No.
of
Ordinates.
CALCULATION OF
Bin,
3 4S40'S X (46 "Q^) X
203
M.I.
about
axis
through
No.
C.G.
ordinate
312890090.
of
=
The displacement
so
that,
312680458.
of the
vessel
is
15814 tons;
Bm =
I
77
^126804^8
Q 15814x35
565 3 *
feet
For easy reference, values of B m, such as the above, are usually caldraughts and plotted in a diagram from which, given a
the corresponding
B ffi may be
read
off.
;
Of
course,
for
accurate
G m and not B m is required the distance between B and G should therefore be deducted from the calculated distance B m, G In the above case, for instance, the centre of being usually above B. gravity is 6 feet above the centre of buoyancy, and, consequently
calculations,
Gm
= 565 Fig.
559
feet.
194.
A
i=u_
r
The
ing trim
foregoing principles
calculations
1.
will
be
more
cases
clearly
:
for
a few actual
Example
the centre
of
;
Suppose
of
will
its
80
feet before
gravity
above vessel
what
be discharged from the be the new draughts forward and aft, it being given
to
In questions such as
is
usual
its
to
assume, in
in
on even keel at 27 feet 6 inches? and in those involving additions of cargo, it the first place, that the removed or added weight
is
this,
has
layer
centre
the vertical
rises
plane,
containing the
or
sinks
into
centre
of gravity
of the
this
of
volume which
condition,
For, in
out
will
of
the
sink
water.
Under
a
assumed
distance.
vessel
obviously rise
or
through
parallel
fig.
194,
if
which a vessel
of b
vessel,
from
then
by the removal of a weight w/, and a be the distance the vertical through fl, the original centre of buoyancy of the
rises
W
the
effect
x a
Moment
the
of
the removal of
of
the
and if, as assumed, the buoyancy of the vessel to move aft centre weight before removal had its centre in the vertical containing 6, another moment due to removing w will also be in operation, in this case tending
of
204
to
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
AND CALCULATIONS.
These two moments are equal and neutralise each other, W1L1 without changing trim. rises to the waterplane floating at the waterplane L b and the On the other hand, if the vessel be weight w be added with its centre of gravity in the same vertical as 6, the
raise
bow.
and
thus
the
vessel
moment due
raise
to
the
increased
that
will
the
of
bow, while
due
to
buoyancy will be w x a, and will tend to the added weight, being of equal amount
;
but
will
opposite
sense,
should be noted
waterplane.
these
that,
moderate, 6
of
may be taken
as
the
Applying
of
the
principles
to
the
is
working
out
of
our
question,
it
is
the
effect
of
its
removal
therefore
being
to
cause
the
vessel
through a parallel
distance
=
,
150
533
2f inches, nearly. 4 J
per
The
how
to
find
the
tons
plane.
We
the
next
take
account of the
fact
that
the
cargo
is
80
that
feet
forward of
assumed
has
feet
position.
A
80
little
consideration
before
effect
will
show
of
the
removal of
the
water
point
feet
the
as
centre
gravity
of
the
same
that
trimming
point.
the
addition
of
the
same weight
its
80
abaft
By removing
by stern
,
the weight
from
true
posi
tion,
we
therefore
get
vessel
Moment trimming
Now,
150 x 80
x
Moment
to alter trim
W men =
.
.
Gm
foot tons,
=
.
Trim by
draughts will
stern
12000 2000 =
i57o
7f
inches, nearly.
The
final
be
27'
Forward,
Aft,
6"
27' 6"
 2"  2f +
of
J"
=26'
n"
7
3 f"
27'
We
and
that
have
assumed the
is
stern.
This
fig.
(see
trim to be divided equally at stem Allowance should be made for the fact 191), the point in which the waterlines intersect, which coin
change
cides
with
the
loadwaterplane,
is
midlength,
and the
change
of
trim,
forward
and
aft,
should
be
allotted
according to the
proportion
LL
WW
S
X
8W
TRIM EXAMPLES.
In small changes of
finement,
as
trim,
205
to
however,
is
it
is
not usual
;
proceed to
case,
it
this
is
re
the
difference
inappreciable
in
the
present
less
than a quarterofaninch.
Example 2. A
feet
aft
vessel
360
feet
long,
and 20
of
feet
forward,
has has
the
to
cross
draught
25
feet.
She
to
forepeak
160
will
tons trim
capacity.
Show by
sufficiently
calculation
to
whether
filling
of
the
this
tank
the
vessel
enable her
is
pass
over
bar.
The
of
centre
gravity
of gravity of
the
to
of
the
water ballast
centre
33,
loadalter
waterplane,
trim
the tons
inch
tons.
of immersion
is
one inch,
700
From
the
the
information given,
ballast
we may
write
Sinkage, assuming
centre
immediately over^
j J
of gravity ffravitv
to
of loadwaternlane loadwaterplane
actual
77 = 33
700
160
4 84
'
'
^
^8
inches.
position
oi\
166x160
ballast
}/
cross
at
inches.
Assuming waterplanes
to
midlength
o''
New New
we thus
small
in
draught forward
draught
vessel
aft
=20' 26'
o"
+ +
5"
5"
+

1' 7''
1
7''
22'
o"
>
24/ 10";
see
the
may,
the
to
with
care,
be
safely
navigated across
of
the
trim
bar.
are
it
comparison with
total
displacements
the
had
they
layer
been
to
large,
assume b of
in
parallel
be
of
in
Its
the
true
of gravity of the
the
line
original
waterplane.
centres
in
fig.
position
obviously somewhere
joining
is
the
gravity
If the
of the
areas
do
this
line
194.
A,
Ah
of the
planes
WL
be
Very
in
little
A;
taken
as the
error
is
involved
is
if
be
midpoint
of
tfe,
and
large
done.
to
be
borne
shape
in
mind
after
is,
that
in
dealing
with
changes
the plane
altered
in
of flotation,
as
movement
metacentric
of the weights,
may
the
have become
to
materially
affect
the
value
of
moment
of
inertia,
it
and,
therefore,
first
;
of
the
height.
In
actual
calculations,
is
customary to
Gm
and,
final
result,
to
employ a mean
G m between
planes.
those
trim
in
after
1000 tons
reduction
of
in
coal
and
cargo
water
The
displace
206
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
to
ment
700
plane
tons,
and,
have
their
centres
in
the
vertical
containing
the
centre
of buoyancy
of the
layer
700
=21
inches.
original
b.
:
waterplane,
and the
leverages
of
the
weights
are
measured from
The
207
in
of
the
advantage,
is
described
by
of
Mr.
Long
paper
read
recently
before
NorthEast Coast
system, use
is
Institution
of Engineers and
Shipbuilders.
lines
In
find
this
made
or
curves
to
the
longitudinal position of
A
fig.
trim line
195,
to
First,
a level line
drawn, as
line
is
WL
in
represent
a
mean draught
taken as
the
for
which the
of the
trim
required.
On
to
this
point
level
B
keel,
position
and a datum
2
line
drawn show
relation,
say,
amidships.
the vessel
The
also
horizontal
distance
from
of
is
the
centre
of buoyancy,
with
trimming
the
feet
by the
stern,
then
calculated
and marked
are
erected,
off at
B2
distance abaft
is
of the centre of
.
Z? 4 At B 2 and and the corresponding trims marked off, the same scale being used throughout. Through the points thus found and the point B a line is drawn this is the trim line required.
aft,
plotted as at
verticals
Fig.
195.
Obviously,
trim
we have here
feet,
all
the
up
to
due
of
to
the
movement
distance
the
centre
gravity
the
say,
weights
be
ascertained
travels aft on account of the movement of and plotted from B along the level line to G,
and a
trim
vertical
GO
must be
the
by the
stern,
the
centre
of buoyancy and
centre
of gravity are
again in
line
its
level
line
It
to
indicate
movement
of the
centre
direction.
should be noted that the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy are here assumed to travel the same distance when a change of trim takes place.
This
is not quite true, as a glance at fig. 191 will show; B being below and therefore more remote from M, moves a greater distance. For quite
accurate
work,
therefore,
the
distance
plotted the
from
of
B towards
gravity
(fig.
19c)
should
be
the
calculated
travel
of
centre
plus
B G
tan
203
(see
fig.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
191).
It
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
to
this
refinement in ordinary
cases,
as
the
error
thus involved
inappreciable.
is
One advantage
calculations are
gravity consequent
the
absence of formulae.
of the
will
No
of
required except a
centre
This
1
be
seen
by
the
an example.
It
will
method
load
we
are
do
this,
as
to.
fig.
195
is
the
at
draught
of
vessel
referred
Employing
the
figures
given,
we
get
Fig.
196.
Travel
of centre
ot
gravity
"i
on removal of weight
Plotting
this line
/
F,
distance
at
is
from
to
and
perpendicular
as
to
meet
the
trim
G,
required.
This
inches,
the
trim
by stern
example is small in comparison we know the ordinary metacentric Where the weights and moments are great, method is as accurate as any. however, only approximate results are obtainable by the ordinary method due to the fluctuating nature of the metacentric height. In this respect the
weight in
foregoing
cases
The trimming
the
with
displacement, and
for
such
BILGING.
trim line
209
practically accurate
for
all
method
excels
the other, as
large.
it
is
changes
only
is
however
perhaps scarcely
its
necessary
to
point
out
that
trim
line
is
reliable
at
considerable,
own draught, and that where the change of displacement Experience goes to show that a new curve is required.
the
in
ordinary
cases
in
tendency
of
this
trim
lines
is
to
become
be
light
less
steep
for
with
usethis
reduction
ful
draught.
as
For
of
reason
they
should
drawn
draughts,
those
the
in
load,
ballast,
and
conditions,
and
would probably be
of
trim,
sufficient
most
for
cases.
By
a
at
constructing
line
cross
curves
however,
limits
as
is
done
cross
full
stability,
trim
for
any
draught
within
the
of
the
curves
trim
can
once
for
1.
be
a
obtained.
vessel.
Such a
Fig.
diagram
represents
are
obviously
the
provides
of
information
of
196
lines
in
case
the
steamer
trim
Example
have
The
drawn.
horizontal
the
lines
been
The
points
which the
indicate trims of
feet,
and 8
feet by the stern, and 2 feet by the Curves through these points give the cross
curves
feet,
required.
desired,
If,
be
at
it
only
necessary
feet,
etc.,
to
draw a
line
level
line
at
this
point,
and
ing the
heights
of
feet,
parallel
lines
to
cut
the
correspond
cross
curves
line
at
A,
5,
and
0,
through
these
points
being
trim
required.
BILGING.
Given
a diagram
like
that just
is
described,
drawn can be readily and quickly dealt with. Consider, for instance, the important trim problem of finding the floating condition of a vessel consequent on one or more of her compartments being bilged and in free communication with the sea. Such a case is depicted in fig. 197, in which a vessel is shown bilged in the after compartment of the
relating to the ship for
hold.
W\L\
at
rest
X
is
;
the
line
of
flotation
after
the accident,
with
is
the
to
ship
once
more
WL
the
original
waterline.
The problem
determine
the line
W LV
the
Now
weight,
change of trim
of
is
here
or
is
usual
to
treat
the
deducted problem as
the the bilged
one
of
buoyancy.
easily
By an
dealt
exercise
of
if
imagination,
the
however,
question
may be more
be be
the
with
for,
hole
into
compartment
trim
in
will
assumed
affected,
closed
the
lost
vessel
being
once
will
more
have
at
rest
the
place
not
but
as
an
important
change
will
taken
the
the
compartment
thus,
it
practical
weight
the
of
carried.
Viewed
of
is
only
to
obtain
for
weight
and
position
the
centre
of
gravity
water
is
complete
in
solution
the
problem.
as
The
:
process
the
of calculation
tentative
in
be
follows
character and
may
the
First,
weight
of water
the
compartment
up
to
original waterplane
WL
the
sea and
placed with
2T0
its
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
centre
AND CALCULATIONS.
of gravity in
the vertical
This distance, measured in the trim diaadded layer of displacement. gram above the height of the original waterplane, will give the point from
the
which the level' line and corresponding trim line should be drawn. can then be obtained, as already described, by finding the travel
centre
The
aft
trim
of the
of
is,
gravity,
be translated to
It
its
true
position.
This
of
the the
course,
approximation.
in
will
next
be
the
necessary
to
to
calculate
rise
weight
level
water
the
to
of
new
If
draughts, the
and
to
use
it
in
same way
differ
in
another
trim
estimate.
second
approximation
should
much
Fig
197.
w
from the
first, it may be necessary to proceed to a ence of the calculator must guide him here.
third.
But the
feet
experi
As a
feet
numerical
example,
take
boxshaped
vessel,
210
aft;
long,
30
broad, and
20 feet
deep, drawing
and suppose
compartment at the extreme afterend, 10 feet long, to communication with the sea. It will be necessary first to draw out the trim diagram. This is a simple matter owing to the regular nature of the vessel's shape. We begin by obtaining the trim line at 10 feet
watertight
an empty
be in free
Fig.
198.
draught.
level
stern,
A B
D,
fig.
198,
shows
the
4
vessel
in
side
2
elevation,
WL
feet
salt
is
the
keel
waterline,
W^U
and
L4
those
when
to
feet
and 4
in
by the
water,
respectively.
is
vessel
be
floating
her
displacement
^55
and in passing from the waterline
= 1800
tons.
WL
to waterline
L% the wedge of
dis
BILGING.
211
2
placement
length,
LSL 2
moves
i
to
the
position
WSW
,
As S L
is
is
and L L 2
foot,
the
105 x
x 30
of
.
1575 cubic
travels'
feet,
and
in
moving
aft,
its
centre
or,
gravity
2
horizontal
distance
g g
l
2l
210 x
140
feet.
The
B
to
Z?2>
corresponding
movement of
the
vessel's
centre of buoyancy
is
from
BB
1575 x 140
2
35 feet.
1800 x 35
fig.
199.
The
stern,
horizontal travel of the centre of buoyancy, with the vessel 4 feet by the
is
clearly
just
double
this
amount, or
feet.
This
is
all
The
199
is
the
complete
7
diagram
6
for
this
vessel,
and
shows
cross
curves
in
with a range
position
to
from
feet
inches
to
15
feet
draught.
We
are
now
deal
with
condition,
1
we have
10 x 10 x
jo
Weight of water
,
in bilged
compartment =
85*71 tons,
2T2
Parallel
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
sinkage
1
AND CALCULATIONS.
^
assuming water
situated
amidships
the sea
also,
and compartment
open
to,I
JO
=
x 3
6 inches,
Horizontal travel*
gravity,
aft
of vessel's centre of
j
at
the inits
creased draught to
position
move
into
to
true
~~
90 x 100 1890
and the
fig.
ship's
bottom
be intact
at
Referring to
a level line at
line
199,
we can draw
line
feet
corresponding to
along this level
2 feet
from the
trim
vertical
10 J inches
as
the
by the
The draughts
of the
vessel
will
thus be
;
forward,
Aft,
100+0 15^=9
10' o"
6"
1'
si"
11'
"FThe
start
the
bilged
compartment
1
1
now be
101*66 tons.
"86 x
10 x ^o
35
The
Parallel sinkage
= ior66
x 2C x 12
= 64
the
,o., inches
nearly,
210 x 30
and taking the centre of gravity of the water of the compartment, Ave get as before
Travel of vessel's centre of gravity duel
,
. .
at
middle of
the
length
to admission 01 water
ioi"66 x 100
iroT'66
=
6
S'^S feet
"
aft.
From
3 feet
the
2 J
trim
inches.
Dividing
parallel
this
forward
sinkage,
the
draughts
and become
o''
aft,
and
adding
inches
as
the
Forward,
Aft,
10' 10'
o"
+ +
6J 61
(1'
7^")
+
8'
(i'
7f")
= =
8'
n";
J".
12'
By a
third
n"
2f,
equilibrium whether the after compart
12'
in
will
float in
the
sea
or
i.e.,
moment
to
Of course, the same result could be by calculating the height of the longialter trim, and the heeling moment due to
not.
The trimming
and a
move
aft
trim, but to
compartments.
APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS.
the
to
2*
admission
alter
of
the
water,
and
finally
dividing deal
the
the
latter
by
the
in
moment
this
trim.
We
do not propose
it
to
with
fully
problem
way,
as
the
principles
involved have
already
been
an
explained.
The
student,
out himself as
exercise.
commanding
officer
may
regarding
his
able to
estimate,
beyond her dimensions and displacement, roughly, at least, the trimming effect due to the
vessel
addition,
removal, or
movement
of weights.
In the formula
Moment
if
to alter trim
inch
W
is
Gm
,
loot tons,
12 x L
we assume G
to
be equal
at
to
L,
which
roughly true
in
the
case
ot
their
load
displacements, the
inch
becomes
I
foot tons.
2
Applying
this
simple formula to
to
alter
the
example on page
198,
we
get
Moment
and
trim
inch
2000


12
Change
which compares with
25
of trim
So x 80
"
rr
24 inches,
inches
1,
obtained
page
1
203,
Moment
For the
the centre
effect
to
alter
trim
inch
15814 =
12
1318 foot
a
position
tons.
of
discharging
of the
150
tons
from
80
feet
before
of gravity
load
waterplane,
we thus have
.
Trim by
stern
150 x 80
q
~
9 inches, nearly.
The
not
ordinary
for
formula
gives
7J
inches
the
approximation
either way, in
is
thus
near
enough
practical
purposes, an
inch
or two
ordinary cases,
rapidly
being
of
great
importance.
As
is
the
value
of
for
Bm
of
rises
with
formula
is
inapplicable
in
load
draught.
Also,
it
unsuitable
the
case
of
far
An
approximate
formula,
giving
closer
results
than
has
By this rule, for the height of the longibeen devised by M. Normand.* tudinal metacentre above the centre of buoyancy in ordinary cargo steamers,
we have
Bm
*
0735
A x L ~
b
~xT
feet
'
See a paper
Naval Architects
for
18S2.
214
where
Srilt>
A
L
= length on the load waterline in feet. b = breadth of ship amidships in feet. V = volume of displacement in cubic feet. Assuming Bm = G m, A x L V ~n Moment to alter trim i inch =  x '0735
1
,
L x 12
=
This
000175
A2
t foot tons.
420
A = 420 T A 2 = 176400 P.
Substituting
this
value
to
of A 2
alter
the convenient
7~ 2
shape
Moment
trim
inch
1,

30 'o x
r
203,
foot tons.
page
,
we
get
Moment
the
to
alter
trim
inch
= =
30*9 ^^ x
previous
value
being
Moment
Besides
of the
to
alter
trim
inch
the
= ^
exact
in
y
value.
trimline
It
700
tons,
foregoing,
we have
the
trim.
in
make
corresponding level
type,
also that
at
these
angles, in
of similar
same
as
corresponding draughts.
therefore,
useful
draughts,
such
the
those
of
The
with
trim line in
sufficient
case
of any
ballast, and light conditions. new design could then be plotted at once
the
load,
accuracy for
preliminary calculations.
If
only one
is
trim
it
should
known,
can be
Change of trim
where
in inches
x C x
12,
W =
d
weight shifted,
distance shifted,
= Q =
whole displacement,
tangent of the trim line angle.
APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS.
2t$
an average value at the load draught of cargo steamers 300 to 500 feet in length, and of the usual fullness, is "9163, corresponding to a trim line angle of 42 J. Assuming this trim line angle in the case of Example 1, page 203
Change of trim = to
which
other
is
_.
15814it
150 x 80 5 150
x 016? x 12 J
=8 '4 t
inches,
i
a
;
cases
The
on
student
his
should
ship.
apply
the
rule
in
own
important
of inballast
method may be
to
applied,
is
the
supplying
formation to masters
ing
operations.
deal with
loading and
With a goodsized diagram, showing the trim curves of his a master should be able to decide in a few minutes any question of trim, provided the weights to be shipped and unshipped, and their movements, be known. We have already fully explained the procedure. If builders would supply such trim diagrams to new vessels, with instructions as to their use, we are confident they would come to be
vessel,
and a
scale,
highly
appreciated.
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.
VIII.
feet
metacentre.
A
of
long,
and 33
the
broad,
floats
at
a draught of 11
forward and
aft,
calculate
the
height of
longitudinal metacentre
buoyancy.
Ans.
303
feet.
2.
The
line
equidistant
are
middle
at
ordinates
I0'6,
of
vessel's
waterplane
10*9,
9/6,
measured
on
one
side
of
the
"2,
7"2,
I2"0,
12*0,
feet,
I2'0,
and
the
feet,
and
halfoi'dinates
the
77
respectively;
find
height
of the longitudinal
metacentre
feet,
and longitudinal
feet.
Ans.
Obtain
the
10226
feet
feet.
3.
expression
giving
the
a
change
distance
of
trim
feet.
consequent
on
300
moving a small
in
weight
floats
w
at
tons
longitudinally
through
A
is
vessel
length
feet,
a level
and a displacement of 4500 tons find the new draught forward and
a weight
aft.
of
50
tons
f
moved
aft
through
feet,
100
inches.
feet
Ans. Draught
Forward,
16
J?
^ ^^
7
4.
to
change trim
of
one
inch
in
the
case
of
the
vessel
of
the
last
example.
inch
immersion
have
is
30,
calculate
the
in
when
the
following weights
been placed
on
board
named.
216
SHI**
Weights Tons).
20 45
15
lool
80 before.
40)
50] 80
1
60 40
30 Ans.
J
abaft.
