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book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

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text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924005003367

SHIP

CONSTRUCTION
AND

CALCULATIONS.
WITH

NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND EXAMPLES.

FOR THE USE OF OFFICERS OF THE MERCANTILE MARINE, SHIP SUPERINTENDENTS, DRAUGHTSMEN, ETC.

BY

GEORGE
Member of
Institution

NICOL,
Surveyor
to

of

Naval

Architects,

Lloyd's Register

of Shipping.

GLASGOW:

JAMES BROWN & SON,

52-56

Darnley Street, Pollokshields,

E.

London; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON,


[All Rights Reserved.']

KENT &

CO.,

LTD.

1909.

Preface.
advances THE rapid the and
in

that

have been made in recent years both


construction
present
of
steel

in

design
best

details

of

ships

is

the
public.

writer's

apology for
is

placing

the

volume before the

The book

intended

blems met with


particularly
it

manner some of the proand subsequent management afloat of ships, cargo steamships, and while no claim to special originality is made,
to

explain in a
in

simple and practical

the

building

is

be

hoped that the matter presented will be found up mentioned that publication has been specially delayed
to

to

date.

It

may

so

as

to

include
respects

reference

Lloyd's

latest

rules,

which

differ

in

certain

important

from those preceding them, and are "more readily applicable to the changing
conditions
It
is

of construction."

hoped the book

will

be found useful by

officers

of the Mercantile
apprentices,
is

Marine, ship
of

superintendents,

draughtsmen,

and

shipyard

to

all

whom
the
in

a more or less intimate knowledge of naval architecture


officer

essential.

To
one,

mariner

the

subject
to
it.

may now be
for

said

to

be

compulsory
master

that

those

who wish
in

qualify

the

certificate

of extra

must pass
reasons

an
of

examination
officer

why an
as

and
to

theory

ships.

But besides this, there are other good should know something regarding the construction For instance, it would enable him, if called upon,
at

on behalf of his employers of an old one. Or, if sudden damage, calling for immediate temporary
act

inspector the

the

building

of
to

new

vessel

or

repair

his

vessel
it

were

receive

repairs,

would give him


these.

confidence

in

directing

his

crew

in

the

carrying

out

of

In

the
assist

management of his him at any time


trim

vessel
to

afloat,

a knowledge
at

of simple

theory

would
of

arrive

quickly

satisfactory

conditions

draught,

mere guess-work or a system of trial and error. In other ways also such knowledge would prove useful. The examples chosen for illustration throughout the book have been selected for their practical interest, and every effort has been exerted to

and

stability,

unattainable

by

make
Ltd.,

the

explanations

simple.
J.

In conclusion, the author begs to thank Messrs.


calculations
his

L.

Thompson

&

Sons,

Sunderland, for their kind permission to publish diagrams and results of


of
vessels
built

by them

indebtedness to

Mr. W.

and he also desires to acknowledge Thompson, B.Sc, for help in reading the proof
;

sheets,

and

in

verifying the

examples, as well as for other valuable assistance


press.

rendered while the

work was passing through the


1909.

Glasgow, November,

CONTENTS.
Simple Ship Calculations

........
CHAPTER
I.

PAGE

CHAPTER
CHAPTER
Outlines of Construction
. .

II.

Moments, Centre of Gravity, Centre of Buoyancy


III.

.... ....
...

25

42

CHAPTER CHAPTER

IV.

Bending Moments, Shearing Forces, Stresses and Strains


V.

45

Types of Cargo Steamers

.......
CHAPTER
VI.

75

Practical Details

....
CHAPTER CHAPTER
. .

93
VII.
.
.

Equilibrium of Floating Bodies, Metacentric Stability


VIII.

.177
197

Trim

...
.

CHAPTER CHAPTER

IX.

Stability of Shits at Large Angles of Inclination


X.

217

Rolling

Loading and Ballasting

Appendix

........ ..... .....


CHAPTER XL
.

254

272

APPENDICES.

297

Appendix B

Table of Natural Tangents,


of Materials
;

Sines

and Cosines;

Weights
. .

Rates of Stowage
.
.

305 309

Appendix C
Index

Additional Questions

.......

324

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND

CALCULATIONS.
CHAPTER
I.

Simple Ship Calculations.

A
first

KNOWLEDGE
areas

of

the

principle

of

of

surfaces

having

curved

boundaries
in

moments and of how to calculate may perhaps be said to


dealing

be

the

only

indispensable

requisites

with

ordinary

ship

calculations.

In view of
the
principle

this

we propose

to

spend

little

time

on these
problems.

subjects,

taking up areas of surfaces, and afterwards, as


of

may be found
ship
or

convenient,

The

area

of

moments, especially as applied a plane surface bounded by


is

to

straight

curved lines
its

may
some-

be defined as the number of units of surface contained within

boundaries.
it

The

unit,

in

English measure,
a

usually a

square

foot,

although

is

and sometimes, although more rarely, as a times taken as In France, and on the Continent generally, the metrical square yard. system is employed, the units of surface being the square metre and square These metrical units have many points of advantage, centimetre, respectively. but as the square foot is more familiar to us, we shall make it the standard
square
inch,
in

our calculations.

The
fig. i,

simplest

figure

of

which
all

we

may
of

obtain
all

the

area
right

is

square,

whose chief properties are

sides

equal,

and

angles

angles.
feet.

In
If

A BCD
be
in

is

a square,
such as

two adjacent
lines

sides,

one side being, say, 6 A B and A D, be divided into 6 equal


the

length

parts,

and
as

drawn
the

through

the

points

of

division

parallel

to

these

sides,

shown
has
its

figure,

the square will contain

36 small squares, each of which

There are, 4 sides equal to a foot, and encloses one unit of area. It is obvious that 36 units in a square having a side of 6 feet. to find the number of units in any square it is only necessary to multiply
therefore,

the length in lineal units

of one side by

itself.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
for

In passing to a rectangle the


square,
being,
sides
i.e.,

rule

the

area

is

the

same
let

as

for

the

length
in
this

of

two
feet

adjacent
unequal.

sides

are

multiplied

together,

these

however,
in

case,

As an
feet

example,

the

adjacent
the rule,

a rectangle

be 16

and 8

long respectively.
feet.

By

we have
Fig.

Area =

16x8 =

128

square

SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.


Obviously A

bisects

the

parallelogram

A GB

D,

and,

as

we have

just

seen

Area
Therefore, the area of the
area
to

ACBD = ACxBE, AP v triangle ABO equals


;

RF

By

this

rule

the

of any
the

triangle

may be obtained

know

length of one side


in

and it is seen that we only require and the vertical distance between that side
intersect.

and the point


a base of 25 x 22
25
2

which the other two sides

Thus, a triangle having


will

feet,

and a
feet.

vertical

height

of

22

feet,

have an

area
.

of

75 square

The

area of any plane figure


rules,

bounded by

straight

lines

may be found by one


and
it

of the foregoing

or

by a combination of
applied
this to

them,
of the

should be noted that the


of ship

earliest

rules

the

finding

areas

waterplanes and sections

were of

nature.

in

(fig. 4) Bisect A E be a portion of a ship's waterplane. and through F draw a line perpendicular to A E to intersect the curve in 0, FO will be parallel to A B and DE. Join B and D by straight lines, then and FGDE will be trapezoids. A B, F 0, ED are called ordinates to the curve let these lines be represented by the letters y y.2 and f/ 3 respectively and let h be the common distance between consecutive ordinates. Obtain now the areas of the trapezoids and FGDE by ap-

Let

ABODE

F,

ABCF

ABCF

plying the rules already established.


G,

Draw B G

parallel to

F,

meeting C

in

then
Area

B0G=
these

BG

G
,

and area A B G F = A

Fx A

B.

Using the symbols,

may be
2

written

Area B 06 = ^^

x h, and area

A B G F = h x yv

Combining we

get

Area A B
In the same way area
,-.

F=
h

(</ x

+ y.2 ).

FGDE ^ (ijz + y)
D Eh (#1+ 2y
2

whole area A B

+ y 3 ).

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
with
fig.

The

rule

may be

applied

to
five

curves
as
in

any

number

of

ordinates.

For example, take one having

5.

By

the

rule,

area

ABDE = (y + 2y 2 + y
x

%)

and,

area

EDHJ =

(y->+ 2y 4
x

-\-y 5 )

.\ the whole area,

ABDHJ = {y +

2y.2

a(/ 3

2</ 4

/ 5 )

This
area
line,

is

called the trapezoidal rule for obtaining areas of surfaces


lines.
It

bounded

by curved and straight


of

may be

stated

as

follows

To
other,

obtain the

and a curved which is taken as the base of the figure divide the base between the end ordinates into any number of equal parts, and through the points of division draw perpendiculars to the curved line, as in figure 5 measure the length of these ordinates, taking one foot or one inch as the unit of measurement then to the sum of all the ordinates, except the end ordinates, add half the the result, multiplied by the normal distance sum of the end ordinates between any two ordinates, measured in same unit, will be the area of the
any
of

plane

surface,

bounded by
being

three

straight
to

lines

two

the

straight

lines

perpendicular

the

surface,

approximately.

Example.
as

Let
in

length of base

=
=

48
10

feet.

Let there be
feet,
;

ordinates, spaced

directed,

giving

common
1

interval
y.2
;

of

12

and
12
;

let
5

the
4,

value

of

the

ordinates

be

feet

y3 =

16

y=

respectively.

Tabulating the information,


Ordinates.

the

calculation

becomes

SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.

The
the

area
areas

obtained
enclosed

as

above

is

less

than

the
lines

actual

area

required

by

small

between the straight

joining the extremities of

each two consecutive


spaces
these
the
in
fig. 5.

ordinates
is

and the
that

curve,

as

indicated

by the
of

hatched
ordinates,

It

clear

by taking
in

a great
small,

number
is is

hatched
area.
is

areas

may be made extremely


the
is

but

however
always
greatest

numerous
less

ordinates

may

be,
It

area obtained
that

this

manner
give

than

the actual curvature

obvious, too,
this
rule,

the difference
will

w hen the
results

excessive;
to

therefore,

most

accurate
little

when applied

surfaces

having boundaries with comparatively


ordinary
ship

curvature.

In applying the rule to

curves

the

ordinates

should be close

spaced at the points of greatest curvature,


to

and wider spaced elsewhere.

If the curves met with in ship design were of regular form, equations them could be deduced by means of which the correct areas of surfaces Unfortunately, enclosed by them up to any point could be written down.
this
is
it

not
is

so.

No
this

rigid

equation
error

can
is

be applied to
usually

ordinary
in

ship

curves,
as

but

found that no

great

involved

treating

them

parabolas,*
*

and

is

now

the

common

practice.

parabola

may

be described as the curve forming the line of intersection of a right


its

cone with a plane parallel to one of


point which moves, so

sides

it

is

also

sometimes defined as the locus of a

that
its its

distance

from a fixed

point
line

distance

from a fixed straight

A.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
as

By an important
inventor,
rule

formula,

known

Simpson's

Rale,

named

after

the

the

area

enclosed by any parabolic curve

may be

obtained.

The

may be

stated as follows
base-line,
verticals

: Simpson's First Rule.


verticals

Through the extremities


Divide the distance
spaces,

of

any chosen
these

draw
into

to

cut

the curve.

between

an

even
the

number
;

of

and

through

the

points of division draw ordinates to the curve

be

odd

in

number.
omitting
last

Measure

length

of

which ordinates will therefore each ordinate, and then add


this

together four times the

sum
the

of the even ordinates


first

odd
the

ordinates,
first

and

last.

To
the

and twice the sum of the total add the sum of


result
;

and
the

ordinates.

Finally,

multiply

the

by one-third
this
will

the the

length

of

common
surface
to

interval
if
it

between
curve curve
in

ordinates
a

give

exact area

of the

the
if

be that of
ship

common

parabola,

and
pro-

a close approximation

the

be an ordinary shipshape one.


calculations,

This rule
a
ship's

is

of

immense value
of

and we

shall
(fig.

ceed to take a few examples showing


half-waterplane
as

its

application.
is

Let

ABC
,

7),

be
is

which

the

area

required.
x

The base A G
etc.,

divided

indicated

in

the rule,
7.

and the ordinates y

y2 y 3

are

drawn

Fig.

through the points of division

is

the

common

interval

between the ordinates.

We may
It

write

Area A B
frequently

= j(y 1 + 4# 2 + 2^4-4^4+ 2^ + 4^+


happens that
closer
at

2t/ 7

+4
at

*/ 8

+ &)
ends of
the

the

curvature
to

is

greater

the

waterplane,

and a

approximation
these
places,

the

area
in

is fig.

attained
8.

by inserting
total

intermediate
is

ordinates

as

shown
:

The

area

now made up

of three
Fig.

portions,
8.

as

follows

JL

Area A Area

ED
=

-(0i 6

+ 40U + 0s) = ~(ki + + 4^ +


2</ 4

2</H

+ i# 2
</ 8 ).

)-

DEF6

j
h

(</ 2

+ 4 </ 5 +
h

2</ 6

+4

</ 7

Axe&FGC =
Combining these
Area A

j-iyt

+ Ay&t+y*) =
we
get

j(ii/ 8

ays*

+ #>)
+

portions,
2t/ij

BG = ~{ly x +

ihy 2

+ 4y, +

2</ 4

4 </ 5

+ 2 y6 +

4^7

ijy a

+ 2y 9 + Jy 9 ).

1)

SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.

Suppose
with
(/i,

now

that

as

follows:

the
5,

ordinates

have

certain

definite
16*9,

values

beginning
9-4,
'i,

*i,

n"6,

15*4,

i6"8,

jyo,
feet:
is.

16*4,

14/5,

and that the total length of the plane is 200 by filling in the values in equation (1), but it
the
figures,

we could find the area more convenient to tabulate

as

follows

No.h. of

Ordinates.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

We have seen that to apply Simpson's First Rule to finding the area of any surface having a curved boundary, there must be an odd number of ordinates, and not less than three. It is, however, sometimes necessary to find the area between two consecutive ordinates, as, for instance, between
f/i

and y 2

in

fig.

9.

To do
Fig.

this

we employ another

rule

known

as

the

Eight Rule, which may be stated thus : Five Eight Rule. Three ordinates being given, to obtain the area between any two multiply the middle ordinate by 8, the ordinate forming the other boundary to the space whose area we are finding by 5, and the remaining ordinate by - 1 the algebraic sum of these products, when multiplied by TV
Five

the

common

interval

between

the

ordinates,

will

give

the

area

required.

For example
Area A

BCD

(fig.

9)

(Stfi +%*-&)
).

and area D C
If

F = (5^ + 8z/ 2 -(/ x

these

be added we

get,

after

re-arrangement

Total area

A BEF =
Rule
curve

is

(</ 1

+ 4</a + ffs),
on
the

which
as

shows
first

that
rule,

the

Five

Eight
the

based
that

same assumption
parabola.

the

namely,

that

is

of a

common

Take a
of
interval

practical example.

The
feet,

length of the half ordinates of a portion


6,

a ship's waterplane are in

7 '6

and

8,

respectively,

the

common

being 9
first

feet.

between the

Find the area of the portion of the Tabulating, we get and second ordinates.
Ordinates.

full

waterplane

SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.


If

the area

between the second and


be
Ordinates.
i

third

ordinates

were

required,

the

calculation would

S.M.

10

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
find
as

with

Reviewing our rules for having 3, 5, 7, 9, n,


4,
7,

areas,
13,
etc.,

we now
as
is

that

surfaces

can

be dealt
for

ordinates,

required by the First Rule,

and
as

10,

13,

16,

etc.,

ordinates

required

by

the

Second Rule;
will

surfaces

having ordinates whose number


with
6,

not included in the foregoing, such

those

8,

12,

14,

etc.,

ordinates,

no

single
to.

rule

apply,

and a
a

combination of the rules given


surface with
eight

must be resorted

Take,

for

instance,

ordinates

as

shown

in

figure

10

Examining the figure, we note that the portion A BCD may be treated second rule, and the remainder Proceeding by the first. thus, we get
by
the

DGEF

Area A B C D =

g%
4

+ 3</ 2 441/ 5

3^3

+ ^)

and area

DC E F =

~(y +

2y 6

+ 4*/ 7 + y B ).

Combining these quantities and re-arranging the bracket, we have

so as to get a

common

factor outside

Whole
Calculate

area

A B

EF = -(i^ +3#
of
fig.

+ 303+ 2S& + 4& +


ordinates
30*3,
:

^
be

+ 4#7 +
12

</ 8 )-

the

area

10,

assuming the
167,
24*4,
will

to

feet

apart,

and of the following lengths:


14-9
feet,

28-9,

29-9,

27-3,

22*3,

and

respectively.

The work
No. of
Ordinates.

be as follows

SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.

II to

would be very similar to the above, and we leave the reader


for

work

it

out

himself.

Tcheuychkff's Rule.
having curved
Simpson's
the

This
differs

method of finding the areas of plane


in
for

surfaces

boundaries

certain

important
are

respects

from that
spaced,
as

of
in
;

Rule.

The

ordinates,

instance,

not

equally

latter case, but arbitrarily, according to the number of them employed nor are they treated by multipliers. All that it is necessary to do to obtain

the
is

area
to

in

a given
the

case

when
of

the the

ordinates
latter,

have been
these

placed in position,
together,
result

measure
the

lengths

add

divide

the

sum by
of the

number

of the

ordinates,

and multiply the

by the length

base line of the

figure.

Fig.

11.

As an example,
have
in
six

let

us

find

the

area
to

of
rule,

ordinates
;

spaced

according

A B D (fig. 1 1). and numbered i,


20
feet.

Here we
2,

3,

etc.,

the

sketch

the total

length

of the

base

is

Applying the

rule,

we have
No. of
Ordinates.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
It

AND CALCULATIONS.
where
is,

determined.
ordinates,
line.

should
at

be

noted

that

there

is

an

odd

number
of
the

of

one

occurs

the

origin,

that

the

middle

point

base

Table

i.

Number of Ordinates and Multipliers for Same.

SIMPLE SHIP CALCULATIONS.

*3

No. of Ordinates.

u
feet

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
thick.

AND CALCULATIONS.

Let

fig.

14 represent this block.

The

area of the upper surface

BCD =

15x25 = 375

square

feet.

If the

block were one foot thick, 375

would

also

measure
3! times
the

the
this

capacity

in

cubic
therefore

feet
:

the

actual

volume

will

obviously

be

quantity,

volume

= 375*

'5

1312*5

cubic feet

From

this

it

appears that to obtain the volume of any rectangular solid,


fig.

such as that in

14,

it

is

merely necessary to find the continued product

of the three principal dimensions.

volumes of regular

solids,
;

There are various rules for obtaining the and we proceed to state a few of them without,
these

however, giving the proofs

may be obtained by

referring

to

any work

on mensuration.
1.

Volume

of a pyramid

with any form of base

area of base x J height

(perpendicular).
2.

Volume Volume

of sphere

diameter 3 x

~f~~~*

3.

of

an

Ellipsoid

length x breadth x depth x -

Passing from these,

volumes of
Fig.

solids

of

we come next to consider methods of finding the more or less irregular form, such, for example, as the
portion
of

immersed body of a
15

ship.

shows,

roughly, a

a ship's

body
by A
to

waterplane

which
dealt

say

below the load


Obviously,
here.
:

may be supposed
no
it

represented

ED FA.

we have
finding
First,

with

rules

which

admit

of

direct

application

In

the volume

is

sometimes found convenient


to

proceed as follows
of

assume

the

body

be

divided

by an

odd

number

equidistant

VOLUME.
transverse

15

planes

(nine

is

shown

in

the

figure),

and

calculate

the

areas

of

each of these planes from the keel up to the horizontal waterplane

AFDEA.

scale,

fig. 16, having a length equal, on some and erect equal-spaced ordinates to correspond with the transverse sections of the body previously mentioned. On each of these ordinates, which are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., in fig. 16, measuring from the base line H J, mark off to scale the number of square feet in the

Next,

take

horizontal

line,

HJ

to the length of the vessel,

corresponding section of
so
obtained,
capacity

the

vessel.

Draw a
will

fair

curve

through the points

and the surface


body.

HL

have an area representing the cubic

of the

2 2i2 2 2*3

Let That the foregoing statement is true may be very simply shown. space between any two sections, such as 2 and 3, be subdivided by ordinates drawn through the points 2 1; 2*, 2 3) and where they intersect the Now, since the be drawn parallel to H </, as shown. curve, let lines
the

ordinate at
the
little

represents
2

the
will

area

of

section

of

the vessel

at

that

point,

rectangle
at

2l
2

represent the volume of a vertical layer between


2

sections
vessel at

the

points
2.

and

having a constant section equal to area of


2
X

section

In the

same way the rectangles

22

22

23

and

23

3,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
represent

AND CALCULATIONS.
the
areas
little

will

volumes of
the
vertical
3,

vertical

layers,

of

whose sections

will

be

those of the vessel at the beginning of each

interval.
2 Xi 22

The sum
22
,

of the

volumes
sections
this

of
at
2

layers

represented

by

etc.,

between
vessel
at

and

will

be

less

than

the

actual

volume

of

the

and the deficiency is obviously represented by the areas of the little triangles But by between the tops of the rectangles and the curve. making the division close enough, the areas of these little triangles can be made as small as we please, so that in the limit the volume of the body, between sections at 2 and 3, will be truly represented by the area of that portion of fig. 14 enclosed by the curve, the bounding ordinates, and the
part,

base

line.
is

Thus

it

is

clear

that,

as

stated

above,

the

total

volume of the
sections
40, 163,

body

represented

by the area
load
line,

L J H.
areas of the vertical transverse
feet,

Take a numerical example.


of a vessel 230,

The
50,

up

to

the

in square

are,

respectively,

o,

400,
is

750,

470,

350,

270,

and
total

o,

them
will

12

feet.

Calculate
this
is

the

and the common interval between immersed volume of the body. It


of obtaining the

be seen that

merely a

question

area of a figure
as

such as

H LJ //,

and the work may therefore be tabulated


No.
of

follows

/rea

of

VOLUME.
shown, the vessel being symmetrical about
of each of the horizontal planes
to
is

17

the

middle

line

plane.

The
some

area
scale,

first

calculated and set off to


line

the right of the middle line 5/3,


to

on a horizontal
1

opposite the water-

plane
for

which

it

refers.

In
1

fig.

these

areas

are

represented

by B

the

first

waterplane,

FG

for the

second, and so on.

fair

curve

GG^D,

drawn through these points will obviously, from our previous consideration, enclose an area representing the volume of the vessel from the keel to the first waterplane; and therefore, to obtain the immersed volume of the vessel, it
is

only necessary to calculate the area of

BCD.

Fig.

17.

W.P.

ew.E

W.P.

4W.P.

Take one numerical example:


in fig.
17,

If the areas of the waterplancs of the vessel

beginning
feet,

and 150 square


will

the upper one, be 8000, 7600, 7000, 6000, 4500, 2800, respectively, and the distance between them be 3 feet, what
at

be the
:

total

volume?

The work

of

finding

this

area

we

tabulate

as

follows

No. of W.P.

'

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
this

DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY. At


shall

point,

for a reason

which

appear presently, we must endeavour to explain an important hydrostatic This law asserts that if any principle known as the Law of Archimedes.

body be
to

immersed
at

in

a fluid

it

will

the

weight of
float

the

volume
of

of

the

body
total

the

surface

the fluid

be pressed upwards by a force equal fluid which it displaces ; and if the with only a portion of its bulk im
will

mersed, that the volume of fluid displaced


weight of the body.
water, with

have the same weight as the


vessel,

Thus, a box-shaped depth of 10


5 feet

ioo'x2o'xio', floating
will

in

salt

half

its

immersed,

displace

ioo x 20 x

10000
or 64

cubic feet of the


verify

fluid.

And

since

we know, or may
ozs.,

easily

of salt water weighs

1025 2240 occupies a space of -7

lbs.,

by experiment, that a cubic foot and therefore that a ton of salt water

= 35

cubic

feet,

we

are able

to

write

Weight of water displaced by

vessel

28 5*7

tons

By

the

Law of Archimedes this weight is equal to that of the vessel and its contents. The following is a simple proof of this important principle. If the body
Fig.

18

represented

by A
it

in

fig.

18

be placed in a
a part of
its

fluid

of greater specific

gravity

than

itself,

will

float

with

bulk above the surface as


fluid,

shown.
those

The immersed
pressures

portion will

be pressed in every direction by the


parallel

which act
by arrows.
solidified,

on a section
If,

to

the the

plane
fluid

indicated
to

now,

we imagine
body
of
filled itself

paper being surrounding the body

of

the

become
this

and the
shape

to

be
top

non-existent,

cavity

will

remain having the


finally,

exact

the
to

immersed
the

form
with

of
the

the

body.
fluid

If

cavity

be

supposed
fluid

same

and

the
there

surrounding
will

solidified
free
is

be

be a

level

surface,

be disturbed
statical

supposed to .return to its former state and consequently the equilibrium will not
occupying the cavity
the
will

that

to say, the

fluid

effect

as

the

body
in

itself,

since

same
this
it

resultant
at

have the same upward pressure

keeps
weight

each of them
of the

equilibrium.

From

once follows that the

floating

body

is

the

occupying a space equal to that


principle
is

same as that of a volume of the fluid of the immersed portion of the body. This
it,

of enormous value to the naval architect, for by

when a

vessel

DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY.


is

!9
is

floated,

he knows that

its

weight,

including

contents,

equal

to

that of

the displaced water.


tions

He

has thus an infallible means of checking his calculabasis

and of forming a
will

on which
of

to estimate

the

amount of cargo the


correctly

vessel

carry.

We now

see

the

importance

being

able

to

calculate

the
in

volume of the immersed body of a ship. which this work can be done, and pointed
the use

We
out
the

have described two ways


that

the

method involving
its
it

of horizontal areas

is

preferable

to

other,

because of

greater
affords

convenience.

This

is

seen,

for instance, in

the ready

means which

of obtaining the

each

of

volume, and therefore the weight of the displaced water at the various waterplanes indicated on fig. 17. These intermediate

although not of special value of themselves, when plotted to corresponding draughts, give a curve from which the displacement at any draught up to the load-line may be read off. This curve constitutes what is known as the displacement diagram.
scale
at

displacements,

As a

practical

sider the vessel

example let us construct such a diagram in a specific case. whose waterplane areas were used in the example on page 17.
was there determined to be 88,825 cubic
>25

Con-

The
feet.*

volume up

to the load waterplane

Dividing this by 35 we obtain

=
a

2538 tons

as the ordinate of the displace-

35

ment curve at a draught of 15 up to the 2nd waterplane, or


the

feet.

Referring

now
12

to
feet,

fig.
is

17,

the

volume

to

area

DFG
total

y .

The
the

simplest
1st

the layer between

and

by way of obtaining this volume is to deduct 2nd plane represented by the area BFG l C
to

draught

of

represented

from

the

volume.

The displacement
1st
rule,

the

3rd

waterplane
to

may be
the

found by direct application of the


waterplane,

while

for

the value

4th

volume between the 1st and 4th planes should be got by Simpson's 2nd rule, and the result deducted from the total volume. The 1st
the
rule
will

be suitable
being

for

finding
case.

the

displacement to

the 5th

plane, the

half

interval

used in

this

culations carried out as suggested


for easy reference
:

In the following table we show these calthe final results are arranged by themselves

Displacement Calculation.
No. of
Sect.

20

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS
SSS25 x 3
35 x 3

Displacement to load waterplane


Displacement of layer between
ist

3 2

Q = 2^S

tons.

and 2nd W.P.

93800 x
35 x I2

670

tons.

Displacement to 2nd waterplane


Displacement to 3rd waterplane

1S68 tons.

^ 43425
ist

x 3

1240 tons.
l8 b 8tonStons.

35 x 3

Displacement of layer between Displacement to 4th waterplane Displacement to 5th waterplane

and 4th

\V. P.

= 578oox3X3 =

35x3
25

=
79

680

x 3

226 tons.

Take is now and let the distance from A to B equal 15 feet; divide it into five equal parts and draw horizontal lines from the points of division. Number these horizontal lines from B downwards. Now measure along these lines, to some convenient scale, distances representing the displace-

The

construction of the displacement curve

35 x 3 an easy matter.

a vertical scale of draught A

(fig.

19),

ments corresponding
will give

to these draughts.

fair

curve drawn through the points

the diagram required.


Fig.

19.

SCALE

OF

DISPLACEMENT IN TONS

DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY.


the draught to be taken on the scale should be
line

= io
in

feet.*

horizontal

drawn out
at

at this

draught would intersect the curve

a point showing on

the scale of tons a displacement of

1530
it

tons.

In the same way the displacefeet,

ment

any mean draught, provided

did not exceed 15

could be found.
be constructed,

From
officers

the displacement diagram another very useful one


It is specially

may

called a "scale of deadweight."

constructed for the use of ships'


It

and others who may have

to

do with loading operations.

exhibits

in graphic

form the weight of cargo put aboard as the vessel sinks

in the water,

and may be looked upon as a kind of loading meter by which the officer is able to tell, at any moment during loading operations, the amount of cargo he has got
aboard,

and the
fig.

amount
give

still

to

be

dealt

with

to

bring

the

vessel

to

her

assigned load-line.

In
It will

20

we

an

illustration

of such a diagram

deduced from
is

fig.

19.

be observed to consist of two columns, one of which

a scale of draughts

in feet, while the other indicates the

amount

of immersion caused in the vessel

by the addition of each 2007 tons in her load. The effect on the draught of quantities less than 200 tons is, of course, found by interpolation.
Fig.

20.

22

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
7 feet

AND CALCULATIONS.
aft,

at

forward and 10 feet 4 inches

and that

it

is

required to ascertain
still

how much
to sink

cargo has been put on board, and

how much

has

to

be shipped

her to a

mean draught

of 15 feet?

Mean
At At

draught at time of observation

'

ft.

8 ins.

this

draught there
feet

will

be 380 tons aboard.


the vessel will
carry

15

mean draught
still

1738 tons, therefore the 1356 tons.


it

amount of cargo
sirable to

to

be shipped

1736 - 380

CURVE OF TONS PER INCH OF IMMERSION. Sometimes


know how much
the draught of a vessel
If

is

de-

or discharging a moderate quantity of cargo.


this

would be affected by shipping the mean draught were known,


special

information could be obtained from the displacement diagram or the dead;

weight scale

it

can, however, be

more conveniently got by means of a

diagram, called a "Curve of tons per inch of Immersion," which shows graphically

number of tons required to sink or lighten the vessel one inch at any The weight of cargo shipped, divided by a number read from the diagram, will give the number of inches by which the draught has been altered.
the

draught.

Fig.

27.

TONS PER INCH IMMERSION

CURVE OF TONS PER INCH OF IMMERSION.


of which the areas are known, draw horizontal lines. of these lines the corresponding quantities
the points so obtained.

23

Mark

off to scale
fair

on each

A
,

and draw a

curve through

420
This
will

be the curve of tons per inch of immersion.


fig.

To

complete the diagram, as shown in

21, a

scale of draughts

and of tons

must be drawn and the construction

lines

erased.
is

Example.
a

If

the of 9

vessel,
feet,

whose diagram

given alDove, were floating at

mean draught
is

what would be the increased immersion due to

shipping 50 tons of cargo?

From
:

the

curve at 9 feet

draught

the

tons per

inch

found to be i6

6,

therefore

additional immersion

JL =
16*6

^-

inches.

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.

I.

State the

Trapezoidal

Rule

for

finding

areas

of plane

surfaces

having curved boun-

and point out wherein it is inaccurate. The half ordinates in feet of the load waterplane of a vessel are, commencing from aft, 2, 6*5, 9/3, 107, n, n, 10, 7*4, 3*6, and *2, and the common interval between them is 15 feet. Find the area of the plane by using the
daries,

Trapezoidal Rule.

Ans,

21 18

square

feet.

2.

What
is

are the advantages of Simpson's First Rule for finding plane areas, and for

what
11
'6,

curve

the Rule accurate?

What
14*5,

are the conditions as to

the

number and spacing


'I,

of ordi5,

nates?
15*4,

The
i6'8,

semi-ordinates of the waterplane of a vessel in feet are, respectively,


i6'9,

17,

l6'4,

9"4,

and

*l.

The spacing

of the

ordinates

is

feet,

find

the area of plane in square yards.

Ans.

303*6.

Given the values of three consecutive and equally spaced ordinates and the common between them, what Rule would you employ to find the area between the first and second ordinates? If the ordinates in feet are 5, 11 "6 and 15*4, and their spacing n feet, find the area between the first two. Ans. 93*86 square feet.
3.

distance

4.

State
*i,

Simpson's
5,

Second

Rule.
in

To what
feet

class

of curve

does

it

apply accurately?

Given
sides.

2*6,

and 8*3

as the value

of the

half ordinates

of a portion of a ship's

waterplane, and 9 feet as the

common

distance between them, calculate the area including both

Ans,

210*6

square

feet.

5.

Why

are half ordinates sometimes introduced at the ends of plane figures?

Deduce

the

modification in the multipliers of


ordinate.

Simpson's

First

Rule due

to

the

introduction

of a half

6.

What

are

the main points

of difference between Tchebycheff's

Rule and Simpson's

First

Rule

for finding

plane areas?

Compare by an

actual practical example the results obtained

by applying Tchebycheff's two ordinate Rule and Simpson's First Rule.

24
7.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Given the areas
of the
in
to

AND CALCULATIONS.
transverse
vertical

the

L.W.

P.

of the

sections of a vessel,
area.

show

that

the volume
sections

displacement

may be
4,

expressed
IOO, 1S0,

as

a plane
260, 242,

If

the

tranverse

vertical
feet,

a particular vessel are


interval
is

240,

190,

120 and 8 square

and the

common

15 feet, calculate the

volume of displacement.
Ans.

20,400

cubic feet.

S.

Explain

why
of

it

is

preferable

rather than of transverse vertical sections in calculating the

of the waterplanes
the

a vessel

employ the areas of horizontal sections or waterplanes volume of displacement. The areas are 000, 6000, 4S00, 3600, 2400, 1200, and IOO square feet;
to
is

common

interval

between the waterplanes

feet.

Calculate the displacement in tons

(salt

water), neglecting the portion

below the lowest plane.


Ans.

1213-3.
this

9.

What

is

the

"Law

of

Archimedes"?

Explain in what way

Law

is

important to

the naval architect.

10.

Referring to the latter part of question No.

8,

calculate the displacement to the various

waterplanes, and plut the diagram of displacement.

11.

How

is

curve of

"Tons

per inch of

of such a curve?
parallel water

The

areas
are,

of a ship's

sections

respectively,
is

Immersion" constructed? What use is made L.W.P. is 4000 square feet, and the areas of other 3650, 32:0, 2550, and 24 square feet. The vertical
ins.

between the sections mersion?"


distance

ft.

Construct the curve of

"Tons

per inch of Im-

CHAPTER

II.

Moments, Centre of
MOMENTS. If
less

Gravity, Centre of Buoyancy.


at

two equal weights be placed one


22),
it

each end of a weight-

lever

A B

(fig.

is

obvious

that

the

point at

which they may be

Fig.

22.

J^

P
supported in equilibrium
equal
the
lies

midway between them.


will

If

the

weights
at

be

un-

balancing
the

point
larger

not be

at

the

middle

but

some

other

position

nearer

weight.
it

In
exact

books on elementary mechanics


of

is

shown
the

that in all such cases the

position

C may be

P
obtained from
relation
(fig.

23),

n = irn

PR

(i),

Fig.

23.

if
Y
P
where
points
this

P and Q

are the unequal weights,

and A
from
the
B,

and

OB

the distances of the

of application

of

the

weights

fulcrum.

Cross

multiplying,

equation becomes
It

x A

Q,

(1).

appears then, that


forces

from a consideration

of a balanced system

of two

parallel

interest

on a rigid bar assumed to be weightless, two items of may be deduced first, that the position of the point of support must
acting
:

25

26

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

be fixed by equation (i); and second, that the


effort,

moment

of the force, or turning

about the point of support on one side must be equal and opposite to
other,

that

on the
Thus,
if

as

indicated by equation
lbs.