10
Moment
to
(Forward,
17 I7
feet, feetj
Draught
 Aftj
it
Suppose a weight of moderate amount to be put on board a vessel, where must 5. be placed so that the ship shall be bodily deeper in the water without change of trim? Describe, clearly, why it is that vessels in passing from salt water to fresh water
trim
slightly
usually change
6.
as
well as change
their
draught of water.
in
It
is
desired
that
in
the
draught
of
water
aft
steamship
shall
be
constant,
or
Show how
in
the
the
coals
may be
Describe
found,
order
that
What
is
a trim line?
vessel,
how
long,
such a line
is
its
uses.
at
boxshaped
centre
260
feet
40
line
feet
for
broad,
this
and 25
feet
deep,
floats
an
even draught of 20
aft,
feet,
construct
the
trim
draught.
If
with
its
amidships,
find
the
using
the trim
line.
Forward,
_
19 2[
feet,
Ans. Draught
9.
 Aft
^
feet
,
6f inches. ^ches.
Referring
at
to
the
vessel
of
the
previous
in
question
free
if
watertight
situated
will
the extreme
afterend
be bilged and
the
its
communication with
10
the
be
the
new
floating
condition,
half
bilged
compartment being
occupied by cargo?
long,
and with
space
Ans.
10. It
is
Draught
fa
(Forward,
\ I^Aft,
.
19 feet,
21
r feet,
2
..
inches.
.
desired
that
a certain
vessel
shall
float
with
any two
sea.
Describe in detail
to cross a bar
steamer 330 feet long, 48 feet broad, drawing 24 feet aft, and 20 over which there is a depth of water of 23 feet, 6 inches.
forward, has
vessel has a
this
The
forepeak
tank
space
is
150 feet forward of the centre of gravity of the loadwater plane, find, by an approximate
if
method,
filling
The displacement
to
78CK).
Referring
is
the
previous question,
be given
that
the
longitudinal
metacentric
height
345
feet,
on the
draught of
filling
Ans.
Draught &
/'Forward,
.
21
feet,
.
2 inches.
.
l^Aft,
23
feet,
4 inches.
CHAPTER
IX.
IN for
centre
Chapter VII.
a
vessel
to
obtain
the
righting
or
upsetting
moment
upright
through
to
initial
angles
about
the
position.
We
learned that up
angles
of
10
or
n
Q.
degrees, the
meta
may be
Heeling
Thus,
tained,
Moment *
vessels
x Sin.
taking
the
two
cargo
for
of
were
ob
we have
Righting
moment
at
Do.
do.
(large vessel)
x 173 x '1736
foot tons.
x "85 x '1736
f ot tons.
Fig.
200.
For
inclinations
much exceeding
type
10
to
12
degrees,
however,
except
in
the instance
of a
single
of vessel,
the
righting
to,
moment cannot be
is
obso
tained by this
method.
all
The exception
immersed
cross
line.
referred
where a vessel
is
designed that
the
sections
are
circular
segments with a
common
bodies of
point
the
centre
this for
all
in
form
of
We have already shown that for floating upward pressure passes through the same
that,
if
transverse inclinations, so
there
is
no disturbance
in
GM
t
will
angle to angle.
clined
to
some angle Q G M is the metacentric height, and displacement, we have, by applying the metacentric method
217
be the
!l8
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Righting
AND CALCULATIONS.
moment
in foot tons
= =
W x 6M W xGZ,
sine of
case,
it
x Sin.
GZ
to
of the
righting
couple.
is
The
only variable in
this
expression
for
this
it,
the
the angle
is
therefore,
construct
stability
line,
curve
set
simple
only necessary to
the various angles
draw a horizontal
at
z 5j
off
on
the
to a
convenient
at
scale,
perpendiculars
various
these
perpendiculars
scale
off
fair
values
of righting
moment
as
ob
draw a
curve
As a
with
ing
the
its
specific in
case take a
cylindrical vessel,
diameter, floating
axis
We
of
feet
shall
arms,
centre
so
that
length
the
vessel
immaterial.
of gravity of
be
at
figure,
using a table
for
sines,
once write
the
at
down
the value
of
the
any
inclination.
to
Obviously,
value
righting
degrees
maximum
90 degrees,
Fig.
201.
5
to
'
w3
t5
GIQPK.J OF INCLINATION
zero
again
at
1S0
lever
degrees
at
obviously,
Q,
too,
is
by
the
drawing
a
as
diagram,
at
the
righting
arm
Q.
or
is,
an
angle
say,
same
is
:
the
angle
180
to
It
therefore,
only necessary
to
calculate
values
close
from o degree
90 degrees; and at intervals of 15 degrees, which purpose of constructing a curve, these are as follows
Inclination, in Degrees.
enough
for
the
Sine of Angie.
258S
5
3 45 60
75
7071
S66
"9 6
59
90
STABILITY OF SUBMARINES.
219
by the displacement,
a
if
the
scales be always altered to suit, this curve will moments of all vessels of all circular section having
metacentric height of
feet
cylindrical
vessel
just
referred
to
is
with
part
of
its
bulk
above
the
surface
the
case
of
Fig.
202.
WATER SURFACE.
Fig.
203.
WATER SURFACE.
ordinary
vessels
but
when properly designed, a vessel may have The submarines, now so much in
stability
evidence,
obtained
Figs.
stability curve of a submerged vessel may be by a method analogous to that employed in the previous 202 and 203 show a submarine floating upright and heeled,
respectively.
B,
the
centre
of
buoyancy,
is
also
B,
the
centre
of
bulk
is
is
the
as
centre
in
fig.
of
gravity.
Here,
being
below
when
the vessel
heeled
203, the
220
is
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
restore
AND CALCULATIONS.
in
fig.
to
the
vessel
to
the
position
202.
If
G were above
heel
still
B,
and the
until
vessel
then
inclined,
the
tendency would
be
to
further
G became
vertically
below B
the
in
position
of stable
equilibrium.
BM=.j,
Thus,
as
since
this
/=
o,
BM
is
zero,
and
therefore,
coincident.
special
case,
B
so
and
one,
that,
BG
for at
have
functions
M
at
and
the
GM
has
in
the
preceding
Sin
lever
at
;
any
the
upsetting
moment = B G
surface,
as
in
floating
the
varies
directly
as
the
of
the
angles
of
inclination,
at
zero
values
degrees
if
and
is
180
feet,
degrees,
fig.
90
degrees.
Clearly,
BG
on
for
20 1,
also
curve
for
cylindrical
vessel
floating
the
surface
may
be
taken
to
represent
the
curve
of
righting
arms
the
sub
merged
vessel.
Fig.
204.
Fig.
205.
A
vessels either
noteworthy
is
point
in
curves
the
of
righting
arms
from
of
totally
submerged
the
line
that
they
or
represent
stability
when
inclined
in
fact
any direction,
that
transverse
longitudinal,
which
follows
the
viz.,
This is, of course, by no means the case in vessels floating at the surface, which have enormous righting power when inclined longitudinally. VESSELS OF NORMAL FORMS. The case of an ordinary vessel, it need hardly be said, admits of no such simple treatment as those just
dealt
Fig.
with,
owing
to
the
increased
section, G,
difficulty
of
obtaining
values
of
G Z.
at
204
shows, in
cross
is
an
ordinary
the
vessel
floating
is
upright
waterplane
equilibrium.
W L. M
Fig.
above
therefore
condition
to
one
of
stable
205
a large
to
travel
inclination.
The movement
supposed
gravity
line
has
caused
resultant
centre
of
buoyancy B
out to
weights
centre
Bh
are
of
buoyant
position.
pressure
the
now
the
passes.
No
the
at
have
been unchanged
shifted in
during
heeling,
so
that
the
Unlike
the
case
of
cylinder,
the
of
not
intersect
middle
line
the
metacenire,
221
values.
GM
then,
in
fig.
204
and
GA
in
fig.
205
having
different
Obviously,
the
equation
Righting
is
Moment =
in
W x GM
obtain
x Sin Q
the
values
to
order
to
of righting arms
or righting
moments
case,
at
large
inclinations
we must
resort
another method.
In
this
to
is
GZ
to
between the
out,
it
verticals
through
G and
:
B when
Referring
the
to
vessel
fig.
inclined
as
to
205,
previously
of
the
WSW
x
.
LSL
compels
these
centre
of buoyto
line
joining
points
parallel
the
centres
and
^
^ Volume
1
of wedge x
g g2
1
Volume
of displacement*
Now, through B draw a horizontal line to cut the verticals through G and in N and/?; and from g and g.2 drop perpendiculars g h b g 2 h 2 on W\ L
1%
x Y
x
then
clearly,
"~
Volume Volume
of wedge x h x
/z 2
of displacement"
Also,
and
so that,
BR  BN = NR = GZ; BN = BG sin 0;
Volume GZ  ^r^ Volume
r.
,
of wedge x h
,
,.
01
displacement
lever
n f  BG
y
h.>
sin.
0;
this
as
and the equation is known expression which cannot be quite easily obtained, is U x h\h^ the horizontal moment due to the transverse movement of the wedge of displacement, and we now propose to show how this is calculated, and the stability lever or moment arrived at. VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES. A body plan of the ship
is
the
value
of the
stability
required,
Atwood's formula.
The
only portion
of this
is
prepared with
transverse
sections,
to
and with
radial planes
drawn
the
when
for
upright,
the
full
construction
stability
curve.
The
sections
should
represent
volume available for buoyancy, and be drawn to the top watertight With regard to the radial deck and to the outside of the shellplating. it is found convenient to draw them so as to intersect in the middleplanes,
the
line in
plane
{see
0,
fig.
206),
although
this
does
not
usually
ensure
that
the
be of equal volumes, as, of course, they must be; but it allows all the inclined planes up to any maximum inclination to be drawn at once, while the correction due to the inequality of the wedges can
shall
easily
be made afterwards.
furnish spots close
radial
To
curve,
enough
the
to
the
planes
should
in
be drawn
vessel
intervals
of
about
to
15
degrees.
Discontinuities
should
be
carefully
dealt with.
The
222
entrance
into
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the water
AND CALCULATIONS.
of the deck edge, for instance, causes a sudden form of the immersed wedge, and to ensure accuracy in finding the volumes and moments of wedges by Simpson's Rules, a radial plane should occur at this point, with a suitable number of radial planes on each
change
in
the
side
of
it.
These
ordinates, or
particulars
attended
of
to,
the
at
breadths
0,
is
sections
of
the point
proceeded with,
emerged, and
measurement and tabulation of the various radial planes on each side those of the immersed side being kept
the
separate
from
the
those
Fig.
of
the
various
planes
separate
from
206.
each other.
its
At each
radial plane, the volume of an elementary wedge and a foreandaft horizontal axis through is next calculated. this is done, let b be the length in feet of an ordinate
of a radial plane, say, on the immersed side; then the sectional area at this ordinate of a very small wedge of the immersed volume, treating it as a
segment of a
of
circle,
will
be
if
b t
9 square
feet,
Q being the
in
feet
circular
measure
the
be the thickness
a
will
of a thin transverse
slice,
its
cubic feet
be  b 2
223
of the
Having obtained such values for slices at various sections in the length wedge, to find the volume of the latter becomes simply a matter of
the
area
of
finding
of a plane
the
vessel
surface, for, if
the
length of
be
taken,
and
points
corresponding
t
to
the
rect
positions
angles,
the
various
little
sections
the
quantities
base,
be
set
off
as
each on the
quantity
t as
sum
of
the volumes of
The moment
instance, taking
of an
elementary wedge
radial
may be
For
0,
the
same
plane and
Fig.
from
of
207.
224
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
scale
at
AND CALCULATIONS.
the
on some
off
the
circular
measure
angles
at
of
maximum wedge
the
angle.
Mark
points
the
various
which
volumes
of
the
elementary
wedges have been calculated, and plot rectangles, each on a base 9 (9 = the circular measure of the elementary wedge angle), representing the volumes of the corresponding elementary wedges. A curve through the tops of these rectangles will enclose an area A C D B, representing the sum of the volumes
of
all
the
is
to say,
the
To
find
volume
to
of
of
A CD
angle,
B,
it
is
simply necessary
plot
an
the
cut
correct
off.
wedge
Separate
and
by
are
Simpson's
necessary
Rules
for
calculate
the
thus
diagrams
Coming to the moments immersed and emerged wedges. of the full wedges, it must be noted that while the moments of the elementary wedges are, in the first instance, calculated about a longitudinal
the
Fig.
208.
15
3o
DECREES OF INCLINATION
through
for
axis
(the
statical
point
of
intersection of are
the radial a
in
planes) the
moments
plane
required
stability
fig.
taken
about
longitudinal
vertical
through
(see
y,
209),
and,
the
therefore,
combining
immersion
cosine
the
elementary
emersion,
moments
to
obtain
those
of
full
wedges
with the
of
and
each of the
the particular
of the
angle which
in
horizontal.
For instance,
calculating the
moment
moment
of the elementary
wedges
cosine
of
at
has to be multiplied
say,
15
Fig. 208 is the complete diagram of 15 and o degrees, respectively. moments, the abcissse being in circular measure, A B representing 30 deSince the sum of the moments is required, the diagram takes grees. account of the wedges on both sides of the axis y y. Thus the little rect
angle
at
at
AC
o
is
the
sum
of
the
moments
of
the
in
wedges
degrees
multiplied
by cosine 30 degrees;
EF
225
sum
of the
moments
degrees
multiplied
quantity
and the rectangle at DB the corresponding by cosine o degrees. Clearly, from our preceding remarks, the whole area A G D B represents the sum of the moments of the immersed and emerged wedges at 30 degrees about the axis y y. It will be seen that, in the case of the moments, a new diagram is required for each inclination at which the righting arm or moment is calculated, as the elementary wedge at the limiting inclination must always be multiplied by cosine o degrees, and the others by the cosine of the angle which each of them makes with the limiting radial plane. Such are the principles to be followed in finding the volumes and moments of the various in and out wedges, and they are seen to present
by cosine
30
15 degrees;
at
multiplied
Fig. 209.
no greater
to
difficulty
than
is
involved in
areas.
the
application
of
Simpson's
Rules
the
calculation
of plane
must not be forgotten that the moments to be corrected on account of the immersed and emerged wedges, as drawn in the body plan, being unThis may be done as follows equal in volume. Suppose the immersed
of the
CORRECTION OF WEDGES. It
various wedges,
wedge
in the water than she should be, and the vertical distance between the true and the assumed wateris
is
in
excess,
shown deeper
planes,
or
Thickness of layer J
7
?.
~.
where
V and
x
V2
are
the
volumes
and
out
wedges,
as
drawn.
226
Let
fig.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
with;
let
209 represent
Since
the
the
case
dealt
WL
be
the
the
upright
water
plane,
plane.
W\Lx> the
W
x
L2
corrected
inclined
wedges are
WS W
Call
volume W\
Lx
to
S L2
x
deducted,
2
from
the
moments of wedges
as
x
volume
W 0SW
Vh
and volume
S L2
u2
and
t
let
od and od2
u
from axis y y
xod v xod
2
(1).
If
the centre
of gravity
of the
whole
layer
W\ L L2
x
be
at
distance
axis
2
and equation (1) will be negative, and the correction a deduction. If x be on the emerged side, (1) will be positive, and the correction an addition. Now, suppose the emerged wedge to be in excess (see fig. 210). In this case, the moment of the volume S 2 will be deducted from, and that of volume L S 2 added to, the calculated moment of the wedges. Using the same symbols, we have
W
x
t/ 2
Correction
od2 v
od
(2)
and
this
is
also
equal
to
(u x
+ U 2) X, where x
is
the
distance
of
centre
whole layer from the axis y y. If x be on the emerged side, equation (2) will be negative, and the correction a deduction if on the immersed side, positive, and the correction an addition. A little consideration will make this quite clear. Rules for the correction of the moments of wedges may now be stated as follows
of gravity
of the
1.
If
the
immersed wedge be
in
excess,
gravity
of
CORRECTION OF WEDGES.
the
layer
227
of
of the axis
if
it
moments, the
side,
cor
rection will
addition.
2.
be on the emerged
an
emerged wedge be in excess, and the centre of gravity of on the emerged side, the correction will be a deduction, but if it be on the immersed side, an addition. In most cases the layer is small, and the centre of gravity of the inIf
the
the
layer
clined
plane
may be used
large,
for
its
that
of
the
layer.
but
if
the layer be
distance
centre
of
gravity
must be calculated,
arrive
at
and
its
correct
from
lever
the
axis
employed.
written
Thus we
the value
of
the quantity u x h\ h 2 at
any
inclination,
of the
stability
may be
as
down.
curve
for
As a
vessel,
practical
for
example,
let
us
obtain
an
actual
such,
instance,
the
large
cargo
other particulars
are
given on
to
page
full
182.
This
of cargo,
feet
vessel,
laden
her
draught,
feet.
has,
with
certain
distribution
is
The
centre
of
gravity
22*65
and the centre of buoyancy 14*4 feet above the same line, so that B G, the distance between the centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity, is 22*65 14*4, or ^' 2 5 feet Let this be the basis of
above the base

our calculation.
Fig.
206 shows the body plan drawn out as already directed, with trans
verse
sections
and
radial
planes,
the
former
showing
the
vessel's
shape
at
each tenth part of the length, and also at intermediate positions towards the
and the latter being drawn at intervals of 14J degrees so as to ensure a radial plane striking the deck edge, which becomes immersed at 29 degrees. Before starting to measure the ordinates, sheets must be prepared (see
ends,
Table
of
the
I.)
with
suitable
number
of
columns
sheets
as
to
take
the
calculations
for
the areas of the radial planes and the functions for the volumes and
moments
radial
elementary wedges.
Two
give
such
sides,
are
required
for
each
plane, the
separate.
kept
Table
I.
we
the
calculations
the
elementary wedges
on each side of the axis at 29 degrees inclination. As the work is the same for each elementary wedge, the method followed is amply illustrated in this table, which is drawn up in accordance with explanations given for the
general
case.
Having
wedges,
inclined
it
obtained
is
the
to
requisite
information
the
values
for
the the
various
righting
elementary
utilised
determine
of
14J
arms when
to
angles
deal
increasing
by increments of
degrees.
to
Let
us
with
the
vessel
when
is
inclined,
say,
29
degrees.
The
deis
14^
degrees
and 29
II.,
The
of
the
information
combined, as
entailed
in
in
Table
which
areas
seen
to
consist
numerical
work
deducing
the
of
the volume
22>
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
TABLE
Elementary
I.
229
TABLE
Immersed Wedge.
II.
230
ordinate
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
given by
fig.
AND CALCULATIONS.
211
is
and
this
information
TABLE
Righting
III.
Arms and
23I
By
the
metacentric
method
and
GZ = GZ
the
Gt
Gi
measure
Now
for
in
5
circular
let
them
be expressed
i,
7 '3
degrees
the
being substituted
there
is
1
;
being
the
measure
angle
whose
circular
GZ
GM
57'3'
Referring to
the
origin
fig.
212,
if
G Z be
a
the
stability
lever
at
point
close
to
of
the
curve,
and
the
distance
in
degrees
measured along
Fig.
212.
fr<f*i
573
line
the base
in
up
line,
to
this
lever,
the
small
portion
of
the
curve
will
lie
a straight
tangent to the
The tangent of the angle which this line, and therefore the stability curve near
the origin,
GZ
a
GM
57'3
which
at
is
the
value
employed above
in
setting
off
the
tangent
to
the
curve
the
origin.
is
involve
considerable
stability
has
also
another
drawback.
be available
the
for
at
least
four
conditions launching,
referred
when
ballast,
deal
with
metacentric
height,
the
lightship,
and
four
fullyloaded
conditions.
By
the
above
method we
should
thus
have
And, moreover, if the vessel happened to be loaded troublesome calculations. or ballasted to draughts other than those originally allowed for, it would
not be possible to ascertain her condition as
calculations.
regards
stability
without
fresh
232
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
This defect in Barnes' method, as that by means of the wedges is called, was quickly seen when, a good many years ago, scientific attention was turned Many ingenious schemes were proin earnest to this important subject. pounded for arriving quickly at the knowledge of a vessel's stability under
all
conditions
of
draught
and
is
lading,
of
that
known
is
which the best and simplest, and Here as the crosscurve method.
terms
of displacement,
of the
stability
diagram
in
instead
of
Fig.
213.
Too
>
egrees
there
is
of
inclination,
as
in
the
ordinary
case.
for
a series of
curves,
each exhibiting
the the
righting
displacement.
In
15,
it
fig.
30,
45,
213 a crosscurve stability diagram is depicted, with curves at 60 degrees, and so on. The great value of this diagram is that
us
at
supplies
once with
the
stability
at
every
displacement or draught,
and every inclination from the upright within the limits of the calculation. For example, suppose we require to know the vessel's stability when floating at a draught corresponding to a displacement of, say, 4000 tons ; it is only necessary to draw a line at this point in the scale of tons perpendicular to the base of the diagram, to measure the distances A B, AC, AD, etc., cut
off
ordinates
by the curves at 15, 30, 45 degrees, etc., to set off these distances as in a diagram having degrees of inclination as abscissae, and draw a
so
obtained.
an ordinary curve of
stability
such as
CROSS CURVES.
(see
233
the
cross
it
curve
A,
fig.
214).
We
of
thus
see
that
curves
is
lie
in
planes
perpendicular to those
stance
the
the
their
from
this
circum
former derive
name.
sets
The
relation
of curves
may be simply
illustrated
214.
DEGREES OF INCLINATION
as to
follows
: Take
these
solid
cylinder,
parallel
and assume
to
it
and
the
longitu
dinal axis;
lines.
intersect
it
Next, suppose
to
the curved surface of the model in straight be cut by planes perpendicular to the base and
Fig.