(2).

weights of 8 and 12

be suspended at A and
24.

(fig.

24),

the

Fig.

A
>,

II

extreme points of a weightless lever 36 inches long, and


of the

if

X be the distance
(1),

balancing

point

from A, we have, using equation


2

is

proved by
i.e.,

from which we get X


the fact that the

if inches.
is

That the point thus determined by X

the

one required

moments
is

of the weights about this point are equal,

2i| x 8

= 14^
;

12.

The
acting
the

following

an important theorem
the re$idta?it

The moment of
on

of a system of parallel forces in one plane a rigid body about any point in the plane is equal to the sum oj

moments of the component forces about the same point. case of two forces acting in the same direction, as in fig.
Fig.

25.

Take the simple Let A and B

25.
ft

v P

be the points of application of the forces ; join A B and assume the line to be the point about which the moments are to be taken, be horizontal. Let and R the resultant of the two forces, which may be called P and Q. Drop
a

perpendicular

from
to

upon the
be

line

of

action

of
in

the

forces,

which

for

simplicity are
as shown.
It
is

assumed
that

vertical, cutting

them
hold

the points D, E,

and F

clear

the

above theorem

will

if

RxOE

=
or,

PxOD

OF, that is, if Q out and cancelling


x

(P+Q)0E
like

terms,

= P(0E -DE) + Q (0 E + EF) if P x D E = Q x F.

multiplying

MOMENTS.
Since

27
written

A B

is

parallel

to to

D
be

F,

this

may be
so

PxAC

QxCB.

must be the above theorem. The theorem will, of course, hold if there be any number of forces acting, for if the line of action of the resultant be found, the forces acting on either side of this line may be represented by a single force, and this will reduce the

But

this

relation

we know

true, therefore

case to the one just proved.

We
etc.,

are

now
in
fig.

able to deal with questions in which

it

is

necessary to find

the position of the resultant of parallel forces.

Consider the forces

P P P&
ly

2i

shown

26,

which, in

the

first

instance,

we

shall

suppose acting

in

Fig.

26.

2o

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
its

planes to be perpendicular to the plane of the paper, anJ

vertical trace

to

be represented by the line of the force Plt by a simple moment calculation about this plane we will determine, not the position of the resultant, but only of the vertical plane containing it parallel to the plane chosen as the axis.

To

fully

determine

the

position

we must now

find

another

plane
it

also
is

containing the resultant parallel to the plane of the paper.

Clearly, since

in

both planes,
in
fig.

it

must coincide with the


7-2
will

line of their intersection.

Let the forces

26 act at the distances

shown from

the

plane

containing

P normal
l

to

the plane of the paper;

be the distance from the axis of one of the

planes

containing

the

resultant.

To

find

the

other

one we

must know the

position of each of the forces from a plane parallel to

the plane of the paper.

the

Let these be given by the normal distances y u y<&-y& y* - {js, eacn one having same suffix as the force to which it refers. Calling Y the distance of the

plane of the resultant from the axis plane,

we have

fill

+ fttfg ~ gsj/g + P*y*- P y p + p, + P + Pi + P


5 x 3 9

Putting in the numerical values

2, 4,

7, 9,

5,

for

17

</ 2 ,

etc., this

becomes

4x2
The two
values,

8x4-6x7
40
7*2

12

X9-5X
1*4
feet,

10

"

4
line of

X ~

feet

and Y =

determine the

the

resultant of the system

of the assumed parallel forces.

The preceding
least

principle
to

admits of
finding

many important

applications, not
to

the

of

which

is

that

the

of centres of gravity,

uhich we must

now
into

turn. We begin with a general definition. CENTRE OF GRAVITY. If the mass of

any body be supposed divided

an

infinite

number
weight

of parts, the forces or weight


parts,
will

due

to the attraction of parallel

the earth, acting

on the various
of the

form a system of
resultant

forces of

which the

total

body

is

the

and the point through

which the
of the

line of action of this resultant

always passes, whatever be the position


is

body with reference

to

the earth,

called

the centre of gravity of the

body.

body is also sometimes defined briefly as the body may be taken to act, no matter what position it may occupy. Thus, in the case of a ship and cargo, the total weight is taken as acting at a fixed point when making stability and other
centre of gravity of a
the weight

The

point at which

of the

calculations.
It
is

frequently necessary in

dealing with

ship

calculations
it

to

obtain

the

centre of gravity of an area.


the idea of weight

In approaching such questions

is

usual to keep

and

to

consider the area as consisting of a

homogeneous

lamina of uniform but

infinitely small thickness.


is

Thus, the centre of gravity of

a lamina of circular form


all

at its

geometric centre, as evidently the resultant of

the forces due to the weight of the various portions of the lamina must pass

through that point.

Also the centre of gravity of a lamina of square form


of the two diagonals.

is

in

the point of intersection

To

find

the

centre

of gravity

CENTRE OF GRAVITY.
of a triangular lamina such as A
First,

20
follows:

bisect

A C

in

of

all

strips of the

B C (fig. 27), we may proceed as B D. This line contains the centre lamina parallel to A G, consequently the centre of D and
join

of

gravity

gravity of

the triangle must be

somewhere

in

it.

Next, bisect one of the other sides, say

in

",

also

be

in

and A E

join
;

E.

The
it

centre of gravity of the lamina must obviously


at the point

therefore,
is

must be

G where

the lines

A E and

BD

intersect.

at a point one-third of

BD

from D.

In passing to the case of a lamina having a curved boundary, such, for


instance, as the

half waterplane of a ship,

we cannot determine the centre of


to

gravity

by such

geometrical
is

methods,

owing

the

irregularity

of

the

form.
of

The

usual practice

in effect to divide the

lamina into an

infinite

number

elements, to take the

moments of

these elements about any two axes chosen at

and to divide the sum of each series of the total weight of the lamina, each quotient being the distance of a line containing the centre of gravity parallel to its corresponding axis, and the
right angles in the plane of the lamina,

moments by

centre of gravity

itself,

the intersection of the two lines.

By employing Simpson's

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
it

AND CALCULATIONS.

simplionly necessary to deal with specimen elements, which greatly (fig. 28). fies the work. As an illustration consider the half waterplane A B G Divide A B into a number of parts as shown, and draw ordinates to the curve.

Rules

is

take a strip of the lamina of very small breadth a at ordinate 5, say ; area will be y 5 a, and this may also stand for the weight since the lamina

Now

its

is

homogeneous and

of uniform thickness.

The moment

of this

little

area about

A B
a

as axis will

be

y*a-

y*

yi.

With a
little

as base, set

down^2

as

an ordinate below A

B,

and draw

in

the

rectangle

shown

of area at

y5

in the diagram, which will represent the moment of the strip In the same way obtain and plot the moments of elementary areas

at #i> #2, etc.

curve through the extremities of these

little

rectangles will en-

close

an area A

D B,

which

will represent

the

moment

of the area

AGB

about
of

and consequently, by the principle of moments, the distance the centre of gravity of this area from the chosen axis will be given by
the line

B,

Total

Moment Area about A B


Total Area r
'

Area Area

AD B
AGB'

As a numerical example, let the above half waterplane be 140 feet long, and let 11 ordinates be taken so as to suit the application of Simpson's First Rule to the finding of the areas A D B and A B. The figures of this calculation are best arranged in tabular form as shown
below.

In the
feet,

first

values in

respectively.

two columns are the numbers of the ordinates and their The third column gives Simpson's multipliers, and

the fourth the corresponding functions obtained

when
far

the ordinates are treated


is

by these
the

multipliers.

It

will

be seen that so

the work

simply in the

direction of finding the area

AGB.

The

next two columns are for obtaining

area

enclosed

the

ordinates,

by the moment curve, the fifth giving the squares of and the sixth the functions of the same when affected by the

multipliers.
No', of
Ordinates.

CENTRE OF GRAVITY.
Using these
figures

31

we obtain

at

once

Distance of centre of gravity of half \ plane from axis A B

}-

Area enclosed b y moment curve Area of half plane


*97i'93
2

x 4
3
c

4*53 feet

217-3 x
It

y
position
of

14

should be noticed that in the calculation the whole squares are employed in the table, the division by 2 being done at the end, as shown.

We
one
line

have,

as

a result of the preceding calculation, fixed the


of
gravity.

containing the centre

We

must now, as already menit

tioned, determine the position of another line also containing


to this one.

at right angles

The
as

principle of
it

moments
usual
to

is

again employed, and in fixing

upon

an
of

axis

for

the purpose,
it

the

plane,

will

the axis were taken, say,


Fig.

choose an ordinate about the middle obviously mean a less laborious calculation than if Care must also be taken .to select nr at either end.
is

29.

ordinate which will allow


at

of

Simpson's

First

Rule

being

applied

in

arriving

the areas enclosed by the

moment

curves.

In the present instance either


is

ordinate 5 or 7 might be employed;


(See
fig.

the middle ordinate No. 6

unsuitable

29)
5

Taking No.

as

axis,

the

moment

of

small

strip

at

ordinate

No.

4 will be y 4 Cth, h being the common interval between the ordinates and a At ordinate No. 3, the moment of a strip will be the breadth of the strip.

y3 CtX2h, and
case

so

on

for

strips

at

the other

ordinates, the

little

area in each
interval
it

being

multiplied

by the number of times of the


axis.

common
for

is

removed from the chosen


other side of the axis, the
that for strip at

The process moment of a strip


2/7,

is

repeated

at

No. 6

on the ordinate being y^a h


the area

No.

7,

*/ 7

and so

on.

To
a,

construct the
as in

moment

diagram,

the

moments down as little

thus

found of the small areas

are,

the

previous case, set

on the other side of A B at the points to which they refer, and fair curves drawn as A H F and FKB in the Evidently, the centre of gravity will be on that side of the axis which figure.

rectangles, each

on a base

32

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
greater

AND CALCULATIONS.
from the
axis
will

has

moment

and

its

distance

be obtained by
;

dividing the difference of the

moments by

the area of the half plane

thus

Distance of centre of gravity from axis!

through ordinate No.

Area

FKB

5,

- Area Area A B

AHF

The work of finding the above areas is arranged below. The first four columns are the same as before; in the fifth are the multipliers representing the number of intervals each ordinate is distant from the axis through No. 5; the sixth column gives the functions of the ordinates after treatment by these
multipliers as well as those of Simpson's Rule.

No. of
Ordinates-

CENTRE OF GRAVITY.
the portion of the area,

33

CFLE.

The

resulting distances obtained

by dividing

the

sum

of each of these systems of

moments by

the reduced area will deter-

mine the position of the centre of


axes.

gravity of the partial plane from the chosen

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. It was shown, when treating of displacement and buoyancy, that the weight of any floating body is supported by the upward pressure due to the buoyancy of the water. Fig. 31 represents in section a ship floating freely and at rest in still water, and indicates the water pressures acting on her. It is the resultant of the vertical components of
these pressures, which act
supports,

everywhere normal to the surface in contact, which


equal
to,

and

is

therefore

the

total

weight of

the

vessel.

It

now

becomes necessary to state further that the line of action of this resultant, whatever be the position of the vessel, always passes through a certain point, viz., the centre of the immersed bulk, or the centre of gravity of the water that would occupy the same space. This point is called the centre of buoy-

Hg.
I

31

ancy.

We now

proceed to show how

this

centre

may be determined

in

any

given case.

In a vessel of simple box-shape, floating at a level waterplane, the point


obviously be at mid length in the centre line plane, and at a distance In one of constant triangular below the surface equal to half the draught.
will

section floating with a side parallel to the surface

it

will also

be at mid length,

In a cylindrical vessel floating at even but at J the depth below the surface. keel, it will as before be at mid length and at the same distance below the
surface as the centre of gravity of the transverse section.

In

all

these cases,

the

conditions being given, the point required can

be easily determined.

In

ship-shape bodies, however,

owing

to

the irregularity of form, no

such simple

just as

We must, therefore, resort to moment calculations, methods can be applied. we had to do when finding areas of surfaces enclosed by ship curves,
c

34

3HIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

Take, as example, a vessel of ordinary form floating at a draught parallel to the In setting out to find the centre of buoyancy, we obkeel-line (see fig. 32).
serve, in
line
will

the

first

place, that, since the vessel

is

symmetrical about the middle


in

plane, the

point required
if

must be somewhere
its

that
to

plane,

be

fully

determined

we know

position

relative

a vertical

and that it and a


is

horizontal line in the plane.

To
made

obtain the vertical position of the point, the immersed body

assumed

divided into an infinite


with respect to

number of horizontal layers, and a some horizontal plane, such as that


Fig.

calculation of

moments

of the load-water line.

32.

vertical

For the horizontal position, the displacement is supposed divided into transverse in this case, with layers and another calculation of moments made
;

respect to a transverse vertical plane, such as that of the after perpendicular, or

of a

transverse

section

in

the

vicinity of amidships.

It

is

only necessary to

correctly plot the results of these calculations in the middle-line plane to obtain

the position of the centre of buoyancy.


tions

In practice, as in the case of calcularules,

of

areas

specimen layers

and volumes, by using Simpson's or TchebychefFs of displacement need be dealt with.

only

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
Let Au
terval
Aj,

35
the

3i

etc.,

be the areas of the waterplanes, h


a.

common
will

in-

between them, and

a very small
of

thickness

of

layer

taken at each

waterplane.
0,

The moments
2h,

the

elementary layers being treated


scale
etc.,

about W.L.
as

be

A 2 ah, A 3 a

and so
take
the

on,

volumes
vertical
2, 3,

weights,
(fig.

the density

being constant.
off horizontally

Now
at

any

of
the

draughts

33)

and mark
just
etc.,

planes,

4,

corresponding

moments
i

found, which should be

plotted as rectangles of breadths,


of the

A 2 h,A 3 2h
little

and
thus

depths a.

fair

curve through the extremities

rectangles

obtained, starting from the point , will enclose an area representing the total

moment
the
axis

of the volume below the upper waterplane.

If,

on the other

side

of

E /?,
the

another diagram be plotted, the ordinates at the various waterareas,

planes being the corresponding waterplane


represent
total

the area' of this


1

diagram

will

volume of the

vessel
it

below No.
is

waterplane.
:

From

our previous considerations

clear that
__ _

Distance of centre of buoyancy)

below No.

waterplane,

Area Area

we may write ECB

ED B
in

As a numerical example, suppose


feet
are,

the areas of the waterplanes

square
1800, 3
ft.,

beginning from the upper one, 8000, 7600, 7000, 6000, 4500,
respectively,

and

100,

and that the common distance between them


vertical
this,

is

with a half interval at the lower end.

In obtaining the
upper waterplane, in
In the second,
pliers,

distance
all

of the

centre
it

of
is

buoyancy below the


convenient to arrange

and

similar examples,

the work in tabular form, as


third,

shown below. and fouith columns


respectively.

are

the

areas,
fifth

Simpson's multi-

and

functions
for

of

areas,

In

the

column

are

the

multipliers

leverage,

and

in

the sixth,
is

the products of the lever multiples

and the area


areas such as

functions.

The

process

seen

to

be simply that of obtaining

E G B and E D B by
No. of
Ordinates.

Simpson's Rule.

36

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
ot

The

position of the centre of

buoyancy below any


fig.

the other vvaterplanes


!* ..

may now be

obtained.

Reverting to

area 33
area

u t HN

_ _

gives

the

distance
1st

of the centre of the layer between the waterplane,

1st

and 2nd waterplanes from the

and by a simple moment calculation, the fall in the centre of buoyancy consequent on the vessel rising to the 2nd waterplane is derived. In the same way, by first finding the centre of the layer between the 1st and 3rd waterplanes, or between the 1st and the 4th waterplanes, the fall in the centre of buoyancy, due to the rising of the vessel to any of these planes, may be determined. We have here a means of constructing a diagram which will show the variation in the height of the centre of buoyancy with change in the displacement, and from which, therefore, the position of the centre of buoyancy for any draught may be read off. Take a vertical scale of draughts A B (fig. 34), and spot off on it

Fig.

34.

the positions

of the various

centres of

buoyancy

as

calculated

for

the

vessel

when immersed to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc., waterplanes. Through these points, indicated by 6 2) b etc.,
horizontally distances, b 2 h 2
,

b3

/? 3 ,

etc.,

plane and
the points
If
it

the

waterplane to which
/z 2 ,
:} ,

in the figure, set out 3) equal to those between the load watereach centre refers. A fair curve through

is

h etc., will be the locus of centres of buoyancy required. height of the centre of buoyancy at any draught be required only necessary to draw a line on the diagram parallel to the middle line
6

now

the

B,

and

at

distance

from

it

equal

to

that

between the load-line and the


line with

given draught; the point of intersection of this


required height
of centre of buoyancy.

the

locus

gives

the

the

vessel

As showing the work in an actual case, let us construct the diagram for whose centre of buoyancy at the load draught has already been

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
determined.

37

Reverting to

fig.

33,

it

will

be necessary to find the areas

PEQ
we
the

and
area

DEPN.
The
latter area

may be obtained by

the Five-Eight Rule already described

PEQ,

however, cannot be

correctly found

by

this Rule.

In
or

this
19

case
3,

should proceed as follows:

Multiply
io,

the
far

near end

ordinate,
,

by
1,

middle ordinate, or A& by

the

end ordinate, or A 3 by

and the
inter-

sum
val

of these products by one twenty-fourth the square of the between the ordinates.

common
:

Arranged

in tabular form,

the figures of the calculation are

VOLUME.

3
plane,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
and

we must

find

the

areas
;

FEG

DEFH,

which

may be done

thus.

using Simpson's First Rule

No. of W.P.

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
the ordinntes, thus enclosing an area which represents the

39

volume of the
as

vessel

below No.
are set
off.

waterplane.
Station 6
is

On

the lower side of A B,

the

moments
rule.

of the layers

chosen as the axis of moments,


first

the areas of the

moments

curves

may then be obtained by Simpson's

Calling
h, the

the

vertical areas

19

A^

A2 A
,

3,

etc.,

and the distance between them

moment
at

of an elementary layer of very small thickness a at section


section
5,

6 will be zero;

A 5 hct;
of the
section

at section 4,

A 4 2ha; and so on
at

to the left of the axis.


at

To
8,

the

right

axis
9,
>4

we have
3/7 a,

section

moment A n ha\
case,

section

A s 2ha;
axis,

etc.

As
a

in

the
in

previous

the

moments

are

plotted as

rectangles,

the

base
of the

being,

each

case,

and the other

side

rectangle, represented

measured along the by the area and lever


ordinate.

multiple appropriate to the section under consideration, erected as an


Fair curves

drawn through the extremities of these little The area enclosed by rectangles on each side of the axis as shown in fig. 35.
are

ADE

and

EFB

each
the

of

these curves

and the

axis

A B represents the longitudinal moment of


it

volume on the

side of

the axis to which

refers.

40

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

ing that, in calculating the moments, multiplication by the


left

common
:

interval

is

to the end,

we are able

to tabulate the figures as follows

No. of
Section.

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY.
be made
found
for

the
in

longitudinal the

position.
case, as

The
and
in

work,

however,

will

be

more

laborious than

previous
to

a new set of vertical


a

areas

must be

corresponding

each

draught,
out,

complete
case.

moment

calculation,

similar to the

one

just

worked

made

each

Assuming the horizon-

tal positions of the centre of buoyancy found up to a series of draughts between the top of keel and the load-line, the diagram may be easily con-

structed.

vertical

scale

of

draughts

is

taken, the

horizontal
axis,

distances

of
off

the centre of buoyancy, as calculated


at

from some chosen


fair

are

marked

the

corresponding draughts, and a


illustrates this

curve drawn

through

these points.

Fig.

36

diagram.

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
Tf

IB.

two unequal weights be suspended one at either end of a weightless lever, find the T. point at which the lever must be supported in order to be exactly balanced. If the lever be 48 inches long and the weights 11 lbs. and 5 lbs. respectively, find the balancing point from the end loaded with 5 lbs.
Arts.

33
on

inches.

2.

If

weights of

5, 8,

11, 13

and

17 lbs.

lie

table of

rectangular
3,

outline,
7

their posi"5

tions

taken in the order given and measuring Iioni


1,

one end being

4,

5-5, 6,

feet,

and

from one side

175,

2*5, 3,

275

feet,

find

the

position of the point through which the re-

sultant force acts.

Ans.
3.

579
'4

feet

from end, 2*45

feet

from

side.

Define Centre of Gravity.


aft,

The

equidistant \ ordinates
teet,

of a vessel's watcrplanc,
at

beginning
the

are
in

'2,

64,

10/2,

1 r

'O,

104, 7'o and


feet

and half ordinates introduced


find

extremities

the

usual

way have values 4


line.

and 4*3 feet;


feet.

the

distance of

the

centre of gravity from the middle

Ans.- 4*5S
4.

If the longitudinal distance

between the ordinates

in the

preceding question be 14

feet,

calculate the position of the centre of gravity with reference to the

No.

4 ordinate.

Ans.
5.

*43 feet

forward of No. 4 ordinate.

Define Centre of Buoyancy. The area of a ship's load waterplane is 7000 squaie and the areas of other parallel waterplanes spaced 3 feet apart are respectively, 65CO. 5500, 4000, and 2000 square feet (neglecting the volume below the lowest section); obtain the distance of the centre of buoyancy below the load waterplane.
feet,

Ans
6.

5*03

feet

below load waterplane.


in

Referring to the previous question, calculate the


rises

fall

the

position of the centre

0.1

buoyancy as the vessel

to

each

of the

given waterplanes, except

the

last,

and

plot

the

locus of centres of buoyancy.

7.

Explain

buoyancy?
of buoyancy
100, 180,

As

how you would proceed to calculate the longitudinal position of the centre of a practical example, obtain the position of the longitudinal position of the centre of a vessel, the areas of whose transverse vertical sections arc, starting from aft, 4,
120,

240, 260 242, 190,

and 8 square
Ans.

feet,

the sections being spaced


feet

15

feet apait.

I'ji

forward of Xo.

section.

CHAPTER

III.

Outlines of Construction.

AT
details.

this stage
least,

it

is

desirable to obtain an

acquaintance, in a general
of the

with the system


the

of construction
parts
;

the

names of

principal

in

a later

way at modern ship, and with chapter we shall take up

In the old days, when wood was the


invariably built
natural,

medium

of construction, vessels were

on what

is

known
ships,

as the transverse system;

and, as was perhaps

the

earliest

iron

were built on the same plan.


the
details

to displace wood, There were, of course, important differences in

when
to

that

material

began

of

construction

due
to

the

great

difference in

the

nature

of the

materials, but the general principle

was in each case the same.


structure,

As a foundathe keel

tion

and

sort

of

backbone

the

there was,

for
keel,

instance,

running fore-and-aft, and, at


frames, or ribs,
offer

equal

distances

along the

transverse vertical

erected to give the form of the vessel at

each point, and to


or
shell

convenient

means of

fitting

the watertight

skin

At

their

upper end the

transverse

frames were joined by horizontal girders or beams,


their

adapted to keep the frames to


platform or deck.

proper shape, and to support a horizontal

If the vessel

were a large one, usually one or more decks

might be might
In

fitted

be

for

the

below the upper one, this being necessary for strength, and it convenience of stowing certain cargoes, or of housing
is

passengers.
fig.

37,

which

the midship section of a


all

small

steel

vessel
to.

built

on

the transverse
keel, is

system, are seen

the characteristics just referred

A\ the

a steel or iron bar of considerable depth and thickness. The transmarked F, are angles running from the keel to the gunwale, and associated with bars of similar shape, called reverse frames from the circumverse frames,

stance

of

their

looking
at

in

horizontal

section

A.

an opposite direction At the bottom of the

to

the

frames as

shown

in

vessel,

deep

vertical

plates

called floor plates, are riveted to the frames

and the reverse frames, the reverse


of the
tie

frames being carried along at the upper edge

floor

plates,

as

shown.

BB

are

the beams, which as above mentioned,

the sides of the ship

and

42

OUTLINES OF CONSTRUCTION.
resist

43
Vertical
pillars,

any

tendency

to
is

change
resisted

ot

transverse

form.
the

change
tie

in

the

transverse

form
parts

by

means
shape
the
into

of

which
the

the

top
to

and bottom
carry

of

the

structure

together,
is

and

assist

floor

plates

the

cargo.

The

longitudinal

maintained by means
parts

of

the

keelsons
the

and

side

stringers,

which

tie

transverse

together,

distribute

stresses,

and

make

the

framing

one

united

structure.

The

most

Fig.

37.

S.S. 160-0 * 22-0x12-1


Lloyds Numerals
Transverse
Longitudinal

N*

34-92

5587

= 11-87

FT

V= 12-38

*SHER$TRAKE
v3r

SSX-46T0-M

J6*-J6T0-3t

36T0 12

*-o

TO

-'HI

56 to 32

-36 to "32

K.7XI*

important part of
floating

all

is

the

outer

plating
to

or skin, which

gives

the vessel
riveted

its

power.

It

will

be seen

consist

of

strakes

of

plating

to
is

each other and to the fore-and-aft flanges of the frames.


also covered in with

The

top

deck

plating or

wood

to give strength,

and keep the water

out.

The

strakes of plating running fore-and-aft

on the outer ends of the beams, and

44
connected to the
able

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
shell

AND CALCULATIONS.

by means of angles, are called stringers; they nre valu-

elements

of

strength, as
is
it

we

shall

see

when we come

to

consider

the

stresses to

which a ship
the diagram

liable.

From
is

will

be seen that the material forming the structure

For instance, the shell-plating is thickest Between the sheer strake, which runs in way of the gunwale or the top deck at side, and the bilge strakes, the plating is reduced in thickness, being a minimum about midway between these points.
not evenly distributed throughout.
the top and at the bottom.
at

Also the centre keelson

is

much

heavier than the keelsons and stringers higher

too, are not the same right forward and aft and sizes are only maintained for half the vessel's length, or thereabouts, and then a gradually tapering process is begun, minimum It should be mentioned that local sizes being reached at the bow and stern.

up on the

sides.

The

scantlings,

The 'midship

thickness

requirements usually

demand

heavier materials just at the extreme ends, but in


is

general the principle of reducing the scantlings as above


see presently the reason for
all

followed.

We

shall

this.

Fig. 37 illustrates only the simplest lorm of construction of steel vessels. Departures have been made at different times, called forth by the desire of

the owners to increase the value

of their property as producers of wealth,


in

and

these departures

have eventually resulted

considerable

modifications

in the

structure of vessels.

Thus we have
structure,

water-ballast tanks.

When

first

introduced

these tanks were mere additions to the ship's load, but they have

now become

incorporated
its

in

the

and, as

we

shall

see,

have added immensely to

strength and safety.

In vessels of wood, to build in such tanks was imit

possible,

but in those of steel

is

the natural thing to do, as the mild steel


its

used in modern shipbuilding, owing to


a

nature, can be manipulated in such

manner

as

to

ensure continuity of strength

and absolute watertighlness with

the ballast tank as part of the hull.

Other departures brought about by commercial considerations have resulted


in

modifications
to deal

of the

framing;

these

we

shall

consider

come
So
parts

more

particularly with
to

actual types of the

in detail when we modern cargo steamer.

far

we have only attempted


a vessel's
hull
to
in

obtain

some

familiarity

with

the

various
of
the
in

of

order

to

follow intelligently a
liable,

discussion

stresses

and

strains

which ships aie

which we propose to take up

the next chapter.

CHAPTER

IV.

Bending Moments, Shearing: Forces, Stresses,

and
this

Strains.

we propose to speak of the stresses and' strains to which ships and as the same principles are involved in calculations of the strength of ships and of simple beams, it will help us to begin with the simplest cases and gradually lead up to those which are more difficult. Take a beam A B (fig. 38), fixed at one end and loaded with a weight W tons at the other, and consider the system of forces in operation at any

IN

chapter

are liable,

Fig.

38.

C\

n----.

1 %
section.

---.I,

---j

B
of the
(1)

Take one at x feet from the extreme end beam itself, we have here acting
:

B.

Neglecting the weight


to

A
A

bending moment
shearing
force

WX
tons,

foot

tons, tending

bend
portion

the

beam

as

shown dotted.*
(2)

W
it

tending to cause the


the portion

of the

beam
at

CB

to

move downwards
this

relatively to

0.
is

In

simple case, the


at A, since

bending moment obviously


varies directly with x.

minimum

B
is

and a maximum
*

Also the shearing force


for clearness,

The

deflection

is

shown much exaggerated

45

46
the

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCUTATIONS.

beam from B to A. To express this in a diagram, E F (fig. 39) to represent the length of the beam. At E set up an ordinate E G, representing on some scale the maximum bending moment, W x AB foot tons. Join G F EGF is the diagram of bending moments. From it, by simple measurement, we can obtain the value of the bending moment acting at any point of the length of the beam. For instance, the
sama
for all sections of the

take a line

Fig.

39.

bending moment
the diagram,

at

a section

of the

G F
l

being marked off equal to

For the diagram of shearing


angle

beam is given by G B. forces we have merely

the ordinate

C G2
x

of

to

construct a
force

rect-

EL

M F,

on

EF

as

base,

the side

EL

representing to scale the


the outer

If,

instead

of being

concentrated at

end, the

load

W. be spread

Fig.

40.

evenly over

the
:

surface

of the

beam
x

(fig.

40), at
1

any section X

feet

from

/?,

we

shall
(1)

have

Bending moment

= wX

w X'

foot

tons,
will

being the load per


take the form

foot of length.
(fig.

The

curve of bending

moments
its

now

KRF

39),

and

is

obviously a parabola having


=*

axis vertical.

(2)

Shearing force

wX

tons.

BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING FORCES.

47

The shearing force will thus vary directly with X, will be zero at B and a maximum at A, where it will equal the total load. The shearing force diagram
will

be a triangle such as ELF,


Consider

EL

giving to scale the shearing force at A. the

now

Fig. 41 illustrates the

beam supported at each end and loaded in case. A B is the length of the beam, W the
At any section x
neglected,
feet

middle.

load in tons,

and

the re-action at each support.

from the middle of


:

the beam, the weight of the

beam itself being Bending moment = P (A Shearing force = P tons


Fig.

we have

x) foot tons.

41.

A
f*-i
y

The bending moment increases directly as X diminishes. It is therefore maximum at 0, the middle of the beam, and zero at either end A B fig. 42 being the diagram. The tendency here is for the beam to become
is

curved convex side downwards, the ends rising relatively to the middle, and it convenient to describe the bending moment as negative, the diagram being drawn below the line to indicate this. Where a bending moment gives

AGS

rise

to

an opposite tendency, that


in

is

for the

upper side of the beam to become

the case of beams supported at and loaded at each end or uniformly, it is described as positive, and With regard to the shearing forces, it the diagram is drawn above the line.

convex, as

the

previous examples, and in

the middle

should be noted that at sections to the


to

left

of the

middle, the

tendency

is

cause the

left-hand

portion of the

beam

to

move upwards
and negative

relatively to the
this, 'the

right,

and

at sections

to the right of the

middle the reverse of

forces

acting being conveniently described as positive

respectively.

This

48
is

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
expressed
left

AND CALCULATIONS.
the

in

the

diagram

by plotting
line,

shearing
for

forces

for

sections
right
in

to
0,

the

of o

above the base

and those

sections to
B, as

the

of

below that

line.

The diagram

takes the form


let

A GHKL

shown

fig.

42.

As a numerical example,
beam, the re-actions
feet to the left of 0,

the
it,

length of the
12
tons.

beam be 20
At a
:

feet,

and the

concentrated load at the middle of


at

Neglecting the weight of the


point, say 2

the

supports

will

each be 6 tons.

the middle point of the beam,

we have

Bending moment = 6 (10 - 2) = 48 and shearing force = + 6 tons.

foot tons,

If the diagram (fig. 42) had been constructed for this beam, the values above of bending moment and shearing force corresponding to a section 2 feet from the middle of the beam, could have been obtained by reading off the

ordinates at the corresponding point in the diagram.


If,

instead of concentrated at the middle, the load be distributed equally


(fig.

throughout the length of the beam

43), the

diagram of shearing forces and

bending moments
length of the

will
2

beam

be modified somewhat from that given above. Calling the the load per foot w tons, we have for the re-aclion /, and

Fig.

43.

I*

^L
at either

end of the beam,

w
/

tons.

At any section

of the

beam, say x

feet

to the left of the middle point,


(1) (2)

there will be acting

A A

bending moment shearing force

{J

- x)
2

(/-*) {l-x) =

(P - X
2

2
)

foot- tons.

= Iw -

(/

- x)

W = wX

tons.

In plotting the diagrams, we note from the equation above that the curve of bending moments will be a parabola, that it will have zero values at each end of the beam, since X will there be equal to either +/ or - /, and a

maximum

value at

the
line,

middle where X
since

0.

The

shearing

force

diagram
it

is

obviously a straight

the ordinates vary directly as

will

have

a zero value at
the

and maximum values at the supports. Calling, as before, left positive and those to the right negative, these maximum values are, respectively, +lw tons and -Iw tons. Fig. 44 illustrates the diagram for a distributed load, and it should be compared with fig. 42 As an exercise it would be interesting to construct for a concentrated load.
0,

shearing forces to the

diagram,

assuming a distributed load,

in

an actual

case,

sav

that

of

the

BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING FORCES.


20-feet

49
to

beam

previously mentioned;

but we leave

the student

do

this

for

himself.

Diagrams of bending moments and shearing forces may be derived by a


graphic process, and where the loads are irregularly distributed,
in ship problems,
this
as,

for instance,

graphic process
to describe
it

is

the

one

most convenient

to

follow.

We

propose,

therefore,

briefly.

Fig.

44.

For

this

purpose,

loaded uniformly.

diagram of loads.

to

/?,

being so

let us consider again the beam fixed at one end and By the proposed method we must start with a curve or The weight on the beam, including its own weight from much per foot of length, may be represented by the rect-

angle A

BCD

(fig.

45).

This load

is

supported by the re-action of the wall

Fig.

45.

on the portion of the beam embedded in it, but we shall only consider the external forces acting on the beam from the wall face outwards. Now, we know that at any point x feet from the end of the beam (fig. that is, the ordinate of the shearing force the shearing force = w X tons 45)
;

diagram equals the area of the diagram of loads from the end of the beam up

So
to the
is

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

point under consideration, and, therefore, as already shown, the diagram

a triangle.

Take now the bending moment. For any section of the beam, say at G X X bending moment w X x foot tons, or = shearing force x foot tons,

that

is,

equals the area of the shearing force diagram from


construct the bending

to

G.

To
diagram

moment diagram

it

is

therefore

only necessary

on the beam, to calculate the area of the shearing force end of beam to these points, and to plot the bending moments thus derived on a convenient scale. BLAB (fig. 45), is the form that such a diagram would take in the present case.
to take certain points

from

the

Fig.

46,

The
a

construction

is

quite as simple for a

ported at the ends.

Fig.

46

illustrates this

convenient scale

and

DABC
its

the

beam loaded uniformly and sup>A B being the beam drawn to diagram of loads upon it between the
case,

points of support, including ing forces

own

weight.

In plotting the diagram of shear-

we begin at, say, the left-hand point of support, at which the shearing force is positive and equal to half the load, that is, to half the area of Its value may be plotted as A L. From L the diagram of shearing force falls

DABC

in a straight line, the value of an ordinate at any section,

x feet say, from 0, the middle point of the beam, being the shearing force at A minus the load represented by the portion of the area of the rectangle DA BO from A to the section. the half load and the re-action at A are equal, and there is therefore At no
shearing force. At sections A and the shearing force
previously shown.
to the right of
is

the load exceeds a

the re-action at

negative,

reaching

maximum

value

at

B
x

as

For the bending moment of a beam loaded as described from middle, we have deduced the equation

at a section

feet

Bending moment
/

(P -

x") foot tons,

and

having the values previously given.

BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING FORCES.


This may be written

Bending moment =

(/

- X)

which obviously expresses the area of the shearing force diagram from A to the
point considered.

Thus, having obtained the shearing force diagram, to get the


it is

curve of bending moment,


these

only necessary to calculate the area of the


its

former from either end of the beam to various points in


areas
is

length, to

plot

as

ordinates

and

to

draw a

fair

curve through

their

extremities.

AM B A
As
the

the bending

the

same

principles apply,

moment diagram for this beam. we are now in a position


In the
is
first

to consider the

case of a floating vessel.

place,

take

a vessel, say a steamer, in

"light" condition, that

to

say,

completely

built,

and with
cargo,

all

aboard and water in


stores;

boilers,

but without

bunker

coal,

or

machinery consumable

and assume her to be floating freely and at rest in still water. moment's consideration will make it clear that a tendency to longitudinal straining, with which we are here dealing, must be principally caused by the

Fig.

47*

wv
action of the vertical forces
pressures
acting upwards,

made up of the vertical components of the water and of the weight of all the particles in the mass of In fig. 47, ILL is a diagram of loads for a the vessel acting downwards. We shall show in detail, presently, when we consider the im"light" vessel.
portant
the
case

of a ship

among

waves,

how such diagrams

are

constructed; in

meantime it is sufficient to note that fig. 47 shows weight in excess of buoyancy at each end and amidships, and elsewhere, except at one point forward, The excess of weight is obviously due to the buoyancy in excess of weight. small volume and the great weight of the structure at the extremities, and to the concentration of the machinery amidships, and the excess of buoyancy to the empty holds. In fig. 47, diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments are also
shown.

The curve

of shearing forces at

any point

in

the length we

know

to

be the area of the curve of loads from either end up to that point, reckoning the portions of area above the axis positive and those below negative. In the
present case, the curve takes the form

SSSS.

In the same way, ordinates of

the curve of bending


*

moments

are given

by the area of the diagram of shearing

The diagrams

North East Coast

Institution of Engineers

represented by figures 47 and 48 are taken from a paper read before the and Shipbuilders, by Mr. Bergstr6m in 1 889,

52
forces from either

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
the length at which they occur.

end up

to the points in

We
about

thus obtain the cuive

MM
tlie

M, the ordinates ot which are seen to be a


forward ana
afLer

maximum
at

about the

middle

or

holds,

and a minimum
as
at

middle length.

With a homogeneous cargo

filling the holds, the case


is

becomes
(fig.

considerably modified.
It is

The
is

curve 01 loads

now
line

shown

at L

L L

48).

seen to cross and recross the oase


slightly

the

machinery the weight

in

excess,

out

many points. In way of much more so in the is


is

mainhold.

In the forward and

after

holds,

buoyancy

again

predominant,

Fig.

48.

while weight

is

in

excess at the extreme ends.

The

shearing force curve

crosses the axis at three points in

the length, while the curve of


aft,

now B M has two


vessel
in

maximum

values,

one

forward

and one

tending to

strain

the

opposite directions.

The bending moment and consequent


water
are,

as

rule,

inconsiderable
sea.
It is

straining effects on compared with those sbe

a vessel in
rrjus'i

still

withstand

is

when among waves at called out, in some

then that the ultimate strength of the structure

cases with disastrous results.

Fig.

49.

Let us try to conceive for a moment the position of a vessel when in a If the waves be of regular form and speed, the vessel may, at a seaway.
given

She may be traversing the be in one of several positions. a line at right angles to the crests, or be rolling in the trough between or she may occupy some intermediate position with her length at an the waves The bending moment will be different in oblique angle to the crest lines.
instant,
in

waves

every position, and


case,

the

hull

should be designed strong enough

for

the worst

BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEARING TOkCES.

55

Of
is

the above conditions, the

right angles to line of

the condition in

first one, in which the vessel is assumed at It wave crests, has been most frequently investigated. which longitudinal straining is greatest, and may, therefore,

in this respect

be considered to include the other two cases.

Fig.

50.

Taking the
of these
is

first

condition,
fig.

we note

that

it

has

two

critical

phases.

One

indicated in

49,

cargo aboard, but with stores


voyage,
is

assumed and bunker coal consumed


where the
vessel,

in full sea trim with


as at

the end of a

shown poised instantaneously


latter

in

an upright position on the crest of


other phase
is

a wave, the

being at mid-length.

The

when

the vessel,

Fig.

51

complete with bunker coal and stores as well as cargo her worst condition in has a trough amidships and a crest at each end (see fig. 50). this case

As we shall see moments are reversed

presently,
in the

when we
cases.
to
is

construct

the

diagrams, the

bending
the

two

The

general straining tendency, with


rise

the crest amidships, ordinarily

cause the middle to

relatively to

Fig.

52.

ends, as
to

shown

in

fig.

51,

sink

relatively

to

the

ends, as

and with the hollow amidships, to cause the middle in fig. 52. These strains are known as

hogging and sagging, respectively.

Diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments for a vessel situated as figs. 49 and 50, are constructed on the assumption that the waves are stationary, and that the problem may be treated as a purely statical one.'
indicated in

54

SklP CONSTRUCTION

AND

CALCtJLAflON.

No note is ordinarily taken of the fact that the quick passage of waves past a vessel, particularly one of relatively fine ends, has a tendency to develop
her, altering her virtual weight and buoyancy from moment, and consequently directly affecting the magnitude of the It may be bending moment, and, therefore, the strains brought upon her. mentioned that, where they have been specially allowed for, these vertical

an up and down motion in

moment

to

oscillations

have been found to reduce hogging and increase sagging


too,
it

strains.

In these diagrams,

is

not usual to allow for the difference in the

water pressures in the waves as


it

is

known

than at

compared with those in still water, although and greater in the hollows the corresponding depths in still water, due to the effect of the orbital
that

they are less in the wave crests

motion of the water


are ignored, or
are

particles

in

the waves, the general effect tending to a re-

duction of both hogging and sagging bending moments.

Other points which


are the effect of

found impracticable so
is,

far

to deal with,

longitudinal oscillations, that

although clearly

and of rolling motions, on the bending moments. they may have considerable influence
pitching

and

'scending,

It

is

obvious, then,

that

diagrams as

ordinarily

constructed

are

only

ap-

proximately true, and should be used merely as a means of comparison between


vessels. for

When so employed, they are most valuable as a guide in new designs determining the lines to be followed in making departures in construction.
Taking a
vessel, then, in

the

condition
as in the

exhibited

in

fig.

49,

viz.,

with

wavef
water,

crest

amidships,

we

begin,

simpler case

of

the vessel in

still

by constructing a curve of loads. Such a curve, we know, shows the of the forces of weight and buoyancy at all points in the length, and to obtain it we must first find the values of these forces. A curve of It is only necessary to calculate the buoyforces of buoyancy is easily drawn.
difference

ancy per foot of length,


apart,

at various cross sections, usually taken at equal distances

and then
The diagrams

in

a diagram, whose
by figures

base
54,

line

represents
are

the

length

of the

represented
51.

53,

and 5$

from

Mr. Bergstr6m's paper


to

referred

to

on page

length of the ship,

t In these calculations it is usual to assume the wave and a height of j- of its length.

to.

have a length equal

the

CURVES OK WEIGHT AND feUOYANCY.


the results on some convenient scale as Thus we obtain the curve ABO (fig. 53). To draw the curve of weights is more difficult. There of doing this leading to the same result. One of them is
vessel,

55
ordinates
at
cor-

to

mark

off

responding points.

are various ways


to

deal

first

with

the

by calculating the weight per frame space of that which is continuous at chosen points throughout the length, and plotting the results on the same scale as employed for the buoyant forces at corresponding points on
hull
material,

the diagram containing the curve of buoyancy

and then on the curve obtained


the irregular weights,
boilers,

by penning a batten through these and


shafting, coal in bunkers,

points, super-imposing

such as bulkheads, stern-post, propeller and rudder, engines and


cargo in holds,
etc.

tunnel

The

irregular

weights

are

conveniently
in

plotted

as

rectangles

on bases
to

extending over a portion of the length

the

diagram corresponding
of

that

occupied by them

on the

vessel.

In

the

case

bulkheads,

however, the

weight

is

sometimes spread over a frame space, and


is

in the case of coal

and of

cargo, the weight per foot of hold space

plotted.

In the example chosen,

homogeneous cargo of a density to completely fill the holds and bring the been assumed. This is usual in strength calculations, as it would be obviously impracticable to exactly allow for a general cargo, owing to the difficulty of obtaining the positions and weights of the various
a
vessel to her load-line has

portions of

it.

The complete weight


seen from the

curve or
It

diagram

is

of a very irregular

form, as will be

figure.

should be noted that the weight


its

curve must be equal in area to the curve of buoyant forces and have of gravity in the same vertical
If the area
line,

centre

as these are the conditions of equilibrium.

of the weight curve be greater or less than that of the curve of


will

buoyancy, the vessel


shallower draught, as
different
verticals

not

float at the
;

assumed
if

water-line but at a deeper or

the case

may be and trimming moment will

their

centres of gravity be in
operation,

be

in

showing

the

assumed line to, be wrong also as to trim. Having got the curves of weight and buoyancy quired, we note that the actual load on the vessel

to
at

correspond

as
is

re-

any

point

the

$6

SklP CONSTRUCTION
at

AND CALCULATIONS'.
that
is

unbalanced force acting


curves.

the

point;
at

the difference between the two

numerous ordinates and plotted to the These differences, same scale as the diagrams of weight and buoyancy, give a curve, or diagram of loads, marked L L L in fig. 54. The conditions of equilibrium required in
measured
this line

case are
shall

that

the

area

of

the

portion
line
;

of the

diagram

above the

base

equal

the

area

below that
shall

also that the

centres of

gravity of

the

upper and lower areas

be in the same
forces
is

vertical.

To

construct

the

curve

of shearing
the

a simple

matter,

since the

of the end to any point, is way, the curve of bending moment shearing force at that point. In the same These two curves is obtained by integrating the diagram of shearing forces. take the in the case assumed that of an ordinary well-deck cargo steamer

area of the

curve of loads from

the value

forms

SSS

and

MMM

in

fig.

54. forces,
is

In constructing diagrams of loads, shearing


for

and bending moments,


astride

the

other extreme condition in which the vessel


(fig.

two consecutive
is

waves, with a hollow amidships

50),

the

main point of difference

in the

Fig.

55.

curve of buoyancy, which will


of weights
will

now

take the form the

BBB

*(fig.

53).

The

curve

remain as before,* but

curve

of loads

will,

of course,

be

of a different form, the

weights being in excess amidships and the supporting forces in excess at each end (fig. 55), the tendency being, as already pointed
out,

to

develop sagging strains amidships.


foregoing shearing forces
materials,
It

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE OF FORM. The


and
bending

moments
to

give

rise

to

stresses
in

in

the

and
is,

to

con-

sequent

tendencies

change

of

form

the

structure.

of

course

rupture,

important to prevent the stresses on the materials becoming sufficient to cause and the tendencies to change of form from becoming actual permanent

We shall show presently that this may be done in three ways by increasing the weight of materials; second, and preferably, by judicious disposition of materials third, by design of structure.
deformation.
first,
;

To
'

simplify our

explanations,
is

we
a

shall

angular
*

beam
that

A
the
for.

ship

reall y

huge
stores,

beam

take the case of an ordinary rector girder, and, consequently,


in

Except

bunker coal and

assumed consumed

previous

case

musi

now

be allowed

kfcStStANCE TO

CHANGE Of fOkM.
shearing
stresses

57

what

is

true
is

for

the

simple

beam when under

and bending
be of some
stresses.

moments,

also true for the ship.


fig.

A BCD,

56,

is

a rectangular beam, which we


will yield equally

will

assume

to

elastic material,

such as

under tensional or compressive


56.

Fig.

A
Draw a
lines,

horizontal line at
little
it

mid
at

height,

ad, bd, at a

distance
the

at

each end, and load

mid length also draw two vertical Now, place this beam on supports middle and observe what happens (fig. 57).
and
at

apart.

The beam
at

will

be seen to sag in the middle

also the top surface

DC

will

be found reduced in length, the bottom surface increased, while

E F,

the line

mid

height,

though taking the curve of

the

beam,

will

have

its

length

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS
bending moment has
l
.

Now
stress

the
to

stress
1

due

to

the

external

obviously in-

creased a 6

There is thus a compressive a b\ and reduced dc to d l G on the upper part of the beam, and a tensional stress on the lower part.
the strains are

Since

reduced from the outside of the beam


in

to

zero

at

the

middle,

being

unchanged
it

length,
that

the

stresses

must

be

correspondthe
stress
at

ingly reduced.

Also,

is

clear

the

strain,

and,

therefore,

any point

in the height of the

beam, varies in direct proportion


for example,

to the distance

of that point from the line

ef;

the strain at b

is

double that at
is

a point midway between b and /.


the section,
is

The

surface

of which

ef

a portion

of

brium of the
the portion of

known as the neutral surface. Let us now consider the equilibeam as loaded in fig. 56 at any section such as ac. Taking beam to the right, there is, as we have seen, an external bend.

ing

moment due to W.2 No other external forces are acting, if we neglect the beam itself, so that this moment must be counteracted by the sum of the moments of the molecular forces of the portion of beam to the left acting at the section. Besides these moments there is due to the load
weight of the
Fig.

59.

a vertical shearing force in operation tending to


of the

move

the

right-hand
is

portion
counter-

beam upwards

relatively

to

the

left.

This

shearing force

acted

by the resistance of the

fibres of

material to shearing.

We

shall return

to this point again.

is

In fig. 59 we show enlarged end and side views of the section a C. a section of the neutral surface and is called the neutral axis at ac.
there
is

HA
At

NA

no

stress

due

to bending.

and pull the beam, as As the beam does not move in the direction of its length, these horizontal stresses must neutralise each other, that is
cular stresses push

Above and below this shown by the arrows.

line

the mole-

Pulling stress

+ pushing
at
:

stresses

(1).

We
with
its

have seen that the


distance

stress

any point of a section


if,

varies

directly
stress

from the neutral axis

therefore,

we know the

at

any one point either above or below HA, we are able to write down equation (1), because in materials such as steel or wrought iron the resistance to compression and tension, within the elastic limits,
is the same. bending moment and the area and form of the section of the beam, we are able to find the internal stress at any point

When we know

the

external

resistance to Change;
of the
neutral
at

of-

form.
say

59

section.
axis.

Let
Calling

us
the
it

find

it

at in
2

unit

distance,

one

inch
at
this

from

the
s,

stress
will

tons
s tons,

per

square

inch

point

two inches from NA above or below NA, it

be

and, generally, at y inches either

will

be

ys

tons.
this

On
the

a small portion ol

area

a, at

distance

from

the

neutral

axis,

stress will

be

ysa
and the

tons

total stress acting at the section will

be the sum of

all

such elements

we may

therefore write

Total pushing and pulling stresses at section a C = S^yct tons, where the symbol 2 signifies that the sum of the elementary forces is taken.

Now

there

must be no resultant
is

stress

acting

at

the

section,

so

that

s^yct

0.

But ~yct
axis,

the

moment
area
to

of

the

area,

and

for

this

to

be

zero,

the

neutral

about which the moments have been taken, must pass through the centre
the

of

gravity of

of

the

section.

This

fixes

the

neutral

axis,

and

-is

an important point
from
this

remember.

To

get

now
the

the stress at a

point one inch


of the

axis

as required,

we must equate
axis
to

sum

of

the

moments

internal
at

stresses section.

about the neutral

M, the external

bending moment

the

At any distance y inches from NA, either above or below, the moment of 2 the stress acting on a small portion of area a is syaxy sy a inch tons.

And

for

the

whole

section

we
a
is

may

write

Sum

of

moments
:

of

internal

stresses

= 2(/ 2a

inch tons.
2*/
2

Now, the expression


the

a well-known quantity in physics


If
it

it

is

called
I,

moment

of inertia of the section of the beam.

be represented bv

and the
8,

internal

and external moments be. equated, we get:

sI=M.

So

that

the stress in tons at one inch from

NA,=

M
-j--

stress at any point in the section, it is only by the distance of the point from the neutral axis. necessary to s Thus, if y inches be the distance of the upper or lower surface of the beam from NA, and p be the stress there, we shall have :

To

find

the value

of the

multiply

Maximum
This
the

compressive or tensional
is

stress in tons at section

% =p=y -j-.

(2)

the

formula which

strength
It

of

beams and

girders,

must always be employed when dealing with such as ships, and is worthy of careful
stress

study.

shows that the maximum


inversely
as

varies

directly as

M, the external
a

bending

moment, and
stress
is

Consequently,
this

with

given

bending

moment, the
reducing
It
is
it.

reduced

by increasing
a

quantity

and increased by
loaded
that

easy

now

to
is

understand why in

ship

or

other

beam
is,

reduction of stress

effected

by increasing the

sectional

area,

the

60

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
by changing the design.
increased.

weight of materials, by judiciously disposing them, or


It

merely

means
area

that in

each case the


the

modulus

is

Increase of

sectional

directly increases

moment

of inertia /;

the

same
will

effect

is

attained without increase of sectional area by concentrating the latter at points

remote from

the

neutral
;

axis.

Deepening the beam or girder


be increased, but so also
will will
;

affect the

modulus

in

two ways
effect

will

y% however, the
the stress.
It
is

on the whole
reasons
at

be to increase
case
of
a

y as / varies as modulus and reduce the


ship
it

for

these

that

in

the

is

desirable

to

have
at

the

thickest

plates

the
plates,

upper

deck
the
neutral

stringers

and
a
is

sheerstrakes,

and

the

keel

and

bottom
the

and
the

thinnest
axis axis

plates
in

deck and
formula,

bottom,

vicinity

of
at

ship.

indeed,

tells

us

that

the

neutral
it

there

midway between The above no stress on the

materials due to bending


at the neutral axis this

moment, and
a
horizontal

would thus appear that the scantlings


It

might be reduced

indefinitely.

happens, however, that at

place

in

the depth

sliding

or

shearing action,

which

is

de-

veloped by the variation of the


length,
in

benJing moment from point

to point

of the

and which tends


directions,

to

push the upper and lower portions of the structure


its

opposite

has

maximum
more

value.

To
-is

counteract

this

straining

tendency, a considerable sectional area of material


the neutral axis.

needed

in

the vicinity of

We

shall

deal

fully

with this point presently.

is

Another reason against thinning down too much the side plating of ships found in the consideration that when rolling excessively at sea, the sides
frequently

may

become,
called

approximately at
to

least,

the

top

and

bottom

of

the

girder,

and be

upon

withstand considerable bending stresses.

To
know

apply formula (2) to find the stress at any point of a beam,

we must

three things.

We

must know the external bending moment


inertia

at the section

containing the point, the position of the centre of gravity of the area of the
section,

and the value of the moment of


its
is

of

the

sectional

area
in

about
detail

a horizontal axis through

centre of gravity.
ship,

We

propose to

show

how

the work

done
shall

in

the case of a

but before dealing with so com-

plex a girder,

we

In a previous page we have explained


always be found
as
;

two practical examples of simple beams. how the external bending moment may we may therefore assume this item as known. Take then
take
or
steel

one

first

case,

beam

of rectangular

section

20 feet long,

inches

deep,

and

3
its

middle of

under a bending moment of 600 inch-tons at the length, and let us determine the maximum stress on the material.
inches
thick,
stress

Begin by writing down the

formula,

viz.

In

the
ins.

above

beam

the

centre

of

gravity

is

at

mid-depth

therefore
in
is

Also the formula for the

moment

of inertia of the section


its

this

case a rectangle, about a horizontal axis through

centre of gravity,

---,

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE OF FORM.


where A
is

61
Substituting
the

the

area

of the

section

and h the

full

depth.

given values, we have


7 I =

^6X12X12
1

^432

in.

and

therefore

600 p =

x 6

8'3

tons per sq. inch.

Fig.

60.

>

Taking the strength of steel at 30 tons per square inch, this stress allows a factor of safety of rather more than 3-^-, which, in most cases, would be too The form* of section above given low, 5 to 6 being common for ship work.
is

being rolled into


of material as a

by no means the most economical for steel beams. This material admits of many forms, and to show the great importance of distribution

means of increasing the strength of beams against bending, let assume the length, depth, and sectional area, and therefore the weight, to us The only additional work remain as before, but the form to be as in fig. 60.

Within

elastic limits
is

mild

steel

and wrought iron are equally strong under compression or

tension, but this


six
its

by no means true of all materials. Cast iron, for instance, will withstand a wood, on the other hand, has times greater stress under compression than under tension In such cases, for maximum strength on minimum weight, greatest strength under tension.
:

Fig.

61.

the section must be ol centre of gravity,

special

design.

The

axis

of

moments must
weaker
side

still

pass

through the

by concentrating the For example, beams loaded at the middle and material on that side near the neutral axis. supported at the ends, if of cast iron, to be of economical design should^ have cross sections,
stress

but

the

may be

reduced on the

pf such forms as indicated in

fig.

61,

62
to

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
of inertia of the
is

be done here

is

to find the

moment
is

new

section about the

neutral axis, which, as in the previous case,

at mid-height.

The formula

for

the

moment

of inertia in this case

/= BH -2bh
s

12

where
the

is

the

full

breadth,

depth of beam, h the distance between the flanges, B and b the breadth from the outer edge of the flange to the
full

side of the web.

Substituting the values given in

fig.

60

/= nx
t-

_?

1728-2 x6x 1000 = n 872


i

in.

12

We

therefore have
Stress at top

and bottom of beam

-
872

4*1 tons per square inch,

maximum stress which is only half of The above is only an illustration

the previous one.


;

for

various

reasons,

girders

of

this

section are not usually rolled with flanges of greater width than 6 to 7 inches.

Taking them at 7 inches, and increasing their thickness to if inches say, 3 with the same weight of material, a girder of 18 inches depth and i T F inches web could be obtained. The moment of inertia of such a girder would be 1685; and, under the same bending moment of 600 inch-tons, the stress on the upper and lower flanges would be
600 x 9
~i68T~~

p =

3' 2

tons P er square inch.

Let us turn now to the case of a floating ship. We have seen obtain the external bending moment, and to apply the stress formula,

how
it

to

only

remains to determine for the material at the transverse section under the maximum bending moment, a method of fixing the position of the neutral axis, and
of calculating the

the neutral
position

axis

may

moment of inertia about that axis. Now, as we know that passes through the centre of gravity of the sectional area, its therefore be easily found. As we shall see presently, the calculais

tion involved

conducted simultaneously with that


to

for the

moment
in

of inertia.

In setting out

find

the

moment
and

of inertia

we must bear

mind

that

we

are dealing with a built girder,


is

longitudinal direction
strains.

to

be

that only continuous material lying in a considered as available for resisting longitudinal

In ordinary cases the

maximum bending moment


the weakest of course,
if

occurs at about mid-

length

we must

therefore choose
as,

moment

of inertia calculation,

section in this vicinity for the straining were to take place, it

Careful note should be made of the fact that would be at this section. material under tension must be calculated minus the area of the holes for the
rivets

joining

the frames to the shell

plating,

the

beams

to

the

deck-plating,

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE OF FORM.


etc.

63

This precaution need not be taken with the material in compression, as


if well fitted, will be as effective to resist this stress as the unpunched Where continuous wood decks are fitted, they are sometimes allowed wood being considered equivalent to about T\ of its sectional area in steel.

the rivet,
plate.
for,

are

must be reduced on account of the butts, which strakes, also on account of the bolt holes. For compression the full area is taken. In modern cargo steamers continuous wood decks are seldom fitted, and there are none in the vessel
In the case of tension,
usually
this

separated by three passing

whose moment of

inertia calculation

is

given below.

As already mentioned, the conditions dealt with in these strength calculations are those depicted in figs. 49 and 50. In the first case, hogging
strains

usually

predominate
in

in

ordinary

vessels,

the

upper material being in


upper works and tento

tension

and the lower


stresses

compression.

In the second case, sagging strains


stresses in the

would be expected, causing compressive


sional

below.
in

Since
the

the

rivet

holes

require

be
for

deducted
hogging

from

the upper

material

moment

of inertia calculations

strains,

and from the lower material in that for sagging strains, obviously a separate calculation is needed for each case. Dr. Bruhn* has pointed out that the necessity of two calculations may be obviated by obtaining the moment of
inertia without correcting for the rivet holes, the stress

so obtained being after-

wards increased inversely with the reduced sectional area.

The

results obtained

by

this

method do not
is

differ

much from

those

by the

ordinary

one,

while

the work

less.

In the following example we show in


of inertia for a cargo steamer of

detail

how

to

find

the

moment
the

modern type subjected


full

to a

hogging bending
tabulated,

moment.

It

will

be observed that the


at

sectional

areas

are

sum
a
of

of those of the parts in tension being reduced by of rivet


in

as an allowance for

line

holes
the

a frame.
instance,
is

It

will

also

inertia,

first

obtained
;

about
that

be noted that the moment an assumed axis, the


the
distance

position
neutral

of
axis

the

neutral

axis

being unknown
is

between the
the value

and the assumed one


of inertia

next

determined,
axis,

and
is

that

of the
is

moment

about the neutral


the

obtained from that about

assumed

axis,

what we require, by employing the well-known


:

which

property of the

moment

of inertia expressed by the formula

I=

I - A
x

h2

Where / = moment of inertia about neutral axis. I = moment of inertia about assumed axis. A = area of material in section.
x

distance between axes.

of inertia for

This principle is also employed in the first instance to obtain the moment each item about the assumed axis. For items of small scant-

lings in the direction of the

depth of

girder,

the

moment

of inertia

is

expressed
their dis-

with
-

sufficient

accuracy by multiplying the areas

by the squares of

Institution of

See his paper on Stresses at the Discontinuities of a Shifs Structure^ read before the Naval Architects in 1899,

64

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

tances from the axis as in column 7. In the case of the side plating, however, and the vertical parts of the double bottom, such as the centre girder, margin plate, and intereostals, the figures of column 6 have to be increased by the

moment
that
is,

of

inertia

of

each item about an


is

axis

through

its

centre

of gravity,

TV

A d\ where d

the depth of the item,

and A the

sectional area

these quantities are given in column S.

The moment
on
material
at

of inertia

being obtained, the stress in tons per square inch


//,

any

distance

either

above

or

below the

neutral

axis,

is

quickly found, since


It

p =

y.

should
units

be

remarked that when applied to a large girder


employed,
.

like

a ship,
in
feet,

special

are

being in foot-tons, A in

sq.

inches,

/ in

feet-

and inches 2

Moment

of Inertia Calculation.

(Ship under a hogging strain).


S.S.

350' o" x 50' 74" x 28'


line to bridge

o".

Assumed

neutral axis above base,

16' o"

Depth from base

deck, 36' 10

feet.

Below Assumed Axis.

Items.

MOMENT OF INERTIA CALCULATION.


Above Assumed Axis.

65

Items.

66
of the
instance

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
displacement
:

AND CALCULATIONS.
length,

multiplied

by the

we
5l_

shall

have in the present

Maximum
and
if

bending moment

96000

ft.

tons:

35

we use

this

figure with

that just obtained for the value of

we

shall

get for the greatest stress acting

on the

vessel

when under a hogging


.

strain

pe
To
out, a

M r
~y

/ =

QOOOO
I2314

= 779

tons per square inch.

obtain the greatest stress under a sagging strain, as previously pointed

new moment
to

of

inertia

calculation

is

necessary, otherwise
detailed.
it

the work

is

similar to that just explained

and need not be here

With regard
built to
resist

the magnitudes of calculated stresses,

may be

said that,

generally speaking, these increase with size of vessel.

Small vessels have to be

local strains, and are probably too strong, considered as floating At anyrate, their actual calculated stresses, of which records are available, show these to be very small indeed. In 1874, Mr. John investigated the longitudinal strength of iron vessels of from 100 to 3000 gross tonnage, on the basis of Lloyd's scantlings, the following being some of his results
girders.
:

Gross tonnage of Ship.

Tensional siress in tons per square inch


at

Upper Deck.
1*67

IOO
5 00

3"95
5'2

IOOO 2000

5*9

3000
Later calculations for steel vessels of large
to strength,
size,

8*09

which have proved

satisfactory as

show maximum stresses of between 8 and 9 tons and even higher The Servia, a passenger and cargo vessel of 515 ft., had a calculated stress at the upper deck of 10*2 tons per square inch when on the wave crest, and of 8 o4 tons when in the wave hollow, while the Maurelam'a*, of 760 ft. length, is stated to have a calculated maximum stress of 10*3 tons on the top member. It should be added that a special high tensile steel was largely used in the construction
-

of the upper works of the latter vessel.

With regard
plating
efficient
is

to compressive stresses,

it

is

important to note that thin deck


is

liable to

buckle when in severe compression, and


strain
;

therefore not so

under a sagging as under a hogging

this

should be borne in mind,

particularly
It

when considering maximum


already

stresses

on bridge and awning-decks.


such
as

has

been pointed
fully represent

out

that

stresses,

the

above,

are
figs.

not the actual stresses experienced by the vessel, since the conditions of

49 and 50 do not
example,
if

those of a vessel

among

waves.

The

results,

however, are valuable for comparison.

In the case of a proposed vessel, for the calculated stress be not greater than in existing vessels whose
*

See the Shipbuilder

for

November, 1907.

SHEARING STRESSES.
recoids have been satisfactory, the scantling arrangements in the

67

new
of

ship

may

be considered adequate.
calculated
stress

If

it

be much
have
the

greater, so as to

approximate to the
signs

in

vessels

which
clear

shown
most

manifest

weakness
for

when on new

service,
it

then additional strength must be added.


will

From

our previous
the

considerations,

be

that
will

economical
at

position

material
/.*.,

to
far

resist

bending,
possible

be either
the
stress.

the

top
it

or bottom
will

of the

vessel,

as

as

from

neutral axis, as

there

be

of

maximum

efficiency

in reducing the

ing forces on a structure.


^forces

SHEARING STRESSES. We come now to consider the We have already explained how the
may be obtained

effect

of shear-

values of such

at all points in the lengths of beams, including floating under various systems of loading, and we have now to determine the stresses caused thereby.
vessels,

Fig.

62.

If

the vertical
:

shearing

force

at

any

section

be

taken

as

F,

we may

obviously write

Mean
where

stress per

square inch /

F_

due to shearing force

'

is
if

the

example,
shearing

a rectangular

number of square inches of material in the section. For beam of section 8 inches by 4 inches be under a

force

of 64 tons, then

Mean
The
from

stress per square inch

64

8x4

tons.

actual stress at any point


this

of the
shall

section

mean
62

stress,

as

we

now proceed
at

may, however, be very different to show.

In

fig.

we have

the diagram

of bending

ported at the

middle and loaded

each end.

moments for a beam The bending moment


has

supis

maximum

at the point

of application of the support, and

zero values at

68 each end.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
A x A 2 and A 3 A^ the bending moments
nearer

For any two


the

vertical sections

may be
the divide
the

read from

diagram.

Section Aj A 2 being
the neutral surface,

mid-length

has
to

greater

bending moment.

/!//!/,

may be considered
is

the

beam

into two portions, of

which the upper one

in tension

and

lower in compression.

Consider

now

the

equilibrium
63.

of a small portion of the

beam A

RLA

Z,

shown enlarged in fig. and on the end A 3 L.

There are pulling forces acting on the end A r R As the former section is under a greater bending
the
stresses
will

moment than
tending
to

the

latter,

also

be

greater.

There"

will'

thus

be a force equal to

the

difference

of
the

the

total
1

forces

acting

on the ends
mid-length.
-

move
is

the

portion

of

beam A R
force

L Az
the

towards

This action
Clearly, the

balanced

by a
this

shearing

over

bottom surface L
the areas
force
it

R.

magnitude of

shearing
top
as

force will vary with

of the
will

ends A X
zero,

R and A 3 L
will

At

the

of the

beam

the

shearing
/I/,

be

and

gradually increase

RL

approaches

where

will

be a

Fig.

63.

SHEARING STRESSES.

69
4

/ = Moment of inertia of the whole section (in inches q = Stress per square inch at the given point. b = Breadth of beam in inches at the given point.
shear stress was found above to be
stress intensity at the neutral axis
:

).

Let us apply the formula to the case of the rectangular beam whose mean
2

tons.

Substituting values,

we get

for the

16 X

x 12 x 64 3

=
in

4 x 32 x 64

3 tons per square inch.

-1

Thus the maximum shear


the mean.

stress

is,

this

instance,

50 per cent, greater than

The above is for a simple beam of rectangular section, but the same In the may also be applied to the more complex case of a ship. latter instance, of course, the beam is of hollow section, and b will be twice
formula
the thickness of the shell plating.
It
is

important to note that only continuObviously,


the value

ous longitudinal materials must be used in rinding A.


of the shearing stress
will

vary with P, the vertical shearing force,

which
the
to

is

maximum
end
;

in ordinary vessels at about one-fourth the vessel's length from each

so that at the neutral axis at these points of the length

shearing

stress

may be

considerable.

We

see

now why

it

is

inadvisable

unduly

reduce the scantlings in the vicinity of the neutral


It is also

axis.

important to give special attention to the rivets in the landings,


seams, in
for
this

or
to

longitudinal

neighbourhood, as

the

shear

stress

gives

rise

tendency

the

edge

of

one strake to

slide

over

that

of

the

next.

double riveting the seams


say

Recent experience with large cargo vessels has shown that the usual plan of is only sufficient for vessels up to a certain size, 450 or 480
Lloyd's
feet
in,

length.

Longer vessels

will

develop weakness at the


the neigh-

longitudinal seams unless precautions be taken to increase the strength of the


riveting.

Rules now require treble riveted edge seams


in

in

bourhood of the neutral axis above length and beyond.


which tend to
ably of
first

the

fore

and

after

bodies in vessels of the

TRANSVERSE STRAINS. So
strain

far,

we have

dealt exclusively with stresses

a vessel longitudinally, and while such stresses are prob-

importance, we must not omit to refer to those which

come upon

a vessel in other directions.


It

has been customary to consider stresses which tend to change the trans-

verse

form as next in importance to those affecting a vessel

longitudinally.

Structural stresses in other directions are, indeed, partly, longitudinal


transverse,

and

partly

and where the predominant


combination in a

effect of their

nately, the subject of transverse

known for any vessel, the diagonal direction may be predicted. Unfortustresses of ships is a complicated one, and we
stresses

are

cannot do more here than indicate generally the external forces which operate

on a

vessel

so

as

to

alter

her transverse form, and point out the structural


this

arrangements which best

resist

deforming tendency.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
still

Consider in

this
is

connection the case of a vessel afloat in

water

(fig.

64).

The

hull surface

pressed everywhere at right angles by the water pressures,


is

indicated in the figure by arrows, and the resulting tendency

towards a general

Taking the transverse components of the water pressures, these obviously tend to force up the bottom and press in the sides, as shown exaggerated in fig. 64. Such tendencies, however, are prevented from becoming actual strains by the internal framing. The comparatively thin shell plating, which might yield under heavy water pressure, particularly in the way of an empty compartment, is kept in shape by the frames, rigidly
deformation
of the
vessel's

form.

connected to the beams and to the


spectively,

floors at their top and bottom ends reand supported between these points by hold stringers and keelsons. In way of the bottom, the deep floors, spaced at comparatively short intervals, and fitted, in the first instance, as supports to the cargo, are splendid preservers

of the form.

The

floors,

too, are tied to the

beams of the decks by means of

Fig.

64.

TTTrrr^
strong pillars, and in this
ture
is

way a
it

stress

communicated

to

as a whole.

which comes upon one part of the strucProbably the most efficient preservers
steel

of transverse the vessel

form are the athwartship

bulkheads.
rigid,

Where

these

occur

and care should be taken to spread this excess of strength over the space unsupported by bulkheads by means of keelsons and hold stringers. Docking Stresses. A vessel when docked or when aground on the keel
considered as absolutely

may be

particularly

if

loaded, has

to

withstand

severe

transverse

tresses.

The

re-

action

of the

weight at the middle line will tend to force

up her bottom
This
is

while the weight of cargo out in the wings will set

up a considerable transverse
will

bending
shown,

moment and cause much exaggerated of

the bilges to have a drooping tendency.


course, in
fig.

65.