215.
w/
234
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Fig.
AND CALCULATIONS.
216.
235
is
be
noted
that
an
ordinary
curve
of
stability
obtained
by simply
will
trans
ferring
distances
truly
displacement,
is
coincident
of
course,
with
that
used
in
constructing
the
case,
the and,
crosscurve as
already
G be below
as
if
(see
fig.
215),
the
ordinary
curve of
stability,
sin. ft
if
transferred,
must be
in
creased
throughout
by the amount G
the
curve
shows righting
Should the assumed one, the process of correction would be the same, except that it would now, in each case, be a deduction. Assuming, for illustration, 6\ to be 6 inches above G, in the case represented by fig. 215, the stability curve would take the
arms, and
true
by
G G\
sin.
Q foot
tons,
righting
moments.
position
be above the
amended form B
very simple
with
as
in
(fig.
214).
are
First,
the
body plan
at
is
prepared
intervals,
transverse
regular
to
ordinary
displacement
an
advantage
have
the
foreandafter bodies
drawn on each
is
and
for
this is
separate
drawing
frequently used
each
is
middle line of the vessel, and above the base, waterplanes are introduced at sufficiently close intervals to take account of the vessel's form, and to suit Simpson's Rule, these waterplanes intersecting the middleline
plane in parallel lines
;
usually
an intermediate waterplane
first
is
is
introduced benot
tween
fig.
the
base
line
and the
is
waterplane,
but
this
shown
in
216.
As
line
the
deck edge
occur there.
vertical
Lastly,
assumed, and a
drawn through
to
form
the
axis
of
the
stability
moments.
all
of
gravity
remains
constant throughout
the
calculations.
is
The
position
that
off
next step
of
its
centre
of gravity from
the
plane
its
which does
area and
not
cut
the
middle
line
has
to
and
centre
To
plane,
case,
it
calculate the
is
transverse position
which
is
not
symmetrical
about
gravity
at
middle
a
line
for
as
in
the
present
trans29),
method
of
described
finding
(see
the
verse
that
position
is,
the
centre
of
half waterplane
page
taking
ordinates
and the
ordinates
in
each
Simpson's Rule, and add the products Deal in the same way with the ordinates on the other side.
divide by
2,
and
236
again by
respective
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
AND CALCULATIONS.
products
distance
sum
of
the
totals
of
is
the the
of
of
the
ordinates centre
by
their
multipliers.
line
The
result
the
of
gravity
in
from
verse
the
of intersection of the
question.
All
the
of
planes
the
are
treated
way, and
positions
in
centres
to
of
gravity
:
thus
shown
(i)
(2)
the
subjoined table
obtain
The displacement below each of the waterplanes. The horizontal distance of the vertical through the
the vertical through the centre of gravity.
centre
of buoy
the
table,
if
is
the
sum
of the
products
of the water
the
sum
of these
Areas of Waterplanes.
237
to the drawing in such a way that the movement of the pointer round the various sections of the body plan causes readings to be indicated on dials associated with the little wheels, from which, when affected by certain multipliers, the displacement and the moment of the displacement about a
To
find
the distance
divide
of the
the
centre
of buoythe
dis
is
only
necessary to
moment by
placement. Full descriptions of the work of calculating the stability in this way are provided in Reed's Stability of Ships, and Attwood's Theoretical
Naval
mation.
Architecture,
and
to
these
the
student
is
referred
for
further
infor
CAUSES WHICH INFLUENCE THE FORMS OF STABILITY CURVESBEAM. We saw in a previous chapter that beam is the element in design
most powerfully
centre
affecting
that,
It
the
in
is,
height
fact,
of
the
transverse
in
of buoyancy;
the
height
clear
the
square
affect
of
the
the beams.
therefore,
that
at
beam
initial
will
also
intimately
forms of
stability
curves,
particularly
angles.
This
may
follows.
By
the
metacentric
method we have
= GM
x Sin. 9,
Fig.
217.
O*0*XS Q9 INCLINATION
6t
*0
from which
height,
it
is
and
of
that,
value
GM
the
will
have a
effect
stability
steeper
and
fig.
vice
versa.
purposes
stability
of illustration,
we show
to
in
217
the
actual
is
on
at
the
whole
curve
of
at
adding
the
beam.
with
vessel
Curve A
centre
for
a vessel
9
floating
15 feet draught,
of
gravity
above
as
the
base.
Curve
is
for
particulars
to
draught
of gravity remaining
steeper
tages
and
to
As expected, the latter curve is seen to be as before. have enhanced values of righting arms, although these advanwith a shortening of
as
are
associated
range.
This
in
shortening
of
range
G, for
becomes
more
pronounced
to
the
vessel
feet
increases
beam
curve
instance, corresponds
a vessel of 35
cases.
clear
height
238
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
vessels depicted in
fig.
AND CALCULATIONS.
218 and 219 are of the same breadth
The boxshaped
figs.
The
it
stability curves
for these
and D
in
in
fig.
220,
and
the
one with
seen
that,
Fig.
218.
they
are
identical.
At
the
this
point
the
curve
for
the
shallow vessel
receives
a check,
begins
rapidly
to
and
fall.
as
maximum and
to
rise
if
The
the
other
vessel,
however,
is
continues
with
further
inclination.
The
Fig.
explanation
simple,
indeed
not
219.
quite
obvious.
just
In
the
figures
the
vessels
are
shown inclined
deck awash.
water.
to
the
angle
which
of
brings
the
is,
high
freeboard
vessel's
the
other
one
of
course,
considerably under
mark the
centres
of buoyancy
of the
INFLUENCE OF FREEBOARD.
the
239
centres
the
in
shallow vessel,
and
the
points
ga g4
less
the
corresponding
,
the
other.
g gi
1
is
than g 3 g 4
fig.
and,
as
volumes of
the
fig.
219 than in
x
218,
Oi
g g2
1
<u
x g 3 g,
where
the
v1
and
at
u 2 are
this
the volumes
of
the
wedges
in
each
case.
As
the
quantities in this
stability,
the relation
between
is apparent. Beyond this angle both deck and the centres g 3 g 4 begin to approach each other, but much more slowly than the centres gig 2 the actual differences in It the values of the righting arms of the two vessels are shown in fig. 220. should be stated that the centre of gravity is assumed at the same height in each case; in each case also the breadth is 35 feet, and draught 15 feet, while one has 5 feet freeboard (curve C)* and the other 10 feet
curves
edges are
under
the
surface
(curve
D)
Fig.
220.
240
extent.
5
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
If
AND CALCULATIONS.
gravity
to
we assume
to
the
centre
of
be
raised
feet
will
by the
be
that
feet
addition
the
depth,
the
corresponding
stability
is
curve
marked
in
E
still
(fig.
220).
considerable reduction
levers.
the
lengths
of the
righting
These
is
are,
however,
except at
initial
angles,
considerably greater
the
The
CHANGE
influence
tion.
IN
great
powerful
illustra
of a
raising
of gravity
position
is
manifest
point
is
from the
last
To
the
of
this
nature of the
stowage.
shipmaster
If
may
therefore
often
is
make
the
in
the stability
in
stability,
deficient
defect
by increasing the
heavy
and,
may
ones
be,
stow
up,
the
freeboard,
but
the
hold,
of
and
higher
by
lowering
centre
gravity,
attain
the
same end.
221.
Fig,
,_
.
*x
1
241
of
centre
of
gravity,
we
are,
have
cited
cases
of
boxshaped
In
vessels
fig.
only;
for
vessels
of ordinary form
effect
however, affected
freeboard
is
similarly.
222,
example, the
stability
;
due
a
;
to
beam and
shown.*
This
A represents
the
feet
curve
32*1
of
cargo
steamer whose
dimensions are
feet.
length,
vessel
289*5
as
breadth,
feet
depth,
moulded,
Fig,
23*1
was
222,
sumed
geneous
to
cargo
have 300 tons of coal in bunkers, and to be laden with a homowhich completely filled the holds and 'tween decks and
4
2
feet
feet,
inches.
Curve
of
B shows
lading
the
of
reducing
the
breadth
power,
by
as
the
conditions
being
as
before,
The
righting
Fig.
223.
OEUl OF INCLINATION
~5o
So
Co
in
the
case
of the
box
vessel,
is
seen
to
be
much reduced by
the
this
altera
tion.
Curve
crease
of
G
6
illustrates
the
the
stability
curve
the
of
same
of the
vessel
after
an
in
inches
in
freeboard,
104.
density
cargo
being
kept
See Reed's
"Stability
of Ships," p.
242
as
before,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
to
be
at
the
decks.
fig.
Consider1
able
in
stability
is
here
shown.
Compare,
for
example, curves
excessive
stability
and
the
The
of
first
may be
in
considered
this
an
example
This
of
other
deficiency
respect.
vessels
were
on
service.
During
table,*
the
voyages
1
the
the
conditions
stated
in
the
No.
vessel
met
severe
weather
and
Description.
to
Spardeck vessel
Threedeck
flush,
vessel,
for
except
small forecastle
deck
vessel,
modern type
243
for
listed
to
one
side,
some
the
time,
then
returned to the upright, but almost immediately lolled over to the other side.
She continued
manner,
further
until
for
some time
heel
from
could
one
not
side
to
other
in
this
eventually she
over,
from which
into
position
The
water
then poured
and the vessel went down by the stern.* The curve of No. 6 is not so bad as that of No. 5. The maximum lever is '51 feet, and the range is seen to be 78 degrees. But the vessel was always considered very tender and had to be
the
engineroom
through
the
casing
door,
handled with
Curves
that,
care.
7
Nos.
and 8
exhibit two
stability conditions
is
of a
large
as
it
modern
shows
freeboard.
No. 8
to
particularly interesting,
'2
small a
metacentric height as
satisfactory as
feet,
there
may be
of
associated
stability
curve quite
instances,
range
In some
indeed,
vessels
having
curves
heights.
large
area
Such
vessels are
unstable
224.
ntr
20
30
40
50
60
ro
DEGREE*
in
OF
to
INCLINATION
the
upright
position
and
loll
over
one
vessel
side
or
the
other.
In
the
case of vessel
centric height
No.
angle
8,
if
would be
of
13
'3
feet,
and the
upright to an
line.
degrees, her
stability
She would thus loll over to this angle for her position of equilibrium. Beyond 13 degrees the curve would rise above the base line, the maximum lever reaching 1*95 feet at an angle of 53 degrees, and the range 81
degrees.
The
curve
is
depicted in
stability.
fig.
224, which
considerable reserve of
safety obviously does
(see p.
In such a case as
194).
The
latter,
not depend on there being a positive metacentric height however, is necessary in order that she shall float
easily inclined
upright
the
forces.
In
quiet
present
the
gain
positive
G M,
if
the
vessel
were
in
water,
centre
of
gravity
it
might
cases
be
lowered
by
filling
it
the
to
may be pointed
out that
the
do such a thing
*
in
all
of instability in
upright
See an interesting paper by Mr. Pescod on "Stability of Small Steamers," read before the NorthEast Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders, in 1903,
244
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
in
AND CALCULATIONS.
when
in
and would probably have hastened the disaster which eventually came upon her (see also chapter on Loading and Ballasting). SAFE CURVE OF STABILITY. The curves of vessels Nos. 4, 5 and
the condition described above,
6,
stability,
to
"What
does
constitute
safe
minimum
curve
of
stability
"
In
attempting an answer for any given case, two things are to be chiefly borne
in
mind
the
size
of the
vessel
cargo.
225.
u
b.
(.0
DYNAMICAL STABILITY.
curves,
feet at
245
righting
5
using
fig.
225
as a basis.
To
the
in
obtain a
centre
minimum
foot,
arm of
would
*8
of gravity in No.
5
re
quire to be lowered
heights
and
No.
6,
and 1*42 feet, respectively. It will be noticed that the righting and the range in each case, exceed those of the standard curve (see fig. 225). These curves are for small vessels, and, for reasons already given, we do not say that even the modified curves leave nothing to be desired the stability conditions, however, exhibited by them are a
179
feet
arm
at
45 degrees,
great
original
curves.
stability
dynamical
her
of a vessel
to
that
at
any
the
work
done
in
inclining
from
the
upright
angle.
statical stability,
In heeling a
vessel,
which is the moment and tending to return her to work is done as follows
:
gravity.
(2)
(3)
(4)
Fig.
227.
Fig.
228.
Comparing figs. 227 and 228, which show a vessel upright and inclined, we note the movement of the centres of gravity and buoyancy, the former point being obviously nearer the loadwaterplane, and the latter Items (1) and (2) constitute further from it, in fig. 228 than in fig. 227, items (3) and (4) cannot, from the dynamical stability as usually calculated the nature of the case, be correctly estimated, and in practice are therefore The result, however, is on the safe side. ignored. The quickest way of obtaining the dynamical stability is by means of
respectively,
;
a curve of
the
moments
such a
of
statical
stability
for,
as
to
shall
be shown presently,
truly
area
of
diagram
from
in
the
origin
any angle
to
represents
the work
course, the
done
effect
on
the vessel
inclining
her
that
angle,
omitting,
of
of surface
friction,
resistances.
As a
preliminary,
consider
the
If
force
lbs.
acting
on
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
to
AND CALCULATIONS.
feet,
move
tell
in
then,
works on mechanics
us
that
For example,
if
Work done on the body F x h foot lbs. F be 10 lbs. and h 5 feet Work done = 10 x 5 50 foot lbs.
If the force
is
employed
parallel
in
equal
moves along a curved path, the length of the path traversed calculating the work done. Consider now a case of two forces acting on a body free to turn. The body will revolve
its
centre
of
gravity.
If
the
points
of
ap
of the
it
forces
be
fixed,
the
(see
latter will
fig.
move
if
with
the
body, and in
in
lbs.
turning
the
229)
the
forces
be
and
distances in
Work done =
Since A
angle,
D)
lbs.
B = A we may
Q,
and C D =
write
Fig.
229.
0) 6 x
foot lbs.,
the work
done up
to
any angle
is
ing
in
stable
equilibrium,
If,
then
let
an
external
couple
upright,
starting
at
zero
with
the
to
to
grow so
couple
also
at
as
at
always
be
will
equal to the
represent the
couple, the
righting
moment diagram
will
any point
value
the
of
the
of
heeling
righting
or
upsetting
the
same
the
point,
and, generally,
of upsetting
curve
moments
214,
represent
curve
moments.
Reverting
to
fig.
curve
shows
an
ordinary
say.
curve
the
of
righting
moments.
On
above assump
DYNAMICAL STABILITY.
tion,
it
247
at
gives
the
value
of
the
upsetting
couple
that
If
angle.
Let
now
by
it
the
vessel
the
upsetting couple
be
will
small
inclination,
the
work
done
of
be equal to the ordinate at 30 degrees multiplied by the circular measure one degree. If the base line of the righting moment diagram be in
parallel
to
the
top
of
the
ordinate
at
30
degrees,
the
work
little
done
by the
upsetting
couple
will
rectangle
thus enclosed.
so as
to
At 31
equal
the
degrees,
the
upsetting
at
the
righting
is
vessel
by the
line
little
and to remain constant while heeled through one degree, the work done will be represented rectangle between 31 and 32 degrees, the base line, and a
the
moment
parallel
to
base
degrees.
moment from
the
to
any angle
little
H
in
the area
OHK
of the
less
the
sum
of
the
triangles
the tops
black).
little
rectangles
(those
indicated
214
are
shown
is
in
intervals
infinitely
small,
the
difference
between
the
area
OHK, and
small.
the
work
done
the
by
the
upsetting
say,
couple,
made
the
is
infinitely
We
the
may,
angle
the
therefore,
ultimately
that
on
inclining
stability,
vessel
truly
through
represented
OH,
area
work
done,
of
or
dynamical
stability
by
of
the
curve
statical
from
the
a
up to that angle. An ordinary curve of stability new importance, since, besides showing the variation in the
origin
thus
assumes
statical
righting
moment from
also
point to point, as the vessel is inclined from the upright, it measures the amount of energy that must be expended to incline her. Practical Example. Assuming the values of the righting moments in
curve
A,
fig.
214,
at
intervals
of
15
degrees,
is
to
be
o,
1200,
4900,
9500,
at
and
origin
8000
to
foot
tons,
is
respectively,
what
the
dynamical
stability
60
degrees?
This
an
ordinate
60
degrees
It
is
248
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
stability*
is
A
case
sails.
knowledge
In
of
as
the
dynamical
guide
the
act in
sails
particularly
useful
in
the the
of
sailingships
fixing
the
area
and
braced
distribution
to
of
such
estimates,
are
assumed
heeled
foreandaft
pressure
to
Let
fig.
229
represent
Q.
righting
Pxh =
P
WxGM xSin
Fig.
ft 0,
h the
vertical distance
229.
*The dynamical
formula.
stability
may
also
be
obtained
by an equation known
as
Moseley's
Simply
movement between
the centre of
to figs. 227
buoyancy and centre of gravity during the inclination by the weight of the vessel. Reverting and 22S, B G is the distance between the centres when the vessel is upright B Z
;
the distance
when she
is
inclined.
Therefore
in inclining"!
Work done
Now, B V Z
(f)
vessel to given
angle/
^^ ~BG)W
foot tons.
R + RZ, and = BG cos d. To find B 1 R we must multiply the volume X of the wedge of displacement transferred across the ship by the vertical travel of its centre of gravity i.e., g l h l + g 2 h 2 and divide by the volume of displacement (V). Thus,
,
B
RZ
Substituting in
first
equation,
in
B R = y(g h + g z h 2 we get
1 1 l
).
Work done
foot tons
= W\^y{g
hl
g2 h2
+ BG
cos 6 
B g)
*))
= ^(yteA +
SHIPS.
249
of the
the
sail
area,
resultant
same inclination between the centre of effort, or centre of gravity and the centre of lateral resistance, the point through which fluid pressure is taken to act, W the displacement in tons^ and
feet.
GM
the
metacentric height in
is
It
may be mentioned
be
area
at
lateral
resistance
usually
assumed
given
as
it
to
mid draught.
sail
From
ingship
the
will
heel
and wind
to
this
pressure
is
seen
level
to
vary inversely
possible,
GM, and
desirable
as
the
importance of a large
it
GM
in
of
vessel
3 to
is
apparent.
In mediumsized sailingships
should not be
less
than
any special
case,
is
the
to
best
effect
of the
on the
pressure
stability
the
wind
on
the the
to
corresponding
upsetting the
total
curve
in
of
the
stability.
moment
upright
calculated,
this
being
equal
in
tons
multiplied
by the
to
vertical
distance
in
of effort and
Then
is
the upsetting
moment
this
acting
when
duced,
the
vessel
sail
inclined
the
upright
obtained.
total
In
case,
the
re
effective
area,
and
to
therefore,
the
effective
wind
the
pressure,
are
being
equal
the
the
values
the
corresponding
angle
in
to
upright
also
position
effective
multiplied
leverage
is
by
the
cosine
to
of
of
inclination;
the
equal
the
leverage
the
cosine
of
angle
of
inclination.
Thus,
The
upsetting
moment =
{
let
^>
in
at
feet.
previous
case
multiplied
any angle Q
in
by the
Employing symbols,
square
between centre of
upright).
effort
and centre of
lateral
(vessel
= Wind
lbs.
lever
= H
cos. cos.
6.
Upsetting
Moment = A
steady angle
x
cos.
2
H
Q.
cos.
Q x p
full
is
= A Hp
In calculating
is
the
of
i
heel
lb.
for
a vessel under
sail,
it
taken to
however, a
much
the
larger windpressure
is
way are
set
off at
corres
ponding
curve "
points
on
base
line
of
the
stability
diagram,
and a
"wind
drawn.
curve,
EFFECT OF A SQUALL. In fig. 230, OBD is and A BG F a curve of upsetting moments due
curve
constructed in
the
an
to
ordinary stability
the wind pressure
or wind
way described.
Referring to this
diagram
25
it
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
will
be
observed that
equal.
in
at
an
inclination
P
for
the the
upsetting
and
righting
moments
held
at
are
This
tells
us
that
but
energy which
the vessel
has stored up
the
virtue
of the unresisted
P.
moment
area
B A,
she would be
to
inclination
As
P,
it is
is,
she passes
beyond P
some angle
OH, when
the
energy
of
motion
is
approximately
twice
BOD.
vessel
230.
FT
SHIPS.
251
illustrates
this
condition.
The
stability
;
curve
above
the
the
line
line
to inclinations on one side of the upright that below on the other side. represented by The inclination to windward is A. At this point there is a righting lever A B tending to return the vessel to the upright position; and as the energy which heeled her thus has been expended, the influence of the righting moment is about to be felt. At this instant the squall is supposed to strike the vessel. AC D EG F is the wind to
those
curve,
to
C,
causing the vessel to return rapidly to the upright, her angular velocity continuing to increase until the angle corresponding to the point
of the
E on
upright
is
is
reached,
when
it
is
a maximum.
Beyond
this,
the righting
moment, and as the vessel becomes further inclined to leeward, her kinetic energy and angular velocity gradually decrease, the vessel coming finally to rest at some angle the excess //, when of upsetting moment, represented by the area B , is absorbed by the excess of dynamical stability EKME. Her energy of motion being now expended, the vessel begins to return by virtue of her excess of righting moment and, if the wind curve be assumed to remain as before, she will oscillate for a
in excess of the upsetting
little
moment
E and
finally
come
to rest
at
that
We
the hull
effect
of the as
friction
resistances
bilge
keels.
These convessel,
siderably reduce
and
air
if
wind were suddenly to fall, would, with the sistance on the sails, gradually bring her to rest.
the
of the
re
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.
IX.
<%
What
is
How
is
such
curve usually
drawn?
2.
arm" and
is
"righting moment."
;
vessel has
arm and
righting
moment when
the vessel
Arts. R.A.
3.
348 foot;
R.M.=
large
inclinations
is
For what
Construct
of righting arm and by using the metacentric height the metacentric height method correct ?
for
explain
curve
its
of
righting
arms
a vessel
of
cylindrical
section,
15
feet
in
iS inches below
A
in
vessel's
to
metacentric
height
is
feet
6 inches
origin,
show
construct
is
the tangent
correct
6.
the
curve
of
righting arms
at
the
and prove
your
method
principle.
Show
below the
buoyancy and
252
7.
if
If,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
in the previous case, the centre
AND CALCULATIONS.
show
that
the vessel be turned about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of bulk, the curve of
stability will
axis.
8.
the
is
statical
stability
of a
vessel
its
at
uses.
any angle of
heel.
Show how
9.
statical
stability
diagram
constructed,
and explain
maximum
feet
stability, "
to curves
of stability.
of 17 feet
of righting
boxshaped vessel 35
a level draught
the
6 inches.
The
construct
curve
maximum
of the
"maximum
Describe in detail
to obtain
vessel
to
be
set
vessel's
the
effect
of the
of
the well on
the
likely
to
be thus endangered.
vessel, show clearly how moments of the wedges of 263,00x3, and the vessel's dis
12.
Method
is
stability of a
the
"wedge
is
correction"
made.
for
of the
2000
tons.
The volume
an inclination of 30 degrees is of the layer is 600 cubic feet, and the horizontal distance
of the centre of gravity of the radial plane at 30 degrees from the intersection with the middle1*5 feet. Find the value of the righting arm (1) assuming the immersed wedge and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the immersed side; (2) assuming the immersed wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the emerged side (3) assuming the emerged wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the immersed side (4) assuming the emerged wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the emerged side.
line plane is
in excess
Note.
The
may be assumed
to be in the
same
vertical with
and B 6
5 feet.
Ans.f^
13.
and
M'
(3),
Ri S htin S
,,
Arms
*\(2) and
= =
1*24 feet.
127
,,
vessel
.
clination
of 30
1
depth of
the
whose displacement is 3000 tons, has a rightingarm of 1 foot at an inCargo weighing 300 tons, whose centre of gravity is in the middle line at foot below the common centre of gravity, is discharged; and the vertical
of
is
through
centre
buoyancy of the
layer
through which
side
the
vessel
rises
when
at
an
of
inclination
of
30
6 inches on the
immersed
of
the
vertical
buoyancy of the vessel corresponding with the load draught at that inclination. length of the righting arm after the removal of the cargo.
Arts.
Find the
fths
of a foot.
14.
What
are
How
curves
15.
section,
;
its
centre of gravity
'5
feet
,
verse inclinations of 30
16.
60% and 90
Referring to the previous question, deduce an ordinary curve of stability for the vessel
If
when
made
position
assumed
in
making the
cross
curves,
correction
would be
QUESTIONS.
17.
The
vessel
inclined
transversely
is
cut
by a
series
of horizontal equidistant
planes at
intervals
of 3 feet, the
The
o,
first
The
and 1 150 square feet, and the horizontal distances in feet of their respective centres of gravity from the vertical through the vessel's centre of gravity, omitting the tangent plane, are 1 "4, *9, '4, and *l, on the immersed side. Construct the cross curve of stability.
30 590) 880,
19.
What
Give an example
(2) the
same
20.
Discuss the comparative effect on curves of stability of increase of breadth and in
crease of freeboard.
at a level
Taking
ft,,
ft.
long, 20
ft.
ft.
broad, 15
ft.
deep, floating
effect
draught of 12
on the
stability curve of
(1)
(2)
an increase of 4 an increase of 4
ft. ft.
in
beam,
in freeboard,
the draught and position of centre of gravity remaining the same in each case.
21.
What
is
stability of
a vessel?
is
done.
floats in
is
I
A
at
rectangular pontoon 100 feet long, 25 feet broad and 25 feet deep,
salt
water
half
depth with
one
of
its
sides
horizontal
.
the
metacentric
height
foot.
stability at
an angle of 45
Ans.
23.
487
foot tons.
is
Prove that the work done in inclining a vessel from the upright to any angle,
equal
moments up
to that angle.
The
starting
o,
*4,
7,
9,
and i*o
feet.
stability at
40
inclination,
CHAPTER
Rolling.
X.
THE
fluid,
time
plete
that
an
oscillation
from port
roll.
to
called her
period of a
single
Theoretical
in
this
subject are
medium
of
roll,
a perfect or frictionless
fact
is
calculating
to
the
period
the
that
water
offers
substantial
resistance
is
the
movement
be
nearly
greatly
of the
true,
vessel
ignored.
actual
The
result
thus
obtained
fluid
little
found to
since,
from
arc
rolling
experi
ments,
to
resistance,
while
limiting
the
of
oscillation,
appears
have
influence
on the period.
were wont to think that
if a vessel had great initial and was, therefore, difficult to move, she would also be steady in a They were struck with the apparent analogy between a rolling ship seaway. and an oscillating pendulum, and thought that a ship might be looked upon as a simple pendulum suspended at the metacentre of length equal to G M, the distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity. Now, the period in seconds of a single swing of a simple pendulum,
Early
investigators
stability,
from
left
to
right,
or
vice versa, is
31416
J L,
and
where
gravity.
is
the
length
of
the
pendulum,
the
acceleration
due
to
If
the
correct,
ship's
G
to
might be substituted
period would
in
this
rolling
G M.
We
is,
find,
however, such
be by no means the
those
is
experience
small
make
fewer rolls
per
minute, than
that
having
large
metacentric
its
heights.
ship
centre
clearly
of
gravity,
and with a
fact,
fixed
axis
the
point
M,
is
an erroneous one.
a ship has
vessels
As a matter of
stantaneous
centre
axis
is
no
not
fixed
at
it
axis
of
in
oscillation.
The
of
in
for
it
most
is
M,
as
it
but
the
vicinity
the
of gravity,
and
this
usual to assume
fair
point,
While accepting
as
approximation,
gravity
itself,
be forgotten
that
the
centre
of
254
INSTANTANEOUS ROLLING
ship,
AXIS.
vessel
rolls.
255
really
describes
path
in
space
as
as
the
:
To
the
obtain
the
instantaneous axis
Referring
flotation,
i.e.,
we may proceed
fig.
follows
to
232,
let
WL
be
the
waterplane,
to
FF
curve
of
section
of
the
surface
tangent
the
various
waterplanes
which cut
flotation
of gravity.
a constant displacement as the vessel rolls, and G the centre Now, neglecting the presence of the ship, assume the surface of and the level water surface to become solid, and the former to roll
off
or slip
F,
the
point
of contact
FF
and
W L,
a point in the
oscillating vessel,
and will move, at any instant, about a centre somewhere Another determinable point in the vessel is the centre of
vertical
in
the
line
It
F 0,
has
freely
gravity.
is
rolling
Fig.
232.
are
purely vertical
therefore, the
centre
the
lines
about which
turns
is
is
in
the line
0,
0.
The
is
axis
of
the
vessel
at
instant
considered
obviously at
point
in
the point
of
intersection
G,
of
the
FO
error
and GO.
is
The
most
cases
that
near
axis
so
that
very
little
introduced
by the
ship
assumption
rolling
the
passes
through G.
Let
resistedly
offers
us
in
consider
still
place
when a
is
unit
water.
purely
hypothetical
one,
but
a convenient startingpoint.
floating
roll
Suppose a vessel
force
is
freely
and
at
rest
is
causing her to
say,
represented
by the dynamical
rest.
the vessel
to
she comes to
of
the
position, which,
on removal
the
upright.
external
force,
in
returning
her
towards
256
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
vertical
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
of
position
When
into
reached
the
the
vessel
carries
energy
becomes
to
transformed
velocity.
energy
of of
motion,
attaining
maximum
to
angular
The energy
angle as
of
that
position,
motion
in
now
turn,
the
vessel
starboard,
the
same
so
side,
which,
her
back
to
the
upright.
And
the
rolling
The formula
by our assumption, there is no external resistance. a single roll in the above hypothetical circumstances is
vg
where T
is
m
m
the metacentric height in
feet
feet,
the time
seconds of a single
gravity
as
roll,
(=
32*2
per
the
transverse
radius
if
What
of
quantity
oscillating
is
may be
vessel
explained
by stating
that
whole weight
be concentrated at a point distant k from the axis of oscillation, the effect would be the same as with the vessel as she To find the same. is, that is, the period of oscillation would be the value of k in any case, it is necessary to assume the vessel's weight
the
could
divided into very small elements w, say, and to obtain the distance between the
centre
to
of each
of these
elements and
distances,
the
rolling
axis
then,
total
if
r be
taken
of the
represent
any of these
and
the
be
the
weight
vessel
Sum
of
all
products
x r2
'
W
expression
;
The numerator
vessel
of
this
for
k2
this
is
the
moment
of
inertia
of
the
calling
for
g,
the
formula for
the
period
may be
written
r=
We now
motion,
i.e.,
k
'554
r:
see
why
are
for
of quicker
evidently
shorter
period, than
those
/??,
with
smaller
vice
values,
T
is
and
versa.
Also, the
period
of
gyration,
which
decreased with corresponding changes in the value of the radius varies according to the distribution of the weights on
board the
gravity,
ship, being increased by spreading them out from the centre of and decreased by crowding them about that point.
As a
gyration
practical
example,
let
us
obtain
the
rolling
is
and radius of
By
substitution
'554
=
1716
25
we
get
6 seconds.
STILL
Vertical
WATER ROLLING
PERIOD,
257
greater influence
horizontal
raised
feet
this
movements.
feet,
it,
vessel,
14
above
well
as
below the centre of gravity to one 7 the period would be increased to 6*8 seconds, while winging out
from a position
feet
stillwater
weight 14 feet from the centre would only lengthen the period to 6'i seconds.
As
by calculation, the
this
it
rolling period
may be found
rolls
experi
mentally.
artificial
To do
means,
is
some
in
and
to
makes
certain
time.
time by the
per
roll,
may
for
inclinations
is,
up
12
to
stability
are
straight
lines
that
about
to
characteristic
known
It
as
Isochronism.
well
to
state
may be
here
that
in to
is
important
to
to
know
her
still
the
value
bebut,
of a vessel's
stillwater
rolling
period
roll
order
predict
probable
water,
haviour at sea.
as
Vessels
seldom
dangerous angles in
we
shall
see
to
presently,
may do
with
so
among
waves,
been taken
will
provide them
suitable
stillwater
among
waves,
in
of
latter
the light of
water on a
to obtain
the former
principal
to
by the action of wind on the sea, and are the roll. There have been various theories as the action of wave water, the most satisfactory of which, and the one now
generated
agents
Waves
causing ships to
generally
accepted
as
representing
the
case
best,
being
that
known
wave
orbits
as
the
trochoidal theory.
The groundwork
and
that
of this theory
of
is,
travels,
the
particles
water affected
move
in
small
circular
about
That some such action does take place will be obvious to anyone who observes the movements of a piece of driftwood afloat among waves. It will be noted that the wood does not travel with the wave, but merely moves backwards and forwards, showing clearly that the water particles supporting it move only a short distance as the wave passes. According to this theory, a section of a wave in the plane of the line
horizontal
axes.
of advance,
has
for
its
outline
a trochoid,
i.e.,
line
described by a point
a trochoid,
is
as
follows
Take
;
centre
rolled
is
and the
without
and
let
the
latter
be
a trochoid.
originally
The
distorted
of the
and that columns of water originally vertical curve towards the wave The hollows and crests of the various trochoids are immediately under
258
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
all
of the
same
length.
But they
particles
become
moving
Fig.
flatter
as
the
the
in
smaller
and smaller
in
to.
until
finally
the
233, which
exhibits
section part
some
water
are
shown
full
by dotted horizontal
lines.
lines,
the
same
surfaces
when
these
wave form
are
by
also
full)
curved
seen
The
lines
at
orbits
of
surface
and subsurface
of
particles orbits
indicated.
The
to
in
containing
levels
the
centres
(shown
are
be
higher
stillwater lines,
showing that
energy or
is,
Another
particle
fundamental
point
affected
in
this
theory
the
pressure
of
a
its
in
the
wave and
as
is
by
the
centrifugal
force
generated
in
by
orbital
ticle
motion,
;
acts
lies
so
that,
the
each subsurface,
the
of
Fig.
233.
the
normals
also
continually
vary.
All
this
has
to
be
act
considering
the
resultant
of
the
wave
forces
which
remembered on a vessel
crest
when
afloat
of a
wave
is
is
the
is
to
crest,
or
the
it
distance
to
from
hollow
to
crest;
its
of a
wave
the
time
takes
move a
distance equal to
own
From
calculations
following
t,
V1416 ^
9
x lensrth 5
v
Speed of wave second
in feet per)
length

,
v 5124
.
/length x a
x 31416
Results obtained from these formulae are found to agree closely with those Atlantic storm waves 600 feet in length, for
SEA WAVES.
instance,
this
259
length
we
get
Period
v
Speed
/
5* I2 4
io'8 seconds.
5*124 x 600
The
tude
the
on
rolling.
The magniratio
of the height
maximum
to
angle
of slope
it
of a wave
of
the
length,
and
will
be
oscillates, is largely
The
to
tV f tne ^ngths,
of waves
have
seen
that
the
effect
of
the
wave forces
is
to
the
or
resultant
The
of this
was
proved
Froude
in
the following
manner
Taking
a small float
cork he fitted it with an inclined mast, from the top of which he susHe then placed the float on waves, when it pended a simple pendulum. was observed that the pendulum did not hang vertically but took up a position perpendicular to the wave slope. Now, a ship displaces a considerable amount of wave water, and cannot, It intersects many properly speaking, be looked upon as a surface particle. subsurfaces, the pressures on the particles of which act normally to the curves of these subsurfaces, and the resultant pressure, on the whole body,
is
but
in
actual
to
calculations
it
is
usual
it
to
for
consider
all
very
small
relatively
particle,
the
wave, and
to
treat
and
of
weight
the
being assumed
to
act
wave.
On
parallel
this
assumption, a vessel
among waves
illustrated
will
to
the normal to the wave slope, which virtually becomes her upright
position of equilibrium.
that
is,
This
is
in
fig.
the
line
of
the
in
masts,
is
shown inclined
tending
with
to to
the
moment
of
GZ
operation
parallel
bring
them
lines
the
wave
is
slope.
at
In
calculating the
of the vessel
righting
the vertical
waves, this
to
modified
moment, which
of the
ship's
the
.
angle
between the
is
line
that
instant,
It
is
employed.
our
intention
to
not
attempt
description
these
calculations,
260
as
difficult
in
a work of
this
kind.
vessel
easy,
however,
general
terms,
to
predict
the
behaviour of a
among waves when the periods of ship and waves are known. Where the still water period of a vessel is very short in comparison
the
with
period
of
the
waves she
to
is
specially
down
in
tend
keep
decks
her
depicted in
she
will
fig.
235.
Her motions
her
will
generally
keep
clear
wave normal, as be quick and jerky, and although of water, she cannot otherwise be
the
Fig.
234.
considered
especially
satisfactory.
Her
rapid
motions
will
are
likely
to
strain
the
hull,
obviously be
an uncomfortable
reversed,
period.
boat
in
which to traveL
results
still
Different
i.e.,
are
obtained when
period
will
is
the
ratio
of the
periods
is
when
vessel
the so
water
very long
circumstanced
be
an
easy
plained.
approaches her.
ately
Assume such a vessel, for example, to Under the influence of the wave
to
will
begin
heel,
being
wave,
she
not
have
gone
far
when
forces, she will immedicompared with that of the the wave normal, having passed
long
Fig.
235.
through
wave,
its
maximum
passes,
angle
to
the
vertical,
at
about
a
the
crest
midheight
of
the
will
upright,
bringing
under the
vessel.
As the
will
crest
slope
be to
so
to the upright.
And
This
the
the
next
hollow
in
will
find
her
little
the
other
side.
inclination
will,
turn,
be arrested
of such
deck.
by the
following
wave,
and thus
departure
from
the
upright
level
maintain
desirable
a
in
it
comparatively
warships
also to
ensure
reasons
is
sought after in
small, and she will Such a state, of things is highly a steady gun platform, and for obvious merchant vessels.
a vessel will be
261
From
the
formula
v
m
rolling
it
is
seen
that
in
order
to
obtain
long
period,
/f,
the
radius
of
must be increased, and aw, the metacentric height, must be reduced, as much as possible. This would mean concentrating the weights away from the middle line, narrowing the beam, or raising the position of the
gyration,
centre of gravity.
More important
may be carried out. It is impracticmerchant vessels to bank the weights against the sides,
cargoes
although
while
to
with general
bring
down
the value
weights
designer
might seriously
that.
the
stability,
and no
guide
careful
would recklessly do
that,
Experience
speaking,
must
be the
of
great
here,
it
being
remembered
smaller
case
critical
generally
of
vessels
displacements
may have
values
arises
when
as
period
of the
waves
is
the
same
as the ship's
stillwater
period,
and she
this
rolling broadside
on
to
the former,
a state of things
known
synchronism.
of
In
fig.
236 the
effect
coincidence of the
effective
time
of
the
Fig.
236.
two periods on a
without resistance,
vessel's
is
fluid,
i.e.,
A the vessel is in the hollow, and is supposed to be upright when the wave reaches her. As she rises on the latter, the internal wave forces cause her to heel from the upright, and her period agreeing with the half period of the wave, she On the back slope the reaches the end of a roll at the first wave crest.
depicted.
at
wave
forces
will
assist
the
ordinary
statical
moment
other
will
to
return
her
to
the
upright,
and to a
will
maximum
at
which she
reach
the
side
of the
vertical,
if
be greater than
of motion,
she
had
the
tion
oscillated
under her
statical
will will
moment
alone.
The wave
direction
roll,
forces in concert
moment
where she
and
at
complete another
her
maximum
to
roll,
inclina
be
further
increased.
inclination
Thus
at
she
will
continue
reaching
greater
maximum
each
crest
and hollow,
of
until
she finally
upsets.
Theoretical
investigations
show
that
the
increment
roll
due to the
wave impulse
if
is
equal to
this
were
Thus, f, or about if times the maximum wave slope. degrees, the maximum inclination would be increased each
262
Lime
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
effect
by 9 degrees, and her arc of oscillation by 18 degrees; so that the of a few such waves would be to put the vessel on her beam ends. Dr. Froude proved the truth of the foregoing theory by experimenting
little
with
that
models
after
in
a tank.
in
still
of
the
models
the see
water,
Waves were generated having a period double and the latter when placed in the tank
is
were upset
We
on
to
thus
that
most
is
seriously
situated
when broadside
stillwater
wave impulse as above described, resembles an oscillating pendulum which has additional force applied to it periodically at the end of an oscillation in one direction, and just when it is about to return, the effect of which is to increase the angle of swing each time. Another illustration is given by a body of soldiers
period.
In
some
respects
the
ship,
in
receiving
crossing
vibration
state
of
things
which,
continued
long
enough,
vibrations,
down.
foregoing
Summarising
there
the
:
remarks
are
and
very
deducing
short
in
from,
(1)
tend
angular
to
place
their
the
velocity
of
such vessels
rolling
may, in
that
become very
straining
great
and the
heavy;
excessive
may
out
(2)
the
masts.
That
vessels
of long
periods
less,
(single
roll),
if
among waves
and
is
with half
to
periods considerably
incline
that this
a most de
of things
in
both
mercantile
and war
time
;
vessels,
and
of
after
sufficiently
(3)
allowing for
stability,
That
as
vessels
having
if
periods
which
keep
with
those
the
that such
synchronism,
able,
been borne out in actual cases of which records are availlikely to conduce to heavy rolling and severe transverse
straining.
A
pected
herself
vessels,
practical
of H.M.S.
to to
example of the effect of synchronism is afforded in the case Royal Sovereign, a large warship which from her design was exbe
very
steady
among waves
occasion,
swell
at
sea,
and
in
in
general
of
proved
other
be so
her
but on one
a slight
arc
when
sailing
company
she
degrees,
slightly
there
being
on the sea
periods,
at
the
to
time,
rolled
conthe
siderably,
maximum
which
the
of oscillation
of
reaching
32
while
other
vessels,,
were
the
quicker
to
were
but
affected.
Observation
showed
waves
have
period
roll
which
synchronised
seconds.
ap
proximately with
Royal Sovereign's
single
to
period
of 8
On
she
another occasion,
when broadside on
a series
of synchronising waves,
263
Excessive rolling
is
through
maximum
arcs
of
50 to 60 degrees.
class,
also
H.M.S. Resolution, the circumstances pointing to sychronism between the ship and apparent wave periods. These examples show how difficult it is to altogether avoid the effects
of
synchronism.
Actual
feet
observation
in
has
shown
of
ordinary
10
to
storm
waves
to
average
in
500 to 600
cases
stillwater
length, with
periods
seconds,
only
exceptional
longer
waves
escape
being
met
with.
Consequently,
class
vessels
having
periods
of 8
Royal Sovereign
Experience,
should
has
to
is
be
expected
that
to
practically
however,
shown
happen.
better
circumstances
may
there of
arise
is
which
shall
cause
the of
unexpected
long
case,
But
situated
even where
than
are
synchronism, a vessel
period.
period
the
one
latter.
short
less
In
the
former
smaller
waves
sloperoll
keeping
angles
at
time
longer
and
is
steep
and have
vessel
maximum
than in
the
crest
in
the
of
long period
than in the
other.