There

be

tensile
;

stresses
if

of considerable magnitude acting along the top edges of the floors


vessel

and

the

be one having ordinary

floors,

weakness may be developed at the lower

turn of the bilge, as

the framing has there to withstand a shearing stress

due

to the weight of the cargo above.

The

floors

should therefore be kept as deep

transverse strains.
as possible at the bilge,

7i

and should be
this

carried well
is

up the

sides.

In vessels
to

having double bottoms

part of the structure

very strong owing

the

deep wing brackets, which bring the resisting powers of the side framing into
operation.

The

straining at the middle line will

be arrested by the

pillars, if efficiently

Fig.

65.

fitted; these will act as struts

and communicate the


still

stresses to the

deck beams,

which
will

will resist

a tendency to spring in the middle and to bring the sides

together.

Thus, as in the case of

water tresses, the straining tendency

be resisted by the structure as a whole.

causing equal distribution of stress throughout,


design,

This interdependence of parts, is what should be aimed at in

and

special pains should

be taken
Fig.

to ensure efficient connections.

66.

of transverse straining

Transverse Stresses due to Incorrect Loading, A preventable cause is that due to the manner in which heavy deadweight
Frequently, the heaviest items are
instead

cargoes are sometimes loaded.


the middle
line

secured at
the

of the

vessel

of being spread

over the bottom,

wings having therefore comparatively

little

weight to carry.

The

straining ten-

72

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
on
as

dency in such a case

to elongate the transverse form, the water pressures

the sides tending to the same end.

This condition

is

illustrated in
full

fig.

66, the

dotted lines representing the normal vessel,


strained.

and the
tie

lines

the

vessel

and bottom of the structure, but not unfrequently the rivets connecting the pillars at top and bottom have been sheared in places with consequent dropping of the bottom
pillars
will

The

be here called upon to

the top

part of the hull.

Transverse Stresses due to Rolling. We have pointed out that it is when among waves at sea a vessel meets with the most trying longitudinal stresses, and it may now be added that tendencies to transverse straining are also greatest then. These latter stresses probably reach maximum values when a vessel is rolling in a beam sea, and they are obviously due to the resistance
which the mass of the structure offers to change of the direction of motion o each time the vessel completes an oscillation in one direction and is about to
return.

The

stress

is

a racking one, and tends to alter the angle between the

Fig.

67.

deck and the sides, also to close the bilge on one side and to open Such a racking strain is exhibited graphically in fig. 67. other.

it

on the

The

parts

of

the

structure

most

effective

in

preventing

this

change of
bulkbar,
if

form are the beam knees,


heads, and
any.

transverse

bulkheads,
is

web frames
included
efficiently

or

partial

the

ordinary side

frames, in which

the

reverse

connected to the frames and beams, and fitted well into the corner formed by the side plating and the deck. Change of form at the bulkheads is practically impossible, if
size,

The beam knees should be

of good

they be
fore

stiffened

sufficiently
this

against

collapsing;
side

careful attention should there-

be given to

point.

The

frames, owing

to

their

position

and

close

mum
floors

spacing, offer powerful resistance to racking, but in order to attain maxiefficiency they should be securely riveted to the beam knees, and the

or tank

brackets should

be carried well up the


it

sides.

These brackets
that

virtually

reduce the length of the frame, and


in

is

well

known

reducing

the length

such a case greatly increases the

rigidity

TRANSVERSE STRAINS.

73
structural
local
stresses,

Local Stresses.
vessels

Besides
other

longitudinal

have

to

resist

straining

tendencies
their

and transverse due to


seatings

causes.

For

example, the

engines

and

boilers

with

together

form a heavy

permanent load on a comparatively small fraction of the length, and thus give rise to considerable local stresses. These are provided against in various ways, some details of which are given in a later chapter. It may be said that the general principle is to increase the strength of the structure in way of the
loaded zone,
and,

by means of longitudinal girders and otherwise, distribute

the load to the less strained portions of the hull beyond.

stern of the vessel

Other stresses due to the propelling machinery are those brought on the by the action of the propeller itself. These are most severe
the vessel
is

and pitching among the waves, and consist chiefly propeller and checking of the same, as it rises out of and sinks into the water. The parts that suffer most are the connections of the stern frame to the vessel, and it is highly important, therefore, that these should be made amply strong. We shall see presently, when we come to consider details of construction, what the usual

when

rolling

of vibrations caused by the frequent racing of the

arrangements are in such cases.


plating

Panting Strains. These strains, which are usually developed in the shell forward and aft, where it is comparatively flat, consist of pulsating movements of the plating, as the name indicates. They are partly due to blows from the sea, and partly to the resistance offered by the water to the vessel's
progress as she
is
is

driven forward by the propeller.

An

ordinary cargo vessel

not so
she
is

much

troubled

by these
full

strains

as

a fine-lined

passenger steamer,
a tendency to

for

slower,

and her
flatter

ends are better able to


faster boat.

resist

flexibility

than the
usual

form of the
to

The

means taken
if

strengthen the shell against panting,


it

is

to

fit

hold stringer in the vicinity affected, and connect

well to

the

shell plating

and framing
with a short
plating.
aft.

the

vessel

be

fairly

large,

the

stringer

should be associated

tier

of beams, which act as struts and prevent

movement
in

in the

In very fine vessels the floor-plates should be deepened forward and


panting arrangement for a cargo steamer
class of strains
is

A A

shown

the chapter

on

practical details.

somewhat akin
full

to those of panting are frequently found

developed under the bows of

cargo vessels, in the

shape of loose

rivets

They are now recognised to be and generally shattered riveted connections. due to the pounding which a vessel receives from the waves as she rises and
falls

after
lift

among them. As might be expected, a voyage made in ballast trim, for the
It
is

they are

found much aggravated


into

pitching motions will one instant


it it

the fore end high out of the water,


scarcely

and the next bring


this

with

terrific

force.

wonderful

that

pounding,

repeated

throughout

long voyage, should produce the results mentioned.


ing
is

Obviously, efficient ballast-

of vital importance, and that this

is

the opinion of those having shipping

interests,

was evidenced by the appointment of the Royal Commission, under


to consider

Lord Muskerry,

the desirability of fixing a

minimum

load-line

to

74
sea-going vessels,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
although,
for

AND CALCULATIONS.
reasons,

various

there

was no practical

result

therefrom.

Strains due to Deck Loads, etc. These loads consist of steam winches, The resulting stresses can windlass, donkey boilers, steering gear, etc. usually be counteracted by an efficient system of pillaring, with perhaps a few
the
extra

beams

if

the weights be very great.

The Racking
sufficient

Strains brought on the deck of a

sailing vessel
sailing

by

stresses

from the rigging and masts should be mentioned.


size

In

vessels

not of

to

require a steel deck, special tie-plates should be arranged in

a diagonal direction so as to communicate the stresses from the plating round


the

mast

to the

deck beams and side

stringers,

to all of

which the

tie-plates

should be securely riveted.

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
i.

IV.

Given a beam fixed at one end and loaded with a weight tons at the other, describe the system of forces acting at any section, neglecting the weight of the beam. If the beam be 10 feet long and the load 2 tons, plot the diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments, and give numerical values for a section 4 feet from the free end of the beam.

* m _fS.F.,2tons. \B.M., inch


,
-

96

tons.

Referring to the previous question, if the given load be spread evenly over the beam, indicate the forms which the curves of bending moment and shearing force will then take.
2.

beam 20 feet long supported at each end has a. load of 3 tons concentrated at a 3. point 2 feet from the middle of the length. Draw the diagrams of shearing forces and bending moments, and indicate the value of the maximum bending moment. Ans. Max. B.M. = 172-8 inch tons.

Assuming the load in the previous question to be evenly distributed over the length of the beam, calculate the maximum shearing force and bending moment, and indicate the points in the length at which these are in operation. f Max. S.F. = 1*5 tons acting at ^ ns \Max. B.M. =90 inch tons actingpoints of support at middle. Show that diagrams of S.F. and B.M. may be derived by a graphic process, and 5. employ in your explanation the case of a beam fixed at one end and uniformly loaded.
4.

Explain how to construct a curve of loads for a ship floating in still water, and state you would apply to prove the accuracy of your work. What is the connection between curves of loads, shearing forces, and bending moments, 7. and show in one diagram the approximate forms these diagrams would take in the case of a cargo vessel floating *' light" in still water.
6.

what

tests

box-shaped vessel 200 feet long, 30 feet broad, 20 feet deep, floats in still water at 8. If the weight of the vessel be 1000 tons uniformly distributed, and if a draught of 10 feet. there be a cargo of 715 tons uniformly distributed over half the vessel's length amidships, draw the curves of S.F. and B.M. and state the maximum shearing force and bending moment Max S F = *78'5 tons. Ans * ns

_J

'

\Max. B.M. = 8925

feet tons.

vessel in previous question are plating \ inch thich, find the greatest stress to which the material is subject 1 hogging moment of 8000 feet tons. Ans. '82 tons per square inch.
9.

If the sides

and top and bottom of

composed of
under a

steel

maximum

10. Assuming a cargo steamer in loaded condition to be poised on the crest of a wave sketch roughly the curves of loads, shearing force and bending moment.

11.

maximum
12.

Referring to the previous question, at what points approximately in the length will the shearing forces act and where will the maximum shearing stress intensity be developed?

shearing

Taking the box vessel of question force of 400 tons, find the mean
shearing stress.
,

maximum
13.

and assuming her to be under a maximum shearing stress over the section, and also the /Mean shear stress = '66 tons per square inch. \Max. shear stress = 1*82 ,,
8,
,,

Enumerate the various

local strains to

which ships are

liable,

and the methods adopted

to strengthen the vessel against them.

CHAPTER

V.

Types of Cargo Steamers.

NOT

the least

among

the

many important
ship,
is

points to be settled
type.

by an owner

in deciding

upon a new

suitable

as to cost,

weight capability, and yet


failure, in certain

ship may be may be strong enough, have good speed and deadmay prove herself very unsatisfactory, if not an utter

the question of

trades.

Every owner of experience


to his purpose.

is

aware of

this,

and

is

careful to see that

he gets a ship suited

Nowadays, an owner who knows his requirements can usually get them But this was by no means always the case. At one time it seemed to be thought that ships must be built to certain fixed
carried out in this matter.
designs,

and cargoes had often

to

be adapted to

suit

a vessel's arrangements

rather than the latter being

made

to suit

the former, resulting in

much annoy-

ance, inconvenience,

and expense.
in oversea trade, however, but

With the expansion


changes in materials ot

more

especially with the

construction

from

wood

to iron,

and iron

to

steel

and the progressive


where applied
for the

spirit

of the age,

came a gradual evolution of

type, until

the cargo steamship of


to special

to-day has reached a high standard of


trades, has

excellence,

and

become almost

the last word of efficiency

purpose intended.
variations

The
to
their

which have marked


of
:

this evolution

and brought cargo

vessels
in

present

stage
viz.

development
trades
;

have been, generally speaking,


in

the

following directions,

(i) in design of structure to provide hulls of degrees


;

of
in

strength suitable

for

different

(2)

form of immersed body and


of
materials
;

general

outline

and appearance

(3)

in

disposition

(4)

in

internal construction.

STRENGTH TYPES. It
of great
density, for

was long ago recognised that


occupy
little

for
:

economical
that cargoes

working different cargoes should have different classes of vessels


instance, which

space

in

comparison with

weight, such as
carried
in
;

iron

ore

or

machinery, and heavy general

cargoes, should be

strong

vessels

having great

draught

and displacement and limited


ships

hold space
general

and cargoes of less density, such as grain, cotton, wood, and light
be accommodated
capability.

cargoes, should
less

in

of relatively
their

greater

hold

capacity, but

deadweight

Thus, until

recent

revision,

Lloyd's Rules provided special

schemes of scantlings
75

for

three strength types,

76
viz.,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
three-deck,
spar-deck,

AND CALCULATIONS.
types.

and awning-deck

Of

these,

the

first-named

was the strongest, and was reckoned to be able to carry any kind of cargo to

any part of the world on a greater draught than any other type of vessel of equal dimensions. With regard to the spar and awning-deck types, we have
the
authority

of

the

late

Mr. Martell, a

former

chief

surveyor

to

Lloyd's

Register, for saying that they were


carriers.

not originally intended as exclusively cargo

The upper
weather

'tween decks were really meant to

accommodate passengers,
side

and

the

deck
built

and
of

the

shell

plating

and

framing
light

above

the

second or main deck, were allowed to be of comparatively

construction.

But although

thus

smaller scantlings

than the

corresponding three-

deck vessel of same absolute dimensions, these


comparative strength.

lighter vessels

were not of
their

less

Their draughts were restricted, their loads reduced, and

hence also

the leading

movements acting upon them

so

that

thinner

materials were quite sufficient to ensure as low a

stress per square inch

on the

upper and lower works as in the corresponding three-deck type of

vessel.

In the development of ship construction, the foregoing types have undergone modification. In Lloyd's latest Rules, only two distinct standard types are

mentioned,

viz.,

the
still

full

scantling

vessel,

and an awning or shelter-deck

type.

The

latter

has

the characteristics of other vessels of the class, namely, light

draught and large capacity, but has otherwise been greatly improved.

FORM TYPES. With regard to changes of form, it must be admitted that body of the modern cargo steamer is no thing of beauty. The sentiment which demanded fineness of form and grace of outline has passed away under the
the

pressure of ever-increasing competition.

From
*6

the fine-lined under water bodies,


7,

with displacement

sides of former days,

and the nicely rounded topmore or less vertical sides and bluff ends, with displacement co-efficients ranging from '8 upwards. Certainly this side of the development of cargo ships has not proceeded on
co-efficients

of from

to

we have come

to sharp

bilges,

aesthetic lines.

Appearances apart, however, and considering making standpoint, the changes have been in searches of the late Dr. Froude and others, and vessels, has shown that at moderate speeds like
ordinary cargo
vessels

the case from a purely

money-

the

right

direction.

The

re-

experience gained from actual


8 or 10 knots

be overcome in propulsion is largely due to surface friction, the element of wave-making resistance only becoming As a considerable increase in displacement and important at higher speeds. in deadweight capability can be obtained by a moderate increase in therefore surface, the easiest and cheapest way for an owner to increase the earning
resistance
to

the

the

speeds of

power- of his vessel

is

obviously to

fill

her out forward and

aft,

and

this

has

become the order


with the
fullest

of the day.

Of

course, for the

best results, the filling out

process must be done with judgment.


co-efficients.
rise

An

expert designer can do

much even

In general, vessels
floor

of

'8

blocks

and upwards
In some

should have
.

small

of

and

relatively

sharp

bilges

amidships, thus

allowing most of the fining away to be done Lowards the extremities.

TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS.


cases this

77

method has not been

followed.

It

should be said that in Lloyd's


design

former
this
full

rules,

the half girth appeared as a factor in calculating the numerals, and


lighter

induced some builders, for the sake of getting

scantlings,

to

cargo vessels with abnormally fine midship sections, thus causing the ends

to

be very clubby.

But such

vessels

when
steer

built

invariably proved

unsatisin a

factory.

They were found

difficult to

and

therefore

unmanageable

seaway, also harder to drive, than vessels of 'similar block co-efficients designed

on normal lines. Under the new rules the girth does not influence the numerals, and there is now no temptation to design freak ships of the kind mentioned; still, owners should not take too much for granted in ordering their cargo "tramps," but should see that they get a maximum of good design with
any given conditions.

More striking than the changes of the under-water forms, and those which have caused cargo vessels to be classified into various form types, have been those
due to the imposition of deck erections on the fundamental flush-deck steamer. Very early in the history of the iron merchant ship, the necessity of
affording

some protection

to the vulnerable

machinery openings led to the

latter

being covered by small

bridge

erections.

Then

the

obvious advantages of
latter to

having the crew on deck caused the accommodation for the

be raised an
space

from

below and

fitted

in

a forecastle, this

erection
seas,

incidentally forming
release

admirable shield from the inroads of head

and the

of the

under deck making a desirable addition to the carrying capacity. Finally, poops were fitted, experience showing the necessity of raising the steering platform
from the
level of the

upper deck.

whose outlines are


fig.

characteristic of

Thus the three-island type was many of the cargo steamers of

arrived

at,'

to-day (see

68).

The
in

next step in the development of deck erections was in the direction

of increased lengths, as, under

Government Regulations, which became operative


in

1890,

considerable reductions
as,

freeboard

could
in
their

thereby be

gained, and,

particularly

provided

they

had

openings

end

bulkheads,

which,

however, might be closed in a temporary manner, the erections were allowed


to be exempt from tonnage measurement. Thus long bridges became common, and eventually vessels were built with bridge and poop in one, making, with a disconnected forecastle, one form of the well-deck type (see fig. 69). Fig.

68.

Fig.

69.

e&e

73

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Fig.

AND CALCULATIONS.
70.

Fig.

71.

&6

^
i>

Fig.

72.

The obvious advantage of having a continuous side and deck, and the admirable shelter which the enclosed space would afford for cattle, etc., very soon produced the suggestion to fill in the former gap between forecastle and bridge; and this was rapidly carried into effect when it was found
that

0j-

by

having one or more openings in the deck with no more than temporary means of closing, the space would escape measurement for tonnage. In this way the shelter-deck type (see fig. 70) was evolved a type in recent years much run upon for large cargo vessels, and which, as previously mentioned, is now a standard of Lloyd's rules.

shelter decks, but

Other modifications have consisted of short bridges on longer ones and on these can hardly be considered as constituting distinct
types.

For

the

smaller

classes

of

cargo

carriers
all

steamer has been developed, familiar to


quarter-decker, which, in reality,

who

of take an interest in ships, as a

somewhat

special

type

is a one or two-decked vessel with the' main This raising of the after deck was undoubtedly due to considerations of trim. It was found that owing to the finer form aft and the large amount of space taken up by the shaft tunnel, the tendency

deck

aft

raised (see

fig.

71).

the normal deck line was to trim by the head

when

with loaded, the predominance

correct this state of things the hold was increased by raising the deck. While the quarter-deck has certain advantages, such as good trim and general handiness, it has some drawbacks, one of which is the difficulty of
this.

of cargo at the fore end causing


aft

To

space

making up the strength


plan
is

sufficiently at the

to

double the

shell

plating

break of the main deck. The usual and overlap the main and quarter deck
stringers at this part being also overa steel deck or part steel deck, the latter

stringers in

way of the break, the hold


size requiring

lapped.

In vessels of a

TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS.


is

79

overlapped where broken to form the quarter deck, and the two portions connected by substantial diaphragm plates. The doubling of shell and overlapping of stringers
is

also carried out.

The
good the

foregoing, or
loss

something equivalent,
It
is

is

what must be done

of continuity.

seen to involve a considerable


there
this

to make amount of

bracketing and troublesome


the vessel.

fitting

work, which tends to raise the


too,
is

first

cost of

In the vicinity of the break,


in
spite

much broken
still

stowage

space;

yet,

of

all,

for

some

trades

type

remains a strong

favourite.

Another modified type, in some respects the opposite of the last in that it leads to an increased hold capacity forward over the normal type, is the It is to be supposed that with ordinary cargoes this partial awning-decker. type would trim badly, but it appears to have been found very suitable for It was at one time very popular, but of recent special light bulky cargoes.
years has not been

much
in,

in evidence.
fig.

The

external appearance of the partial

awning-decker
forward well
the
strength

is

shown
the

in

72.

It is

seen to be a quarter-decker with the


for

filled

and the precautions already described


this

maintaining

at

break have also to be taken in


distributing

case.
is

One

clear

consequence of the long erections now become prevalent

un-

doubtedly the
really part of

modern system of
the hull proper,

the

materials

of

construction.

Bridges which are very short have small


otherwise,

structural

value, as they are not

and should not be considered


however,
with

in estimating the

longitudinal

strength.

It

is

bridge

erections

of

which must withstand the structural bending stresses acting on the vessels of which they form part. Moreover, it follows from the principles expounded in the previous chapter, that the heaviest longitudinal materials should be placed at the deck, stringer, and sheerstrake of an erection, whether
substantial lengths,
it

be a long bridge, an awning or a


is is

shelter

deck, as the

moment

of inertia of

the material at a section

thereby increased, and the stress under a given load,

which

of

maximum

value at these parts, reduced.


this

Modern

vessels are

now

required to be built in

way by

the rules of

Lloyd's Register and of the

old practice of making superstructures of light and massing the strength at the second deck from the top being disbuild This may be considered to mark an important advance in the continued.

other classification bodies, the

scientific construction of ships.

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. Coming now


place in the
internal

to

the

changes that have taken


to

construction
Fig.

of vessels, we find these

be of a wide-

reaching character.

73*

is

the midship

section of a large passenger


all

and

cargo steamer as built 25 to 30 years ago, and illustrates


of the time,
viz.,

the characteristics

thin

side

framing,

numerous

tiers

of beams, ordinary floors,

and deep hold


*

keelsons.

The expansion

of commerce, however, the

opening

See an interesting paper on "Structural Development in British Merchant Ships," by Foster King, in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects for 1907, to which the author is indebted for particulars in preparing some of the sketches in this chapter.

Mr.

J.

So

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
trades,

AND CALCULATIONS.
of vessels
to
for

up of new

and the

specialising

these trades, led

first

to

increase in the average size of vessels, then


internal economies.

various

modifications in

their

The

trouble and expense attending the use of

dry ballast

led

to

the

adoption

of

water

ballast

tanks,

which,

ultimately

becoming
fitting

incorporated in the

structure,

caused the disappearance from the holds of the


fig.

huge plate side girders which, as shown in


ordinary
floors.

73,

accompanied the
in

of

In a later chapter

we

shall

deal

detail with ballast tanks,

but their general design and arrangement

may be
the

An

early modification in the

structure was

gathered from figs. 74 to 85. deepening of the holds by the

Fig.

73.

suppression of the lowest

tier

of

the time, and the fitting at every

fifth

beams, required by the construction rules of or sixth frame of plate webs having face
stringers

bars on their inner edges, the

hold

being deepened to

come

in line

with the inner edge of the plate webs, and the whole forming a strong box-like arrangement which amply made up the deficiency caused by the omission of
the hold

beams

(see

fig.

74).

This

style of construction

long remained in favour


capacity, particularly

and

is

still

sometimes preferred, but the


eventually led
to
itself,
its

loss

of stowage

for case cargoes,

deepening of the frame girder


or another
is

in favour of the the system of framing which in one form

general

abandonment

found

in the cargo steamers building in the yards to-day.

TYPKS OF CARGO STEAMERS,

Si

82

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

natural

the reduction in

development which came, although not quite immediately, was size of the hold stringers, which, as stowage breakers, were
obnoxious
for
all

found not
alone

less

than the
the

webs.

Moreover, the deep side framing


of local stresses,

was

sufficient

demands

and owing
is

to their

proximity to the neutral

axis,

the extent to which these hold stringers assisted


trifling.
fig.

me

ship against

bending was comparatively


fifteen
is

hold stringers of

years

ago,

and
frames

in

76

In fig. 75 those of the


to

shown the
them
side

present day.

Their work
tripping,

now
to

to

keep
the

the
shell

in

position,

prevent

and

stiffen

between the frames.


Fig.

76.

330 Feet Steamer.

Recent experiments made by Lloyd's Register have gone to show that a frame depth of 7 inches (the limit of the experiments) there is no tendency to side tripping, and since then vessels have been built with a re-

up

to

duced number of hold stringers, and in a few recent cases with none at all. Whether the hold stringer will ultimately disappear from the modern ship This, it may be said, as an element of construction remains to be seen. by some naval architects, but the general feeling seems is the view taken
to

be in favour of

its

retention

in

a modified
of
steel

form.
sections
in

Improvements
the

in

the manufacture

recent

years,

and

broad-minded view now taken

by the

classification

societies,

have

made

TYPES O* CARGO VESSELS.


it

33
of
parts,

possible

for

builders,

following the

line

of simplification

to

still

the demands of shipowners for large holds clear of and numerous hold stanchions. Hence has come the well-known singleVessels of a size ordinarily requiring, by Lloyd's former deck type {see fig. 77) and two steel decks, have been built with a rules, three tiers of beams single steel deck and one tier of beams, the structural strength, transverse and longitudinal, being made good by deepening the side frames and inPurely creasing the scantlings of the deck, shell plating, and double bottomfurther
satisfy

beams,

stringers,

Fig.
350'

77.
51'

0"

0" x 2ff 0".

LINT 0f_BBI0CEJ)KK

single-deck

vessels

have gone on increasing


proceed
so

in

size
feet,

until

they
it

have attained
likely

lengths

of 350

feet,

and depths exceeding 28


long
as

and

appears

the

advancement
it.

will

still

the

needs of commerce demand


so
far

In Lloyd's
of

latest rules,

the construction of single deckers


is

depth

about

31

feet

provided

for,

but

as

up to a moulded we are aware, no


be
in

single-deck vessel of ordinary


Fig.
sition

design has been built approaching this depth.

78

illustrate?

a type which
the

may be

considered to
It

the

tran-

stage

towards

pure

single decker.

has

bulb

angle

framing

.84

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
in

and strong hold beams widely spaced


a broad hold stringer. N.E. coast and have
builders

association
this

with

arched webs

Many
proved

vessels

of

type

have

been

built

highly

satisfactory.

The
firm.

designers

and on the and first

of this

type are an

important Wearside

hold

With the removal of hold stringers and beams, the presence of numerous pillars A middle line row for most became specially objectionable.
is

trades

perhaps

no great

drawback,

but with

the

increased

breadths

at-

Fig.
SS.
350' 0"

78.
49'

0" X

28' 0".

Lig0F_8RUCE_DECK

tendant
day,

on

the

steady rise

in

general

dimensions,
the

now

the

order

of

the

and the side, with For a time, and up to a the ordinary construction, became imperative. certain point, the case of vessels with breadths beyond that at which quarter
additional

rows

of

stanchions

between

middle

met, without resorting to the latter, by increasbeams and ot the middle row of pillars, but a limit was soon reached, and the question of the omission of pillars had to Hence arose the system of fitting wide be reviewed from other standpoints.

stanchions are
the

necessary, was

ing

scantlings

of

the

TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS.


spaced strong
closely
pillars pillars

35
Centre
in
line

in

association

with

deck

girders.
pillars

rows

of

spaced
in

with

one or two quarter


feet

each

hold are
cases
say,

now
the
four

fonnd
centre

vessels

of

50

breadth
the

and
hold.

upwards.

In

some
by,

row has
heavy
great

been
pillar

omitted,

whole

work

being

done

specially

columns

in

each

The
in

convenience of the

latter

arrangement from a
it

stowage

stand-

point can readily be conceived, and although


cost

entails a considerable addition


it.

over the

common

arrangement,

many shipowners have adopted


79.

Fig.
SS. 340' 0" x 45' 6"

27'

3"

and

34'

3".

A
of any

few vessels
kind,

have been
to

built shall

so

as

to

be able to dispense with

pillars

and

these

we

refer

presently

SPECIAL TYPES. Besides


may be considered
acter,

the types of vessels already described which

the standard ones, there are others of quite distinct charthe


enterprise

which the needs of commerce,


of shipbuilders,
is

of

shipowners,

genius

have called into being.


turret-deck

Of
of

these, probably the

and the most


Fig.

important

the

well-known

type

Messrs.

Doxford.
the

79

shows the midship section of one of these vessels, and differences between them and those of ordinary form.

illustrates

striking

86

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
outward form
at

The

principal

departure

is

in the

the

topsides,

which,

up with a moderate tumble home, are curved inwards, forming a central trunk or turret. The working platform is on the top of this turret, which runs forward and aft and contains all hatches, deck machinery, derricks, and everything requisite for efficiently working the vessel. The internal framing of the majority of these vessels (see fig. 79) is on
instead of being carried

but in recent cases the hold beam and web-frame system no hold obstruction principle has been carried out, hold beams and pillars being entirely omitted, and the strength made good by fitting deep web-plates
the wide-spaced
;

Fig.
SS.
350'

80.
x
26'

0"

50'

0"

3"

and

33'

6".

with
fig.

attachments to the turret deck, ship


So.

sides,

and tank

top,

as

shown

in

Among
its

the

advantages claimed for


qualities,
it

this
it

type

over the ordinary ones


for

are

self-trimming
safety

which
the

make
to
all

well

suited

bulk

cargoes
as

the

greater

which

affords
to

vulnerable

openings,

such
than

hatches
ordinary

ventilators,

etc.,
;

owing

turret

being

much

higher

the

weather deck
increased

its

greater stiffness
better
it

and longitudinal
of
to

strength,

owing

to its

shape

and circumstance making


depth

distribution

possible

the latter reduce the structural weight and thus in-

longitudinal

materials,

TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS.


crease the deadweight.

87

nice appearance,

Although it cannot be said that these vessels have a must be admitted that they have been a long time in service, and seem to be increasing in popularity as purely cargo boats. Another type, of which there is now a considerable number afloat, is This class is of normal single deck Messrs. Ropner's patent trunk steamer.
it

construction to the main or harbour deck; above this there

is

a central trunk

running

fore-and-aft;

the

top

of
etc.

the

latter

forms
is

the

working

deck and

is

fitted with

hatchways, winches,

The
Fig.

ship

kept in form by strong beams

81
x
25'

SS. 350' 0"

60'

0"

3"

and

33'

3".

at

hatchway ends, and the trunk This strongly built centre stanchions.
the

is

stiffened
like

by webs and supported by


design,
is

ship,

the turret

specially

suitable for
(see
fig.

bulk cargoes like grain, the trunk forming an admirable self-trimmer


patent ship

81).
is

The Dixon & Harroway


self-trimming arrangements.

another type whose speciality

is

its

In

this vessel (see fig.

82) the upper corner of the

hold
space.

is

plated

in,

the

main frame of the

vessel

being carried up in the hold

This corner space is well adapted for ballasting purposes, the high This type is of position of the ballast conducing to steadiness in a seaway.

88

SkiP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

Co Em CO N X

Co

types of cargo steamers.


great

39

longitudinal

strength

transverse change of form set

and is also well suited to resist the tendency to up when a vessel is labouring in a seaway. Self-

trimming also forms the chief claim to distinction of the vessel shown in fig. It is seen to resemble the last type somewhat with the corner tanks away; 83. and on the latter account is not so efficient from a strength standpoint.

As
aft

in

the

Ropner trunk

vessel,

the

ship

is

worked from a
is

central

fore-and-

platform.
Still

another variation of the trunk or turret type

that
this

devised by Mr.

Henry

Burrell.

Like

the

other

vessels

just

referred

to

one

is

self-

Fig.
SS.
305'

84. and
30'

0" x 46' 9" x 24' 0"

3".

trimmer, and, as well as the upper trunk, has the corners at the bilges
(see fig.

filled in

84) and the inner surface sloped towards the centre, thus obviating the

the

broken stowage space which might otherwise occur at the bilges. Incidentally, corners thus cut off from the holds form a desirable addition to the
capacity.

ballast

The

deck,

sides

and trunkways are supported by cantilever


built,

webs, and there are

no hold

pillars.

Other special types have been

or are building, differing

more

or less

from the foregoing, but in general not sufficiently to make it necessary to refer One design, however, that of Mr. Isherwood, is of such distinctive to them.

and

interesting a character as to warrant

its

being singled

out.

This

type

is

go

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
longitudinal

AND CALCULATIONS.
in
this

framed on

system,

and

respect

recalls

that

famous

work of Scott Russell and Brunei the Great Eastern. Like with widely the new ship has main frames and beams running fore-and-aft, There is, however, no double skin on the spaced transverse partial bulkheads. type, except that the sides, the inner bottom being of the normal present-day main
internal framing
Fig.
is

the earlier vessel,

longitudinal instead of transverse.

85

shows
this

the

midship

section

of

medium-sized

cargo

steamer
to
It

framed
consist

on
of

system.

The
at

bulb

angles

beams and frames are seen wider spacing than on the transverse system.
longitudinal

should

be noted, however, that

the

settlings

of

the

frames

are

gradually

Fig.

85.

increased
greater

towards

the

bottom of the
of

vessel,

where

they

have

to

withstand

loads, the

intensity

the water pressure

increasing in

proportion to

the

depth below the surface.

The

transverse

strength

is

made

up

by strong

transverses

or

partial

bulkheads attached to the shell-plating between the frames, and stiffened on The transverses are spaced from about their inner edges by stout angles. 12 feet to 16 feet apart in ordinary cases, according to size of vessel, the
largest

vessels

having the closest spacing.


as

The double bottom,


girders,

previously mentioned,
floors

has fore-and-aft continuous


the
tranverses

with

intercostal

transverse
latter

in

line with

and

also

midway between them, the

being required to provide sufficient strength

TYPES OF CARGO STEAMERS.


for

docking purposes and bottom through grounding.


It
is

to

resist

the excessive stresses which

come on

the

claimed for

this

type

of vessel,

several

samples of which are now


it

afloat

and giving good accounts of themselves,


relative

that

has

greater
in
first

strength
is

and
point
this

less

weight than
as

the

normal
from

type.

The
greater

saving

weight
cost

of great

importance,

apart

any reduction of

which

may represent, it means for the and therefore increased earning power.

vessel

deadweight

capability

Fig.

86.

The Isherwood system


oil

of construction appears to be specially suitable for of an


oil

vessels.*

Fig.

86

is

a section
viz.:

steamer framed in

this

way, the

dimensions of which
inches;

are,

length,

depth

at centre,

29

feet.

355 feet; breadth, extreme, 49 feet, 5 The longitudinal frames from the deck to
the bottom they
are bulb
long,

the upper turn of the bilge are bulb angles as shown; on


are
built

of plates

and bars
inches

the spacing

is

29
oil

inches.

The beams
30
the
feet

angles

spaced

27

apart.
fitted

The main
in

tanks

are

and

two strong transverses are

each
for

tank

between

boundary bulk-

*See a paper by Mr. Isherwood in the T.I.N. A.

1908, from which

figs.

85 arul 86 are taken.

92

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

heads. The transverses are fitted to the shell-plating between double angles and have heavy double angles on their inner edges. The longitudinal frames and beams and longitudinal stiffeners on middle line bulkhead are cut at the transverse bulkheads and efficiently bracketed In way of the thereto in order to maintain the continuity of strength.

double bottom, which


alternate
line,

is

fitted

for

a portion of the vessel's length amidships,


to

transverses

are

fitted

continuously around the bottom


are
fitted

the

middle
these
are

and

the

longitudinal
efficiently

girders

in

long

lengths

between

transverses,

and

attached

thereto.

The remaining

transverses

stopped at the deep girder in the double bottom next the margin-plate, and
are

then

fitted
is

intercostally
fitted

margin-plate

intercostally

between the longitudinals to the centre line. The between the transverses, and connected to
collars.

them by double-riveted

watertight
the

comparison
of
this

of

longitudinal

stress

acting

amidships

vessel

with

that

acting

on
this

an

oil

on the bridge gunwale vessel of the same


is

dimensions built on the ordinary system, showed the former to be


cent,
less

than

the

latter.

In

spite

of

there

stated

to

18J per be an

estimated

saving in weight

of materials,

under the new system, of 275 tons.

CHAPTER

V.

Practical Details.

KEELS AND CENTRE KEELSONS.The


foundation of
or steel
the

keel

may be
of
keel

considered the
fitted
full

ship's

structure.

The

simplest form

in

iron

vessels

consists

of

a
it

forged
is

bar

running
into

almost

the

length of
the

vessel.

At the ends

scarphed

the

stem
rib.

and

sternpost,

three

items together forming a complete


Fig.
RIDER

longitudinal

The

bars

forming

87.

PUTE

STRAKX

together by These scarphs are frequently riveted up previous to the fitting of the shell by means of small There is an objection to the tack rivets, so as to allow the keel to be faired. tack rivets, in that, if it be necessary to remove a keel length, use of
the
keel

are

fitted

in

lengths

averaging

about

40

feet,

joined

vertical scarphs nine

times the thickness of the keel in length.

93

94
say,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
for

AND CALCULATIONS.

repairs

after

grounding,
to

to

be

removed
the

in

order

they are sometimes omitted.

plates on both sides of the keel have knock out the tack rivets for this reason The main rivets connecting the scarphs together,
;

and

also

keel
to

to

the shell, are

of large
in

diameter, spaced

five

diameters
as
in

apart,

centre

centre,

and arranged
Fig.

two rows, usually chain

style,

88.

fig.