Of
matters
in
hand
is
usually able
to
help
of
considerably
when
he
his
vessel
is
rolling
excessively
on
is
account
lying
synchronism.
side
Should the
the
rolling
become
disturb
heaviest
when she
of
the
broad
on
to to
waves,
may
the
coincidence
lengthen
the
periods
by
changing
the
an
oblique
course,
which would
a
cure
in
effective
time of
wave.
Should,
course,
into
however, the
sailing
on
turn
an
his
oblique
vessel
he
may
affect
various
ways.
He may
wave trough, or direct her head to the line of crests, keep the original course, he may change the effective Thus, time of the waves by increasing or reducing the speed of the vessel. by skilful navigation, much can be done even with a vessel of bad design. RESISTANCE TO ROLLING. Although synchronism will always tend to make rolling heavy, as in the case of the Royal Sovereign, the resistance due to the friction of the water with the surface of an oscillating vessel,
the
or
if
he wishes
to
with
all
that
spent
in
the
for
creation
of waves,
etc.,
is
will
minimise
in
the
still
rolling
at
times.
at
Suppose,
instance,
a vessel
force
set
rolling
water,
is
that,
a given
instant,
the
external
causing
her
motion
of
and removed,
will
thus
allowing
her
to
to
roll
freely.
oscillations
immediately
begin
diminish.
angle,
any
single
oscillation,
the
difference
between
port,
will
the
maximum
a
say
starboard,
from
the
following
one
to
be
measure
of
the
resistance
overcome.
But when
among
waves whose period keeps time with that of her own motion, the periodical impulse given by the wave will cause the maximum inclination to be increased with
is
less
than
angle,
the
increment
the
in
due
to
the
wave
as
impulse.
With
And,
increase
of
however,
arcs
speed
nearly
of
the
oscillation
will
increase,
since
vessels
describe
since
the
largest
same time
which
the
smallest.
the
resistance
tions
is
of
the
a range
of oscillato
soon
reached,
sustain
the
repeated
impulse
due
syn
264
chronism
oscillation
is
Ship construction
necessary.
large
and calculations.
the
Moreover,
only
disturb
critical
are
is
are
to
slightly
difference
sufficient
not
occur
at
the
same
thus
when the arcs of when they are small, the The wave impulse does the synchronism. time, and a fraction of the moment each
although
period
greater
than
resistance
velocity,
being
the
unbalanced,
less
it
takes
effect
in
reducing
the
angular
the
rolling
becoming
heavy.
This reduction
may
increase
and again cause synchronism, with consequent increase in the rolling, which, as before, will in turn be arrested. We thus see that oscillations sufficient to place a vessel on her be:im ends, or to overturn her, are
period,
unlikely
to
occur in a resisting
medium such
as
water.
Froude
it
carrying
three
the
(1)
resistance
to
of vessels to rolling,
divided
into
that
due
the
hull
surface;
(2)
;
to
keel,
bilgekeels,
dead
flat
He
obtained
of the
quantitative
vessels,
plans
and
end (3) to surface disturbance. by calculating items (1) and (2) from the placing the difference between the sum of these
obtained from
hull
items and
the actual
resistance
experiments
to
the
credit
of
2
item
(3).
The
of
results
showed the
leaving
surface
flat
and
surface
from
to
18
to
20
dis
per
cent,
the
total,
about
80 per cent,
ot
as
due
small
surface
While
sufficient
it
is
known
for
that
this
the
creation
very
to
account
residual
resistance,
(2)
subsequent
of
experiments
investigations
have
shown
that
for
item
the
has
probably been
flat
In
took
making
i*6
his
calculations
resistance
surfaces,
Froude
of
flat
lbs.
as
coefficient
of resistance per
one foot per second, and assumed the resistance to vary as the square This coefficient he had obtained previously by oscillating a the velocity.
board
lished
in
deep water.
this
figure,
it
is
now
that
surface
area
of the
does
not
that
represent
the
the
extinctive
these
to
appendages.
the
fitting
On
of
the assumption
keels,
due
the
bilge
might
square
be
foot
Sir
credited
a virtual increase in
coefficient
of
resistance
per
of bilge area,
Philip
and
of
that the
that,
the
case
of
at
the
warships
Volage
and
Inconstant^
foot
lbs.,
the
coefficients
7*2
lbs.,
mean
velocity
of one
per
respectively.
In
ship
experiments
displacement,
11
lbs.
carried
similar
out
of
large
coefficient
for
being
for
a swing of 10
Sir
degrees,
rising to
about 16
lbs.
a swing of 4 degrees.
Commenting on
*
these
results,
Wm. Whyte*
pointed out
that,
as well
Wm. Whyte
in the
tects for
RESISTANCE TO ROLLING.
as offering direct
resistance,
265
resistance
oscillating
bilge keels
create
further
by
indirectly
influencing
the
an
ship.
Investigation* has
borne
this
out.
if
Professor
the
motion of a
gives
rise
rolling
vessel,
particularly
in
bilge,
to
counter
currents
also,
cause
discontinuous
is
motions
in
the
surrounding
stream
lines,
as
they approach the keels and an increase of pressure on the hull surface,
rise
giving
to
turning
moments
the
arrest
the
angular
motion
of
the ship.
estimates
Crediting these
the
effect
*
resistances
the
bilgekeel area,
Professor
to
Bryan
Dr.
of
counter
currents
as
equivalent
doubling
motion to quadrup
It
is
the vessel
motion,
From
the results
is
shown
tinuous motion
increasing
is
much
the
create
reduced,
when a
for
with
the
speed
ahead
the
same angle of
the water
at
roll
the apparent
reason
being
that
keel
surfaces
strike
an oblique angle,
motion.
But however the work done by bilgekeels be analysed, the point of most concerning them is that they are invaluable as a means of Experience has amply shown this in a general way, but reducing rolling. deduced from actual experiments are perhaps more convincing. figures H.M.S. Repulse, a large battleship, was, as an experiment, fitted with bilgekeels 200 feet long and 3 feet deep, and when amongst synchronous waves at sea, was found to reach only half the maximum angles of oscillation atIn tained by her accompanying sister vessels, which were without bilgekeels. the years 18945, rolling experiments, with and without bilgekeels, were conducted on the Revenge, a vessel of the same class as the Repulse. In still water it was found that, starting with an inclination of 6 degrees, without
importance
bilgekeels
it
took 45
that,
to
50 swings to
those
6
at
reduce
the angle
8
to
degrees,
and
it
with
bilgekeels,
similar
starting
to
swings.
Again,
was noticed
18
without bilgekeels reached an angle of 3! degrees, and with bilgekeels, In the case of the destroyer above referred to, an angle of 1 degree. the decrement of roll for 4 degrees mean angle of roll was, without bilge Most important of all keels, '24 degrees, and with bilgekeels, '5 degrees. perhaps the effect of bilgekeels on rolling when vessels have motion is *See a paper
in
the
Transactions of the
Institution
1900.
fSee an
of Naval
interesting
paper by Mr. A.
W. Johns
in the
Architects for
1905.
266
ahead.
the
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
5
degrees from
vertical
each
case,
after
ahead was
swings
the
295
degrees,
and
at
4 a speed of 12 were
resistance
swings
the
inclination
with
no motion
after
knots, 2*2
degrees;
16
corresponding
the
17
inclinations
1*15
to
degrees
and
'25
degrees.
In the case of
angle of
roll,
destroyer
knots, was
the
at
3 J times greater
extinctive
The reason
under weigh
set in
is
of
the
to
greater
value
of
bilgekeels
in
vessels to
their
new masses
continually
of water
left
the
energy
imparted
being
behind
that
and thus
to
the
ship.
The experiments
keels.
with
the
destroyer brought
viz.,
forward motion tends to reduce the rolling period both with and without bilge
no motion ahead was found to be At about 17 knots speed the corresponding figures were 5*4 and 5*46 respectively. At higher speeds the reduction was still more marked. Another point to be noted in respect to bilgekeels is that they are more effective in small quickrolling vessels than in large vessels of slow angular motions. This follows because the resistance bilgekeels meet with from the water increases with their speed of motion through it, and because the power of this resistance in arresting angular motion is greatest when the oscillating body to which the bilgekeels are attached is of relatively small weight and inertia. The importance of having these appendages
in seconds with
5 '61.
is
thus apparent.
The advantages
to
of
are
now
generally recognised,
vessels.
and they
they
are
both
In warships
frequently
of
considerable
and
merchant vessels they are seldom more than 12 to 15 inches deep, are often less but even when so limited in size, their effect on the
;
bilgekeels,
for
various
other
more
or
less
ships.
The
best
known
of these the
consists
in
with
water fitted
across
ship,
so
that
when
to
the vessel
rolls,
say,
from port to
acts
position.
against
the
righting
moment
This was
operating
return
her to the
The
in
efficiency of the
the
of
chamber.
sea
H.M.S.
reduced
the
in best
Inflexible^
to depend on the depth of water by observations of the behaviour at which had such a chamber, her mean angle of roll
being being
tested
20
to
25
per
cent,
with
the
result
obtained.
still
The
the
value
of a water
series
of
water
as
rolling
experiments
Edinburgh^ a
this
warship of the
16
feet
same
7
class
Inflexible.
full
The chamber
width
at
long,
feet
deep,
and had a
also
of
67
feet;
bulkheads
51 \
feet,
the
chamber
could
be
tried
breadths
respectively.
Increasing
at
effect,
67
breadth was found to have a powerful feet being three times that at 43 feet. It
the
THE GYROSCOPE.
was also found that the most
the natural
effective
267
period
of
the of the
wave
ship.
traversing
as
the
natural
rolling
period
with
Experiments
of the
a
at
model
the
of
the
water
as
frame
designed to oscillate
same period
the
efficiency
system to be greatest at small angles of inclination. For various reasons the water chamber method has not become popular.
In the case of warships, changes in design have led to longer natural rolling
and a reduced necessity for special means of extinguishing rolling. for instance, had a G M of 8 feet, while modern battleships have seldom greater metacentric heights than about 3 feet. In the case of merchant vessels, the expense of fitting up a water chamber, and the loss of valuable space which would be entailed by its presence in the hold, has stood in the way of its general adoption, particularly as the inexpensive method of fitting bilgekeels has produced satisfactory results. THE GYROSCOPE. A proposal for extinguishing rolling motion, which some authorities think is likely to be widely adopted in the future, has been brought forward in recent years by Dr. Otto Schlick. In Dr. Schlick's words, "the method depends in principle on the gyroscopic action of a flywheel, which is set up in a particular manner on board a steamer, and made to rotate rapidly. " The principle of the apparatus, and the method of
periods,
The
Inflexible^
application,
is
fully
explained
of
by
Dr.
Schlick
in
in
an
interesting
paper
the
read
before
is
the
Institution
for
details.
Naval Architects
has,
1904,
and
to
this
reader
referred
So
the
case
far
the
apparatus
vessels,
we
from
believe,
only
been
results
first
practically
applied
trials,
in
of two
but
the
reported
one.
of
these
the
is
efficient
The
of
of these vessels
tons
German
In
of
this
torpedoboat,
116
feet
long,
and
about
56
displacement.
case* the gyroscope, which was fitted for purely experimental purposes,
to
steam
driven,
the
periphery
of
in
the
wheel
steam
being
tight
provided with
casing,
rings
of as
blades,
and
is
the
wheel
enclosed
and worked
a turbine.
The
the
at
casing containing
the
wheel
carried
having their axis athwartships, the steam supply and exhaust passing through
trunnions
rest
as
in
an
oscillating
engine.
is
;
When
the
upright
in
to
and
the
spindle
in
of the flywheel
horizontal
vertical,
and the
when
free
motion
thus
rotates in
plane
also
apparatus
become
effect
inclined
a foreandaft direction.
in
action,
the
of the
transverse
to
cause
the
apparatus to become
of the
vessel's
inclined,
oscillations
and moments to be produced reducing the To control and also their magnitude.
velocity
the
foreandaft
move
Wm. Whyte
in the
T.I.N.A.
for
1907.
268
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of the
AND CALCULATIONS.
movement
of
ments
gyroscope
is
and
the
rotary
the
flywheel,
an
arrangement of brakes
water.
provided.
At the commencement of the experiments the torpedo boat was rolled in With the gyroscope at rest, a doubleroll period of 4*136 seconds was obtained ; with the apparatus in action, and the flywheel running at 1600 revolutions a minute, the period was found to be 6 seconds, an instill
crease
of 45
roll
per
cent.
effect
The
an angle
extinguishing
was
found to be
at
enormous.
rest,
it
;
Starting
from
single
of
to
10
degrees,
with
the
gyroscope
to
took
twenty
oscillations
reduce
the
inclination
half
little
a degree
with the
gyroscope
oscilla
in action, the
tions.
in
single
The
sea,
sea
when through
the effect
practically to
the
vessel
was caused to
considerably,
play,
of the
action
of
the
apparatus,
when
brought
into
was
extinguish
the
rolling
fixed,
motion.
On
two occasions,
for instance,
which,
to
1
allowed
became
immediately reduced
being
LochieL
it
ij
degrees.
The
is
results
of other
observations were
as
equally convincing.
fitted
The
the
with
Dr.
Schlick's
apparatus
gyro
coasting
passenger
steamer
the
Very
stated
few
details
of the
is
is
that
the
flywheel
driven
to
From
as
the
in
reports,
rollextinguishing
effect
appears
vessel
be
quite
to
as
great
the
torpedoboat.
On
to
to
occasions
the
was found
rest,
be
rolling
through arcs of
bringing
it
32
degrees, the
gyroscope being at
the
arc
to
and
2
the
effect
of
into
action
was
reduce
those
from
to
degrees,
It
oscillations
scarcely
perceptible
far this
on board.
remains to be seen
at
how may
and
motions
vessels
same
class,
engaged
in
crosschannel
passenger
traffic.
many
directions,
broadside
on,
vessel among waves will have motions depending on her position with regard to the crest lines. the principal motions will be those of transverse rolling,
be also more or less vertical dipping oscillations due to the wedges of immersion and emersion being instantaneously dissimilar in volume. If head on to the waves, while there will be some transverse rolling, the
but there will
chief motions will consist of pitching,
axis
i.e.,
in part to the dipping motions above mentioned, and in part to the excesses of weight and buoyancy which occur as the vessel rides over the waves. If, however, the vessel
lie
in
an
oblique
direction
relatively
will
to
set
the
up,
wave
as
will
crests,
simultaneous
heaving.
skew
rolling
be
well
as
The
be modified to a greater or
269
We
transverse
are
and we
still
shall
influence of speed
The
the
may be determined by
through
the
centre
axis
of
gravity,
7",
and
as
height.
before,
the
formula
is
= 6 ri4io
J 9 M' a
I
of gyration
As an example, take a vessel of 4000 tons displacement, with a radius of no feet, and a longitudinal metacentric height of 285 feet.
T /
, = V1416 // IIO J 322
*
In this case
X IIO
x 285
7T
3'6i seconds.
"*
The corresponding
seconds,
i.e.,
transverse
rolling
period
;
for
this,
this
vessel
is
about 8
is
and
place
in
most
cases,
the
In
effective
pitching,
always
tends
is
to
her
masts
normal to
the
wave
will
slope.
When
a vessel
long in
wave slope will depart very little from the horizontal, and the be slight; when the opposite is the case, i.e., when the vessel the waves, the extent of the pitching will be governed is short relatively to by the natural pitching period, the period of the waves, and the course and If the wave period be long, speed of the vessel relatively to the waves. and that of the vessel very short, she will follow the slope of the wave but if the wave period be naturally short, or, if it be made so by the speed
the
effective
pitching
of the
to
rise
vessel,
pitching
is
likely
to
become
crest
;
excessive,
as
the vessel
will
fail
her
ends
will
thus
become
buried,
longitudinal
and the periodical impulses received from the waves will conduce to larger oscillations. Pitching, then, which is in the first instance caused by the passage of waves, will, like rolling, become excessive if the wave period
Every seaman
likes
his
be
lively
fore
will
and
aft,
i.e.,
to
have a
will
wave
slope,
especially if she
This vessel will rise on the waves instead of burying her ends into them. than a slower moving boat, and will not be subjected to the same be drier hammering stress which continual plunging into waves is bound to set up.
pitching
period,
thus
seen to be desirable,
for
The
270
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
metacentric height cannot be affected to any appreciable extent, as the length and displacement, on which its value depends, are fixed by more important considerations than those of pitching
;
may
obviously
be reduced by concentrating the heavy weights amidships, and in a merchant ship this should be done as far as possible in stowing the cargo.
Of
sea,
may
sailing
frequently
help matters.
is
head
to
he may change to an oblique course and thus lengthen or, the apparent wave period, and give his vessel time to rise on the waves same end. without changing his course, he may reduce speed and attain the
due
to synchronism,
On
much.
unison
kind are
it
is
unnecessary to say
of synchronism,
if
is
clear
that
is
motions of
in
this
to
be
of
excessive,
the
period of
dipping
approximate
Pronounced heaving will not endanger a was noticed in a previous chapter, the longitudinal bending moments, and therefore the stresses brought upon the hull, may be
with
that
the
waves.
as
considerably affected
vessels
thereby.
It
may be
said
that,
as
usually
to
constructed,
all
are
provided
with a
sufficient
margin of
strength
meet
such
demands.
QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.
X.
How
would you
that
set
2.
j.\
the
the
there
is
no
resistance.
What
a
certain
use
is
made
of this
formula by the
naval architect
3.
in
vessel
is
feet
of
gyration
4.
calculate
the
period of a single
is
roll.
Ans.
7 seconds.
;
The
16,
roll
period 5 seconds
find
the
metacentric height.
the
metacentric height be
periodic time?
5.
3"i4
feet;
6 o6 seconds.
What
is
Isochronism?
Explain
Calculate
briefly the
the form
7.
the
period
seconds
and
the
feet
long.
8.
Ans.
is
9S8;
What
waves tends to
Explain why a meant by the term "effective wave slope"? place her masts parallel to the normal to the wave slope as
vessel
among
her
virtually
Show
that
may
encounter.
if
What
her single
roll
period
were
(1) (2)
much
QUESTIONS.
11.
271
Explain the terms "steady," " crank," and "stiff," as applied to a vessel's condition
at sea.
is
the
is
rolling
of a ship
;
likely
to
be most severe?
expect her to behave
The
if
period
of a vessel
6 seconds
if
the
maximum
waves be 5
expect
when
no resistance?
exceptionally
severe,
to
If
of
his
vessel
to
become
What
steps should
freely.
?
What
are bilgekeels
of motion
In what
way do they
affect
the
rolling
motions of vessels
Bilgekeels are
more
Explain why.
What
are
water
chambers?
Show how
they
tend
to
diminish
the
rolling
of
ships
in
installed.
" pitching
"
and "heaving."
calculate
for
the
pitching
The
pitching period
the
of a
being 4 seconds,
and her
feet.
feet,
radius
of gyration.
A n s. 144*4
20.
21.
Is
Give a reason
pitch
for
your answer?
master,
tain
who
well
Explain how a under control, might help matters in such a case and oba vessel likely to
excessively?
easier
foreandaft motions.
CHAPTER XL
should
simply
now be
to
fill
clear
that
to
efficiently
load
a vessel
possible
does
time.
not
mean
the
her
with
cargo
in
the
shortest
to
In
previous
vessel's
chapters
qualities
we
have
endeavoured
sea
depends
upon
so
the
that
including
the
cargo,
efficient
are
distributed,
stevedoring
is
almost as
important as
designing.
We
qualities
the
characteristics
controlling
it
a vessel's sea
in
have a conflicting
to
difficult
any
great
that
given case
that
arrange for
necessary to
is
the
best
allround results
frequently associated,
of
stability.
and with
thus
clear
steadiness
dangerously
care
small
margin
is
It
is
considerable
into
and experience
a vessel.
The superintendence
sort
persons,
enpreto
cautions
of this
all
may
find
the
subsequent behaviour of
officer
their vessels
be scarcely
that
might be desired.
An
to
intelligent
and experienced
strive
for,
can,
with
vessel.
care,
usually
if
do much
condition
his
of his
Even
safer
he does not
gain
he may
than
if
vessel
should
still
be
fortable
GENERAL CARGOES. In
his
who knows
business
will
he
will
place
the
weights
of
in
higher
up, thus
ensuring
of the
centre
position
gravity,
necessary
of
this
on
type.
account
If
metacentre
being
low
in
vessels
will
the
vessel
be
broad and
placing
shallow, the
metacentre
GM
he
will
aim
at
higher
the
position
of
centre
of
gravity,
the
heavy
that
weights
higher
vessel.
Besides
the
this,
following
distributed
the
principles
of Chapter
in
weights
trim.
are
longitudinally
sufficient
such
VIIL, he way as
will
see
to
secure
a a
suitable
Thus, with
steadiness
stability,
steadiness
The
vessel's
the
GENERAL CARGOES.
stability,
if,
273
of
is
without raising
ship's
sides,
them,
the
the heavy
items
cargo
thus
to
can be banked
against the
roll
as
radius
of
gyration
increased
indicate
vessel's
and the
that,
period
lengthened.
very
little
Actual
experience
appears
in
ordinary
cases,
effect
condition,
of.
is
but the
of "winging"
of
weights
is
should not be
to
is
lost
sight
out,
The
a
nature
cargo,
hardly necessary
of
loading.
to
It
point
also
always
that
determining
factor
of
the
style
admitted
and,
circumstances
cargo
may
not
always
for
be
favourable
at
good
correct
stowage.
time,
Suitable
in
may not be
the
at
available
shipment
rather
the
con
sequence,
heavy items may occupy positions either too high or too low,
of the vessel
and
of
the
centre
things
may be
of
considered
various
exceptional.
for
When
are
the
weights
particulars
for
the
in
items
to
shipment
available,
the
officer
charge
of
the
position
the
centre
of gravity.
In
may
be
determined
of
way the best places for individual items of cargo before commencing operations, and, although in the
this
process
loading
for.
departures
may
require
to
be
made,
these
may
readily
be allowed
as
On
and,
checked by means of an inclining experiment, Also, the by transposing some of the weights. roll period may be ascertained by forcibly heeling the vessel and counting It is to be feared the value of the number of rolls as already described. Owners make much of the such experiments is not fully appreciated. trouble and loss of time involved, and do not give the encouragement they
previously
if
suggested,
be
necessary,
corrected
officers,
and hence we
find wellproportioned
rolling,
the
much
to
obviate.
It
cannot
be
doubted
of
the
carrying
out
to
of
the
experiments above
officer
described would
afford
invaluable
experience
commanding
ship
to
as
to
how
best
ship."
particular
results
It
kinds
sea.
cargo
to
obtain
his
the
at
Such
an
might
that
be
a
said
is
"know
upon
own
take
sometimes happens,
officer
however,
man
called
is
to
in total ignorance.
In such a case an
condition
during
list
the
port
at
process
or
he
take
should
it
observe
stability,
her
in
to
suddenly
upright
to
starboard,
is
he
of
of
may
small,
her
the
position
least,
dangerously
centre
state
the
sudden
the
movement being
metacentre,
caused
the
by the
will
raising
of
into
the
a
gravity
above
and
vessel
being
put
fig.
unstable
equilibrium.
Her
stability
curve
to
resemble
at
224,
that
is,
she will
to
be
unstable
the
angle
which
to
she
has a
come
list
account
as
attempt
cure
such
he
might
matters
S
quite
correctly
do
if
if
must on no moving weights to the high side, the list had been a gradual one due to
rest.
The
officer
by
uneven
loading.
In
worse,
the
present
the
case
the
raising
of
the
weights
small,
would
might
make
and,
reserve
of
stability
were
74
actual
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
disaster.
AND CALCULATIONS.
cure
is
culminate in
The
in
only
to
bring
down
board,
is
the
or
centre
of gravity by lowering
additional
the
position
of weights
holds.
already on
shipping
weights
low down
ballast
stability
the
but,
A
be
good way
seen
to
run
this
up
compartment of a
be dangerous
if
tank,
as
will
later
on,
might
the
reserve
were small.
HOMOGENEOUS CARGOES. In
sumed
certain
the foregoing remarks we have asmore or less general cargo. The case, however, is different with homogeneous cargoes, as we shall now proceed to show.
has
her
to
whole
cargo
space
filled
with a
homogeneous
line.
cargo, of such
is
density as
just
bring
This
centre
the
of
cannot
is
now be
corrected
part
by
shifting
this
The
it
only
plan
open
to
discharge
of
it,
and
owners would
Such a
of
resort,
however,
unpleasant though
of loading
gravity,
be
at
unavoidable
all.
if
the
safety
the
ship
sea
were
to
be
con
sidered
Of
this
safety.
course,
vessels
intended
frequent] y
to
load
homogeneous cargoes
full
of
critical
The
in
it
naval
architect
make
the
one conproperly,
dition
since
have
sufficient
stability
and trim
the
only one
over
actual
by the results of
at
Dr. Elgar, in
a paper on
in
"Losses
Sea," read
analysis
that
before
British
of
Naval
Architects
period, design.
1886,
made an
of
shipwrecks
over a certain
many
with
bad
as
Few
proportions
as
to
admit of
sufficient
when
fully
laden
laden.
should
deep
the
class
of vessels, to which
no longer popular
is
modern
cargoes,
tendency
is
this
in
the
as
right
direction.
densities,
with
general
design.
With those of
as
;
lighter
space
may be
filled
before,
to
diminish
or
increase
the
value
of
G M.
oil,
as
a freight,
is
care
is
necessary in
dealing with
275
vessel,
In explanation of
to
this,
suppose an oilcarrying
in
the
process
of
loading,
Fig. 232 illustrates by some external means. It will the case and is a section through a partially filled compartment. be noted that the act of heeling has transferred the small wedge of oil
be
slightly
heeled
SiOSs
gravity,
across
to
the
ship
into
the
position
S2
$& causing
G,
the
centre
of
Gv
the
The
arm
forces of weight
and buoyancy
drawn, form
being
It
through
G and
x
the
right
deflected
centre
of buoyancy, and, as
couple
tending
to
the vessel,
of
the
couple
m Zv
is
thus
seen
that
is
the
effective
centre
initial
stability
is
concerned,
to
raised
to
m,
and the
the
is
metacentric
in
height
reduced
of
the
from
GM
mM.
If
we assume
in
that
liquid
the
hold
is
same
in
the vessel
floating,
the
reduction
Gm
feet
may be obtained
Gm
where
1
= y,
in cubic feet.
/*
is
the
moment
This formula
is
This formula
is
obtained as follows:
Referring
to
fig.
232,
Let
/
l
6=hatf breadth of
= length
of free surface in
w = weight
lf
lbs.
is floating in lbs.
= weight V = volume
vessel
of displacement in cubic
to
feet,
Assuming the
at
be heeled as
in
fig.
232,
the level
Volume of wedge 8 % 0$ a or S z 0S t = ^b 2 fd cubic foot. Weight of wedge SJS, or S 2 08 4 = $b*f6 wjbs. Moment of wedge 8.08, or S..0S, about"* x \=\b*iewb foot j ft f In foreandaft axis k through U )
,
,.
lbs.
vessel
= Vxw
lbs.
Let a vertical
middle
line,
m.
call
the
point in which
it
intersects
the
GG^Gmd,
therefore,
G
/ is
But 6
middle
the
moment
of inertia of the
/',
surface
i.e.,
the
line.
Calling this
we
get by substitution,
Gm= v x,
which becomes
in
is
floating are of
same
276
seen to
the
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
of the transverse metacentre above
takes
be similar to that
of
for
the
height
centre
buoyancy,
resulting
that
is,
except
that
the
place
of
as
the the
point
greater
from
the
which
of
the
/',
distance
larger
must be measured.
the
free
Clearly,
oil,
the value
the
surface of
It
be specially noted that the reduction does not depend on the quantity of oil in the compartment, as a small quantity having a large free surface will have more effect than a
reduction in
the
metacentric
height.
should
large
quantity with
Practical
Example.
is
A
filled
of
4,500
tons
displacement
partly
is
liquid
of the
same density
that
as the water in
which
the
vessel
floating.
being
given
the
free
surface
is
30
Fig.
232.
feet
long,
38
feet
broad,,
and rectangular
in
shape,
estimate
the
reduction
in
metacentric
height.
we
get
Gm = ^ 12
If the
X4500X35
^=87
'
feet.
liquid
water
supporting
ratio
by the
cargo
oil different in density from the above value would require to be multiplied of the density of the oil to that of the water. Thus, if the
in
the
compartment were
the
the
vessel,
afloat
in
salt
water,
the
reduction
in
metacentric
would be
G
the
ratio
m = '87
8
69
feet,
of the
density
of petroleum
to
that
of salt
water
being
'8.
277
is
assumed
in
to
never omitted
Such a
it
is
of
is
shown
233.
The continuous
lines
line,
3
St
5
S^
}
upright,
S S^ S
Sq
the
surface
and onefourth the volume of that of the wedge of fluid is a half, and the moment an eighth. But two wedges of fluid move instead of one, so that the total moment is onefourth of what it was in the previous case. The reduction in metacentric height due to the restricted oil surface, since it varies directly as the moment, is thus also a fourth.
the
compartment
previous
breadth
case;
also
Fig.
233.
278
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
being
AND CALCULATIONS.
but
as
admitted liquid
surface
the
liquid
rises,
its
upper
vessel
broadens
rapidly,
and
quickly
overtakes
becoming unstable.
In a case* investigated by the
late
Professor Jenkins,
15
inches.
coincided with
when
rose in the
that
maximum
finally
re
of 19!.
After
she
began slowly
when
A
scarcely
vessels,
be pointed
is
that
if
adjacent
compartments
dealt
should be
with
the
filled
or
emptied
effect
simultaneously
naturally
for
inclining
to
would
be
this
great.
have
frequently
been
inclined
;
and
when an
on record even of actual capsizing from this cause. Of course, compartment is quite full, no movement is possible, and the oil becomes virtually a solid homogeneous cargo. Expansion Trunkways. A point which must not be overlooked in connection with bulk oil cargoes, is the loss due to evaporation, and unless
oil
specially
in
provided
against,
the
reduction
oil
in
bulk
may
lead
to
free
surfaces
the
holds.
Accordingly,
it,
every
compartment
oil
is
has
and
fill
sufficient
holds
and
partially
these
as
passages.
the
oil
possible,
consistent
volume of
fully
oil
level
loss
of the
tops
of
the
compartments being
without
bringing
to
suffi
cient
allow
for
due
to
evaporation
too,
the
level
These trunkways, below the trunkways. serve the purpose of allowing the oil
volume with change of temperature.
being
freely
to
open expand
the
holds, also
and
contract
in
GRAIN
analysis,
CARGOES. Dr.
carrying grain
coal.
Elgar,
in
the
paper
previously
referred
to,
pointed out that between the years 1881 and 1883, the period covered by his
vessels
losses
than
all
other
cargoes
is
except
This
is
number
of
a small proportion of those engaged in the coal trade, and points to the
of
special
characteristics
existence
in
the
nature
grain
cargoes
and
their
stowage.
It
Investigation
has
found that bulk cargoes, such as grain, even when loaded with is have a tendency to settle down during a voyage and to leave empty These spaces have been estimated at spaces immediately under each deck. to 8 per cent, of the depth of hold, and in fairly large vessels may, 5
care,
therefore,
be of considerable magnitude.
it
grain has
vessel
is
is
here
that
the
danger
lies,
for
when the
Shipbuilders and
Engineers in
GRAIN CARGOES.
rolling
at
sea,
if
2?rJ>
the
grain
tends
is
to
put
its
is
surface
the
parallel
with
result.
the
wave
slope, and,
the
to
rolling
heavy, shifting
free
inevitable
The
sliding
angle
which the
ensue,
surface
easily
is
of
grain
motion
will
may be
until
obtained.
wheat,
for
example,
to
be poured
the
on
side
to
floor
there
heap,
will
be
found
take
form of a coneshaped
the
of
this
pyramid.
When
grain
;
sliding
has
is
stopped,
called
the angle
the
which
of
pyramid
this
floor,
if
angle
more wheat be poured on to the heap, the angle of the cone will be increased, and the particles will run down the side of the cone until the same angle as before is attained. This is one of the principal differences between a liquid and a
friction
or
repose,
of
kind of
grain
cargo.
On
the
the
slightest
inclination
of
the
vessel,
liquid
is
puts
itself
parallel
friction
with
water
surface
with
grain
the
tendency
until
the
same,
but
between the
reached;
the
particles
prevents
in
any movement
fact,
if
a certain inclina
tion
is
this
inclination,
the vessel
be
heeled
in
quiet
water, being
angle
of repose
of the grain.
of
The
wheat
value
it
been obtained
peas
for
various
kinds
grain;
for 28J
is
23^ degrees,
for
The
to
late
Professor
Jenkins,
who
some
the
at
points
He showed
cargo
angle
that
accelerative
sea,
which
to
act
on
a
at
vessel
and
her
when
than
rolling
qause
shifting
take
place
much
smaller
ticulars
stability
degrees.
will,
He
a
this
also
it to be, in a certain vessel of which the parand radius of gyration were assumed, as low as i6 found that heaving motions, when accompanied by rolling,
found
at
certain
angle.
point
during
the
this
each
oscillation,
cause
still
further
diminuless
tion
of
In
example
angle
of
is
above,
it
proved
exceeded
there
shifting
to
be
a
rather
than
14^ degrees.
waves,
As
It
frequently
by vessels
is
rolling
among
in
the
probability
shifting,
where
that
free
surface,
becomes manifest.
the
should
14 J
be
mentioned
at
at
would
take
the
place
oscilla
above vessel
also,
at
degrees
one
the
point
only during
roll
tion,
had arrived
end of a
slide
to
return
that
it
the
a portion
of
at
at
this
only
about
to
descend.
in
At any
excess
/,<?.,
of the stillwater angle of repose at the other extreme of the free surface,
on the
other
Of
this
course,
state
when
the vessel
became
inclined to the
of
the
vertical,
of things would
to
be reversed.
the
On
the
whole,
to
the
effect
of
rolling
appears
increase
considerably
tendency
shifting.
See a paper on the Shifting of Cargoes in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval
2S0
Piofessor
sliding
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Jenkins
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
that
showed
the
effect
further
the
decrease of
angle
the
at
which
time
case
also
begins
out
greater,
greater
shift
the
stability.,
is
but
at
same
in
pointed
of a
that
the
of a
of cargo
more
serious
the
vessel
that
in that of
one of great
stability.
He
showed
the
the
part
of the cargo
centre
of
gravity,
which,
in
most subject to movement is that above doubledecked vessels, would apply to the
the
carriage
for
'tween
decks.
in
of
grain
in
bulk
cargo
it
'tween
the
such
as
may be
shifting
necessary
feeding
;
the
in
holds and
carried
in
carried
;
generally,
this
is
largely
bags
dangerous
of
of
the
cargo
of
at
part
is
thus
obviated.
The stowage
special
grain
in
the
holds
of
vessels
having a
vessels,
'tween
decks
requires
care.*
In the
case
singledecked
rectified
when
ing
shifting of
cargo has
the
effect
may be
there
by opendecks
the
hatches when
of grain
filling
with
this
bags
carried
the
purpose.
are
to
fit
Where
'tween
cannot be done, as
It
the
is
holds
usual
inaccessible,
and
shifting
once begun
cannot be corrected.
deck,
and these to some extent allow the settlement in the holds to be made up from the cargo in the 'tween decks, the grain in way of the trimming hatches being in bulk but empty spaces under the beams are still likely to exist between these hatches. Allowing for certain exceptions, the Government Regulations require onefourth the grain to be carried in bags in all spaces which have no efficient
;
feeding
arrangements.
level
In
such
cases,
before
stowing
the
bags,
the
grain
must be trimmed
above,
this
rule,
boards.
For
serious
the
reasons
of
given
cargo,
which
calculated
to
prevent
shifting
vessels
As a safeguard
carrying
vessels,
the
effects
of
in
possible
shifting
in
of
cargo,
grainto
whether
the
grain
be
bags
or
bulk, are
required
have a centre division in the holds and in the 'tween decks, which
the
restricts
extent of the movement of a grain cargo much as it restricts the Generally, the centre division consists ot movement of a cargo of liquid. portable wood boards fitted edge on edge and reeved between the centre but in some modern line of pillars, which are reeled for the purpose
vessels
it
consists
of
permanent
steel
bulkhead
(see
page
161)
except
in
way of
the
There
*
to its density, coal can, in general, be such a rate as to ensure a certain amount of empty space in the decks, the vessel at the same time being down to her load mark. therefore, no apparent reason why coalladen vessels should is, not
late
Mr. Martell
in
the
Transactions of the
Institution
of Naval
TIMBER CARGOES.
have
sufficient
lost,
28
of such vessels which have
fair
stability.
From
the great
to
number
a
been
the
some
of
them known
it
possess
amount
that
of
stability of
at
start
shifting
the
cargo
are
cause
shifting
not
few
of
the
is
disasters.
Colliers
not usually
with
boards, and
decks,
there
as
no
restriction
;
placed
in
the
is
'tween
with
grain
and,
although
the
of repose
of coal
it
considerably
greater
than
that
at
of grain,
diminishing process
less
undergoes
the
during
range
rolling
motions
appear
sea
may doubtin
often
bring
it
within
of
it
vessel's
oscillations
stormy
near
weather.
From which
considerations
would
that
the
suggested
quite
many
coalladen vessels
may be
are,
mark.
The
at
lessons
to
ship's
officer
first,
to
aim
at
so
loading
his
ensure
easy
motion
sea;
as
and
second,
inevitably
to
see
to
that
under
the
decks,
these
lead
shifting
TIMBER CARGOES. In
the
full
the
case
of
cargoes
of
the
heaviest
woods,
and loading should simply follow the lines already indicated for ordinary heavy deadweight cargoes. With cargoes of mixed timbers, satisfactory conditions of stability and trim can always be attained by a proper distribution of the light and heavy woods. In the case of cargoes of the lightest timbers, however, the problem of stowage becomes more difficult, because, as well as full holds, there is usually a considerable deck load carried. Many vessels that are good deadweight carriers, and quite suitable for general trades, could not, without a considerable amount of ballast, be safely employed to carry a cargo of timber of the last description, the high position of the centre of gravity, due to the presence of the deck cargo, making the stability quite inadequate. In some cases, indeed, there might be actual instability in the upright position, and no seaman would care to face a sea voyage in a ship having a pronounced list to port or
hold capacity
is
not
required,
starboard.
In
as
this
trade,
vessels
should
be
specially
broad
of
in
relation
to
draught,
sufficient
this
ensures
a
a
relatively
high
position
metacentre,
ballast.
It
and
margin of
stability,
without
having to resort to
cargo
of
should,
of
course,
be
noted
in
that
deck
wood,
when
well
packed
which
and
a
securely
lashed
place,
affords
valuable
surplus
buoyancy,
has
marked effect on the form of the stability curve, giving it increased area and range, although at initial angles, owing to a high position of the centre
of gravity,
the
righting
We
223),
perfect
vessel
type
(see
curve
No.
3,
fig.
GM
may, with
a
be quite small;
and as
ensures
roller,
so
boat in a seaway
The
in
a case
like
this,
should
by the con
282
sicleration
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of
the
vessel
AND CALCULATIONS.
and
is,
being
stable,
not
too
tender,
in
the
upright
That
a sufficient margin
cover
diminutions
out
of
the
from
causes
coal
that
may
be
anticipated,
in
such
of
as
the
burning
of
bunker
weight
the
deck
value
cargo through
certain
minimum
G M, such
previous
experience with
the vessel
is
may
suggest,
should be
the
provided.
extent
vessel.
A
the
metacentric
excess,
of
might
be
considered
as
actually
detrimental
to
calculate
quantity
involved
in
any
of
particular
oil
shift
of
cargo
is
is
not
always
an
easy matter.
In the case
cargoes,
where there
Fig.
234.
quantity
shifted
through
oil
the
heeling
is
of
the
vessel
may be
but,
as
accurately
deter
mined,
since
the
owing to
quickly
Still,
friction
nor
so
we have seen, between the parts, dry homogeneous cargoes do not move so definitely as oil, and the same rules cannot be applied.
cargo
always
horizontal,
with grain, an
of
the
is
approximation
is
may be
to
made
to
the
in
heeling
effect
of
cargo that
vessel
likely
take
place
given
case,
when
plans
Fig.
of
are
available.
vessel.
234 a
the
The
horizontal
to
dotted
line
Ct r
shows
grain
at
level,
assuming
of
the
the
the
settlement
have
per
taken place
ing
cent,
evenly,
and
of
drawn
hold.
a distance
correspond
to
the
the
anticipated
maximum
the
settlement
b bx
is
about
of
the
lie
of
depth
the
the
ultimate
line
grain
surface
when
cargo
angle
has
shifted,
and
may
be
taken
to
to
the
horizontal at
of repose
of the
grain.
The wedge
of grain
a x (Ibx
283
now
</ 2)
occupies
the
position
ctcbd,
of
its
centre of
of
gravity
and
to
If
the
common
centre
gravity
vessel
and cargo
#,
to
from
Gv
w =
weight of cargo
shifted
in
tons,
W
9i3%
~ =
GG
will
be
parallel
to
the
line
joining
and g 2
the
point
will
thus
be raised
however,
relatively to
moved
laterally.
For small
angles,
GG = GM
X
x e (nearly).
the
angle at
which
the
vessel
comes
to
rest,
may
movement
righting
of
the
danger her
if
safety.
fitted,
the centre of gravity obviously means a and in a vessel originally tender might enIn the case assumed there is no middle line bulkhead;
of
arms,
such were
the
angle
of
heel,
as
in
the
case
of
liquid
cargo,
In
a grainladen
vessel
of 48
feet
is
and
18
inches
M,
50
tons
of
cargo
shifted
through a distance of 27
feet.
Calculate
the angle
of heel.
In
this case
GG
.*.
5^H7
9000
GM
x Q
KO X ^ 27 9000 x '5
1
io
6 nearly.
it
If the
shift
might be necessary
in
vertical as
movement
Let
h the
vertical
distance between
d =
,r
g x and g g x and g 2
2i
then,
Vertical
movement
of
centre 01 gravity
IV
X H
7^
feet,
TT
Horizontal
movement
of centre 01 gravity
==
w a
x
rr.
feet.
place.
line
This determines the position of the centre of gravity after shifting has taken Join this point with M, the metacentre, then the angle between this
line
is
provided
it
does not
exceed
io to 15 degrees.
GM
BALLASTING.
sails
;
285
small,
all
the case of many steamers, that the stability would be dangerously and, in owing to a relatively high position of the centre of gravity such cases, even assuming sufficient stability, that their slight grip of the
in
;
water,
of wind
and their greatly exposed surfaces, would cause them to be the sport and waves, with a probability of serious damage before the end of
Accordingly,
if
the voyage.
i.e.,
water.
ballast
the
this
other
forms of
used.