87,

although

zig-zag
to

riveting

is

occasionally

adopted;

in

the

latter

case,

care

must be taken
It

keep the

rivets clear of the

garboard strake butts.

will

be
to

seen
the

this

keel

has

by referring to fig. 8 7 that the only connection that main structure is through the riveted connection to the
this

garboard strakes.

For

reason

it

is

frequently called

a hanging keel.

Fig. 89.

BAR
RIDER PLATE

HvEEL

INTERCOSTAL CENTRE KEELSON

The
vessels,
vessels.

simple bar keel

is

sometimes
floors,

fitted in association

with a centre keelson

running along the tops of the

consisting of double bulb angles in small


angles,

and a

vertical

plate

and four
floors

two top and bottom,

in

larger

In the largest
plate

vessels, a rider plate is fitted

on top of the upper angles


This style of keel-

and a foundation

on top of

below lower angles.

KEELS AND CENTRE KEELSONS.


son,

95
is

which

is

depicted in

fig.

87, but

without a foundation plate,


external
keel.

seen to
already

have

no

direct

connection with

the

From what we
the

know

of the bending of beams,


perfect

we must
separately,

see that

means a the same


angles
as
to

one.
as

Bending
if

the keel

by no and keelson do not offer


arrangement
is

resistance

rigidly joined.

Moreover, the

floors

lying

at

right

the

line

of stress

give

no support, but develop a tendency

to trip,

plan

shown exaggerated in fig. 88. The weaknesses pointed out in the above may be largely corrected by fitting plates between the floors, from the
Fig. 90.
FOUNDATION

PLATE

-,_

96
It

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
will

AND CALCULATIONS.

be observed that a practical difficulty crops up in the riveting to the garboard strakes, in the case of a side bar keel, as five There are two thicknesses of plating require to be united by the same rivets.
of the
keel
rivets, of size and spacing similar to the bar keel, and as it is punch these holes before fitting the plates, it can be imagined that very careful workmanship is needed to keep the rivet holes concentric. As a matter of fact, they are frequently more or less obstructed. In such cases,

rows of such
usual to

before

proceeding with the


plan
of

riveting,

the

holes

should be rimered out.

The

objectionable
a

of drifting partially blind

holes

that
It
is

is

to

say,

of driving

so as to clear a known, and has been proved many times in practice, that the bruising which the material round the edges of the holes gets by drifting, renders it brittle and therefore liable

tapered

bar

round

steel

or

drift

punch

into

them,

passage for the rivet

should
rivets

not be encouraged.

to break away, loose

resulting in
to
all

consequence.
keels
is

An

objection
entail.

common
It
is

projecting

the

increase of draught
in

which they

always

considered a good feature

a vessel,

and

Fig. 91.

FLAT PLATE

KEEL

INTERCOSTAL CENTRE KEELSOM

FLOOR

INTERCOSTAL'

particularly in a cargo vessel, to

have a moderate draught of water.

The

reason,

of course,

is

that

many

ports will be

which would otherwise be closed. what is called a flat-plate In this case, the ordinary shell-plating is continued under the dealing with. vessel instead of being stopped on each side of a projecting keel the middle
to adopt
;

open to a vessel, if of shallow draught, These considerations have led many owners keel in preference to the one we have been

line

strake

is

increased
(see

keel of the vessel

somewhat figs. 91 and


substitute
in

in

thickness,

91a).

be the This horizontal plate would of itself


is

and

considered to

be

very

inefficient
is

keel,

but

it

usually fitted
plate,

vertical

centre

the two

for the rigid vertical bar of the ordinary conjunction with an intercostal or continuous being connected together by double angle bars.

With an
tinuous
centre

intercostal

centre plate, the

floor plates

are

continuous

with a con-

centre
plate

plate,

they
side.

are

severed at

middle
the

line,

on each

In

both
;

cases

floor

and abut against the and centre plates are


of the
parts.

connected by double vertical bars


It

this

prevents any
keel,

movement
rolling

should be noticed that with a


projecting
keel
is

flat-plate
It
is

the

reducing property

of the

lost.

the

custom, however, in

modern

caro-o

KEELS AND CENTRE KEELSONS.


vessels,

97
bars
or
rolling

to

make up
(see
figs.

for 75,

this

by
is

fitting

longitudinal

chocks

at

the

bilges

76,

etc.).

The
bottom

flat-plate

type

of keel

frequently fitted

where there

is

a double

(fig.

91b).

As

the floor plates are then of considerable depth, a

much
with

more
case,

satisfactory

connection with
the

the

centre

plate

is

obtainable

than

ordinary shallow floors; by Lloyd's Rules double

angles are not required in this

except

in

machinery space, where they are


are

always

necessary,

until

the transverse

number
angles

reaches 66, corresponding to a vessel say, 300' x 40' x 26,


required
for

when double

half length

amidships.

Fig.

91a.

CENTRE THRO

PLATE

KEELSON

CENTRE THRO PLATE

Fig,

91b.
-

CONTINUOUS CENTRE GIRDER


1

DOUBLE BOTTOM

qS

SHJP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

Length.
stem
beams,
to

The
after

length
part

(L)

is

to

the

of

the

sternpost

be measured from the fore part of the on the range of the upper-deck
to

except in awning or shelter-deck vessels, where it is on the range of the deck beams next below the awning or

be measured

shelter deck.

Breadth.
the
vessel.

The
of

breadth

(B)

is

to

be

the

greatest

moulded breadth of
from the top
except
in

Depth.
of keel
to

The
top

depth

(D)
at

is

to

be measured
of

at

mid-length

beam

side

uppermost

continuous
taken
of
to

deck,

awning

vessels, where it may be below the awning or shelter deck, provided the height

or

shelter-deck

the

deck next
decks

the

'tween

Fig.
AWN
1

92.
BRlOCEQECK

INC OR SHELTER PSjCK OR

does not exceed


outline

feet

B and D
vessel.

are

indicated in

fig.

92,

which shows an
thus

midship section
these

of a

From

dimensions the scantling numbers are obtained

The
the

transverse

number = B 4- D Longitudinal number L x (B 4- D). number regulates the frame spacing and
Transverse
taking
a
vessel

the

scantlings
feet

of

floors.

Thus,

of

45

feet

breadth
28

and

28

depth,

we have
Transverse

number = 45
in

4-

73.

And under
the

this

number we
inch

find

frame spacing should be


'46

24 Jfor

appropriate Table of the Rules that inches, and the floors 30 inches deep at
the

middle,

of an

thick

length

amidships,

tapering

to

-38

of an

inch

at

ends.

Lloyd's numerals.

99

The
i.e.,

scantlings
size

of

the

frames

by the

of the

vessel,
is

is

unsupported.

The frame

are governed by the transverse number, and also by the extent to which the frame assumed to be supported at the first tier of

beams above the base and


unsupported length of frame.
of

at

the

bilge.

Reverting

to

fig.

92,

is

the
tier

Two

cases are indicated,

one assuming a

beams
the

to

exist

unsupported
at

from

the

below the upper deck, another assuming the frame to be It will be observed that bilge to the upper deck.
line

bilge

is

measured from a

squared out from the tank at side.

Fig. 93.

In
the

this

case
is

there

is

an inner
scantlings

bottom
of

when a
for

vessel

has

ordinary floors,

line

squared out from the height of the floors at middle.


provide

The
this
fig.

rules

frames
of

values

of

d up

to

27

feet,

figure apparently marking the

limit

purely
of

single-deck
different

vessel.

In
is

93

the

framing

of

three

single-deck

vessels

dimensions

given,

and shows how the


longitudinal

scantlings

increase

with increase in size

of vessel.

The
side

number
plating,

regulates the scantlings

of the keel, stem, sternpost,


keelsons,

and bottom

double bottom, side

stringers,

lower deck

IOO
stringer
plates,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
It
is

and lower deck


of

plating. to

also

employed with a number


the

giving

the

proportions

length

depth

in

fixing

scantlings

of

the

upper works.

The importance
out
in

of distribution
is

of materials
in

Chapter
decks,

IV. }

fully

recognised
the side

materials are concentrated


shelter
less

at

and depth of girder, pointed Thus the heaviest Rules. and deck-plating of upper, awning, and
the
at

and of long
vessel
in

bridges.

Also the scantlings


that
is

these

parts

are

in

a deep

than in one

proportionately

shallow.
for

The depth employed


use with the Tables
top
of keel
to
is

obtaining the proportions of length to depth


at

to

be measured
at

the middle of the length from the


all

the

top deck
is

side

in

cases,

except in way of a short

bridge,

when

the depth

to

be taken
at

to the

upper deck, which thus becomes

the strength deck.

The

scantlings

the upper deck

beyond

the ends

of a

long bridge, are to be determined by taking the depth for proportions to the

upper deck.
Shallow vessels, which
taken to the upper

have

lengths

equal
to

to

or

exceeding
bridge
of
the

3J

depths,

deck, are
or
this

required

have a bridge extending over the


lieu.

midship half length,


the ship
strength
girder.

compensation

in

As

the

deck becomes
depth
those
of
the

deck,

means a
case
of the

substantial

increase
vessels,

In

the

still

shallower
of

namely,

having
has

lengths
to
laid

exceeding
carefully

14

depths,

question

the

longitudinal

strength
to

be

considered,

and Lloyd's Committee require proposals


keel the transverse

be

before

them.
to

FRAMES. Next
fundamental part
of.

the

frame

-is

probably the most


floors.

a ship's structure, especially in vessels with ordinary


it

As
is

previously explained,

extends from the keel to the top of the vessel in


the

a transverse plane, and gives


fitted
(see
figs.

form of the ship


vessels

at

the
to

point at which

it

37 and

74).

Frames of

built

Lloyd's Rules
size

may
In

be spaced from
special
cases,

20

to

2>Z

inches apart,

according to
inches,
if

the

of vessel.

the spacing
fore

may exceed 33
from a
to
fifth

made.
the the

At the
is

end,

the

vessel's

compensation be length from the stem to


suitable
to

collision

bulkhead, owing
liable
at
sea,

the

pounding

stresses

which
exceed

this

part of
inches,

vessel

the

frame spacing should not

27

unless the frames are doubled to the lowest tier of the beams.
the frame spacing should not be greater than 24 inches.

In the peaks

Each complete transverse frame may be made up of two angle


frame and reversed frame, as described
in
in

bars,

i.e. %

a
as

Chapter III.;

or

it

may
;

consist,

many modern cargo steamers, of a single angle or bulb angle or it may be of channel section, with the addition, in the case of a large vessel, of a Lloyd's Rules provide tables of scantlings of frames of these reversed angle. In fig. 94 the side framing required for the vessel marked A styles. various
in
fig.

93

is

shown, the three equivalent types being indicated.


flange
in

The
the
part

fore-and-aft
flange,

of

frame

is

riveted

to

the

shell-plating,
is

and
lower

transverse

vessels

having
the

ordinary

floors,

at

its

attached

to

floorplate.

When

construction

consists

of

frame

FRAMES.

101
to
it

and reversed frame, the


vessel,

latter

is

riveted

the

frame

on the
the

sides

of

the
of

to

the

turn

of

the

bilge,

whence

sweeps

along

top

edge

the floor,

which being thus


line,

stiffened at

top and bottom,

becomes an

efficient

transverse girder.

Both the frames and reversed frames are usually butted


bar straps being
fitted.

at

the centre

covering angle

The frame

butt-straps,

and are placed back with the frame, the floor-plate being between. These heel-pieces should be so fitted as to bear on the top of the keel, when of simple bar type, as in this way stresses due to docking or grounding are communicated
or heel-pieces, as they are called, are usually about 3 feet long,

back

to

Fig.

94.

directly to

the framing; .without unduly straining the rivets connecting the keel
strakes.

to

the

garboard
length

Heel-pieces
the

are

only

fitted

for

three-quarters

the

vessel's

amidships,
line

form
is

at

the

ends

making them unnecessary.

Where
is,

the middle

keelson

a centre through plate, the heel-pieces are


is

not usually fitted;

and where the former


fit

associated with a flat-plate keel

it

of course, impracticable to

them.

At the decks, the framing on each


cross

beams,

special

attention

side of the vessel is connected by being given to the beam-knee connections, as

the combination of beam, frame, shell-plating

and deck-stringer

in this neigbour-

102

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

hood is most efficient for resisting the transverse racking stresses to which, as we have seen, a vessel may be subjected when rolling among waves at sea.

WEB FRAMES. When


angles

a transverse rib
edge,
it

consists

of a

deep plate with


frame.

stiffening

on

its

inner

is

known
six

as

web
the

Lloyd's

Rules permit a system of web frames at


paratively
light

frame spaces apart,


for

with

comat

intermediate frames,

to

be substituted

heavier frames

of the ordinary frame table, provided a deck be laid on the


the height d.
is

tier

of

beams
fig.

In

fig.

95, the

largest
It will

shown with web

frames.

93 be seen that the angles connecting the

of the three vessels indicated in

Fig.

95.
SECTION

SECTION SHOWINt

SHOWING

WEB FRAME

INTERMEDIATE FRAME

'iNTERWlDiATCl

TfUMES / 6V5V-4ZB-A

webs
as

to

the

shell-plating

and

to

the side stringers are of the


fitted

the webs, and

that

angles

are

to

the inner edges of the webs


really

same thickness and


partial

stringers.

When
and

webs become of considerable depth, they are


to

bulkheads,
shell

develop

their

full

efficiency

should

have

substantial

connection.
Rules,

Thus webs

Lloyd's
angles

require

24 inches and above, in vessels built to double angles to the shell-plating, or equivalent single
rigidly
its

double riveted.

A
beams,

web frame being held and at the bilge by

at

the
or

deck
tank

by
side

its

connection

to

the

floor

connection,

forms

WEB FRAMES.
girder of

103

comparatively

short

span,

at

least

when

stringers,
it

which are
to

only

properly
the

held

at

the

bulkheads.

compared with the side For this reason

web frames continuous and the side stringers done. At the junction of each web and stringer, the discontinuity of the latter is made good by a double angle connection to the webs, and by fitting a stout buttstrap to the stringer face bar (see fig. 95). Web frames are attached by bracket knees to beams at their heads, the knees being double riveted in each arm and flanged on their inner edge. At the lower part, when associated with an ordinary floor, the inner edge of the web frame is swept into the top edge of the former, the
is

advisable

make
is

intercostal,

and

this

usually

connection to
nection
angle angle
(see
is

the

floor

being
to

an

overlapped
bottom,

riveted
it

one.

When
of

the

con-

to

be
the

made
margin
the

an
bar

inner

should

consist

riveted

on
bar

to

plate,

with, in addition,

a substantial gusset plate


the

or

from

top

of

the

web on
will

to

inner

bottom

plating

fig.

95.)

FLOORS.
bending
the
line

These

vertical

plates

be

observed

to

have a

maximum
sides,

depth, governed by the size of vessel, at the


stresses
at

middle

line

where the transverse

are greatest.

Thence they gradually taper towards the


half breadth, half that at centre line.

depth

three-quarters

the

measured out from the middle

on the run of the frame, being


a

From
its

this point,

the upper edge of each floor sweeps into the line of the inside of the frame,

terminating at

height
is

from the base

line

equal

to

twice
the

depth at the
frame,

middle

line.

There
of a

one such
indeed,
vessel

floor

at

each frame,

floor,
is

and
small

reversed frame
acteristic
vessels,

forming,

a transverse girder,

which

the

most charin

feature

built without
in

an inner bottom.

Except

the
at

floor-plates

are

fitted

two pieces, connected by an overlap or

buttstrap

the

middle

line,

or
is

alternately
fitted,

on each side of that


floors

line.

When
it

a vertical

through centre-plate

the

are

fitted

close

against

on each side, a riveted connection being made by double vertical angle bars, The loss of transverse strength due to cutting the as shown in fig. 90. floors is also partly made good by a horizontal keelson plate fitted at the centre line on top of floors, referred to when dealing with centre keelsons. When
inner

bottoms

are

fitted,

this

part

of

the

structure

undergoes

considerable

modifications, as

we

shall

see

presently.
as

SIDE KEELSONS.
floors

As

well

the centre keelson, vessels with ordinary

line. The main and floors in their correct relative positions, intercostal plates are fitted between the floors and connected to the shell-plating and to double angles on top of the floors. These intercostal plates need not be connected to the floors, but in order

have keelsons midway between the bilge and the middle


of these

function

keelsons being to keep the frames

to

develop

their

full

efficiency

should

be

fitted

close
is

between them.

In

small vessels, under 27 feet breadth, one side keelson


in
larger
fig.

considered sufficient;

vessels,

27

feet

and under 50
for

feet

in

breadth,
sizes

two are necessary.


shown.

In

96,

side

keelsons

vessels

of various

are

to4

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
50
feet

BILGE KEELSON.
in

In
as
far

vessels

of

and under
is

54

feet

breadth,
side,

addition

to

two side keelsons,


carried

bilge

keelson
aft

required

on each

and should be
like

forward and

as

practicable.

This keelson,
shell-

a side keelson,
(see
fig.

should have an intercostal

plate

connected to the

plating

96).

Fig.

96.

SIDE STRINGERS. Between


is

the bilge and the deck

beams the framing


by
stringers

tied

together,
in

and

stresses

to

some
angles angles

extent
riveted

distributed
to

con-

sisting

small vessels
vessels

of single of
similar

reversed
with

frames and lugs,


intercostal
stringers

and
latter

in

larger
to

associated

an
side

plate
this

connected

the

shell-plating.
all

Lloyd's

Rules
to

require
these

of

type in vessels of

sizes.

According
Fig.

Regulations, the

number

97.
SECTION

AT A.B.

~^r~
of
side
stringers
feet,

\_y

depends
is

B on the value of
very
small
vessels,

^u

s^7~
d.

i
When
is

this

is

feet

and

less

than
feet
feet,

14
to

that

in

one

sufficient;
is

21

feet,

two

are

necessary;

and when d and angle


bars,

20

feet

where d is 14 and under 27

three
All

should be

fitted.

keelson

and

stringer

plates

when continuous, should

BEAMS.

105

be

fitted

in

long

lengths,

and

to

obviate

any sudden

discontinuity

of

the

strength,
plates

adjoining butts

should be carefully shifted from

each

other.

Both

sisting
feet

and bars should be strapped at the butts, the angle-bar straps conof bosom pieces of the same thickness as the keelson bar and two long, having not less than three rivets on each side of a butt (see fig. 97).

BEAMS. A
strength
in
(see

tier

of

beams
of

is

always
;

fitted

so

as

to

tie

the top of the


as elements of

frames together and support the deck


the
structure
71,

the functions of generally


as

beams

ship

are

have

been already dea

scribed

pages

72).

The number

of tiers
it

of beams
also

required in any vessel


for

is

question
is

of

transverse strength, but

depends on the trade

which she

intended.

Fig.

98.
ELEVATION SHOWING STRINGER FACl ANCLE.,

Passenger boats usually require one or more decks below the upper one for
purposes of accommodation.
cargo,
ever,

Many cargo vessels, owing to the nature of their need one or more 'tween deck spaces; in most cargo boats, howas has been said elsewhere, the desire is for deep holds, clear of beams
also

or

other

obstructions.
in
this

Lloyd's

latest

Rules allow considerable scope to the

in a previous paragraph, they allow him, up to a certain point, to design his vessel entirely clear of beams below the upper deck, if he so wishes. The value of tf, in such a case, will, of

designer

matter.

As was seen

course,

be
(see

relatively
fig.

great,

and the scantlings of the


is

side

framing relatively

heavy
it

93).

This
just

the
for

penalty

is

obviously
its

one;

each

exacted for unobstructed holds, and frame is a girder, whose strength is

governed by

span.

Io6

SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND" CALCULATIONS.

Spacing of
beams, such as
in
is

Beams.

According

to

Lloyd's

Rules,

complete

tier

of

required to form the upper point of support of the frames


:

regulating

scantlings of the latter, may consist of Beams at every frame. (2) Beams at alternate frames. (3) Beams widely spaced up to 24 feet apart. In arrangements (2) and (3) the beams are heavier than

the

(i)

in

(1)

and

in

(3)

broad

stringer

must be

fitted

heavy
stringer
fitted

face

bar, and large horizontal and the beams (see fig. 98).

on the ends of the beams with a gussets must be fitted between the
Lloyd's
:

Rules

require

beams

to

be

at

every

frame in the following places


watertight
flats.

(1) (2) (3)

At

all

At upper decks of single-deck vessels above 15 feet in depth. At unsheathed upper decks, when a complete steel deck is required
by the Rules.

(4)
(5)

At unsheathed bridge, At upper, shelter, or


length,

shelter

and awning decks.


decks
in

awning

vessels

over

450

feet

in

whether the decks be sheathed or not.

Under

erections,

such as poops, bridges, and forecastles in vessels


in
for

breadth,

less than 66 feet upper deck beams may be on alternate frames, except

one-tenth the vessel's length within each end of a bridge, where


of
all

they are to be fitted at every frame.


(6)

At

the

sides
in

hatchways,

including
steel

those
iron

of

engine

and

boiler

openings,

unsheathed

or

decks.

Elsewhere,
only
if

deck

beams

may be spaced
27

two

frame

spaces

apart,

but

the
is

frame spacing does not exceed

inches.

easy to grasp the reason for close spacing the beams on unsheathed With thin decks and widely spaced beams, the plating would probably sag between the latter, which would make the decks most unsightly; with beams at every frame the sagging tendency will be very slight. The close beam spacing in way of hatches is necessary in view of the heavy weights which may be brought upon the deck there during loading operations. When a wood deck is laid, beams may be at alternate frames (except as above stated in vessels over 450 feet). In this case, the steel deck is supported between the beams by the wood deck, the deck fastenings for the wood deck being fitted between the beams. The beams forming the weather
It

decks.

decks are usually cambered, so as to throw


lower
tiers

off

water quickly

those

of the

are
to

sometimes
weather

cambered
decks
is

and

sometimes

straight.

The
of

usual

camber given
or

\ inch per foot Lloyd's Rules allow the beams of weather decks to be
with
less

of

length

beam.

fitted

without camber
vessels (30,000 continuous deck

than

the
if

usual
at

amount,

in

the

case of

of

large

longitudinal
is

number)

least

half the

length

the
arch,

top
it

covered by erections.

On

the principle of the

might be thought

that

camber should give additional strength

to beams, but, as has

been pointed

BEAM
out,* the
sides

SECTIONS.

io 7

of a

ship are

not really abutments, so that this can scarcely


sections
in
fig.

be the
the

case.

BEAM SECTIONS. Beams


strength
B,

are

fitted

of

different

according
99.

to

required;
in

most

of

these
section

being
E, are
for

included

Sections

A and
at

and

large

vessels,

adopted when the beams are

every frame.

G
for

is

not often used

ordinary
to

section,

however,

special

beams
to

built

are

used when
are

beams
fitted

are

be
the
the

fitted

common D and carry the ship's boats. Sections F frames. to alternate


beams
;

it

is

and J
very

only
the cut

where
to

extra

strength
sides

is

required.
vessel

In

way
is

of

the

machinery,

material

binding

of

the

together

usually
for

much

away owing

necessity

of
;

providing

ample

space

it is, therefore, of importand boilers ance to make any beams that may be got across the vessel in that locality as strong as possible; beams similar to those just mentioned are is a form of beam found suitable (? usually fitted, with satisfactory results. for the ends of hatchways, the angle bar being, of course, fitted away from

shipping and unshipping the engines

the

hatch

opening.

In

general,

where

heavy permanent

deck weights
adopted
will

are

carried,

specially

strong

beams

are

needed,

and the

section

be

that

dictated

by the experience of the designer.


99.

Fig.

In

order

to

obtain
the

special

strength,

and
the
as

to

allow

of

substantial

knee

connections

between
depth

beam ends and


their

frames,

reduced
great

in

towards

extremities,

beams are not might be done in the case


ship

of an ordinary loaded girder supported at the ends.


strength at
this

The

reasons for

having

part

of a
shall

ship

have already been explained.


describe a few methods of forming and

BEAM KNEES, We
fitting

now

beam
seen to

knees.

Several examples taken from Lloyd's Rules, of a

common,
fig.

and very
It is

efficient

one when the workmanship


of a
triangular
plate,

is

good,
into

is

shown

at

100.

consist

fitted

the angle

between the
the

top

of

beam and
Sometimes

the ship's side, and


for

well
to

riveted

to the

beam end and


fitted

frame.

lightness,
is

and

minimise obstruction to stowage, the


This knee can be
to

inner

edge of the knee-plate

hollowed.

any

of the

beam

sections

given

above.

Another way of forming a beam knee is to cut away the lower bulb for a end of the beam, and weld in a piece of plate or bulb This plate, the knee being afterwards trimmed to the size and shape required.
short distance from the
is

called

a slabbed knee
*

(see

fig.

101).

Unless great care

is

exercised,

the

See Practical Shipbuilding, by A. Campbell Holms.

ioS
welds
of

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
these
the

AND CALCULATIONS.
;

knees
bracket

will

give

trouble

for

this

reason

this

style

is

not so

popular as

knee, nor as
Fig.

the

one we are about

to

describe.

In

100.

BEAMS AT

EVERY FRAME

BEAMS AT ALTERNATE FRAMES

C.

MUST NOT BE LESS THAN


OlAMETLR OF RIVETS

Six

TIMES

Fig.

101

Fig.

102.

this

last

case,

each end of the beam


indicated
in
fig.

is

split

horizontally at about the middle


is

of th^

depth, as

102,

and the lower part

turned down;

BEAM KNEES.
a piece
is

I09

of plate
to

cut

shape and
it

welds, but
it

is

welded into the space so formed, and, finally, the beam size. This knee also depends on the quality of the stronger than the previous one, and has a fine appearance
is

is

are mainly met by the shearing strength of the rivets, must be sufficient in number and diameter. Lloyd's Rules require that in knees under 17 inches deep there shall be not less than 4 rivets of finch diameter in each arm, while knees 40 inches deep require nine f-inch diameter rivets in each arm the number varies between these limits for
stresses

known As the

as

a turned knee.

these

knees of intermediate depths.


Obviously, only about half the
will

number

of rivets required in bracket knees

be needed

for

welded knees of the same depth.

The depth and thickness of a beam knee varies with the depth of the beam, and the position of the latter in the ship. Generally, beams which form the top of a hold space are required of maximum depth, the distorting
stresses

being greatest

at

these places.

Hence,

in steamers

where there

is

but

beam knees are of greater depth than if there were intermediate decks. The upper deck beam knees in vessels which have a range of wide-spaced beams below the upper deck, are to be of the scantlings of
a single tier of beams, the the knees of an upper

deck
of

tier

where
are

it

is

the

only one.

In sailing ships,
for

beam knees
beams *of mentioned
than
those

at

all

tiers

beams
in

to

be the same as
one
tier

upper deck
It

similar

scantling

steamers
require
in

having

only.

that

Lloyd's
the

Rules
necessary
at

beams

in

sailing

ships
tier

to

may be be heavier
These
bulktherefore,

of

same lengths
fitted

steamers
sailing

having

one

only.

requirements

are

very

as

vessels

have

no watertight
they
are,

heads

except

one
rigid

the

extreme

forward

end

without the

of her bulkheads,

transverse stiffening which every steamer possesses in virtue and need the bracing given by beams of special strength and

depth
depth

of

knees.

All

beam knees should measure


knee.

across the throats at least

of the

full

of the

beams at every frame are to have plate moulded depth. Thus, in vessels 23 feet and under 24 feet depth, the knees are to be 33 inches x 33 inches and in vessels 26 feet and under 27 feet, 42 inches x 42 inches; the knees Deepening the knees for vessels of intermediate depths varying between these. strengthens the frames by shortening the unsupported length ; it also stiffens the vessel at the deck corners and arrests any tendency to change of form that might develop when the vessel is labouring among waves at sea. BALLAST TANKS. Nearly all modern cargo steamers are constructed to
In large single-deck vessels the
varying in
size

bracket knees

with

the

load
in

water-ballast
in

when

necessary, the water being carried in double bottoms,


in

peak tanks,
purpose.

deep tanks, or
all

the

Frequent^,
it

these

methods

some other space specially devised for are employed together in a single

steamer,

when

is

desired to be able to proceed to sea without using suppleballast.

mentary stone or sand

no
Ballast

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
tanks
are

AND CALCULATIONS.
in
sailing

not

usually
to

fitted

ships,

as,

unlike

steamers,

they have

long

voyages

perform

In their case, therefore, Another important reason for omitting


seldom.
saving in
first

and load and discharge comparatively rapid means of ballasting are of little use.
ballast

tanks" in

sailing

ships

is

the

cost.

Still,

where there have been special reasons

for so doing,

double bottoms, and even deep tanks, have been installed in sailing ships.

When
devised

water began to be introduced as a means of ballasting, shipbuilders


or less successful plans, to
it,

many more

which we need not here

refer, for

economically carrying
adopted.
plating

before they arrived at the efficient system


it

now

generally
shell-

From
and
the

the

first

was seen that the broken space between the


floors

tops

of

the

in

the bottom of the

ship was admirably

suited for this purpose, since


available for profitable

use could thus be

made

of space not otherwise

employment.

In the

earliest vessels the tanks

were usually

only in one or two holds, and to obtain an adequate ballast capacity the tanks

Fig.

103.

BALLAST TANKS.
reversed frames with plugs of wrought iron, the latter being tightly
place
a-nd

Ill

wedged
to

into

carefully

caulked.

Neither of

these

methods was

found

be

very satisfactory, as the abrupt termination

of the

tanks gave rise to

decided

weakness in the structure


ship, watertightness at the

at the bilges

moreover, even with careful workman-

margin was

difficult to secure.

Both of these objections were eventually overcome by severing the main and reversed frames at the tank margin, and fitting a continuous bar directly on to the shell-plating, the loss of transverse strength being made good by
fitting

substantial brackets from the frame bar

on

to

the

margin plate of the


from the name
at

tank top.
of
its

This arrangement, known as the M'Intyre


is,

System
the

introducer,

in

principle,

the

one now adopted

margin in

all

vessels having a ballast tank extending over the greater part of the length.

In

the earliest vessels built, on this system, the angle connecting the margin-plate
to to

the shell-plating was fitted inside the tank

and the margin-plate connected


margin-plate
is

the

tank-top

by an

angle

bar

now,

the

flanged

at

the

Fig.

104.

FRAMED
CONTINUOUS W.T.ANGIE

REV.

FRAME CUT

top and the shell bar brought outside the tank, improvements which have led
to

much

better workmanship.

Fig.

104 shows the improved M'Intyre System.

In constructing a ballast tank extending over a portion only of the length,

a point of importance
breaks.

is

the

maintenance of the longitudinal strength at the


In such cases the usual plan
structure
clear

To

stop the tank structure abruptly at any point would accentuate the

weakness of sections lying immediately beyond.


is

to

continue the keelsons of the part of the


so
as

of the double

bottom,

to

scarph the
of
three

latter

for

some

distance

(Lloyd's

Rules require

minimum
It

scarph

frame

spaces),

and

to

connect

them

to

the

longitudinal girders where practicable.

very soon

came

to

be recognised that by making a


It

ballast

tank con-

tinuous,

and

for the full length of a vessel, other

advantages besides the import-

ant one of carrying water-ballast could be secured.


that the double skin afforded
vessel's safety

was seen, for instance,

by the tank top-plating would greatly increase a against foundering, in the event of grounding on a rocky bottom

also that the material required for the construction of the tank, being at a con-

112
siderable

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
distance

AND CALCULATIONS.

axis, would be very efficient in resisting These considerations led to the adoption of a continuous ballast tank in many vessels, and when later, the Board of Trade consented to measure the depth for tonnage in such cases to the inner bottom

from

the

neutral

longitudinal structural stresses.

plating, a fore-and-aft

The

fitting

of a
part

full

double bottom became the rule in cargo steamers. length tank brought immediate changes in the internal
of the
hull.

framing of
the length

this

It

was

now found

possible

to

reduce the

depth of the tank as compared with that of one extending over a part only of
;

but this

made

it

impracticable to follow the usual plan in building

of fitting longitudinal girders on top of ordinary floors,

and a Cellular System

of construction was introduced, and

came

to

be generally adopted.

system,

There are two principal methods of constructing a double bottom on this The first consists of illustrated in figs. 105* and 106* respectively.
girders

longitudinal

suitably

spaced,

and

floorplates

fitted

at

alternate

frames,
bars.

the

girders

being connected to the inner and outer bottoms


at least

by angle

By Lloyd's Rules
34
feet

one longitudinal girder

is

required in vessels under

whose breadth of tank amidships is under 28 feet, and two between 34 feet and 50 feet in breadth, whose breadth of tank amidships is between 28 and 36 feet. Sometimes the parts are flanged in
breadth,
in

vessels

although the cost is thus somewhat reduced, there being and less riveting, there is a loss in rigidity, for which reason flanged work here is not very common. In way of the engine space, owing to the great vibration there due to the working of the machinery, the floorplates are fitted at every frame and stiffened at their upper edges by double reversed bars floorplates must also occur at the boiler bearers. As a rule flanged work is not resorted to in this region.! Before and abaft the engine space, at those frames to which no floorplates are attached, brackets, which in medium-sized! vessels should be wide enougn at the head to take three rivets in the vertical flange of the intermediate reversed angles for 4
lieu

of angles,
parts

but
fit

fewer

to

the

vessel's

length

amidships,

are

fitted

to

the

centre

girder
resist

and

margin

plate,

binding these parts together and strengthening them to

the stresses

set

waves.

up by the action of the water ballast when the vessel is in motion among The reversed bars in way of these intermediate frames are riveted to
;

the tank top-plating, to Avhich they act as stiffeners


are dispensed with

frequently, however, they


in

and the inner bottom slightly increased The side girders and floors are pierced with manholes
parts

thickness in

lieu.

to give ready access

to

all

of

the

tank,

a
is
;

considerable

saving

in

weight

being

also

thus
it

effected.

The

centre

girder

more important than the


it

others,

forming as
is

does a kind of internal keel

has,

therefore,

heavier scantlings,

not

re-

duced by manholes except perhaps at the extreme ends, and is stiffened top and bottom by heavy double bars (see fig. 105). In the earliest vessels built on this plan, the longitudinals were continuous and the floors intercostal, the
* Figures taken

from Lloyd's Rules.

t See Remarks on Stiffening of Double Bottom at Fore End, p. 116. X When the longitudinal number is 20,000 and above.

BALLAST TANKS.
former,

113
axis,
it

owing to
the

their

distances

from

the

neutral

being
usual

considerable
the
floors

elements in
to

longitudinal

strength.

Nowadays,

is

for

be continuous and the girders intercostal, an arrangement leading to greater


of construction
strength,

simplicity

a
of

most important point and


howe'ver,
in

to

longitudinal

which,

modern
the

vessels,
latter

calculations

some reduction show


is

in

to

be

still

ample.
in

An

important advantage of the


the

arrangement
short

a great

increase

the

stiffness

bottom,

comparatively

floorplates
girders.

obviously having greater

strength

and

rigidity

than

long

fore-and-aft

Fig.

105.

SECTION AT INTERMEDIATE FRAME

PLAN
23"
*

-H-,.-^^. EL
BRACKET
SIDE GIRDERS

=H*J.
/* 1
1

ft

I
or
in

CENTRE GWOtR

LZ
ti

^^TfF""^

When
as

longitudinals

are

continuous,

order that their

efficiency

as

strength

elements

may not be

impaired, the manholes through


in
different

them should be as few


clear

possible,

and those
the
rule

girders

shifted

well

of

each

other

transversely.

When
vessels

which exceed 26
is

inner bottom
fig.

vessels exceed 400 feet, and in single-deck moulded depth, the above plan of framing the not considered adequate, and the second method, shown in

lengths

of

feet

106,

should be adopted.