In steamers,
bunker coal
should
is
useful
way.
to
As
(1)
the
total
:
amount
of
ballast
required,
it
be
sufficient
to
secure the
following
An
adequate
of the
immersion
engines
of
the
propeller
in
steamers
to
prevent
(2)
and breaking of the tail shaft, and undue strains being brought upon the stern frame. A stability curve of suitable area and range, with considerable
racing
righting
moments
floating
at
large
to
angles
give
of inclination
grip
in
all
vessels.
(3)
A
as
good
far
depth
of
the
water,
and
to
reduce,
as possible,
as
which,
we have
magnitude
of
the
arcs
It would appear that a great variety of opinion exists as to the ratio which should hold between the amount of ballast and the full deadweight. In
a paper
in
by Mr. Thearle
Transactions
of
in
on "Ballasting of
the are
Institution
given,
Steamers
for
Atlantic
for
Voyages''
1903, the
the
of
Naval
Architects
actual
figures
"5,
from
51
to
and show the ballast draught to vary 72 of the load draught, and the amount of ballast from '24 to
41
cases
full
of
the
deadweight,
shelterdeck
vessels
with
high
sides
having
flush
the
greatest
proportion
very
short the
decks
for
or
with
the
smallest
in
out,
that
good
the
results,
amount
of
ballast
ordinary tramp
when making
and the
there
proin
voyages
full
across
the
Atlantic
in
winter
vessels
should
not
feet
be
than onethird of
stern,
deadweight, with
the
4 to
by the
to
pellers
about twothirds
of
loose of
immersed,
at
experience
having
shown
result
less
that
damage
is
the
less
form
a
rivets
ballast.
the
ends
in
is
is
likely
where
proportion
point
ballasting
that
fact,
not
important
than
having
stowed.
sufficiency
of
deadweight,
The same
operations
;
principles
that
is,
should, in the
ballast
loading
the
should
low,
not
or
be
there
placed
too high,
or
stability
too
may be an undue
in
depression
of
centre
of
gravity,
and
consequent abnormal
we have
hull.
seen, inevitably
leading
to
excessive
rolling
and
great
straining
of the
the
In
rubbish,
vessels
having
'tween
decks,
;
part
in
of
ballast,
if
of
sand
or
should
be
placed
there
singledecked
the
vessels
some
by
special
fitting
raise
centre of gravity,
either
286
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
to
AND CALCULATIONS.
temporary bulkheads
part
of
it
properly
secured
bank up the ballast in the holds, or by carrying on deck, or by any plan which experience and
the
special
circumstances
Unfortunately,
in ballast are
largely
such
precautions
stiff.
are
unduly
It
Nowadays,
the
steamers,
water
is
used.
easily,
has
obvious
and cheaply loaded and discharged. Moat modern cargo steamers have double bottoms and peak tanks some large vessels have also one or more deep tanks extending from the bottom of the vessel to the first or second deck; while in a few instances ballast tanks have been built into the corners under the deck, also on top of the deck between the hatches, and in other places.
advantage over sand or rubbish of
being more
quickly,
;
For
the
details
of
the
construction
details.
of
ballast
tanks,
the
reader
is
referred
to
chapter
on
practical
double bottom,
of
side,
course,
is
except
the
is
in
the
special
for
case
in
which
it
not
best
place
ballast.
The amount
not of
itself sufficient
and
deck,
if
the remainder of
is
loaded
in
deep tanks, or
in
corner
which
the
capacity
has
been
such
to
carefully
considered,
immersion and
sea
metacentric
height
as
to
ensure
good behaviour
bottom
a
that
in
the
so
as
double
to
consists suitable
of
rubbish,
it
should
than
be
the
disposed
obtain
position
of the
centre
of gravity.
vertical
Scarcely less
important
distribution
of
ballast,
is
the
placing of
it
longitudinally.
aft
a preponderance
for,
to
properly
immerse
so
the
as
propeller.
to
But
a
this
allowed
pitching
the
remainder should be
This
period
is,
disposed
obtain
suitable
period.
towards the
obtain,
extremities
we know, lengthened by winging out the weights and shortened by concentrating them amidships. To
quick
foreandaft
therefore,
satisfactory
motion,
to
and
avoid
the
constant
in
tendency which
slowmoving vessel
has
bury her
extremities
the waves, supplementary ballast, whether water in deep tanks, or stones and rubbish, should be placed towards amidships, while peak tanks, where such are required, should be kept within moderate limits.
Unfortunately,
to
concentrating
the
ballast
amidships
in
lead
to
the
development
of
considerable
bending
likely
these
cannot well be avoided, and the strength of vessels should be to meet all such demands.
already been
made
sufficient
has
which should be abundantly clear from the remarks on the loading of liquid cargoes. It is to be feared that many officers do not fully appreciate the danger of this practice. The ballast is
loaded in order to increase the metacentric height and, therefore, the but, as we have seen, the presence of the free surface during the
stability,
process
to
may
deprive
vessel
of
her
effective
metacentric
height
SEA.
287
a dangerous angle,
formula
if
not to capsize.
It
is
important to remember
the
Gm = L
as
previously
it
is
the
extent
of the
area of
the
free
magnitude of the quantity of liquid in the tank, which influences the metacentric height. And commanding officers should see that
surface, not
when
the ballast
is
out,
the
tanks
are
quite
empty, particularly in
the
case
of midship
: In
displacement,
it
is is
compartment of the
4 feet deep,
approxi
double bottom,
which
80
feet
long,
35
feet
broad,
and has a capacity for 320 tons of salt water. Given that the distance between the ship's centre of gravity and the top
tank
in
is
of the
the
12
feet,
calculate
is 1
the
reduction
the
in
metacentric
height
when
to
water
at
the
tank
foot
deep,
metacentre
being
assumed
centre
in
remain
the
We
gravity
have
consider
two
of
free
things,
viz.,
the
fall
in
the
of
due
of
to
admission
to
the
water,
and
its
the
virtual
rise
the
centre
gravity
gravity
due
the
liquid
surface.
Taking the
centre
of
of the
depth,
we have
Fall
centre
effect
=
if
80 x 15*5
"17
feet.
In finding the
of the
surface,
we suppose the
to
foreandaft
tank will
'
=
.
80 x
ik
x
I2
?.<
ik
n n = 285833
and
.
2^5833 = 5 x
7080
=

35
i*ij J
feet.
We
thus
get,
= =
1*15
'17.
98 feet.
This reduction
instability
in
is
serious,
and
in
It
the
is
case
of
many
vessels
would cause
fit
the
upright
division
gravity
position.
the
general
practice,
however, to
the
in
centre
the
line
ot
without
perforations.
rise
centre
would be
ot
fourth
above
amount,
or
*2Q
feet,
the
29
metacentric height
would only be
"17
"12
feet,
showing
bottom.
the
powerful
effect
of
watertight
centre
division
in
double
25S
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
STABILITY INFORMATION FOR COMMANDING OFFICERS. common plan with many shipbuilders in supplying stability information
new
vessels
for
A
to
is
to
provide diagrams
anticipated
as
of curves of
for
depicting the
nature of
ballasting,
under
such
certain
conditions
loading
the
and
give
along
of
with
the of
remarks
In
may be
the
necessary
proper
shall
interpretation
curves.
closing
present
chapter,
we
two
examples
such
in
stability
diagrams,
and
shall
vessels.
discuss
Fig.
briefly
how
395
they
may be employed
6
the
actual
working of
235 Length
is
inches, breadth
51
feet
inches,
inches,
mean
loaddraught
forecastle,
23
feet
inches.
disconnected,
in
a double
for
:
is
Fig.
236
design.
3
is
similar
diagram
are
cargo
feet
steamer
o
inches,
also
of
modern
49
also
feet
The dimensions
moulded depth 28
erections
consist
Length
5
351
breadth
inches,
feet
inches,
bridge,
for
mean
and
water
loaddraught 23 feet
forecastle;
ballast
in
6 inches.
a
The
of
poop,
there
is
main 'tween decks, and accommodation bottom and in the after peak.
Curves A
1st
a double
to
in
each diagram
refer
/>.,
to
the
following conditions
Light
ship,
vessel complete,
water in boilers,
aboard,
but
no
cargo,
bunker
B).
coal,
stores
or
fresh
water
and
all
ballast
tanks
empty.
2nd
3rd
condition
(curve
Same
as
1st,
but
with
bunker
coal,
stores,
and
coal,
filled
fresh
water aboard.
(curve
condition
stores,
Vessel ready for sea, water in boilers, bunker C). and fresh water aboard, and the holds and 'tween decks with a homogeneous cargo of such density as just to bring
to
the
vessel
her
legal
summer
as
loadline.
4th
condition
(curve
D).
Same
3rd,
but
with
to
bunker
the
coal,
stores
at
condition
the
condition
coal,
(curve
E).
Vessel
water
ready for
aboard,
as
5th,
sea,
water
in
boilers,
bunker
stores
stores
and
water
fresh
F).
and
but but
all
ballast
tanks
filled.
6th
condition
(curve
Same Same
Same
vessel,
with
bunker
with
coal,
and
7th
fresh
consumed.
G).
condition
part
(curve
as
3rd,
laden
coal
cargo,
of the
bridge
'tween
Sth
condition
(curve
H).
but
with
bunker
coal,
stores
and
In
dition
small.
fresh
water
consumed.
it
the
case
<?,
of the larger
fig.
will
be
the
3rd
convery
(curve
235)
in
is
critical
one,
reserve
being
When
cargo
loading a
cargo
the
of
the
given
the
density,
vessel's
would
probably be
considered
of the
desirable,
interests
of
safety,
and run
CO
Cvj
z o <
_j
c ^
*
?
STABILITY INFORMATION.
the the
2C)t
double bottom
stability.
so
as
to
bring
down
the
centre
of
gravity
and improve
the
righting
In vessels of
this
size
and
description, safety
demands
that
and 45 degrees should not be less than about *8 of a foot. Let us find what fall in the centre of gravity would be necessary to secure this in the present case. At 30 degrees the righting lever is '26 feet it has thus to be increased by ('8  "26) = '54 feet. Assuming the draught to remain unchangedarms
at
inclinations
of 30
degrees
_ = Fall
..
54
= Fall
~
'5
*5,
1*08 feet.
The
curve
of stability
the
ordinates
under
the
increasing
of curve
1 '08
In
this
way curve
stability
/C,
236, has
like
fig.
been derived.
235
or
fig.
With a
officer
diagram
236
ready
to
hand,
an
satisfy
himself as to
vessel.
In making deductions, however, he must be careful to note that he for which he has curves also, that differences
;
stowage
with
in
may
quite
alter
the
nature
of the
stability.
it
utility
may be pointed
fully
regard
so
to
draughts, that
in
this
a ship
the
usually either
light,
loaded,
or
ballast,
that
respect
curves
should
be found generally
applicable.
Differences
cargo,
in
stowage give
of a general
special
or
of
rise to more trouble. The stowage homogeneous cargoes other than those for which
centre
of gravity
the
obtain a
curve
for
To
rise
or fall of the centre of gravity from the position of a standard case must be known, and, with the information usually given, the only way of obtaining this would be by means of a special heeling experiment. If, however, the
position
conditions of
the
were
stated,
as
in
the
examples
be
then, to
change
by
a
in
the
position
centre
It
of
gravity
might
the
approximated
simple
moment
calculation.
new curve
adding
at
from
appropriate
Rise or
of centre of gravity
The
it
smaller
of
the
292
general
cargo.
is
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
It
AND CALCULATIONS.
means
vessels,
;
would be
first
necessary, by
all
of
to
the
capacity
plan,
which
part
of the equipment of
modern
approximate to the
positions
culation,
of the
to
then, by a moment calvarious weights forming the cargo combine these weights and heights with those of the light ship
to
(taken
common
centre of gravity
of vessel
to
and cargo. Such a case is worked out in detail on page 192. Suppose this done in the present case,* and the centre of gravity found be '5 feet above the position corresponding to a full coal cargo (curve
236).
G, G,
fig.
The
levers
of the required
the
curve
are
equal
to
those
of curve
decreased throughout by
amount
of angle of inclination,
5
as already described.
x sine
30 degrees,
in
fig
etc.,
are
and the
stability
curve,
marked
K,
is
plotted
236,
Angles of
Inclination.
Ordinate* of
De.uTee^
x
3 45 60
75
90
STABILITY INFORMATION.
Referring to the
table
to
293
of conditions, the
standard
case
is
found
be
7*57
feet.
As
excessive,
the
supple(see
stability
curve
235)
is
of great
to
With regard
the
amount of the
additional
ballast,
full
let
it
be
sufficient
total
to
be a good average.
is
water, the
deadweight
7677
tons,
ballast
should
therefore
be
7677 "
Including
Table),
= 2559
1954
tons.
water
ballast,
tons
is
already
loaded
(see
therefore
Supplementary
or,
ballast
in
round
the
figures,
say
case,
600
if
tons.
In
present
such
would
also
the
trim,
it
would be an
If only
bridge
is
'tween
decks.
into
of
it
can
of
be
the
so
placed,
passed
the
main
the
'tween
the
decks, the
height
be as obtained below,
taken
centres
supplementary
being
assumed
from
capacity
plan
as before.
Items.
294
discharge
part
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of her
AND CALCULATIONS.
port,
cargo at
a certain
to
sea
The
question
is,
how should
tons.
the unloading be
done
leave
her in a favourable
to
condition
prosecuting
the voyage?
be discharged be 2000
to
rise
From
in
the
deadweight
evenly,
feet
the 9
reduction
inches.
draught
due to
unloading the
draught
the
fore
aft
found to be 4
coal
right,
the
should
be
In order to keep the taken out forward, say 1000 tons from from
the
mainhold,
and the
from
remainder
the the
main
and
and
the
bridge
'tween
decks.
Taking
of gravity
the
centres
capacity
plan,
for
figures
for
the
the
:
table,
calculation
centre
as
follows
Items.
QUESTIONS.
3.
If,
295
observed
to
in
the
process
of loading,
vessel
is
suddenly
list
to
port
or
starboard,
Whether does
a.
facilities for
loading so
Give reasons
for
your answer.
vessel b33
entirely
fills
her,
been loaded to her maximum draught, with a homogeneous cargo which and the master desires to ascertain the metacentric height before sailing.
readily obtain this knowledge.
Explain
how he may
If the
to correct it?
6.
Write
down
the
formula
for
the
reduction
in
the
metacentric
height
due
to
the
One
of the compartments of an
oil
steamer
is
petroleum.
Calculate
is
the reduction in the metacentric height due to the free surface, given that the
situated amidships,
is
compartment
oil,
30 feet long, 42 feet broad, and approximately rectangular in shape and that the total displacement is 6500 tons. Ans. '65 feet.
at
Show
that the presence of a middleline bulkhead greatly modifies the effect of a tree
in
liquid surface
question,
8.
in the holds. Assuming a middleline bulkhead what would be the reduction in metacentric height?
in
the vessel
of the previous
Why
9.
Enumerate the precautions which should be taken are trunkways fitted in oil vessels ?
oil
in bulk.
Explain
n
why
it
is
that
grain
cargoes
loaded
in
bulk
are
frequently found
to
shift
during
A
If
grainladen vessel of 7000 tons displacement has a metacentric height of 2 feet 6 inches.
shift
of heel,
assuming the vessel to have been upright before the shifting took place?
Ans.
6,
nearly.
10.
Show
that
the burning
out
of bunker coal
may have an
is
important
influence
on
vessel's condition.
If the coal in
particular vessel,
how
small,
is
contained in 'tween
in
A
is
steamer 470
aft,
feet
in
length,
27
feet
inches
forward and
the latter
The
centre of gravity of
10 feet below that of the vessel, and 35 feet before the centre of gravity of the
loadwaterplane.
The
is
is
equal to the
is

length of the vessel, and the transverse metacentric height at the start of the voyage
5 feet.
to
to
rises
the
bunker
is
consumed.
[
Forward, 26
27
feet, feet,
feet.
2 inches. 4 f inches.
Am,.
DraUghtS
{
I
\Aft,
Metacentric height,
117
12.
What
is
a sea voyage?
What should be aimed at in ballasting a steamer for meant by ballasting? How would you expect a vessel to behave if laden with heavy ballast placed
to be
is
With bunker
3350
stores
and
fresh water
feet
displacement
is
tons, the
feet
draught forward 8
and
is
195
Water
ballast
then loaded as
1000
tons in
double
2g6
bottom, centre 2
centre 16 feet
feet
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
above base and 2
feet
AND CALCULATIONS.
;
engineroom, centre 14
the parallel layer
to
feet before 'midships 650 tons in a deep tank abaft above base, and 54 feet abaft 'midships; 140 Lons in the forepeak, Assuming the centre of gravity of above base, and 163 feet before 'midships.
be 3
feet
way
;
of in
moment
to
alter
trim
and the
estimate
19 feet
Am.)
I
Drau g hts
Forward,
II feet,
4^ inches.
ij inches.
(Aft,
16
feet,
Metacentric height,
<
37
feet.
14.
If,
tenderness,"
show
that
it
would be unsafe
bottom.
it
is
proposed to
purpose
fill
for
;
the
it
approximately rectangular in
has
perforated
is
60
feet
long,
44
feet
broad,
and
4
to
feet
deep,
feet
and
has
be 18
below the
the tank
metacentric height
when
(
[
,
half
and
also
when
it
is
full.
Ans. \i
'58 feet.
H~
c *p feet.
.
15.
A
If
vessel
voyage.
centre
the
is 7500 tons is being loaded in dock for a. summer weighs 63 lbs. per cubic foot, to what extent may the
of
the
disc
that
is,
the
is
legal
summer
loadline
feet.
in
salt
water
be
immersed?
The
area of the
load
waterplane
12,000 square
Ans.
16.
inches.
how
Give reasons.
01
What
stability information
the officers?
APPENDIX
A.
CHANGE OF DRAUGHT IN PASSING FROM FRESH TO SALT WATER. Taking salt water to weigh 64 lbs. to a cubic foot, and fresh
water 62*5
lbs.,
the
number
r,
1
of cubic
feet
to a
ton in each
case
is
2240 2240
Salt water,
p 
35,
_
Let
Fresh water,
35*84.
now
a vessel's
displacement in tons,
salt
water
water
=
=
in
fresh
35 x 35*84 x
thus
cubic
feet, feet.
cubic
out
water,
the
vessel
rises
of the
water
the
If
extent
3584
 35
'84
cubic square
feet.
feet,
A be the area of the waterplane through which the vessel rises in inches
in
298
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
draught
sea
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
at
load
into
3$,
6$
lbs.
per
cubic foot
water,
she
would
rise
9500
63 x 35
4*3 inches.
MEAN DRAUGHT. In
scale,
it
reading
displacement
vessel's
from
displacement
i.e.,
is
the
usual
mean
draught,
the
2.
sum
of
the
actual
draughts
at
the
this
mean draught
cut
off
wedges
and
aft,
To
the
cut
off
displacement closely
trim,
out of the
point
normal
in
be drawn parallel to the base through which the actual waterline intersects the locus of the centres
a line should
of gravity
Fig.
flotation
of waterplanes.
237
at
shows
it
a
is
vessel
trimming
to
by the
the
stern
WL
is
the
line
of the
which
required
know
displacement.
Let
S,
S T be
locus
of the
centres
of gravity
of the waterplanes.
line
Through
the point of
and the
W L,
237.
let
Fig.
I
base.
The displacement
original
to the waterplane
to
the
waterplane
W L.
line.
is
the
but
this
mean
a
draught,
less
marked
W.,L2
off
on the displacement
would
obviously
give
reading
and
The draught
the
QR
should
be employed.
are
Since
triangles
WW
Q and
qj?
SRO
similar
_ wj/i
RS
o'
WW, 0R = TO"
But
abaft
RS.
and
WL>.
W Wi
to
is
RS
the distance
/?,
of waterplane
to
Thus
to
the
with
amount
the
be added
actual
6
to
is
the
mean draught
obtained.
get
the
draught
use
displacement
scale,
readily
In
an
case,
if
RS
were
feet,
the
get
length
of
vessel
360
feet,
feet
by
the
stern,
we should
APPENDIX
A.
299
OR
180
4
5
x 4 x 12
of an inch,
corresponding to an increase of
displacement
over
that
given
by the mean
draught of about
30 tons.
PROOF OF FORMULA
height
of
BM
= p. In
this
formula, which
expresses the
the
buoyancy
BM =
/=
Moment
of
inertia
of
the
waterplane about
the
middle
line
about as axis in the case of the transverse metacentre, and gravity of the watera transverse axis through the centre of plane in the case of the longitudinal metacentre.
= Volume
of displacement.
Fig.
238.
Consider
case, is
first
the
transverse
metacentre.
Fig.
238,
which
illustrates
the
transverse
the
at
upright.
from view of a vessel inclined through a small angle Before the inclination took place, the centre of buoyancy was
it
is
now
of the
line
resultant
and has thus travelled the distance B B v The line at B upward pressure passes through B x and intersects the middle
lt
in M, which by definition is the transverse metacentre. In the act of heeling the wedge of displacement
WSW
passes
across
to
g.,
the
in
ship into
the
position
LSU
V x
its
centre
of gravity
moving from g x
ship's
If V be the volume of the a line parallel to B B v and u the volume of either wedge
displacement,
BB =
X
u x g y g2
or
l/xBI\/lx0 =
of
small.
ux
g g*
x
(1)
is
Where 9 sumed to be
is
as
very
300
1/
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
is
AND CALCULATIONS.
assumed
of the
to
be
to
calculate
the value
of the
known, so that to find B M it is only necessary quantity u x g Y g,, i.e., the moment due to the
ship.
movement
line.
being small,
is
S,
L^
in
the
middle
Calling
the
half breadth
waterplane amidships,
6,
Sectional
area of wedge
WS W
or
LS L =
x
6 .ft
and
Volume
of a
thin
slice
of either
wedge
2
~*ft 5 *,
thisl
)
b
2
4
u
3
= Now
all
b\0.dX.
the
moment
into
of the whole
wedge
is
equal to the
sum
of the
is
moments
of
the
slices
which
it
may be supposed
to
1
divided.
x 2 = ^b
, , .
t J
,
That
.0.5x.
Moment due
But
movement
of
1
;
u a whole wedge
S65x
is
the
expression
axis.
for
the
moment
this
/,
of inertia
...
of the waterplane
Calling
to
we
get
Moment due
of
movements wedge J
in
(1)
Substituting
this
for
u x
g g2
}
1.6
or,
= V.BM.O

BM= T
the
Take now
Fig.
longitudinal
metacentre.
The
inclination
here
is
is
a fore
the same.
inclina
239 shows
foreandaft
slight
tion
aft.
is
when
./??,*
floating at
W\L U
Bi
its
position
when
ls
at
the
line
L,
the
intersection
;
verticals
through
plane
B and B
0,
of the
is
paper of
of
intersection
of
the
waterplanes
WL
and
WiLu
and occurs
at the
same point
case,
in the length
the waterplane
WL
the x
As
in
previous
we have
ix h,h,= V
wedge,
small,
BB,
that
of either
and V
x
of the
ft
displacement.
The
inclination
being very
u x
BB = Bm x
So that
hih % = V x B
x 9
(2).
ll/l
APPENDIX
A.
3 OI
To
volume
element
5
calculate
the
quantity
u x
h h^
x
consider
small
element
thickness
at
of
of
the
this
of
is
The
vessel
the
place,
and
its
the
direction
of
the vessel's
length,
x.y.0.sx
and
its
moment about
of the
a transverse
axis
through
The
moment
whole
sum
of
the
moments
of
the
Fig.
1
239.
TO
elements,
or
^xly.Q.sx,
this
quantity,
or
2'2x\y.0.$x.
But
axis
2^x iy.dx
i
is
the
moment
of of the
through
for
its
centre
gravity
Calling
this
I,
and
(2),
substituting
the
value
the
moment
in
we
get
LB = V.Bm.Q
or,
Bm = V
are useful in
J_
The
302
i,
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
2.
immersed midship
section.
3.
Block
coefficient.
4.
1.
Prismatic coefficient.
Coefficient of
important to
Area of LoadWaterplane,
ratio
This
is
it.
the ratio of
In a new
design
it
is
ratio of a vessel of
Example.
vessel
long,
48
feet
is
used as a basis in
The
loadwaterplane
13,000 square
feet,
and
it
is
new
vessel the
same
coefficient of loadwaterplane.
waterplane in the
latter
case.
The
in the
standard coefficient
vessel will thus be
is
1
:
3000
7:
360 x 48
= '7 ^2: /J
new
340 x 45 x '752
11505 square
useful
in
feet.
The
loadwaterplane
:
coefficient
is
also
approximate calculations
like
the following
A
If
vessel
load draught.
ships,
of flotation to be
and the
Area of L.W.P.
= 330
x 45 x '8$
i2325"5 square
feet.
= 20^.
420
y
Decrease
in
draught
S'12 inches.
Immersed Area of Midship Section. This is the immersed midship section to that of a rectangle having a depth equal to the vessel's moulded depth, and a breadth equal to the Thus, in the case of a vessel of 28 feet breadth and 8 breadth of the vessel. feet mean draught, which has an area of immersed midship section of 210
2.
Coefficient of
of
ratio
of the area
square
feet,
this
coefficient
is
210
section
coefficient,
like
the
previous
one,
is
is
useful
designing,
and should be
carefully considered
where speed
ratio
an important
condition.
3.
Block
between
Coefficient.
the
This
it.
is
volume
of
relation
immersed
volume
vessel's
a rectangular
figure
surrounding
APPENDIX
If
A.
303
length
of vessel,
of vessel,
B = breadth
D =
rr.i
draught of vessel,
Inen,
Block
,
coefficient
rr
volume of displacement n n x x
,
Example.
draught
efficient
A
28
vessel
feet.
500
feet
long,
57
feet
broad,
has a
moulded
block
co
of
Calculate
the
displacement,
assuming
of 76.
Displacement
500 x 57 x 28 x
cubic
vessel,
76
= 606480
Again,
ticulars:
feet.
find
the
block
feet,
coefficient
of
given
Length
the
following
in
salt
par
185
breadth
tons.
.
26
feet,
mean
draught
water
10
feet,
displacement,
1000
Block
This
it
coefficient
5
coefficient is of great value in comparing the forms of vessels, must be used with care. It is easy to show that two vessels of displacement, may be very the same dimensions, block coefficient, and different in shape. In one case the midship section may be full and the
but
ends
full.
fine;
in
the
other,
the
in that
midship
cargo
is
section
may be
large
fine
and
for
the
ends
ends,
Generally
fining
speaking,
the
boats
having
block
coefficients,
any
the
of
body
done
full.
should
"Where
be
reserved
the
midship
section
being
kept
this
has
not
been
done,
vessels
4.
difficult
to
steer
have resulted.
the ratio of the volume volume of a prism, whose section is the vessel's immersed midship section, and length the length of the vessel. Thus, in the case of a vessel 140 feet in length, which has an immersed midship feet, and a displacement of 640 tons, the section area of 210 square
Prismatic
Coefficient.
the
This
expresses
of
displacement
to
prismatic
coefficient
is
, A
76.
be
readily
seen
that
this
coefficient
affords
closer
in
means of
case of
forms
than
the
to,
block
coefficient,
and
one
be
the
fine
referred
would
vessel.
2, 3,
show
the
It
4.
the
of
midship
being
that
and
full
prismatic
coefficient
relatively
higher
exists
the
other
should
observed
relation
If
section,
between
coefficients
and
y be the volume of displacement, A the area of immersed midship G% G C the coefficients 2, 3, and 4 above described, then
3t 4i
304
SHIP CONSTRUCTION A
o.
AND CALCULATIONS.
APPENDIX
Angle
B.
306
Angle
in
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
APPENDIX
Angle
B.
307
3 o8
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
Rates of Stowage."
Cargoes.
APPENDIX
I.
i.
C.
Additional Questions.
Define the term area as applied to a plane surface,
plate
Calculate
the
area of the
shown
in
the
following
sketch
Ans.
2.
1
^'75
3I
of
square
feet.
Calculate
side.
the
(2)
(i)
(4)
A
^eet
square of
(3)
*5
feet
rectangle
of
15
feet
(4)
length,
circle (3)
feet
breadth.
1225
diameter.
Ans. (1)
3.
132*25.
(2)
56*25.
2681.
11785.
The
a
ordinates
in
feet
of
plane
respectively, the
common
interval
being 8
feet
is
ordinates,
half
ordinate
4*6
are 3, 55, 75, 8, and 9 Between the first and second introduced, and another of 8*6 feet
curve
feet.
fifth
ordinates.
Calculate
the
area in
square
feet.
Ans.
4.
220*4.
it
State
the
FiveEight
Rule
upon
what
assumption
is
based
Show how the FiveEight Rule and Simpson's First Rule may be combined. The half ordinates in feet of a portion of the load waterplane of a vessel
are
3j
!>
8,
8*5,
6'^,
and
respectively,
and the
feet,
common
distance
between
them,
of the
12
feet.
Calculate
the
area
in
square
First
employing a combination
Ans.
FiveEight
Rule.
822.
inch
lbs.
5.
Referring
to
question
1,
if
the
plate
be
steel
of an
thick,
what
is
its
weight in
lbs.?
Ans.
6.
937
4^
solid
wrought
its
iron
pillar,
18
feet
in
length,
is
inches
in
diameter.
Find
weight.
Ans.
* in
851
lbs.
Many
of these examples are based on questions set at the Board of Education Examinations
Naval Architecture.
309
310
7.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
\\ inches
its
portion
of
thick,
is
20
feet
long,
and
its
external
diameter
is
16
inches.
Calculate
weight.
lbs.
Ans.
8.
4646
with
deck
9000
square
feet
in
area
is
to
be
laid
pitchpine
feet
There are two openings 16 feet x x 12 feet, which are not to be covered.
feet
Calculate
of deck
planking;
deck,
excluding fastenings.
19,987.
is
Ans.
9.
(1)
(2)
124,920
of
lbs.
derrick
post
18
inches
external
diameter
feet,
built
Jinch
steel
rivets.
plates.
Ans.
10.
1402
lbs.
Define displacement.
The
145,
areas
in
30,
of
the
vertical
feet
transverse
are
sections
25,
of
ship
180,
up
250,
to
the
load
waterplane
square
respectively
interval
105,
295,
290, 235,
and
6.
and
the
common
the
between
is
The displacement them is 20 feet. 5, and abaft the aftermost section is feet and in tons (salt water).
n.
draught
in
tons
before
foremost section
in
cubic
30,900;
882
'8.
Deduce
may be
2,
a formula
ascertained.
by
which the
feet 13*4,
tons
per
inch
immersion
at
any
of the
104,
load waterplane
7*2,
of a vessel
respectively
4,
83,
11*3,
of the plane
130
feet,
calculate
and 2*2, and the length the tons per inch immersion in salt water.
13*4,
Ans.
12. floats
'42.
A
a
also
prism
of
rectangular
15
feet.
section
120
the
feet
long and
30
feet
broad,
in
salt
at
draught of
construct
for
Calculate
displacement in
tons
water;
the
this
inch
of immersion
Ans.
13.
1543.
the
1
The
feet
tons
per inch
are
at
the
are
rj
apart,
respectively
2,
5 "6,
4*5,
1
and
foot
o.
Construct
draught,
curve
of tons
1
per inch
on a scale of
inch
to
of
and
is
it
inch to
14.
ton.
How
is
Of what use
that
is
to
the
Show
it
in
the case of a
vessel
mean draught
reading
feet
the
displacement from
the
the
displacement
A
stern.
vessel
If
300
a
in
the
waterplane
point 3
locus
of of
waterplanes at
abaft
amidships,
measured
parallel
top
APPENDIX C
keel,
311
the
actual
and the tons per inch immersion be 23, estimate the difference between displacement of the vessel and that obtained from the displacescale,
ment
using
the
mean
draught.
Ans.
16.
22
tons.
a vessel
rises
in
passing from
to
salt
water.
is
A
1
vessel
is
whose
partly
displacement
4000
to sea.
tons,
If
leaves
a harbour
inches
in
which which
is
the water
o15
ozs.
salt,
and proceeds
foot,
per
cubic
calculate
the
number
of
through
on reaching
salt water,
Ans.
17.
30.
'18.
vessel
of box
form
feet
is
210
feet
long,
30
feet
when
worked over the bottom, and also over the ends and sides to a height of 12 feet above the bottom, what would be the additional weight, taking teak at 50 lbs. per cubic foot, and what would then be the draught of water.
Ans.
18.
feet.
68
tons,
10 feet z\ inches.
side
vessel
carries
in
her
hold
cube,
each
of
which
is
10
If
the
cube
be
put
overboard
effect
of a
chain,
what
will
be the
feet.
and attached to the ship by means upon the vessel's draught, the cube being
salt water.
The
Ans,
4000 square
Vessel
feet
inches.
feet
19.
is
rectangular
pontoon
the
broad, 20
feet.
deep,
altera
What
if
tion
take
is
place
in
floating
compartment
(a)
breached and in
free
the
if
centre
sea,
The
the
pontoons
were
divided
equal
watertight
com
partments
by transverse
?
bulkheads,
extending
the
full
depth of
not water
pontoon
12
(b)
The
watertight
feet
bulkheads
tight,
is
Ans.1(b)
II.
1.
Show how
The
from
an(*
9"4
the
principle
of
moments
a
is
applied
in
obtaining
the
centre
2.
of gravity of a
vessel's
waterplane.
halfordinates
aft,
loadwaterplane
5,
of
vessel
i6'8,
in
17,
feet,
com164,
mencing
I
are,
respectively i,
tne
ri'6,
is
154,
169,
4'5)
'h
anc*
common
interval
feet.
Find
312
(i) (2)
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
The The
area
of the
of
distance
centre
centre
of of
the
17feet
ordinate,
that
stating
whether
the
before
2'83
or
abaft
ordinate.
Ans.
3.
(1)
2732*4.
(2)
feet
forward.
vessel to
is
180
keel
feet
long,
and
the
transverse
sections
from
being
the
loadwaterline
the
are
semicircles.
the
5,
centre
13, 15,
of
14,
buoyancy,
12,
the
halfordinates
feet,
loadwaterplane
1,
and
10
respectively.
Ans.
4.
73*76
II.,
feet
from
the
10feet
ordinate.
Given
as
diagram
showing
in
the
locus
of
centre
of
buoyancy,
of the
constructed
centre
5.
described
Chapter
of
the
explain
how
the
height
of
any waterplane
centre
for
may be
for
ascertained.
Construct
of
locus
section,
of
buoyancy
prism
its
an
upright
is
prism
rectangular
triangle,
and
floats
also
whose
faces
section
an
equilateral
example the arrangement of the numerical 6. Illustrate work usually followed in an ordinary displacement paper for obtaining the displacement and position of the centre of buoyancy of a ship.
7.
with
one of
horizontal.
The
is
load
ro
of
displacement
of
ship
is
buoyancy
layer
feet
below the
ship
is
loadwaterline.
tons,
light
displacement
the
2000
the
and
lines,
centre
feet
of
gravity
of
the
between
light
the
load
and
of
below the
loadline.
Find the
the
vertical
position
the
centre
of
in
condition.
16
feet.
IV.
1.
and sagging
strains.
What
they
causes
likely
these
to
and
at
what parts
of
loaded cargo
steamer are
be a
2.
scribe
weight,"
and a
for
"curve of
a vessel
buoyancy"?
in
still
Dewater.
constructed
afloat
What conditions must these curves comply with in relation to each other? What are the usual assumptions made in constructing curves of weight and buoyancy for a vessel afloat among waves?
3.
A
in
vessel
of
box form
a
level
240
feet
long, 8
40
at
feet
broad,
the
20
feet
deep,
is
floats
salt
water at
draught of
is
feet.
If
vessel's
weight
length of
loaded
each
end
for
of
with
600
tons,
also
evenly
distributed,
draw the
curves
weight
and buoyancy.
Write down the formula employed in calculating the longitudinal on the material at any point of a section of a beam under a longitudinal bending moment.
4.
stress
APPENDIX
5.
C.
313
referred
to
What assumptions
question
to
are
made
case
in
in
the
previous
6.
the
of a
is
steel
beam
of
section
inches deep,
and bottom.
Calculate the
moment
Ans,
7.
254
is
inch units.
Referring to
the
previous
question,
if
the
beam
supported at each end, and loaded in the middle with a weight of 6 tons,
calculate
inch.
the maximum tensile and compressive stresses The weight of the beam itself may be neglected
in in
tons
problem.
Ans.S'S,
8.
State
the
maximum
small
steel
longitudinal
stress,
as
ordinarily
calculated,
in
large
and
9.
in
cargo
steamer,
of
their
own
length.
Give reason
light
for
passenger vessels
cut
having long
super
structures
joint
latter
are
made.
10.
What
the reason
stresses
for
this?
Enumerate the
changes
to
resist
to
produce
structure
in
their
transverse
what
parts
assist
the
change of form.
V.
1.
Sketch
In
and
describe
the
threedeck,
spardeck,
and
awningdeck
type
of vessels.
2.
designing
cargo
vessel
of
full
form,
state
generally
how you
of
vessel.
with
best results.
Sketch
are the
in
profile
welldeck
of each
of
and
quarterdeck
type
What
4.
essential
briefly
features
type?
Describe
steamers.
the
in
trend
section
development
vessel
in
the
construction
of
cargo
also
Sketch
on
the
web
frame
steamer.
system,
What
the
are the advantages claimed for this type over cargo vessels of ordinary form?
Describe
with
the
sketches
are
the
the
Ropner
Trunk
of
Steamer,
these
and
What
chief features
types?
VI.
1.
Sketch
keel.
2.
How
scarph
is
scarph
of
of
bar
keel
formed?
the keel?
What
is
the the
length
rivets
of
in
terms
is
the
thickness
of
How
to
are
their
spacing?
it is
necessary
set
the
keel
314
straight
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
AND CALCULATIONS.
the
keel
on
so
the
that
is
blocks,
this
How
are
lengths
temporarily
joined
together
4.
may be
correctly
Is
?
done?
it
What
to
a sidebar keel?
previous
a better or worse
referred
5.
in
the
questions
Give reasons.
attendant
Mention any
the
sidebar
practical
difficulty
keel
on
it.
system,
and
state
what
come
6.
Sketch
and
What are the advantages and disadvantages of projecting keels ? and describe a form of keel which entails no outside projection, show that the arrangement is satisfactory from a point of view of Show
a
strength.
7.
good shift of butts of the flat keel with reference to those and angles connecting them also with reference to the
;
Describe,
in
section
is
an
intercostal
plate
vertical
keel)
ordinarily
9.
transversely are
flat
plate
fitted ?
What
bilgekeels ?
Why
the
are
they
to
Sketch
an
efficient
form of bilgekeel,
1
indicating
connections
fitted ?
the
hull.
o.
Why
are
is
?
hold keelsons
gained by
What advantage
the
fitting
intercostal
the
shell
between
bars?
keelson
11.
bars
is
How
What
frame,
Make
how a
sketch showing
is
of riveting,
etc.
12.
frames?
connected.
are
Show by a sketch
fitted?
reverse
and
floorplate
are
13.
What
are
at
frame
the
heel
pieces?
Where
far
they
They
are
not usually
14.
fitted
ends of a
floor.
vessel.
Why ?
does
it
Sketch an ordinary
How
extend
a
up the
at
ship's
joint,
side?
Where
are
floorplates
usually
joined?
Make
sketch
showing the
15.
rivets.
Show
in
section the
common
beams cambered ? Is their strength increased thereby ? camber of upperdeck beams? Deck beams are sometimes fitted at every frame, and sometimes 17. State the circumstances in which each arrangement may at alternate frames. be employed to most advantage. Why are deck beams not reduced towards their ends, as on the 18.
16.
Why
are
What
is
the
usual
principle
19.
of the
girder
they
usual
might be.
Describe
the
methods of
state
forming
in in
"bracket,"
opinion,
is
"slabbed," and
"turned"
20.
beam
Sketch
knees, a
and
are
which,
your
most
efficient.
bracket
knee
showing
detail
the
connections
to
the
What
number
of rivets
beam knees?
APPENDIX
21.
C.
315
requiring
In
the
design
the
of
certain
vessel,
it
by
rule
tier
of
lowerdeck beams at
with
this
usual
spacing,
is
proposed
for
to
modify or dispense
the latter in order to improve the facilities might be done without reducing the strength.
22.
stowage.
Show how
What
all
are
web frames?
relative
Why
of
vice
are
they fitted?
showing
23.
floors.
Discuss
and hold
tion
stringers
intercostal,
and
Show
in
detail
connec
of a
24.
web frame to the marginplate of an inner bottom. What is meant by "deep framing"? What are the advantages
of
this
ing
ballast
tank.
What
are
its
essential
features
26.
Describe
in
details
the
cellular
system
of constructing
to in
double bottoms;
previous
question.
com
pare
it
with
the
system
referred
the
27.
Assuming
the
continuous
of the
longitudinals
sketches
construction
indicating
a cellular
manholes
double
compartment,
top,
and intercostal floors, show by bottom for a length of one through the longitudinals and tank
and showing details of the connections of the longitudinals to the floors, tank top and shell. 28. Show by a sketch how the plating of the tank top or inner bottom is usually arranged, giving details of the butt and edge connections. At certain
parts
the plating
is
increased in thickness.
Name
been
of
why
the
increase
29.
is
made.
of
straining
Signs
the the
have
to
frequently
observed
the
in
the
riveting
par
connecting
ticularly
tank
knees
part
the the
to
marginplate
knees.
double
sketch
bottom,
the
at
upper
are
of
Show by a
such straining.
of
means
edges
usually
30.
prevent
What
in
the
advantages
?
and
disadvantages
flanging
the
of plates
31.
lieu
of fitting angles
Why
and
in
peak tanks?
32.
33.
Show by a sketch how a deep tank is made watertight at the deck. What considerations determine the diameters of pillars in a ship?
pillars
In
fitting
to
to
develop
their
greatest
34.
efficiency?
is
What
for
the
of
breadth
usual
of
ship
allowed
by Lloyd's
pillars
Rules
for
one and
35.
two rows of
sketches
pillars,
respectively?
Show by
the
methods of attaching
at
their
may be
37.
efficiently
In the case of a deck having beams at every frame, show how supported by a tier of pillars at alternate frames.
pillars,
it
between the
supported.
Give
details
of
the
tank
316
38.
SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Certain parts
these
parts,
AND CALCULATIONS.
of a ship are thicker than others.
of the
shellplating
for
Name
39.
the
increased
the
thickness.
What
are
requirements
regarding
length
of
shellplates
40.
plating,
Sketch
indicating
is
and
describe
the
plans
adopted
fitting
of of