In

this

case,

the floorplates are at every frame

ii 4

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
to

AND CALCULATIONS.
margin plate on
each
side,

and continuous from centre girder


longitudinals,

while

the

except the centre one, are intercostal.

The

floorplates

and side
are the

girders have lightening holes,

one or two through the


intercostal

floors into

each cellular

Fewer side girders required by this plan, only a single one being necessary on each side of centre if the ballast tank be under 36 feet in width and the breadth ship under 50 feet, and only two if the tank be under 48 feet and
space,

and one through every

girder

plate.

of
the

ship under 62 feet in breadth,


larger vessels
;

the

number being
girders with

proportionately increased in
closer floors gives

the spacing

of the

the

approxi-

mately the
in

same extent of unsupported area of


case.

the

previous

The

intercostals

are

and tank top-plating as attached to the floors and to the


shell

Fig,

106.

FLOOR AT EVERY -FRAME'

PLAN

inner and outer skins by riveted angle bars or flanges


as being riveted to the frames

and the

floors,

as well

and

to angle bars

under the inner bottom plating,

have angle connections to the centre girder and the margin-plate; the centre girder attachments, consisting of double angles for half length amidships when the transverse

number reaches

or exceeds

66.

In the

latest

vessels

of this

size,

single

angle attachments between the floors and centre girder have sometimes been It is seen that as regards the inadopted, the flanges being double riveted.
ternal framing of

the inner bottom, the longitudinal strength in this last plan

is

somewhat
increase
strength,

less

than in the previous one, but in view of the tendency towards


in

of

breadth

modern

vessels,

demanding

considerable

transverse

and of the greatly enhanced stiffness of the bottom on account of the numerous deep floorplates, it would appear that the continuous floor on every frame method of construction is the better one, particularly as the

BALLAST TANKS.

"5

absence of the bracket work required at the intermediate spaces in the previous plan renders the work of simpler construction. This arrangement is at anyrate a
favourite

with

many

builders,

who have

frequently

adopted
size.

it

in

much
Rules

smaller

vessels

than

recognise

the

greater

the
tank,

shell-plating

requiring it owing to their strength of this plan over the previous one by allowing (except the flat keel and garboard strakes) in way of the

those

Lloyd's

when

-52

to

'66 '66

of an inch in thickness, to be slightly reduced;

when

the

plating

exceeds

of an inch in

thickness,

no reduction

is

allowed.

Fig.

107.

TANK. SIDE BRACKET

Il6
increase in breadth
single bars with

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
double bars or equivalent
for
this

and depth,

particularly the latter,

double-riveted flanges

quickly

become necessary
this

pur-

pose, over

some
to

portion at least of the vessel's length.


require
special

Experience has shown

the

fore

end

attention

in

respect,

and Lloyd's Rules


vessel's

demand double
length

angles

from the collision bulkhead to one-fourth the


in

from
the

the

stem
of
is

vessels

of

moderate
fitting

size.

Besides

the

foregoing,
at

with

growth

vessels

additional

strength

becomes
to

necessary
the
tops

the the

tank

margin,

which

provided

by

gusset-plates

of

wing brackets and to the sides of the tank top-plating.


angles have been substituted for the gusset-plates with

In recent instances,
results.

good
106,

Detailed

sketches of these arrangements


gusset-plates

are
at

shown
every

in

figs.

105,

and
in

107.

These
case by

or

angles
to

are

fitted

fifth,

fourth, third,

second or single
each
of

Irame, according the


transverse

the vessel's the

size,

the limits of
d,

being fixed
the

number and

value

i.e.,

length

unsupported

frame.
little comment. Lloyd's be arranged in longitudinal strakes and the butts shifted well clear of each other and of those of the longitndinal girders, when these are continuous, and this is usually done. In some districts, notably the N.E. coast, transverse strips have been fitted under the watertight bulkheads to allow the building of the latter to be proceeded with at an early stage of the

The

fitting

of the inner bottom plating calls for


it

Rules recommend that

work, but the system cannot be otherwise

commended.

To

save the fitting of


at

packing pieces, inner bottom plating


objection has

is

sometimes joggled

the

seams, but

been raised to the depression thus caused in the surface, as forming lodgments for water, particularly where ceiling is laid, rapid corrosion
resulting
this

in

consequence.
is

Like other longitudinal material, the


the ends;
strength,
there.
it

thickness

of

plating
to

reduced

at

is

increased

in

way of the machinery


to

space

give

additional

but

more

particularly

allow

for

<the

corrosion

which takes place

Structural

not bestowed
centre
girder
vessels, in

efficiency in double bottoms would not be obtained were care on the riveted connections. It is especially important that the

should not be weakened


therefore, these

at

the
less

butts

except in the

case

of

small

and
side

than treble riveted amidships, very large vessels they should be quadruple riveted.* The butts of

must not be

girders,

where continuous, should be double

riveted,

and

in

laro-e

vessels

treble

riveted.

The tank

top-plating
strength,

is

an

important
riveting

element

in

both

the

longitudinal
for

and transverse
consideration.

and the
of the

of butts
line

careful

The
in

butts

middle

and seams calls strake, and those of


;

the margin plate, must be at least double riveted throughout

in large vessels

they should

be treble and
of inner

the

largest

vessels

quadruple

riveted.

The
for

re-

maining
* In
riveting

butts

bottom

plating

are

to

be

double

riveted

half

of butts

Lloyd's Rules, and also in those of the British Corporation, the requirements as to and edge joints at any part of a ship are fixed by the thickness of the
part.

plating

and the position of the

PEAK TANKS.
length,
strake,
vessels,

17

and

in

large

vessels

treble

riveted. stresses

The edges
are

of

the

middle
in

line

where

the

transverse

bending

greatest,

except
this

small

should be double riveted, and in the largest vessels


the

should apply

to the clear

remainder of the plating; medium-sized vessels have single riveted edges


of

middle

line

strake.

All

the

preceding connections are usually

overlapped.

On
fore-ends
resist

page 73 reference was made to special stresses which come upon the To of full vessels when sailing in light trim among waves at sea.
If
built

these stresses, such vessels are provided with extra strengthening forward

in

way of the inner bottom.


frames,

on the

cellular

system with comparafloors

tively closely

spaced longitudinals, continuous or otherwise, and


the
floors

at

alter-

nate

are to

be

fitted

to every frame,

and the main frames


collision
;

doubled from
a
fifth

margin plate to margin


vessel's

plate

from

the

bulkhead
the

to

of

the

length
the

aft,

measuring from the stem


to

also

three
for-

strakes

of plating next
to

keel are
If

maintain
with

their

midship thickness
floors

ward
frame,
the

the

collision

bulkhead.

built

continuous
shell-plating

at

every
as
in

the

frames are to be
;

doubled,
special

and the

increased,

last

case

but in addition,
to

intercostal

girders

must be

fitted

of
for-

a depth equal

half that

of the centre girder, and be extended as far

ward
in

as

practicable.

In both cases the rivets through the plating and frames


to

this

region

are
in

be

of

closer

spacing

than

elsewhere.

It

should

be
of

mentioned that
girders
full

vessels

having
floors,

ballast

tanks those

constructed with

longitudinal
if

on top of ordinary

and

in

without inner bottoms,


is

forms, adequate strengthening of a similar nature to the above

necessary.

PEAK TANKS, In
ballast
;

steamers, after-peaks are

now

usually adapted for water

in

some

cases,

the

fore-peak
is,

is

also

so

constructed,

but more
;

rarely.

The
like

principal value of peak tanks

of course, their trimming effect

they are

weights situated at the extreme ends of a lever poised at the middle, and
this

have great power in


their

respect.

In strengthening these compartments


of the
stresses
floors,

for

work,

we have
load.

to

bear in mind the special nature


it

set

up by the
rivets

Unlike ordinary cargo

does not

lie

on the

but

presses immediately

on

to the shell, thus inducing severe stresses


shell-plating
to

on the frame

which bind the


is

the structure

for

this

reason the pitch

not to exceed 5 diameters. It is not usual to increase the shell-plating or framing in thickness, as owing to the shape at this part these
of such rivets are

amply

strong.

The boundary formed by


;

the

hold

bulkhead,

however,

and of considerable area, care has to be taken to prevent bulging ; this is done by thickening the lower plating if the tank is a deep one, and making the stiffeners heavier and closer spaced than at A centre line bulkhead or washplate is required in all ordinary bulkheads. such compartments, to prevent the water from damaging the structure by
requires
special attention

being

flat

dashing from side to side in the event of a free


the
effect

surface,
vessel's

and

to

minimise

which such

free

surface would

have on a

stability.

Such

washplates need not be of strong construction, but should be securely attached


to the

bulkhead and underside of the deck.

n8

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
of

DEEP TANKS. These

usually

consist
ballast;

ordinary

hold

compartments

specially strengthened to carry water

one or two of them are freWhere one only is required, quently fitted in large modern cargo steamers. the compartment immediately abaft the engines is usually adapted for the purpose where there are two, they are generally placed one at either end
;

of the

engines and boiler space.

When
Fig.

situated

thus,

the

machinery being,

108.
SECTION

ELEVATION

BRACKETS

us

' -j

Tj/

PECK

(TVT

y
PLAN.

ALTERNATIVE PLAN, FRAMES CONTINUOUS


ELEVATION
SECTION

of

course,

assumed

amidships,

the

water

ballast

has

its

greatest

power

in

sinking the vessel bodily, without materially changing the trim.

The same system


tanks,

but

increased.
stiffeners

of strengthening is followed here as in the peak deep tanks being larger, the stiffening has to be correspondingly The end bulkheads must have heavy vertical and horizontal

of

bulb

angle,
in

or

other

section,
to

fitted

on

opposite

sides

and
deck,

bracketed at their ends,

the

one case

the

double

bottom

and

SPECIAL BALLAST TANKS.

II 9

and in the other, to the ship's sides. A centre line division is required, and must be of strong construction, as it takes the place of pillars, as well as acting as a wash plate. It should be connected by double angles to the deck and double bottom, and have substantial, close-pitched stiffeners bracketed at top and bottom. Cases have occurred in which the action of the water has swept this bulkhead entirely from its boundary connections, showing the need of having the latter specially strong. The deck forming the top of the tank is required to have beams spaced on every frame, and there should be large beam knee connections to the sides, as severe strains have been found developed at this part due to the action of the water in a partially-filled tank, when the vessel has been in motion at sea. Midway between the centre line and the ship's side, runners are required under the deck beams, and, in order

PLAN

to

tie

the

exerted

top and bottom of the tank by the contained water when the
pillars

together, against
vessel
is

the

lifting

forces

in

motion among wave^ a


the frame

row of strong
plating
is

are required.
in

The
side

riveting through
tanks,

and

shell-

of close

pitch

way of deep
ship's

as

the
is

load

acts

directly

on
the

the

shell-plating.

At the

watertightness

secured in

much

same way as at the margin of a double bottom. A continuous bar is fitted and caulked to tank top plating and shell, the side frames, which have, of course, to be severed, being bracketed to the tank top (see fig. 108); sometimes, where the side framing consists of frame and reversed frame, only the reversed frames are cut, the frames being doubled in the vicinity and watertight
collars
fitted
;

in
for

this

last

case,

the

severing
at

of

the

reversed frames
(see
fig.

is

further

compensated

by

fitting

brackets

alternate

frames

109).

120

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
for the

AND CALCULATION^.
is

Access to deep tanks

purpose of shipping cargo

obtained by means
is

of watertight hatchways, one of which, owing to the centre division,

required

on each side of the centre

line.

OTHER TANKS. As
arrangements

well

as

the

foregoing,

in

many
ballast.

steamers

special
in

have

been

devised

for

carrying

water

Thus,

the
cut
82).

Harroway and Dixon type of vessel, corner spaces under the deck off from the holds, and specially strengthened for this purpose (see
In
the
Burrell
(see
fig.

are
fig.

type
84).

the

ballast

In the

space

have been
to

specially
in

system, which
ship
in

consists

are built up and utilised for water Ropner Trunk type, portions of the trunk The M'Glashan strengthened to the same end. continuing the double bottom up the sides of the
bilge

corners

latest

the
of

height
these

of the

deck,

is is

also worthy of

mention.
thus

The

chief point
for

favour

arrangements

the

high

position

secured

the

centre

of gravity

of the water

ballast,

leading to steadiness and general good

behaviour when in a seaway.

TESTING OF TANKS. On
watertightness

completion,

ballast

tanks

are

tested

for

by putting them under water pressure.


intended for
the

Each compartment
by a
head
of

of

a double bottom
to

water ballast

is

pressed

water

the
in

height
actual

of

bear

service.

of water
less

feet

waterline as being the greatest pressure it need Peak tanks and deep tanks are tested by a head above the top of tank, but the head must in no case be

load

than to

the

height

of

the

load waterline.
of
pillars

PILLARS.
been pointed
stresses

The
It

importance

in

ship

structure
ties

has

already

out.

was shown that as


to

struts

and

they communicate

from one part to another, and thus cause the strength of the various
structure
act

parts

of the
ones,
strain

together.
liable

Short

pillars

are

more

effective
at

than

long
less

as

the

latter

are

to

collapse

by side bending

much

than

that represented

by the compressive strength of the material.


e.g.,

Pillars are,

therefore, increased in diameters with their lengths;

in

a vessel
feet long

of 55 feet

beam

with two rows of

pillars,

the latter,

if

just

under 8

and supporting a beam of a third deck, should have a diameter of 4 inches, and if just under 22 feet a diameter of 5! inches; intermediate lengths having diameters between these. The strength of pillars should also advance with
the loads they have to bear;
for

instance,

those in the upper erections, since

they have only the weight of the deck structure and


of comparatively small size
;

load to support, may be under second or third decks below the upper deck, which may, therefore, have heavy loads of cargo to support,
those
fitted

should be of considerable diameter.


the cargo
is

In

the

holds, too, the

side

pressure

of

liable to

bend the
as

pillars unless

they be of substantial diameter.


greatly

As
of the

well

as

acting

struts

and
ends

ties,

pillars

augment the strength


middle of a
will

beams they
beam,
of the

support.
at

A
its

pillar

placed but not


its

below the
fixed
rigidity
;

rect-

angular
strength
fixed

supported
latter

there,

double
ships

the

and

greatly

increase

beams

in

have

ends, but

middle

line pillars is

except as modified by this circumstance, the strength value of equally great. If two pillars be fitted to a beam so as

PILLARS.
to divide
its

121
is

length equally, the effective


is

span

a third of

its

original value,
for

and the strength of the beam

correspondingly increased;
is

and so on

any

number of
for
pillars,

pillars.

Use

of this

made

in vessels as they increase in breadth

instance,

beams 43 feet and under in length require only a centre row of but when they exceed this length, two rows become necessary; when
of

the

length

beam exceeds 60

feet,

an additional

row

is

required,

placed

Fig.

110.

Fig.

111.

1
Fig.

u
112.

17

Fig.

113.

-^

Lln_
Fig.
115.

Fig.

114.

Fig.

116.

in

one at the centre line, and another at each quarter breadth of the vessel, those At the ends of the the latter rows being hence called quarter pillars.
the

vessel, as

beam

decreases

in

length, the

number

of rows

of pillars

may

be correspondingly reduced. Where there are several decks, the various rows of pillars should be arranged as nearly as possible over one another, in order to rigidly join the upper and lower parts of the ship's structure.

HEADS AND HEELS OF PILLARS. The


heels

forms
part

of

the

heads
vessel

and
to

of

pillars

are

governed by the

nature

of

the

of

the

^
122

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
and
is

which

connection
but has
the

is

made.
;

Figs,

no
first

in

illustrate

two

methods
is

of

attachment to bulb-tee beams

the

the usual one, the second

not so

common
so

the

advantage of gripping the

beam round
Figs.

the

relieves

rivets

when
to

the

pillar

is

under tension.

show the connection


are
to
fitted

and channel beams


pillars

respectively.

and and 113 When beams


bulb,

112

on every frame, the


runners

being at alternate frames,


pillars

it

is

necessary
the

have

under

them

in

way of the

so

as

to

support

Fig.

117.

^^^p^^vt
i

^tm

Fig.

118.

Fig.

119.

^^
U
Fig.

120.

Fig.

121.

Fig.

122.

Fig.

123.

_V
intermediate beams.

M
by
this

be of

other
;

approved
it

These runners should consist of double angles, but may Figs. form. 114 and 1 15 show two styles of the
be observed that the attachment to the beams is lug; where the beams are of channel section 116 is a suitable form where the pillars have to
is

beam runner
means of a
is

will

riveted

angle

unnecessary.
for

Fig.

be
on

reeled
line

shifting

boards, as

frequently the case with

those at the middle


pillars

in

cargo vessels.

The

plan

adopted

is

to

fit

consecutive

HEADS AND HEELS OF PILLARS.

123

opposite flanges of the channel runner, thus forming two lines between which the shifting boards may be reeved. Where intercostals to the deck-plating
are
are
also

required, as

in

the case of quarter pillars to deep tanks, or where pillars


fitted

widely
figs.

spaced, they are

in

various

ways,

figs.

117,

118,

and

119,

126 and

127, showing

some of

these with

pillar

head attachments.
strong girders
stresses.

The

intercostals transform the


stiffen

beam
the

runners from simple

ties into

eminently qualified to

deck and to distribute the


in
fig.

The
heads.

heel attachments of pillars are not so varied in form as those of the

A common
or
to

one

is

shown
the

horizontal shoe forged


plating

on

to

and is seen to and through riveted the lower end


120,

consist

of

to the deck-

the

beam, as

case

may
124.

be.

favourite

method when

Fig.

<&?
s^&>

ALTERNATIVE PLAN

/
/
SHOE- BEVELLED
72117/ /T7VSf?S7K

'

EZZZZZ ZZSzdssfea Z&AVY

SSaZSaSS

^-w-wwy;^

the

heel
to

lug

the

comes on an inner bottom, plating, and connect the


122).

is

to

rivet

a short bulb angle


the
vertical

or

tee
figs.

pillar

to

flange

(see

121
steel

and
lags

This plan
latter

is

sometimes followed
to
to to

decks when the being

are

for making attachments to be wood sheathed, the vertical flanges of

the

made deep enough


(see
fig.

allow of the
facilitate

heel

of the

pillar

being

above the wood deck


at
this
part.

123)

the

caulking of

the latter

of pillars should consist of at least two f-inch they reach a length of 18 feet or a diameter of 4 inches there should be three rivets in each end. Pillars 5 inches or above in diameter
rivets.

The end attachments

When

require

a four-rivet connection

at

the

ends.

124
Pillars

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
are

AND CALCULATIONS.
be
portable
;

frequently

required

to

in

way of the hatches,


of
cargo.

for

example,

they

must

be

removed
the
heels,

when
these

loading

many kinds
plan in
fig.

Bolt and nut fastenings are often adopted


occasionally,
desirable,
to.

(see alternative

124), but

particularly

at

are
figs.

found
can,

impracticable

or

un-

and arrangements such as those of


fitted

124 and

125

are resorted

When
strut.

in

either of these

ways a

pillar

of course,

only act as

WIDE-SPACED PILLARS. While


are

several

rows

of

close-ranged

pillars

valuable

to

vessel

as

regards

her

strength,

from

point

of view

of
all

stowage
cargoes,

they
the

are

obviously

somewhat

of

drawback.

With

almost

pillars, particularly those in the wings, must give rise to a conamount of broken stowage, and although by splitting up the cargo they prevent damage through side pressure when the vessel is rolling, many

siderable

Fig.

125.

WOOD DECK

owners
in

have
of

sought
a

to

dispense
requiring

with
say,

them where
three

possible.

For example,
pillars,
it

vessels

breadth

complete

rows of
to

is

permitted,

and, for the

above reasons, usually preferred,


row, with

substitute

instead

one complete middle

line

With
pillars,

this

modified
at

arrangement,
deck,
of

however,

two rows in the wings at wider spacing. beam runners, having intercostal
fitted

attachments
the

each

must be

in

way of each
pillars

line

of

quarter

scantlings
latter,

the

intercostals

and

being

governed by the

spacing
load.

of the

the breadth of deck to be supported,

and the probable


scantlings

In Lloyd's Rules,
pillars

Tables are provided giving the


girders
at

of wide-

spaced

and of the
trades,

their

heads.

For many
spaced, the

as

mentioned in the previous chapter, even when thus

have been found to be too numerous, and the centre row dispensed with, and a very wide spacing aqlopted for the quarter has been
pillars

WIDE-SPACED PILLARS.
pillars,

125
being
fitted

in

some

vessels

not
the

more than two


decks have been

aside

even in long

and the loads communicated to the pillars, by means of runner girders of enhanced strength, and the greater stresses brought upon the pillars have been met by making the latter of special size and construction. 126 and 127 illustrate two Figs. arrangements to Lloyd's requirements. These pillars, it will be noted, are
holds.

In such

cases

supported,

Fig.

126.

/BEAMS
HANMELS
GIRDER

IO*3V3V-60

DOUBLE CHANNELS

PILLARS

12

DIA*

PLATING 54"

TANK TOP

FLOOR

INTERCOSTAL GIRDER

stepped on the tank-top at the junction of a floorplate and intercostal girder.

This

is

necessary
similarly

for

rigidity,

and when

pillars

cannot

be

so

placed

they

must be

supported by means of brackets or have seatings built on

the tank-top.

OUTER BOTTOM.The
shell-plating.
Its

most important part of any ship


is

is

the outside

leading function besides


this,

to

give

the structure a capacity to disa garment over


all

place water, but,

being spread

like

the inner

126
framing

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
in

and securely

riveted

thereto
parts

every

direction,
resist

it

binds
the

the

whole
stresses

together and enables the various

to

efficiently

severe

brought upon them when the vessel is in lively motion among waves at sea. Every part of the shell-plating is of importance, but owing to their positions

must be of greater comparative strength than others. We have greatest longitudinal bending stresses come upon the upper and lower works, and the least in the vicinity of the neutral axis; so that,
parts

some
seen

that

the

Fig.

127.

with

the

vessel

upright,
at

the the

sheerstrake

at

the top,

and the
neutral

keel,

garboard,

and adjacent
material
least.

strakes

bottom,

are

most
of

severely

at

about

mid-height

the

stressed,

while
is

the

position

the

axis

stressed

It

has also

been pointed out that the above conditions become modivessel, the side-plating is raised

fied

when, through the rolling of the


of

towards the

top

the

girder

increased

stress;

away from the neutral axis and has to sustain a much this, and the fact that the longitudinal sheering stresses

OUTER BOTTOM.
where they occur in the length, are
a

27

maximum

at

the

neutral

axis,

must

be borne
the
are

mind when apportioning the scantlings to the various parts of shell-plating. Towards the ends of the vessel the structural stresses less than amidships, and the thicknesses are reduced; this applies to all
in

longitudinal

materials

in

a ship.
societies

The Rules
strake,

of

all

classification

require the sheerstrake, the keel-

and those adjoining,

to

be specially heavy, the strakes from above the

upper turn of the bilge to the sheerstrake being of smaller scantlings. Of course, in certain places, where severe local stresses may be anticipated, special strength is introduced. Thus, the afterhoods of the strakes which

come on
part

the

sternposts
stresses

in

steamers

are

retained

of

midship
in

thickness

to

withstand the
of
the

which the working of the

propeller
plates

brings

upon

that

structure.

For the

same reason the


boss
plates,

the
in

immediate
thickness

vicinity

of the propeller shaft,


that required for the

called

are

increased

beyond
is

same
it

strakes midships.
to in

Usually, the shell-plating


of the

thickened

forward

where
the

has

take

the

chafe

anchors
is

and

in to

some

special
ice

vessels

plating

the vicinity

of the

stem

thickened

withstand

pressure.
shell-plating

The
are

actual thickness of the various parts of the

of a vessel

For example, in a small vessel, say one 90 feet or 100 feet in length and under 10 depths to length, with a longitudinal number under 3350, the shell scantlings in fractions of an inch would be keel-plate, amidships '44, ends "36 garboard strakes, where there is a bar keel, amidships '34, ends '30 ; shell-plating, from flat keelplate or garboard strake, to strake below sheerstrake, amidships '30, ends '26; sheerstrake '32 strake below '3, ends '26. In a cargo steamer of average size, say about 360 feet long, with a proportion of length to depth of between by the
size

governed

of

the

latter.

11

lings

and 12, and a longitudinal number of 28,400, the corresponding would be keel-plate, without doubling, '94 to "66 garboard
:

scant-

strake
to

with

bar

keel,

'64

to

'54

from
;

flat

keel-plate

or

garboard

strake

upper turn of
sheerstrake,
62

bilge,

"6o

to

"46

from upper turn of bilge to strake

below
In

*6o

to

'44;

sheerstrake,

72
the

to

'44;

strake
is

below
at

sheerstrake,

to

'44.

In

each
sets

case,

the

second
if

thickness
keel

that

the

ends.

each

of

these
there

of

scantlings,

strake
;

and

sheerstrake

omitted,

is

comparative
taper

uniformity

throughout

have been expected from our considerations above.


is

this is what Another point of interest

be might
the

the

small
vessels,

small

amount of compared
the

towards
those
are

the
the

ends

in

the

scantlings

of
the

with

of

other.

Structurally,
great,

end
the
tear

thicknesses

in

smaller

vessel

probably

too

but
for

as

even
of

maximum
prevents
larger

thicknesses are

small,

the

necessity
in

of allowing
the

wear and

the

liberal

reduction

permissible

heavier

material

the

vessel.

arrange

Having decided upon the scantlings, the next point of importance is to the end joints of the plates forming the various strakes. These should be disposed in such a way as to avoid having too many weak points

128
In
the

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
Rules
stipulate

same
strakes

transverse

section.

Lloyd's
to

that

joints

in

ad-

joining

must not be nearer


alternate
joints

each other than two spaces of frames,

and those in that the end

strakes

at

least

one space

clear.

They

also

demand

or butts

of the

sheerstrake

be shifted clear of those of

the deck stringers

by two frame spaces, and the end joints of the garboard

Fig.

128.

\1
l
!

i
i

'

Ui
i

iii
i I

'

,-l
i

'

' ,

i *

'

'

r
i

I;,;
;

ji

1t
i

Hi^J

#E Jh
I

:!

'

^-U-fr
1 :

1 :

ii

ii:

' I

^iirn
strake strake

on one side of the on the other side.


a
shift

ship clear

by a

like

distance of those of the


is

same
128

This

latter

precaution
the
keel

of course because of the

proximity of the garboard


illustrates

strakes,

only

separating

them.

Fig.

of joints or
It will

butts

embodying the minimum requirements of

Lloyd's Rules.

be observed that there are here four passing strakes


129.
1
. i ; 1 j

Fig.

tt~i
I 1 I

ii
I

"

'

'

Tri
'
1

~1

nUUj
1

I I

l!

<

Tfry^
' I
1

'

rt'^
I

if 4--t.i -1
l

I ,

I I

L
1

, I

4-fr.4 ^^I't it

I
I

1
' I I 1 I l

I ' 1
1
!

ihTTi
1
l <

^m ......
j
'

*
,

++M4 rm
between may be
than
that
joints

4+r4 lj44JUj3r^hrnrrn
same frame
length,
It

iLUWJJiUiJULU'JiilL
which
to

^^tiUJr
space.

occur in the

Nowadays, as plates
disposition

rolled

almost

any desired

a
is

better
not,

of

joints

of

fig.

128

is

easily

obtainable.

however,

necessary

to

have more than a certain number of passing strakes between consecutive butts in a frame space, no more, indeed, than is required to ensure the same strength

OUTER BOTTOM.
at

129
rivet

a line

of

end

joints

as

at

line

of

frame

holes,
is

the

latter

being

taken as the standard because the loss of sectional area

there unavoidable.

In strength estimates,

of

course, allowance

rendered
frames.

to

the
actual

joints

by

the the

edge

rivets

must be made for the assistance between the joints and the
in

By

calculation

best arrangement

any given case could seldom called


to
for,

be arrived at;
as

such calculations are in practice, however,


is

a good constructor from his experience


satisfactory

perfectly qualified
Figs.

devise

an

altogether
different

disposition

of

joints.

129

and

130

illustrate

arrangements carried out in cargo vessels recently


point

built.

A
breadth.

be noted As very broad


to

in

arranging
lead

shell-strakes

is

the

question

of
in

their

plates

to

saving

in

riveting

and

the

work of erecting fewer plates being required for the ship than where the There are obstrakes are narrow they are naturally popular with builders. jections to their use, however, in that the lines. of weakness which occur at
Fig.

130.

the

butts

are

increased

thereby,

and

that

the

edge

laps

being

fewer

than

where the strakes are narrow, there is some loss of longitudinal stiffness. For these reasons excessively wide strakes are not adopted by the best shipObviously, plates may be broader in large than in small vessels, builders.
as

there
a

will

still

be a
of
in

sufficient

number
20
feet

of strakes
fix

in

the

former case to

give

good
at

shift

butts.

Lloyd's

Rules
in

the

maximum
and
at

breadth
inches

of
in

strakes
vessels

48

inches

vessels

depth,

66

28 feet in depth and above.


of forming the joints of the plates at the edges and ends call

The methods

for careful attention.

In early vessels the edges of the strakes were arranged in


fig.

clinker fashion (as in

131),

but this had


slips

several

objections,
it

the

principal

one being the need


at
fig-

of tapered

at

the

frames

was,

therefore,

aban-

doned in favour of the


132.

now

universal raised
this

and sunken
style

An

obvious

advantage of
of frame

shown over the preceding one is


strake system,

that

only half the

number

slips

are

required,

which,

being

parallel,

3o

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
Other advantages consist

are also less costly

and more

easily

fitted.

the

increased efficiency of construction consequent on having, at least, half the plating directly secured to the framing without packing, and in the possibility

Fig.

132.

of fitting

all

the

inside

strakes

simultaneously instead
In

of one at

a time, the

method
or

of plating on the clinker system.

many modern

vessels frame slips


shell

packing pieces have been dispensed with altogether, the

plates

being

OUTER BOTTOM.
dished or joggled at the edges (as shown in
surfaces
directly
fig.

131
133), so as to bring their inner

on

to

the

flanges

of

the

frames.

The advantages claimed


three

are

more
and
as

efficient
less

riveting,

there

being two instead of

thicknesses
It

to

join,

weight and cost in the materials of construction.


is

has also
little

been said that there


this,

a saving in displacement, but there

is

very
is

in

against the

saving in weight of ship at each frame,


the
plating

there

the loss

of

displacement due to the depression of

between the landings.

Fig.

133.

Fig.

134.

ft

This

depression,

too,

it

capacity for grain cargoes.


the

should be noted, causes a reduction in the internal Moreover, there is no saving in workmanship, as
to

joggling of the

plates has

be put against the

fitting

of

the

packing.
Its
diffi-

On

the

score

of appearance alone,

many owners
sherl-plating,

object

to

the system.
cc*st

greatest drawback,

however,

is

probably found in the increased


to

and

culty of carrying out repairs

the

when, through the accidents

of collision

or grounding,

these

become

necessary.

132

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
also

be obviated by joggling the frames (fig. As the plates are not dished, there is a saving in displacement 134). represented by the weight of the packing pieces; also, there is no loss in in-

The

fitting

of packing pieces

may

Fig.

135.

ternal capacity.
able,

In the case of

repairs, if

conveniences for joggling be not avail-

ordinary way.

renewed frames may be put For these reasons,

in

without joggling, packing being used in the


plan has found favour with

this

many

owners.

OUTER BOTTOM.
In

133
instead
at

some yachts and

other

special

vessels,
strips

of

overlapping,
(see
fig.

the
135).

edges are butted, thus necessitating inside

the seams
;

By

greater weight

also entails a method double the number of rivets is required it than the common of material and is considerably more costly method. The flush joint has a decidedly good appearance, but obviously the
this

important considerations of cost ancf weight are sufficient to debar

its

use in

any but the vessels above referred

to.

The number
vessel.

of

rows

of

rivets

required

in

the

longitudinal

seams
of

is

governed by the thickness of


In small
in

the

plating,

and, therefore, by the

size

the

thickness
rivets
is

craft, in which the shell-plating is less than -36 of an inch from the keel-plate to the strake below the sheerstrake, a single
is

row of
region

sufficient;

in larger vessels, in

which the plating in the same


is

'46

of an inch, or more, a double row of rivets

required in
its

the

seams.

The

landing edge of the sheerstrake, on account of


riveted.

importance,

should always be at least double

Until recently, double-riveted seams were considered sufficient even for the
largest vessels, but for reasons already given {see

and upwards,
plating
is

built to Lloyd's requirements, or

page 69), in vessels of 480 feet where the thickness of the sidenecessary to
treble
rivet

less

than

'84

of an

inch,

it

is

now

the

seams

in the fore

and
480

after

bodies for one-fourth the length and one-third the


axis.
is

depth in the vicinity of the neutral

The seam
to

riveting
at

of vessels
these

of

from 450
84

feet to

feet

in

length,

also

be increased

parts,

proportionately

to

their

length.

In very large vessels which have side-plating

must be treble riveted for i the and treble riveting at seams. The end joints of shell-plates may be formed either by butting or overlapping examples of single, double, and treble riveted joints, formed in both these ways, are shown in fig. 137. In making the sketches, overlapped-edge seams on the raised and sunken-plate system have been assumed with the edge seams formed otherwise, there would be some differences in the details of the end joints. The question of the number of rivets is decided by the percentage of strength required in the joint compared with the solid plate. In no vessel, however, should the end joints of the shell-plating be less than double riveted. With increase in size of vessels, the need of greater longitudinal strength has made it essential to resort to treble and quadruple riveting at the end joints.
inches
in

thickness

or above, the edges

length midships.

Fig. 136 illustrates single, double

vessels, especially when the proportion of length to depth is double buttstraps treble riveted are required for the end joints of the sheerstrake and neighbourhood.

In the largest

excessive,

in

favour of the former are


materials,

In comparing overlapped joints with those having buttstraps, notable points reduction in number of rivets, saving in weight
:

and reduced cost of construction. It has been objected that the projections due to overlaps cause a drag on a vessel's speed, on account also that the overlapped joint has not of the dead water which they create
of
;

the nice appearance of the flush type with the strap inside

but the question

34
cost
has,
for

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
quite

of
the

cargo vessels at anyrate,

established

the

supremacy of

former.

Both lapped open when under


through
the

joints,
stress,

and those having single due to the line of the


the
joint,

straps,

have a tendency to
stress

resultant

not passing
to

middle

of

thus

causing

bending

action

be

Fig.

137.

OUTER BOTTOM.
Fig.

i3S

138.

SECTION AT AB.
Cat away where dotted in

way

of edge lap.

Fig,

139.

TZ3
SECTION AT AB.
Dooted part cut

away

for

breadth of edge

lap.

136
generally

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
thus
the
effected with

AND CALCULATIONS.
joints,

overlapped

the
if

same cannot be
the

said

for

those
is

of
all

butted

type.

In
to

the

latter
it

case,
will

opening
it

at

the

seam

at

wide,

an attempt

recaulk

but make

moreover, repeated treatment of this sort renders the material


to

brittle

break away.

better

way

to

deal with
first

such a case

is

more unsightly and liable to fill the seam


the
rust

with a suitable
this

cement,

taking

care

to

thoroughly clean out

and makes the joint watertight. With overlapped end joints, some difficulty is experienced in obtaining good work where crossed by the seams of adjoining strakes. Until a few years ago, the usual method of construction was to resort to packing pieces,
restores the flush appearance

but
great

this

caused

unfairness

in

the

landings

at
it

each

lap

joint,

and,

unless

care were

taken

in

fitting

the

packing,
is

could

not
in

be

satisfactorily

caulked.
139.

A
plate

method now
first

largely

adopted
to

that

shown

figs.

138

and

In the edge
the

figure,

which
to

refers
is

a joint in an outer strake, the end bear

of one

in

way of the
so
as

joint

seen to be tapered away for the breadth

of

the

lap,

allow

the

landing

of

the

outer

strake

to

evenly on
joint
to in

inner

one without the necessity of packing.

In the case of a

this

scarphing of

difficulty

an inner strake a similar plan is followed (fig. 139). An objection the seams at the end joints is found in the increased of executing repairs, where, as may sometimes be the case, the
machinery may not be available.
shell-plates

requisite

surfaces
left

care must be taken to shear from the faying which come together to form a joint or the rag by shearing must be chipped off, otherwise it will be difficult to close

In

working
i.e.,

the

surfaces

the

work.
at

To
edges
it

facilitate

caulking,

plates

forming outside strakes are usually

planed

and
is

at

one or both ends.


caulked.

In the case of plates forming

insides strakes

necessary to plane

one end only, the other end and the


finally shaped and punched shelland nuts which should be sufficient in

edges not requiring to be


plates

When
plates

are
to

secured in place by bolts

number
found
quickly
in

thoroughly

close

the

joined,

otherwise

difficulty

will

be

obtaining

satisfactory riveting.

RIVETS AND
show
itself

RIVETING. Nowhere
in

will

lack
at

of the

efficiency
riveting.

more

the

hull

of

a
well

vessel

than

The

thicknesses
shifted

of the

materials

may be
if

distributed,

and the

joints

carefully

from one another, but

vessel will soon slacken the connections

The
rivets

strength of a riveted joint


it,

be weak, the straining of the and render her leaky and unseaworthy. depends on the aggregate sectional area of the
the
riveting
latter,

in

on the spacing of the


rivets

heads and points of the

used,

centre to centre, on the style of the and on the material and workmanship.

The number
a
single,

of rivets
treble,

in

a joint varies

according as

the
is,

latter

is

to
to

be
the

double,

or

quadruple riveted one


in

that

according

percentage of strength required


plate.

the

We
should

have

already

indicated generally

joint

be employed in a ship,
riveted

compared with the unpierced when and where each class of and we now propose to deal with the
butt
as

details

of these

connections.

RIVETS AND RIVETING.

137

be governed by the thickness of the adequate shearing strength had alone they join. If the provision of to be considered, wide-spaced rivets of large diameter might be fitted, but for watertight work the distance between the rivets next the caulking edge,
sizes

The

of rivets

may be

said to

plates

especially in
will

thin plates,

must not be too


flexibility

great,

otherwise

the water

pressure

cause
;

tendency to

in
is

the
also

plate

rivets

a
of

comparatively
the

close

pitch

between consecutive necessary to resist the opening


edges
reason,

action the

caulking tool.

For the
plate.

same

the

line

of
the

rivets

next

caulking edge

should not be further from the edge


the

of

strake

than

about twice the thickness of the


If
rivets

were of large diameter compared with

plates

joined,

their

would greatly exceed the strength of the material between them and the edge of the pla'.e, and the connection would consequently To fail, when under stress, by the rivets tearing through the plate edges. prevent this happening, a maximum diameter of rivet is fixed at about twice With the rivet at one diameter the thickness of either of the plates joined.
shearing strength

from the edge of


the

the

plate,

it

can be shown by a simple calculation that


is

shearing

strength

of

the

rivet

approximately equalled
is

by the

resistfail

ance of the material to tearing, and thus the joint


in

not more likely to

one direction than another.


size

As
of

plates
rivets

increase

in

thickness with increase

in

of

ships,

the

diameter

become considerably reduced from


is

the

maximum

given above.
efficiency

Obviously, there

a limit to the

size

of

rivet

which can be
in

a riveted joint of rivets which

worked by hand, and when great strength is required and machine riveting is not available, this is obtained by

increasing the rivets in


size

number may be used


of
is

rather than in diameter.


in

A
than

lower limit to the

any case
to

is

fixed

by the punching machine,


the
thickness
of

which cannot punch holes


the
plates,

diameter

much

less

as

the

punch

liable

crush up

under the load.


rivets

In the subin
steel
1

joined table
It

we
or the

give Lloyd's
rivets

Rules for the diameter of


1^-

ships.

will

be seen that
or

inch

diameter are required for plates

inch
to

in

thickness
keel

thereabouts.
sheerstrake,
T

These

heavy plates
ordinary

are

usually

restricted

machine riveting may be employed, but in the big Cunarders Lusitania and Mauretania^ the riveting of a large part of the shell was done by special hydraulic machines with gaps
the

w here

sufficient

to

take

the

full

width
at

of

strake,

the

strakes

being

fitted

and

riveted

up complete, one

a time,

and consecutively.

Thickness of Plates in Inches.

T38

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
and end
joints

and-aft seams of shell-plating, the edge


joints

of deck-plating, in end
overlaps,
in

of

shell-plating

where these

are

quadruple riveted

double

buttstraps,

butts of margin plates, floor-plates


joints

and

fore-and-aft

and tie-plates, in the athwartships of inner bottom plating, and elsewhere. In some posifor

tions,

the need of providing sufficient strength entails the adoption of a closer

spacing
of
in

than

required

watertightness.

Thus
3

the

rivets

in

the
J-

end

joints

shell-plating,

where

buttstraps

are

fitted,

have

the

rows parallel to the


;

joints,

and of
3J

a spacing of 3 diameters diameters in the rows at right


except where they are quad-

angles to the joints


ruple
riveted

with
the
thus
left

overlapped end
rivets

joints,

overlaps,
is

are

diameters spacing in both directions.


riddled with
holes,

Although the plate


sufficiency
failure

pretty
in

severely

there
to

is

still

of

strength

the

material

between

them

prevent

the

of the

connection in that direction.

In a few places, where special reasons

demand

it,

the spacing for water-tight

work
tight
keels,

is

extended to

five

diameters centre to centre.


flat

The

rivets

in

bar keels,

those in the angles of keels of

plate type, also the rivets

connecting waterIn the case of

bulkhead frames
as

to the shell plating, are of this spacing.

the

rivets

are

large

and the

machines,

which

effectually

close

enough
obtain

to obtain

good caulking.
a
closer
line
is

done by hydraulic the surfaces, the spacing is found close In the case of bulkhead frames, although to
riveting
is

usually

watertightness

rivet

pitch

might be desirable,
the

to

resort
holes.

to

it

would accentuate the


section in
this

of

weakness through
through
the

frame frame

rivet

The
;

standard weakest section

that

ordinary

rivet

holes

the
to

way of the

closer pitched

bulkhead frame

rivet holes is

made up

by doubling the shell in way of the outside strakes in the vicinity of the bulkhead, or other compensation is made. When unhampered by the necessity
for

caulking,

we

find

that

the

spacing
etc.,

is

widened.
distance

In the

frames,
rivets

beams,

keelson angles,

bulkhead

stiffeners,

the

between

may be
in

seven diameters.
certain

In the case

of

frames,

this

spacing

becomes modified
viz.,

circumstances.
to

When
up

the

frames

are
of

widely spaced,
rivets
is

26 inches

and
is

upwards,
to

make
inches
of
5

the

number
to

their

spacing

must

be

reduced
deep,

6 diameters.

A
a

similar

reduction

required
its

when the framing


efficiency.

viz.,

and above,
channel
a

develop

full

When
spacing

each
the
axis

frame

consists
to

bar

and inner reversed


the
rivets

bar,

the

must be reduced
shell

diameters, because
liable

connecting the frame to

plating

are

to

relatively

high
the

stress,

due

to

the

neutral
latter

of

the

frame girder being


bar.

drawn

towards

inner

edge of

the

by the reversed
this

out.
rivets
oil

In
is

way
to

Experiments carried out by Lloyd's Register have borne of deep ballast tanks, and peak tanks, the spacing of
5

frame
bulk

be
6

diameters,

and

in

way of the
to

oil

compartments of
that

vessels,

diameters

apart,

owing
rivet

the

circumstance

the
is

weight acts

directly

on the

shell

plating,

and the strength of the framing


connections.
is

brought into play entirely through the


forming the heads

RIVET HEADS AND POINTS. There


of

much
few

variety in the

methods
styles

and points of

rivets

of

the

commoner

RIVET HEADS AND POINTS.


are

139
as in

shown

in

fig.

140.
in

The
first

rivet

marked A
tank
are

is

known
and

the

pan

type,

and
pan-

rivets

employed
is

the

shell,

decks,

top,

handwork
thus:

generally

where strength

the

consideration,

usually

made

The
fits

head

is an efficient form, the shoulder under the head giving it power when riveted up. The rivet-head marked B is in favour with some

good binding
tightly

shipbuilders.
into

It

is

considered that the plug-shape


secures
watertightness

when hammered
of the

the

hole,

and

independently
frequently

laying

up

process;

with

pan-heads,
affecting the

such

hammering
etc.,

brings

a strain on the
rivet
is

head without
times

shank of the
tops,

rivet.

The plug-head
to
its

someit

used

for

decks,

tank

but

owing
it

lack

of strength

has
of

not found favour for shell work.


the pan-head,
to

Clearly

has

not the binding power


is

liable

and having little or no shoulder, under severe stress it At G a snap form of head be drawn through the rivet hole.

is

j^,
indicated.
It
is

occasionally
is

employed

in

handwork

at places

in
etc.

sight,

where
flush

a nice

appearance
is

desired,

such as in casings, bulkheads,

The

head
is

(see F)

only used in special cases where a surface clear of projections

required.

plating

It is a somewhat expensive form to work, as, of course, the must be countersunk to receive it, but it has fair holding power and

makes

efficient

work.
the commonest,

Of
It
is

rivet points
it

and most
as

efficient,
as,

is

the flush one

(see

D).

In general,

is

associated

with

a pan-head,

for

example, in shell work.


order
to

usually

finished
flush,

slightly

convex,

shown,

in

maintain

the

strength.

Being
point
for

the holding power of the rivet has to be obtained by

giving
in

the

the
this

shape of an inverted cone.


purpose
is

The widening
point
is

of the

hole
drill-

the plate
of

called

countersinking, which entails the


flush

ing

each

hole

after

punching.

The
are

sometimes
the
this

adopted

where plug, snap, and goes with a snap point

flush
(see

heads
G).
It

employed.

Usually

snap

head
it

cannot be said that

point,

while

14
looks
well,
is

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
always
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
of

reliable.

The manner
off, is

using

the of

snap
this
;

tool,

with

which
the the

the
is

point

finished

the
is

cause of

much
loose.

frequently

snap
result

applied before the rivet

thoroughly beaten into the hole, with

that

many such
is

rivets

afterwards
riveting,

work
but

The snap
are

style

of

head and point


ably satisfactory.

used in machine
This
is,

the

results

then invari-

of course, due to the great pressure available, which


the

squeezes
joint.

the

rivet

thoroughly into
point

hole and at the same

time closes the


efficient,

The hammered
to

indicated at
shape,
it

A and B
necessary
rivet

is

very

as

in

order
to

obtain

the

conical

is

to

subject
to

the

material
fill

a severe beating-up process,

which causes the


This type

thoroughly

the

hole, thus obviating the chief defect of the snap point.

At a tap
where the point
In
inserted
fitting

rivet
is

is

illustrated.

is

really
is

a bolt, and

is

used

inaccessible for holding up.

It

frequently employed in

connecting shell plates to stern frames at the boss and at the keel.
tap
rivets,

the

holes

are

first

threaded,
the
is

the rivet

being then
rivet.

and screwed up with a key


rivet
is

fitted

to

square head on the

When

the

sufficiently

tight

the

head
rivets

chipped
are

off

and
the

the

rivet

caulked.

In shipwork generally,
bars

the

holes
are

for

made
the

in

plates

and

and

by punching. are punched

The
from
in

positions

spaced
reason
left

off
i.e.,

or

marked from
surfaces
this

templates,

the
place.
is

faying

surfaces,

which

come
is

together

when

fitted

One

for

taking

precaution

to

ensure that the rag, which

frequently

round the hole on the underside of


;

the plate or bar after punching, shall be clear of the jointed surfaces
is

another

to take

advantage of the shape of the punched hole to increase the efficiency

of the riveting.

As
and

is

well

known, a punch
its

in

penetrating a plate

makes a
so
fitted

cone-shaped hole, which has

smallest
are
to

diameter at the point at which the

punch
that

enters,

plates

which
holding

be
than

joined

together
the

are

corresponding holes

form two inverted cone frustrums,

finished rivet

having thus

much

greater

power

if

it

were merely cylindrical.


fill

Rivets are usually manufactured with

cone-shaped necks to readily


is found which is

up the

space under the head

(see

fig.

140).
in the

A
tion

disadvantage of punching holes in steel plates


the
material
in

deteriora-

of

the

vicinity

of

the

hole

thereby caused.
lia-

This deterioration takes the form of break away when through bility to
rivet holes are

brittleness,
stress

the
rivet

steel

having thus a

the

bears

upon

it.

When
t

removed. The by annealing the plates after punching, t\e. heating them to a cherry red and then allowing them to cool slowly. Drilled holes are not largely employed in shipwork because of the greater
countersunk
this unsatisfactory material is largely

strength

may

also

be

restored

cost.

Drilling,

unlike

punching, does not impair the quality of the material,


is

but

the

cone

shape which

got

by punching
as
at

drilled holes

by

specially countersinking them.


to

could only be obtained in Sometimes, when considerations


sheerstrakes
drilled

of cost are not allowed


stringers

intervene,

the
are

of

some

large

vessels,

the

holes

in

place

and upper deck by portable

STRENGTH OF RIVETED CONNECTIONS.


electric
tools.

I4 1

By

this

means, perfectly concentric holes are obtained, and a


connections have

good

quality of riveting thus assured.

STRENGTH OF RIVETED CONNECTIONS. Riveted

been frequently experimented upon with a view to obtaining the conditions of maximum efficiency. Iron rivets are found to have maximum shearing strength

when
to

in

iron plates

in steel plates

their

shearing

strength

is

less

f-inch
falls

rivet, for instance, in

iron plates has a shearing strength of 13*6 tons, which

effect

This appears to be due to the increased shearing Iron rivets are, however, much used of the harder plates upon them.
tons in steel plates.
ships,

in

steel

as

they are more


is

easily

worked

than steel

rivets,

and

their

deficiency in strength
rivets

readily

in steel plates give

made up by increasing them in number. Steel Indeed, the excellent results when carefully worked.
is

quality of

workmanship
This
is

in riveted connections
is

of

first

importance.

A
while

point worthy of note

the

friction

which

exists

between parts riveted


place
in

together.

due to the contraction which


the
surfaces
in

takes
to

the

rivets

cooling,

causing

contact

press

on

one

another.

shown that the frictional resistance caused by and heads are countersunk, is 9*04 tons per with snap heads and points, the rivet, and by f-inch rivets, 4*95 tons In hydraulic work 1 -inch tons. rivets, 6 "4 tons, f-inch, 472 results were
Careful
i-inch

experiments*

have

rivets,

when the

points

the

frictional

strength

is

greater.

It

is

probable that connections are seldom


friction

stressed
this

beyond what can be


the
rivets
will

resisted

by the
stress

between the surfaces

in

case

not be

under
to

be no movement

in

the joints

and there will therefore disturb the caulking and cause leakage.
at
all,

Of
is

course,

frictional

resistance

has

its

highest

efficiency

only
this
is

when

care

taken in

fitting

the

plates

the

efficiency

of a joint

and in riveting them. may be low indeed.


unsatisfactory riveting

When
blind

not done

One
holes.

fruitful

cause of

are

or

partially blind

As mentioned above, rivet holes are usually marked from templates, Oband the plates and bars are punched before being erected into place. viously, to obtain an exact correspondence of holes with so many separate
processes
is

a most

difficult

matter,

so

that

even in work of
of
line
;

fair

quality

When only slightly unfair, the holes may be This tool should not, however, be by using a steel drift punch. holes which overlap to any great extent, as the tearing of the driven into steel by the punch has a very pernicious effect upon it, much the same, indeed, as that caused when punching the plates in the first instance, i.e.,
corrected
the
material
to

moderate number of holes are percentage may be very large.

found

out

in

careless

work,

the

becomes

brittle

and

liable
is

to

fracture

under

stress.

The

best

way
use

cure

partially blind

holes

to

rimer them out to a larger size and

rivets

of increased

diameter. the shell-plating, the


in the

DECKS.
*

Next

to

decks are perhaps the most imTransactions of the Institution of

See an interesting paper by Mr. Wildish,


1885.

Naval

Architects for

142
portant
features

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of

AND CALCULATIONS. The


top deck
serves

a ship's

structure.

the

purpose of

making the holds watertight and


It
is

suitable for the carriage of perishable cargoes.

also available

as

flat

to

walk upon, from which the crew


in

may perform
this,
it

the

various

operations

required
position

working the

ship.

But,

besides

occupies

commanding

as

a feature in the design.

We

saw,

when

dealing with strains, that the top and bottom

members of a beam
as

are of great

value

in

resisting

longitudinal

bending
axis.

tendencies,

they

occupy positions
such as the hull

most remote from the neutral


of

In a

beam

or

girder,

ship,

the

top

member
;

is

formed by the upper deck and the topmost


importance

of this deck as an item in the 'Tween decks, although they may not be disposed so suitably as the upper one to resist longitudinal bending, are yet splendid stiffeners of the hull, tying the sides together and offering powerful resistance to racking tendencies. These intermediate decks are a
parts

of

the

shell-plating

the

strength

is

therefore

obvious.

necessity

in

large

passenger
space

vessels,

the
off

sleeping

and

other

accommodation
In cargo

being
vessels

provided in the
purposes

thus

cut

below the upper deck.


freight,

they are also necessary for


large

some kinds of

although for general


intermediate decks,

trading
are

holds without

obstructions, such

as

now much favoured (see Chapter V.) The minimum number of plated decks
structurally

required by an ocean-going steamto

ship,

speaking,

varies

according

her

size,

i.e.,

taking

Lloyd's

Rules,

according to her longitudinal


course,
in

number.
sailing
vessels,

Of
the

small

steamers and

no

steel
it.

deck may be

structurally necessary, the

strength being sufficient without

In such a case

necessary

watertightness

of
or

the

holds

may be
the

secured

by covering the
with

beams

with

wood

flat

deck,

caulking

seams

oakum and

paying them with

pitch.

A
a
finer

wood deck has some advantages over one


appearance,
fitted

of steel.

It has, for instance,

and

is

pleasanter

to

walk

upon,

for

which
is

reason

it

is

always
turally.

in

passenger vessels, even when a steel


in

deck
steel

required
are

strucdesiris

For vessels trading


the
effect
it

hot

climates

wood weather decks


or iron

able,

as

of

the

sun's

rays

on
to

unsheathed

decks

such as to make
of

almost
steamers,

impossible

move about on them.


seldom wood-sheathed
is

The decks
on account

ordinary
cost,

tramp

however,
steel

are

of the

and because a
than

or

iron deck
for
steel

found to stand
in

much more
small

knocking about
vessels

one
is

of

wood,
of

which
or

reason
iron,

many

cargo
for

the

upper

deck

fitted

although

uncalled

by

considerations

of strength.

DECK DETAILS. The


indeed,
faces,
all

most important part of the deck


stringer plates

is

the stringer;

tiers

of

beams must have

riveted to their upper sur-

whether a complete deck be

strake to the deck,


it

is

connected to

fitted or not. These plates form a margin by means of which, through the medium of an angle bar, the shell plating. At weather decks this bar is continuous;

at intermediate

through, and the attachment to the shell

decks the stringers are slotted out to allow the frames to pass is obtained by means of short, inter-

DECK DETAILS.
costal lugs

143

between the frames, a continuous angle bar, however, being fitted by way of compensation, along the stringer just inside the frames. In fig. 141 the usual methods of fitting stringer plates at an upper and at As will be seen, in conjunction with the an intermediate deck are illustrated.
shell

plating,

it

tendencies to deformation of transverse form.

forms a powerful T-shaped girder eminently adapted to resist The upper-deck stringer plate is

specially important as affording considerable resistance to longitudinal bending.

The end
vessels;
largest

joints

of this

strake

in

larger

ones, treble

must be at least double and quadruple riveting is


double
straps
joint

riveted,

even in small
while in the
the
latter

essential;

vessels,

treble-riveted

are

required.
in
fig.

Both
142.

methods of forming a

stringer

end

arc

shown

Fig.

141.

SECTION
UPPER DECK

SECTION
DECK BELOW UPPER DECK

PLAN

PLAN

S~7
_l_q1

~_"b_ _0 _

<n

L]J

IS*. l'_

Ul

.0

L^j

144

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Fig.

AND CALCULATIONS.
142.

o|i

io o o o| O

DECK DETAILS.
the
are
other, or
is

*45

cut and a double-riveted lap or butt joint

made.

Tieplates

of

the

same

thickness

as

the

stringer

plates

of

the

deck

on

which

they are

fitted.

If a steel or iron deck is to be fitted, the tieplates are, of course, dispensed with, and the deck plating, which is usually considerably less in thickness than the stringer plates, is arranged in fore-and-aft strakes of considerable

breadth so as to minimise the number of

deck plates
the ends.

in ordinary
for

rivet seams. The end joints of merchant vessels are invariably overlapped, and should

be double riveted
unsheathed, the

half length amidships, single riveting being sufficient at

The seams

are

usually single-riveted

overlaps.

When

decks are
as

end overlaps should be arranged looking toward midships,

Fig.

144.

ELEVATION

SECTION

-4
_l1ii 2 J?
I

? _^_ ......
_?

o o

^COAMING
THICKENED PLATING.
O
o

o
.

jo
"
'o/[
i

^i

SjK

PLAN
^CASING STIFFENERS
t

'f

* |

o~o

o ilTl

l'o

Ho'o

o|o|

II

Tf

DECK BEAMS

For the same reason the fore-and-aft strakes this allows of better drainage. should be fitted clinker fashion, and the seams so placed as to impede drainage When decks are to be covered with to the scuppers as little as possible. wood, the clinker arrangement makes the fitting of the deck-planking more difficult; in such a case, the raised and sunken system of deck-plating allows
of better work.
steel

In

many

recent cargo vessels- the


obviates

edges of the unsheathed


the

decks

are joggled, which

the fitting of slips at

beams, but

has been objected that the depressions thus caused in the it deck form lodgments for drainage water.

surface of the

At

all

of the material, the extent

deck openings compensation has to be made for the cutting away of this compensation depending on the strength

146
required
in

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the

AND CALCULATIONS.
latter

purposes, and

been fitted for strength In some cases increase in thickness of the strake of plating alongside the openings is found sufficient; The strake in others, where the openings are very large, doublings are fitted. upper deck of large of plating alongside the machinery openings on the
deck,

and

whether
flat

the

has

not

merely as a

to

walk on.

vessels to

Frequently, it is strengthened sufficiently so as is an important one. make, when combined with a strong vertical coaming plate, a rigid girder

well

adapted to

resist

longitudinal

strains

(see

fig.

144).

The
cautions

corners

of large

deck openings are particular points of weakness on


etc.,

account of the sudden discontinuity of the deck-plating,


are

and unless

pre-

taken there
is

is

a probability of fracture occurring at these points


stress.
is

when the The


145, but

vessel

under severe
taken
at
this,

usual precaution
as well
as

to

fit

corner

doublings

as

the

upper deck

within the half length,


if

within

the

same range

at

shelter,

awning and bridge decks,

shown in fig. and also there be such,

the

being greatest at such places, girders should be fitted under the decks in line with the hatch coamings, to which they should be efficiently
stresses

joined,

or abreast

of them,

if

not

in

the

same

line,

in

the

vicinity

of

the

corners of the openings, so as to bridge over the

weak

ments have been found to


of straining at
the

effectively strengthen vessels


;

Such arrangewhich had shown signs


points.

hatch corners
usually fitted

Gutterways are
these are
to

be

laid

they are now required by Lloyd's Rules. round the margin of weather decks where with wood. They are formed simply by running an a
fixed

angle
it

bar fore-and-aft at
the
stringer
plate.

distance

from
are

the

ship's

side,

and
with

riveting

to

Steel

gutterways

frequently coated

cement

as

a preventative against undue corrosion.

WOOD
of steel
or

DECKS.
iron,

In
fitted

laying

wood
tier

deck, whether

it

be on top of one
important
that
tfre

or

merely on
close

of

beams,
the

it

is

In way of the tieplates and stringers in a non-plated deck, and of the edge seams and end laps where a deck is plated throughout, the underside of the planking should be
metal
work.

planking should

down on

be scored out so as to obtain a solid bearing and an even upper surface. With a plated deck oh the raised and sunken system, the planking fitted over
the sunken strakes of the plating.
is

thicker than that over the raised strakes by the thickness


in

Sometimes the difference

thickness

is

made up by

slips of

WOOD
wood, but
this steel
is

DECKS.

47

wood and
deck
laying

causes

to

happens

pitting

most objectionable, as spaces are thus left between the decks which a slight defect in the caulking of the wood become receptacles for the lodgment of water; when this Before and general decay of the steel deck quickly follow.
steel

work should be coated with a suitable preservative composition, such as Stockholm tar powdered with Portland cement, and each This plank should be separately coated with tar before being bedded down. prevents the likelihood of lodgment spaces for water existing between the
planks
the

metal

and

wood
teak,

to

cause
it

decay.

The
oily

best

wood
and
is

for

weather
suited
is

decks
to

is

undoubtedly
used
less

as

is

of
it

an
is

nature

well

stand

changes of temperature, but


for

somewhat expensive.
vessels,
it

Pitch pine
are

frequently
It
is

weather

decks

of

cargo

where
required,

these
as

sheathed.

costly

than teak, but more of

is

pine
so

deck must be
but
it

thicker
is

than
a

one of
grain
therefore

teak.

Pitch
fairly

pine

does

not

wear
pine

uniformly,

of

hard
is

and

durable.

Yellow

makes
It is

deck, and

much used

in passenger steamers.

handsome very soft and


a

Fig,

146,

therefore
extra

requires
it

frequent

renewals.
in

On

this

account
decks
of

and
have

because of
the

its

cost,

is

seldom used
this

cargo

vessels.

Care should be taken when laying wood


of

to

hard

side

planks uppermost;

reduces the likelihood

the

deck wearing into

Three intermediate planks should separate butts in the in places. same frame space. The plank butts should be of vertical type {see fig. 146) and arranged to come between beams where a steel deck is fitted, and on They should be fastened with bolts the beams where there is no steel deck.
holes
at

each beam, or between the beams, where there


lie

is

a steel deck
it

and

to

ensure that the planking shall

perfectly

flat,

when
6

exceeds 6
inches

inches in

breadth
broad,

it

should have double fastenings.


a
screw-bolt
is

Between

and 8 inches
;

a bolt and nut and

considered

sufficient

planks are over 8 inches broad, two bolts and nuts are required.

when the Deck bolts

should be galvanised, and should have their heads well bedded in white lead, When screwed up from below, the heads should with grommets of oakum.

be

sufficiently

sunk in the deck to allow of a dowel being


be
laid

fitted

over the top.

Pine decks should not


If this precaution be not

until

the
is

wood

is

thoroughly seasoned.
at the

taken, the deck

likely to

open

seams and

148

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

become leaky as well as unsightly. six months to elapse, according to


time
six

Lloyd's Rules require a period of four to


thickness, from the time

of cutting

to

the

of using.

months.

be seasoned for required where a satisThe above periods of seasoning are not
Pitch pine

planks for weather decks

should

factory
It

artificial

method of seasoning

is

adopted.

should be mentioned that wood decks are


like

now being superseded


corticene, etc.

in

passenger and crew spaces by compositions


thus covered are
carefully laid,

litosilo,

Decks

comfortable to walk on, have a good appearance, and, when


well.

have generally been found to wear

CARGO HATCHWAYS. There


each

must be
to

at least

one deck opening into


being
these

main compartment of a
it.

vessel

allow

of

cargo

shipped

into,

and discharged from


of considerable
size,

In
to

the

latest

cargo
for

steamers

hatchways are
measure-

so as

be suitable

special cargoes of large

ment,
of 16

such as pieces of machinery.


feet,

Lengths of 24 to 28 feet, and breadths are common, while these dimensions have frequently been exceeded.
in

We
large

have already indicated some of the means adopted to prevent these


the

gaps

deck from
the

becoming dangerous points of weakness, and


hatch

it

now remains to show how The main portion of


fitted

openings are framed.


consists

this

framing

of
to

vertical

coaming

plates

fore-and-aft

and athwartships and


in

carried

down

the lower edge of the

direction forming an abutment for the and those fitted athwartships stiffeners to the continuous hatch-end beams, to which they are securely riveted. The conneccoamings and the severed beams is effected by tion between the hatch means of angle lugs, fitted single where beams are at every frame, and double where they have a two frame spacing (see fig. 147). Lloyd's Rules require

deck beams,

those

fore-and-aft

beams

that

have been

cut,

that
to

there

shall
7
-J-

be three
9^-

rivets

in

each flange

of

these

lugs

when attached
to

beams

to

inches
is

deep, the
12

number being increased


to

four where

the

depth of beam

10 to
is

inches.
as

The

deck-plating

fitted

so

abut against the coamings, a riveted

by means of a strong angle bar. In non-plated decks broad tieplates are fitted on the beam ends and against the coamings, and in this way a strong T-shaped girder is obtained round the edge of It should be mentioned that when decks are laid with wood, the opening.
attachment being secured
the
vertical

project

flange of the hatch-coaming bar is fitted of sufficient depth to h inch above the wood, so as to facilitate the caulking of the latter. Weather deck hatch coamings (see fig. 147) should be of considerable

height above
seal

weak covers which heavy seas which in rough weather frequently fall upon the deck. On upper decks, coamings should have a minimum height of 2 feet except under awning or shelter decks. In
the

deck so as

to

protect the comparatively

the

openings from

receiving

the

full

force

of

the

certain classes of vessels, which have deep wells

deck and
height
liable

the

aft

end

of

the

forecastle
2

between the front of the bridge on the upper deck, the coaming

should not be
to

less

than

feet

6 inches, as these spaces are specially

flooding.

Obviously, on bridge, awning and shelter decks, which are

CARGO HATCHWAYS.
situated

149

high above the


not, in
fact,

water/line,

hatch coamings
inches.
in

may be
efficient
.the

of reduced height;

they need

exceed

18

Weather deck coaming


a substantial character.
in to

plates,

order to be
inroads

as girders
sea,

and

as

protecting walls to the hatchways

against

from

should be of
feet

For instance, the coamings of hatches, under 12


of an

length

should be

-36

inch thick, while those having lengths


'44

of

16

24 feet should have side coamings

of

an inch thick;

end coamings

Fig.

147.

ELEVATION

'5
those

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

from
loss

18
of

feet

The
lower
of

strength
is

decks
inch,

24 feet, a depth of 20 inches is considered sufficient. due to reducing the depth of the hatch coamings at made up to some extent by increasing the thicknesses by '04
to

an

as

compared with
are

upper
for

deck

hatches

of

the

same
decks.

length.

Round
style
it

corners

usually
of

preferred the
for

hatches

on

weather
but
the

This
has
at

makes the
also
less

fitting

wood

covers at the corners somewhat difficult;


the
tarpaulins,
for

is

convenient

fastening

otherwise

it

obvious advantages.
the

To
is

begin with, the

tendency

deck

to

strain

hatch corners

less

where these are round than where square.

Round

Fig.

148.

ELEVATION

DETAIL ATA..
'

3Ji3t<46

DETAIL AT CO.
7-T.y-r--'

DETAIL AT HATCH CORNER

SECTION AT A.B.
KJl-j'iTTi.r'ir

SgSSSSSZZ: .^-"^^l^JJJv T-.--TT7^

fffTT
to

ft"

L VERTICAL FIANCE CUT AWAY

corners are

less

likely

have also a nice appearance.


obviously,

damage cargo which may collide with them ; they The same advantages of having round corners,
'tween
148).

do not extend
type
to

to

deck hatches and, consequently, they are

usually

of square

(fig.

In

order

strengthen

hatch

coamings

against

inroads

from

the

sea

and to provide adequate support to the wood covers, portable athwartship In hatches 10 and under 16 feet long, one such beam, beams are fitted. of a plate with double angles at top and bottom, or other equivalent formed
section,
is

required;

in

those

of

16 to

20 feet in length, the

portable

beam

CARGO HATCHWAYS.
becomes a web-plate extending double angles top and bottom.
are
to

151
of
the
girders

the

bottom

coamings,
of
this

fitted

with

Two

web-plate

description

required in hatches from 20 to 24 feet in length. These portable beams are frequently bolted between double angles riveted to the coamings, when they .act as ties as well as struts, and to some extent compensate for the gaps in the deck made by the hatch openings occasionally, they
;

are

arranged to ship into special shoes.


Fig.

149.

SECTION AT

AB

WATCH COAMING
N

STFTE.NqTHENE.0

LlLU OP

PILLARS

SECTIOM

THRO

MAI.' OlAMr

SECTION THffO*EP,

Web-plate
in

beams
the

thickness to

in hatchways below the upper deck should be equal coamings to which they are attached, and should extend

to the lower

edge of the coamings.

Where

the latter are shallow, as

in

the

case of 'tween deck hatches, the web-plates are to be a quarter deeper in the middle than at the ends, and stiffened top and bottom by double angles.

The

top angles

of the portable webs, as

already hinted,

form lodgments

1^2
for

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

the wood covers, but, as previously mentioned, heavy seas frequently fall upon the deck, and the covers have to sustain a substantial share of the This is provided by fitting weight; they therefore need additional support. strong steel or wood fore-and-aft bearers. In small hatches from 6 to 10
feet

broad, a single bearer fitted at the centre


or

is

sufficient;

in

larger hatches

three

more
if

in

the

breadth

are

required.
to

The
afford

fore-and-afters

should

fit

into iron or steel shoes securely riveted

the end coamings and to the inter-

mediate webs,
than
or
2

any,

and the shoes should

a bearing surface not less

inches broad.
bars

To

support the a
the

wood

covers at the hatch sides, ledge


at
least

rest

are
is

fitted,

giving
to

bearing

surface

if

inches

broad.

This ledge iron

riveted

hatch
rest

coamings between the webs, except


consist

where the side moulding and ledge

of a

single

special
(see

section,

when it As well

is,

of course,
at

continuous
of

for

the

length

of the

hatch

fig.

147).
at

as

the

top

coamings,

mouldings are

frequently

fitted

the

bottom on the inside to take the chafe of cargo. The latter requirement is sometimes met by flanging the lower edge of the side coamings, instead of fitting mouldings. At weather deck hatches, to ensure watertightness, strong tarpaulins are fitted over the wood covers, usually two or three to a hatch, one placed above another. The tarpaulins are secured in position by means of flat iron bars wedged into cleats riveted to the hatch coamings, round which they are spaced about 24 inches apart. In many recently built cargo vessels hatch beams have been fitted all in one direction, i.e., either all athwartships or all fore-and-aft, the direction being that of the shorter dimension of the opening, which, in ordinary cases, is
athwartships.

Lloyd's rules

now

provide for arrangements of wholly transverse

webs
3

for

hatches ranging in breadth

from

12

to

20

feet.

The
way.

supports

at

the coamings for the

wood

covers in this case should have a


this

bearing surface

inches

broad.

Fig.

149 shows a hatch framed in


in

HATCHWAYS INTO DEEP TANKS. These


and have means of closing the testing pressure on the crown of the tank, without
struction,
sary.

should be strongly framed

watertight
viz.,

tank,

an

8-feet

manner as they must withstand head of water above the


leak.

straining

or

showing a
larger
feet

To
and,

simplify

con-

watertight

hatchways
are

are

made no
feet

than square

absolutely
as

neces-

Usually
out,

they

about
are

to

already

pointed

owing to .the presence of


are

the

middle-line
abreast.

bulkhead with which


of
these
150),

deep
they

tanks

provided,

fitted

two
bulb

The coamings
(fig.
is

hatchways
are

frequently
built

consist

of

deep

angles

but
of

sometimes
substantial
It
is

of

plates

and

angles.

The
back

cover
at

a
-

plate
feet

thickness, with angle or bulb angle

stiffeners
fall

about
or

spacing.

secured

in

position
at

by nuts and
the
joint
to
is is

bolts,

nuts

and watertightness
rubber. a

effected

To

gain admission

the

tank

without
in

by packing it removing
the
latter.

and through bolts, with spun yarn or


the

hatch cover,

watertight

manhole door
access
to

usually

fitted

CARGO PORTS AND DOORS. Many


ports
to

vessels are

fitted

with small side


useful
in

give

the

'tween

decks.

These are found

load-

Cargo PORts and books.


ing certain classes
while the
ports

153
to

of bale goods,

holds

are

being
say,

filled

through
square,
is

and allow the 'tween decks the main hatchways.


sufficient

be stowed

When
for

side

do not exceed,
opening
in

feet

the
it

the

shell-plating

provided,

for

short

distance

and

fitting

stout

compensation by doubling the strake above angle around the edge of the

cutting

Fig.

150.

SECTIONAL ELEVATION

DETAIL OF FASTENING

ALTERNATIVE
OF SECURING

METHODS
COVER

RUBBER
SPUN YARN
BOLTS SPACED
"

6"

APART

opening.
close

The door
;

is

sometimes secured
however,
strong
of

by bolts
are

and nuts
inside,

at

sufficiently

spacing to ensure a watertight joint with


surfaces
usually,

canvas and red lead between


fitted

the

backs

one or two

being used according to the


at

size

the

door;
is

and

to

obtain watertightness

the joint

spun yarn or rubber packing

used.

154
In
very
certain

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
vessels

AND CALCULATIONS.
in

in

those
in

engaged
the
ship's

the
side

cattle

trade,

for

instance

large

doors

are

fitted

in

way of
in

the

bridge

or

shelter

'tween

decks.

These doors

make
for

big

gaps

the

side-plating
is

and

have to be carefully compensated above and below the opening and

for.

Usually the

shell-plating

doubled
spaces,

some
are

distance,
fitted

say two
in

frame

beyond each end of the doorway.


each
it;

end of

web frames

also

the

'tween

decks at

The

shell

doublings

make good

the longitudinal

Fig.

151.

ELEVATION

SECTION

THRO

DOOR

DOOR

FRAME

DOOR

NAME

6*6x-60"

strength,

and the web frames


long and
5

restore

the
Fig.

loss

entailed
gives
fitted

in

the

cutting of the
cattle

side

frames in way of the opening.


feet
feet

151
as

details

of a

door

12

inches

deep,

in

a large

modern cargo
hatchways

and passenger steamer.

DERRICKS AND DERRICK POSTS. Large and numerous


are of
little

value unless an efficient installation of appliances for working the

cargo in and out of them

be also provided.

This

is

specially

the case with

DERRICKS.

*SS

steamers whose economical working demands the utmost despatch in the loading and unloading of cargo. Sailing ships usually make long voyages and are seldom in port; they can, therefore, afford to spend a longer time there than
the
less

more
is

ubiquitous

steamer.
latter.

than those of the

gear

seldom

fitted

in

Moreover, their working expenses are much For these reasons an expensive system of cargo sailing vessels. Hand-power winches are considered
is

sufficient,

and the cargo gear

usually

suspended from the lower yards or

from convenient wire spans.

The

cargo gear of modern steamers

may

consist of (i)

ordinary derricks

with steam winches, (2) hydraulics derricks, (3) steam cranes, (4) electric cranes. Electrical appliances, although frequently proposed, have not yet come much
into use.

Steam cranes are frequently

fitted

in

coasting vessels, as they hoist

Fig.
ELEVATION

152.

and slew quickly, and thus minimise the time a vessel need remain in port important consideration where a vessel has to be loaded and discharged every day or two, or even more frequently. Moreover, steam cranes may be placed anywhere about the deck. They take up a great deal of room, however, and are more expensive than steam winches and derricks, for which reasons they are seldom fitted in ordinary ocean-going cargo vessels. Hydraulic derricks are sometimes fitted on first-class passenger steamers, as they work

an

smoothly and without noise.


ful

They

are costly to install, as, of course, a powerartificial

pumping engine

is

required in order to maintain an

head of water.

The system
vessels
is

of working cargo almost universally adopted in ordinary cargo

that

comprising steam winches and ordinary derricks.

The
if

latter

may be
five tons,

constructed of

wood

or

steel

if

for

small

lifts,

say,

from three

to

pitch-pine derricks are

commonly

fitted.

They

are hinged,

practic-

156
able,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

on the masts, which, in cargo steamers, are now little else than derrick One derrick and winch per hatch is sufficient where the holds are of moderate size where they are large, however, and where loading or discharging can be carried out on both sides of the vessel at once, two derricks and
posts.
;

Fig.

153.

OUTREACHlS FOR

DERRICK.

SPANS

PLATING "50

EYEPLATES FOR SPANS


l\ MOULDING

DERRICK

TABLES

We thus see that in the usual arrangement, with a winches are necessary. hatches, the former may have to support four large derricks mast between two In special cases, where separate derricks are with their respective loads. for hoisting and for slewing, the number of derricks per mast may employed
exceed
four.

In

fig.

152

is

shown the usual way of hinging

derricks

on masts.

DERRICKS AND DERRICK POSTS.


Steam
the

57

winches

must
in
line

be

placed

with

careful

regard

to

the

derricks.

Single winches are,

of course, situated at the middle line with the middle of

winding

drums

with

the

derricks.
ship,

Double winches

should

be

placed on each

side of the

centre of the
to pass.

with a sufficient distance be-

tween them to allow a


are
to

man
the

To
to

obtain compactness, the inner drums


direct

frequently

dispensed with,
barrels,
it

and
of
to

ensure

leads

from the derricks

the

winding
the

axis

the

winches are inclined to the


square
to

middle middle
these
in

line. line,

Frequently,
as

is

preferred
are

have the winches

the
;

winchmen
to

then better able to

observe operations

cases,

the
(fig.

this

by means of snatch blocks on decks, or, better, by extending the derricks out transversely on tables With 153), so as to come in line with the middle of the winches. arrangement it is desirable to have the point of suspension in each case
direct leads

the

barrels are obtained

immediately over the heel of the derrick, otherwise


in

difficulty will

slewing
is

the

latter.

This drawback

is

found, for

instance,

be experienced where a single


If the

derrick
is

worked from a mast having considerable


fitted

rake,

and no arrangement
it

made

to bring the point of suspension over the heel of the derrick.


is

derrick

forward

there

is

a strong tendency for

to

lie
;

overboard,

and if aft on the mast, to lie over the middle of the hatch considerable power being required to slew the derrick, particularly if loaded, against either of these biassed directions. The advantage of plumb derricks is therefore obvious, and some vessels are built with vertical masts to this end.

When
on
it

a mast

is

situated

too
to

near a hatch to allow of a derrick hinged

being sufficiently
side,
it

long

plumb the
to

centre,

and swing
side,

clear

of

the

ship's

becomes necessary
the

resort to the

use of derrick posts.

may be placed between


posts were at
first

hatch

and

the

ship's

These and with a comDerrick


utility

paratively short derrick a sufficient outreach

may be
they
lifts

easily

obtained.

objected to as being unsightly,


of
this
sort,

but their great


are

has
in

outweighed considerations

and
the

now

to

be found
will

many

up-to-date cargo steamers.

Where
height,

are at all great,, derrick posts

should be

made

of

considerable

otherwise

excessive

stresses

be

brought upon them, as well as on the derricks and the spans.


readily demonstrated

This can be

by drawing a diagram of
lift

forces.

Derrick posts to carry

a 10-inch to 12-inch derrick, and

ordinary

cargo,

should be 20 inches to
feet.

24
in

incises

diameter at the deck, and have a height of 24 to 28


little

Large

derrick posts are constructed of |-inch steel plates, a

taper being allowed

the

thickness

towards the top.


is

To
deck.

give

rigidity,

a housing equal to the

height of one 'tween decks

desirable;

where
Fig.

this

cannot be obtained, deep

brackets

must

be

fitted

to

the
fitted.

154

shows a derrick-post and

appurtenances as ordinarily

SEATS FOR STEAM WINCHES, Etc. As

before mentioned, decks should

be stiffened locally in way of steam winches, by fitting plating on the beams, If winches are to be placed and by supporting the latter by special pillars. on a wood deck, the part under each winch should be of hardwood, or the wood deck increased in thickness locally, as the wear and tear is great at

i58
these
riveted
places.
to

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
bar
is

Sometimes a

steel

angle

fitted

round the winches and


against this bar, and

the

deck-plating, the

wood deck being butted


cement or
left

the

spaces

enclosed coated with

bare.

In such a case, the

Fig.

154.

winch
raised

sole

plates

are

either

bolted
stools.

directly

to

the

steel
is

or
the

iron
better

deck,
one,

or
as

on

or

channel
the

bar

The

latter

plan

the

stools

stiffen

deck and take

most of the vibration caused by the

SEATS FOR STEAM WINCHES.

59

working of the winches. In ordinary cargo steamers, which have, as a rule, unsheathed decks, winch stools like the above are commonly fitted. The steam supply and exhaust pipes to the winches (where the exhaust
steam
is

returned to a tank in the machinery space) are usually led from the
the line
iron

machinery-casing along the deck just outside


are

of the hatchways, and


155),

supported

on

stools

of

cast

or

wrought

(fig.

except where

they can be conveniently held by clips riveted to the casings or to the hatch

coamings.
the

deck to the
it,

mend

Sometimes separate exhaust pipes are led from each winch across ship's side. This latter plan has only cheapness to comas the cloud of escaping steam always present about the deck
is

during loading or discharging operations,

most objectionable.
solid

To

protect
fitted

the

winch
a

pipes

from
the

damage,
masts
are

plate

or

sparred iron

covers are

over them.
sailing-ship

MASTS.
the
hull

In

probably

as

important

as

itself,

since

her

power

of

locomotion
value,

depends

on

them

in

steamer they have a

much

reduced

and are even not indispensable,

Fig.

155.

some
the

classes
first

of

steamers

having
masts
the

none
of

at

all.

As seems
and

fitting,

therefore,

"we shall

consider

the

sailing-ship,

afterwards indicate

modifications

usual in

case

of a

steamer.

In a modern sailing-ship of average size, the masts, like the hull, are constructed mainly of steel, their diameters and scantlings being graduated in accordance with the strains they may be called upon to bear through the
action

of

the the

wind-pressures
lengths

on the

sails.
is

As
the

the

mast bending moments


basis
this

vary with
fix

of the

masts, length

natural

scantlings,

and,

in

compiling tables of
with

the

latter,

on which tb method is usually

followed.

Taking Lloyd's Rules, a lower mast 60


20
inches,

feet

long has a

maximum
feet

diameter of
of masts

a diameter of 32 inches, and


of intermediate

plating -fa inch thick, and one a plating thickness of -| inch,


lying

96

long

the scantlings

lengths

between

these.
less
sail

Mizen-masts of barques carry no cross-yards, and support a


than mainmasts;
their case.

area

reduced

diameters

and

scantlings

are

therefore

allowed in

The maximum diameter


are at
either

of a mast and

the greatest thickness of plating

the

deck, as
the

the bending

moment
the

is

obviously greatest there


of

towards

end,

diameter

and

thickness

the

plating

are

somewhat

i6o
reduced.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
circumference of a mast
is

The number

of plates in

the

governed

by

practical

considerations.

Lower

masts, with
;

under, are built with two plates in the round

a rule length of 72 feet and those above this length should usually overlapped at edge
in

not have less than three plates.

These
latter

plates are

and end
should be
is

joints

sometimes
outside, as

the

are

butted,

which

case

the

straps

fitted

opening at the joints due to bending of the masts

thus prevented, and better work can be


necessary.
Fig.

made

in the fitting of internal angles

where these are

156.

ELEVATION.

PLAN.

As
are

the principal stresses on masts are cross-breaking ones, the

end

joints

very
in

important,

and

in

all

cases

should
is

be

treble-riveted

above

the

deck;
riveted

way of the
but in

housing

below the deck


;

double-riveting
masts
loss
fitting

by
is

which
long,

meant

the

part

of

the masts

permitted.
feet

The seams should be


single-edge
riveting
is

double-

under 84
of
internal

considered
is

sufficient,

provided the

stiffening

effect

due

to

reducing the lap


feet

made good by

angle

bars.

Above 84
very great.

length,

double-

riveted seams are required as well as internal stiffening angles, as the bending

moments on masts
Rigidity
is

of this

length

may be

given to masts by securely fixing them into the hull, and stayFig. 156 shows the modern method of ing them by means of steel wire ropes.

MASTS.

161

framing a mast-hole and wedging the mast at the upper deck

the

deck

at

which

this

is

usually done.
in

the beams,

which,

be observed, a stout plate is fitted on non-plated decks, must have a breadth equal to three

As

will

diameters of the mast.

This plate
(fig.

is

riveted to the

beams and
through

(in non-plated

decks) to diagonal tieplates


distribute

143),

which unite

it

to the side stringers

and

the

stresses

communicated

from

the

mast

the

wedging.

riveted

greater in diameter than the mast is and when the mast is shipped the space between this ring and the mast, the plating of which should be doubled in this neighbourhood, is tightly wedged with hard wood. Above the deck the wedging is neatly rounded, and a canvas cover or coat, usually double, is bound to the mast and over the ring to prevent leakage of water into the hold space.

bulb

angle
the

ring

about 4 inches

to

deck-plate,

The doubling
to

of
for

the

mast

at

the

deck

is

to

give

strength,

but particularly
the
vessel

compensate
the

corrosion

and

pitting

which may take place in way of the


except

wedging,

material

being

there

inaccessible
is
i.e.

when
1 2

is

under special survey. When the mast-plating be removed before the third special survey,

doubled, the wedges need not

about every

years.

At the heel the mast should be supported on a strong stool, as very great downward stresses are communicated to the mast through the rigging, and if due provision be not made to resist these the mast may be forced downwards, the plating at the heel crushing up or the stool collapsing if not efficient Such movement of the mast would cause the rigging to become slack and valueless as a support against bending. Where a mast is stepped on a centre keelson, a good stool may be contrived by fitting a strong plate immediately under the mast, and supporting it by brackets connected to the keelson and floorplate on each side of the middle line. For wedging purposes a ring is fitted on the plate round the mast-heel, and to keep the mast from turning, an angle or tee lug, riveted The mast-heel plating to the plate, is fitted through the bottom of the mast. 2 feet up from the bottom. is usually doubled for about The main portion of a mast, and that upon which the principal diameters and scantlings are fixed, is known as a lower mast, but above this These upper spars there are a topmast, a topgallant mast, and a royal mast. are sometimes constructed of wood, but in modern sailing vessels of fair Lower masts and topmasts are occasionally size steel topmasts are common.
built

as

single

tubes, but

usually they are


in

separate, the

union between them


in

being effected by overlapping


case the topmast, which
is

the

manner indicated

of wood, passes

fig. In this 157. through a cap hoop at the lower

masthead, and

is

supported by a rectangular bar of iron, or


of the

fid,

which passes
riveted
for

through
to

the

heel

topmast

and

rests

the

lower
the

mast.

This

overlapping

on method

strong
is

cheek-plates

sometimes

adopted

topmast with the upper portions, the topgallant and royal masts but where the topmast is of steel usually consisting of a single wood spar the upper spar is frequently housed into its upper end.
uniting
;

The

scantlings

of

steel

topmasts,

like

those

of

lower

masts,

vary with

l62
the
bars.
joints,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
length.

AND CALCULATIONS.
should have internal
single-riveted,

Topmasts 38
those

feet

long and above

stiffening

The edge seams


like

of topmast plating
masts,

may be
the

but the end


treble-

of lower

and

for

same reason, should be


a
structure
as

riveted.

Obviously,
as

so

tall

and comparatively slim

a
it

mast such
to
its

we have

described, must be strongly stayed in order to hold


cross-yards
that
steel

work

of supporting the

and
wire

sails

and
are

resisting

the wind pressure.


this

We
Lower
the

have
masts

mentioned
are

ropes

used
loop

for

purpose.
the

stayed

laterally

by shrouds, which
Fig.

round

mast

at

157.

PLAN OF TOP.

hounds and extend down


plates

to

the

gunwale, where

they are
size

attached to chain
are
also to
fitted

riveted

to

the

sheerstrake.

Shrouds of smaller
below the

to

the topmast
sides,

and

top-gallant
to

mast.

These are not carried down


lower
the

the

ship's

but

are

fastened

the

mast just

mast-top

topmast

trestle-trees

respectively,

necessary
cross-trees.

spread

being
as

obtained
shrouds,

and the by
the

means of

the

mast-top

and topmast

As

well

upper spaces are further held by backstays fastened to the gunwale and to In a fore-and-aft direction the masts are stayed to one another the mast.

by powerful
run

wire
to
to

ropes

at

various

heights.

The

stays

of

the

foremast
at

are
their

down

the a

forecastle

deck,
this

the

upper

ones

being
is

attached
allow of

lower ends

bowsprit
also

arrangement,

which

to

sufficient

spread in

the

stays,

permits

of large-sized

staysails.

BOWSPRIT.
Obviously,
as
in
all

163
staying

this

rigging

will

have

little

value

if

it

be
the

slack,

that

case

the

mast which

first

receives

the

stresses

due

to

wind
the

pressure

might break before the strength of the wire could be called upon.

Cases are
stays
all

on record of masts
respect.

collapsing

through

lack

of

efficiency

in

in

this

To

obviate such disasters, the standing side rigging of

vessels should

of which the shrouds and backstays

be provided with rigging screws of simple design, by means may be readily tightened up at any time.

BOWSPRIT.
structed

In
and
of

modern
as
it

sailing-vessels

of

fair

size

this

spar

is

con-

of

steel,

has

to

withstand
to

considerable
it,

bending
of

stresses,

due
for a

to

the

pull

the

maststays

attached
the
latter,

it

is
is

built

substantial

diameter and thickness

of plating;

indeed,

about the same as


passing

lower mast of equal diameter.


the

Usually
aperture in a

bowsprit

is

housed

in

the

forecastle,

through
the

an

transverse

bulkhead, or knighthead plate,


a vertical plate

fitted

at

fore-end

of the forecastle, and

abutting against

extending between the

upper and forecastle decks, and strongly bracketed to the main deck-plating. To secure it in position, the bowsprit is wedged in way of the knighthead
plate,

angle rings
Internal

being

fitted

to

the

latter

wedging.
in the

stiffening

angles

are

fitted

around the aperture to take the in the middle of each plate


28 inches in diameter,

round, and, in addition,

when
fitted

the spar exceeds


in

vertical

diaphragm
either

plate

is

some

distance
the

way beyond.

way of the wedging and extended The end joints of the bowsprit plating
;

outside

wedging should be treble-riveted


of

inside

the

forecastle,

they

may
is

be double-riveted. Sometimes, instead

being
at

housed
its

in

the

forecastle,

the

bowsprit

and bedded on the forecastle deck-plating, to which it is securely connected by strong angle bars the forecastle deck being stiffened in this neighbourhood by fitting the beams The outer part of a bowsprit when fitted as a separate on every frame. The latter is usually built of wood and is fitted spar is called a- jibboom. Frequently, in large modern sailingthrough the- cap-band of the bowsprit. ships the bowsprit and jibboom are made of steel in one length, when it
sloped away on the lower side
after-end
;

is

known as a " spiked bowsprit." The bowsprit is stayed laterally by means


fitted

bobstay bars are


of the

cap-bands at

of wire shrouds, and strong on the stem and the underside the fore-end of the bowsprit and jibboom.
to

eye attachments

YARDS. The
usually pitch pine.

cross-yards of small sailing-vessels are constructed of wood,

In large ships having


frequently
built
is, it

steel

masts, the lower yard


as

and the

one above
of

it

are

of

the

same material
the
this.

the
is

mast.

The

greatest diameter of a yard


its

of course, in

middle, and

taken at -^
lower topthe
latter,
;

length

at

the ends

is

tapered to half of

When

built of steel,

yards
sail

have single-riveted seams and treble-riveted end


are

joints.

The
to

and lower topgallant yards on each mast

usually fixed

but with attachments designed to allow of free movement to any angle

the

upper topsail and upper topgallant yards are attached to parrel hoops which

164
fit

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
loosely

AND CALCULATIONS.

position

A
ings.

on the mast, thus admitting of each yard being hoisted into by means of appropriate running gear. special feature in the masts and yards of sailing ships are the mount-

of a
to

These are very elaborate and are made of great strength, as the safety might be seriously threatened if even one stay attachment were give way, on account of the increased stress which would thus be brought
vessel
others.

on the

MASTS OF STEAMSHIPS. The


much comment.
mainly
fitted

masts

of

steamer

do not

call

for

As has been

said,

in

most modern cargo steamers they are

derrick-posts
in

for ornament; incidentally, they can be usefully employed as and standards for signal lamps, etc. The main function of masts sailing-ships, which is to carry sails, has been almost done away with in

steamers.
sails

No

yards

or

square-sails

are

now

carried

two small fore-and-aft

on each mast are


for

all

that are usually arranged for,

and these are


weather.

fitted

not

propulsion
vessels

but

to

give

steadiness
are

in

rough
This

In
of

many
has

modern cargo
in

even

these

omitted.

omission

sails

been deplored in some


neglecting
to

and there certainly seems a lack of economy use the power of the wind for propulsion when it is availquarters,
effect

able.

The
Owing

steadying

of

sails

when a
a

vessel

is

in ^a

seaway
are

is

well

known.
to
their

auxiliary

character,

steamer's

masts

of

smaller

diameters and scantlings than those of same -length in


fore-and-aft
sails

a sailing-ship.

Where

only are

carried,

Lloyd's

Rules
to

permit the

diameters to be
this

fifth

less,

and the plating of a thickness


is

correspond with
the working
of

reduction.

It

has been pointed* out that in the case of a steamer's


to

masts, whose
derricks,

main duty
scantlings.
derricks,

withstand

the

strains

due

to

the

breadth of the ship should be considered in fixing upon the diameters and

The broader a
therefore,
is

vessel,

the the
in

greater

will

and,

the

greater
this

bending
Rules
say,

stresses

present no notice
a

taken of
the

for

be the outreach of the on the masts. At masts, and in the case of


support
four
derricks,

very broad vessel, where


frequently
It
is

mast
for

has,

to

they

are

none too strong


to
to

their

work.

customary
heel

make a
is

steamer's

masts
sail

of

pole
is

type,

i.e.,

in

one

piece
greater

from

topmast
this

head.

As
being

the
that
fitted

spread

unimportant,
royal

no

height

than

necessary, so

topgallant
into

and

masts are
Frequently,
into

dispensed with, the


the

finishing pole

the

topmast.

topmasts

are

of

wood,

and

made

to

ship

telescope

fashion

the

upper ends of the lower masts, appropriate gear being provided for the purSuch an arrangement is demanded to allow of the vessel passing pose.

under bridges
like

in

reaching ports
of the

like

Manchester.

The edge seams


joints,

mast-plating
masts,

may be

single-riveted,

but the end

those

of

a sailing-ship's

must be

treble-riveted

above

the

See a paper by Mr.

W. Veysey

Lang, read before the Institute of Marine

Engineers

in

February, 1909.

MASTS OF STEAMSHIPS.
deck or partners, and double-riveted
of
in

165

the

housing.

When
of

the

masts
fitting

are

considerable
riveting

length,

the

strength

should

be

augmented
each

by

and
the

securely

internal

angle

bars

up

the

middle

plate

in

round.
steel

The masts must be supported


usual arrangement
is,

athwartships and fore-and-aft by strong

wire standing rigging.

The
the

say,

three or four shrouds, immediately abreast


stays.

masts

on each
to
fit

side,

with

two fore-and-aft

This

is

not the best

arrangement for the purpose intended.


it

Instead of the

close-spaced shrouds,

is

better
still

two with as great a spacing as


derricks
to

possible, as

much,

in fact,
to

as

will

permit the

swing

clear
to

of

the

side.

For access
masthead.
pointed
for

the

masthead an iron ladder may be riveted

the

mast, or
to

two additional put


in

shrouds

may be

fitted

at

close-spacing
at

with

ratlines

the

The need
the case

of strong work
ships,

the

mast-heels

has

been

of sailing

and

similar

remarks apply to steamers;

as well

Fig.

158.

as

the

bending
to
in

stresses

already

referred

to,

the

working

of

the

derricks

give

rise

considerable

downward
steps.

thrusts,

steamers

should

therefore

be

strengthened
brackets
to

way of mast
fitted

If

these
girder,

come
unless

on
the

an
the

inner

bottom,

should be

to

the

centre

mast-heel
centre

happens
girder.

be immediately over the junction of a


158
of the
riveted
latter

floor-plate
is

with

Fig.

shows the arrangement when a mast


in

stepped on a tunnel.
usually
consists

The

stiffening

way of the
plating,
at
is

step,

which
in

of stout
steamer's
is

angle-bars

to

the

not

shown

the the

sketch.

masts
similar

are
to

usually
that

wedged

the

upper-deck,

and
all

arrangement

very

described for a sailing-vessel.


is

BULKHEADS. This name


fore-and-aft

given
in

to
ship,

vertical

or

athwartships,

which,

separate of
little

partitions, whether compartments from

one
those
are

another.

Many
to

"of

these
cabins,
as

partitions

are

value
built

structurally,

as

of

wood between

or those which, though

of iron or
the

steel,

only intended

act

screens

and are therefore

of

lightest

de-

scription.

Bulkheads, however, which divide a steel vessel into watertight com-

66
are

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of

AND CALCULATIONS.
structurally
their

partments,
therefore,

immense importance
interest

be of
in

to

consider

principal

and otherwise, and it functions and the

will,

lead-

ing

features

their

construction.

These main built and made


filled

partitions,

watertight,

which are usually placed transversely, are strongly so that in the event of a compartment being
shall

with water the


pressure

containing bulkheads
joints
tight

be strong enough to support

the
into

and
for

have
the

adjoining
of value
i.

compartments.

enough to prevent the fluid escaping Generally, main watertight transverse bulkheads
:

are

following reasons

As
rigid

Elements
in

of

Strength.
so
that

Where
also

they

occur
prevent

the

hull

is

practo

tically

transversely,

they

effectually

any
the the

tendency

deformation
framing,
efficiently
little

that
to

direction;
side

they

afford

support

to

longitudinal
latter

/>.,

the

stringers

and

keelsons,

when

are

bracketed to but when


transmit

them.

The
to

keelsons,

indeed,

of themselves have

but
as

rigidity,

braced
the

the

bulkheads

they
the

become
hull
to

efficient

girders,

and

the

stresses

brought
of

upon

the

massive
of

bulkheads,
structure
2.

thus

spreading

strength

the

latter

over

the

region

the

lying

between them.

As Safeguards Against Spread of Fire.


can hardly be over-esUmated,
contents
isolating

Their
they
fire

importance in

this

respect

as

with

their

from

each

other.
total

Many

do the various holds instances are on record of


through the

vessels

having been
bulkheads.

saved from

destruction by

medium

of their
3.

ing

of the
if

As Preventatives Against Foundering Consequent on the PiercHull by Striking a Rock or Otherwise. We are already
the
effect

familiar with

on the

flotation

of bilging

a compartment, and have

seen that
the vessel.

the latter be large the loss of buoyancy

may be
of

sufficient to sink

a sufficient

The importance of restricting number of watertight bulkheads


of the

the
is

lengths
therefore

compartments by
fix

obvious.
the

In the case of a steam-vessel, there are certain conditions which


lower
limit

With the machinery one at a short disamidships, for instance, there should be at least four tance abaft the stem, one at each end of the machinery compartment, and With the machinery one placed at -a reasonable distance from the sternpost. a minimum of three watertight bulkheads might be allowed, the afteraft, bulkhead forming one end of the machinery compartment. Of the above divisions the forward one, which is fitted as a safeguard

number

of

bulkheads

required.

in the event of collision,

is

probably of chief importance.


loss

It

should not be
the

placed too

far

aft,

or

the

of

buoyancy due
the
vessel

to
to

bilging

peak
the

comhead.

partment

may be

sufficient
it

to

cause

go

down by

Lloyd's Rules require

to

be

fitted at

a twentieth of the length from the stem,

measuring at the height of the lower deck.


has

The

collision
vessels,

bulkhead, as

it

is

immense service in saving called, abled them, though seriously damaged by collision,
proved
of
It

and has often enport in safety.


usually

to

make a
is

may

here be said that the collision

bulkhead

the

only one

BULKHEADS.
fitted

167
transverse

in

sailing

ships.

In

this

case

the

strength

is

made up
to

otherwise,
side

and the question of cost, to mention no other, has put any idea of fitting numerous bulkheads. The importance of the bulkheads which isolate the engines and
the

one

boilers

from
other

cargo
to
is

spaces
cargo,
also

scarcely
if

needs
were
bilging

emphasis.

The chance
tight

of

fire
is

and

damage
It

there

no
the

efficient

divisions,

clearly

apparent.
quite

necessary that
that

machinery

self-contained,

so

the

of neighbouring
fires.

compartment should be compartments would


leakage

not

mean the extinguishing of the The after-bulkhead is required


of
the
propeller.

boiler

so

as

to

isolate

which may be
the
the
stern
after
it

caused by the breaking of the stern tube, or by general vibration due to the
action
Usually,
it

is

placed

near

enough
of

to

prevent any loss of

buoyancy consequent on the partment being sufficient to endanger the vessel.


splendid stiffener at this part, an important
is

bilging

coma

Incidentally,

forms

consideration

when

the machinery

placed

aft.

Although no surveyor to the Board of Trade, under the existing regulations, could refuse to grant a declaration of survey that the hull, even of a
passenger
fitted

steam-vessel,

whatever

her
to

length,

was

sufficient

for

her

work,

if

with

bulkheads equivalent

the

foregoing,

such

an arrangement can

With increase in be considered satisfactory only in small steamers. bulkheads very soon become desirable, partly because of the need of providing greater transverse strength, but as this may be met otherwise, mainly because safety in the event of fire or bilging demands an
clearly
size,

additional

adequate sub-division of

the holds.
Lloyd's
length,
latest

Thus we
vessels

find,

taking
feet

Rules

for

example, that when steamare

reach

285

in

five

bulkheads

necessary,

the

distance

room bulkheads being sub-divided. In vessels of 2>35 feet tne a fter hold is in turn sub-divided, making six bulkheads, the number of watertight bulkheads becoming seven, eight, nine, and ten, when vessels reach lengths of 405, 470, 540, and 610 feet respectively.
between the
collision

and

boiler

>

Obviously,

the

question

of

sub-division

is

of

first

importance in purely

passenger vessels, no form of life-saving appliance being so efficient as a good

system
fore

of watertight bulkheads.
built but

Few
while

first-class

passenger steamers are


in

there-

now

can

float
sea,

safely with, say,

any two* compartments


even
a

open

communication and partly on

with
this

the

some
of
in

have

better

sub-division,

account,
as

few

these

have
of

been

subsidised

by the
they

Government

to

act

auxiliary

cruisers

time of war.
fitting

point

of

great

importance

in

the

bulkheads
the

is

that

one compartment may cause sufficient sinkage to submerge the tops of the bulkheads, in which case the water would find its way into all the compartments
should extend
well
line
;

above the

loadwater

otherwise

bilging

of

* In the report of the Bulkhead Committee ot 1890, the highest class of sub-division given as that which would enable a vessel to float safely, in moderate weather, with any two compartments in open communication with the sea.
is

63

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

and thus sink the vessel. In general, bulkheads should extend to the top deck of the main structure. In vessels with continuous superstructures, such as an awning or shelter deck, the bulkheads (with the exception of the collision bulkhead, which should extend to the awning or shelter deck) are usually stopped at the deck below, i.e., the upper deck, in virtue of the greater freeboard and reserve buoyancy of this class. In the 'tween decks of these vessels, a deep web frame or partial bulkhead is to be fitted on each side
immediately
over
the
watertight

bulkheads,

or

other

efficient

strengthening

must be provided.

CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS. Although

an

ordinary watertight

bulkhead may never be called upon to sustain the pressure due to a compartment on either side becoming filled, it must be constructed strong

enough
of

to

meet such an eventuality.


thickness,

It

should, therefore, be built of plates


stiffened.

substantial

and be strongly
i.e.,

Lloyd's

Rules require a
'46

thickness of "26 of an inch in bulkheads having a depth from upper deck to


floors of

from 8
in

to

12 feet,

in the smallest vessels,


is

and of
feet,

of an inch

in

those

which the same depth


plates
joints,

from 44 to
or

50

i.e.,

in very large

vessels.

The

are fitted vertically

horizontally,

are usually lapped at

edges and at end


tight

and

single-riveted,

the rivets being spaced for waterjoints

work,

i.e.,

4I diameters
plates

apart.

At the points where the end

come

on the edges, the two

of the former are thinned


fitting

down

for the

breadth

of the edges laps so as to obviate the

of

slips.

In the stiffening of watertight bulkheads, the plan recommended by the

Bulkhead
heads).

Committee of 1S90
In the former

is

now

usually
(see

followed,

the

stiffeners

being
bulk-

arranged generally in a vertical direction

also

stiffening

of collision
stiffeners

were be arranged horizontally as well as vertically a cross-bracing arrangement which assured the strength of the bulkhead in a transverse as
Lloyd's
Register,

Rules of

bulkhead

required

to

well

as
in

a vertical
the
ship's

direction,
sides,

making

it

efficient

to

resist

pressures

tending to
stiffeners
is

force

which a purely

vertical

arrangement of
entirely vertical

not adapted to do.

By

the cross arrangement, too, the unsupported area

is less

than by the
of stiffeners
less

vertical.

Still,

the advantages of an

arrangement
is

are considerable.

To

begin with, as the depth of a bulkhead

than the width, stiffeners are shorter and therefore more efficient arranged than

vertically

when arranged
upon
to

horizontally

the
at

rigidity

of girders

varying

in-

versely as the cubes of their lengths.

Again, the pressure which a bulkhead


greatest

may be

called

withstand

is

the

bottom, and a range of

closely-pitched vertical stiffeners bracketed to the tank top are effectively placed
to resist this.

The

spacing of

stiffeners

in

ordinary

watertight

bulkheads
the

should

not

exceed 30 inches.

In the case of a collision bulkhead, as a vessel's safety


this

may depend on
vertical
stiffeners

bulkhead's
to

ability

to

withstand

dashing about of
the

masses of water admitted

the

fore

peak through
of

collision,
this

spacing of

should not exceed 24 inches, and in


stiffeners

case

there

should
side,

also

be

horizontal

consisting

bulb angles

on the opposite

CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS,
spaced 4
are
short,
feet apart,

69

bracketed to the ship's sides.

As
they

the horizontal stiffeners

the

vessel

being narrow at

this

part,

add immensely
in

to

the

rigidity of the

bulkhead.
oil

Bulkheads which form the ends of


to carry oil in bulk, or

compartments
fulfilling

vessels

designed

which form the ends of deep-water


because,
affording
as well
as

ballast tanks, should

be

of

extra

strength,

the

main

function

of

must be able to resist the pressure of the mass of fluid which the compartment contains, the speed of the vessel being communicated to the fluid in a compartment through the bulkhead at its after-end also, as any compartment on occasion may not be quite full, its bulkheads should be strong enough to
ordinary bulkheads
in
sufficient

structural

strength,

they

meet the very severe


fluid

stresses

which the
rise

dashing
to.

about of

large

masses

of

in
for

partly-filled

tank would give


oil vessels.

Lloyd's

Rules

provide scant-

lings

the bulkheads of

Frequently, the
stiffeners.

edges

of plates

forming bulkheads are flanged to act as

of somewhat narrow plates, must not be more than 30 inches. There is here a saving in riveting, and fewer parts require to be put together; this system is therefore rather popular, especially as experiments have shown the arrangement to be as strong as the ordinary one, and as mild

This

entails

vertical

arrangement

since

the

distance

between

stiffeners

steel

may be
are
stiffeners

readily flanged

cold.

Lloyd's

Rules require that when flanged

stiffeners

12

inches or more in depth, intercostals are to be fitted between


to

the

and connected
fig.

face of the stiffeners (see

159).

not more than

10 feet apart,
trip

bulkhead plating and to a bar on the These intercostals, which are to be spaced should greatly stiffen the bulkhead by preventthe
part

ing any tendency to

on the

of the stiffeners.
stifTeners

In Lloyd's
the
full

Tables the scantlings of the


of
the
it.

are

shown
into

to

vary with
that

depth

bulkhead

as

governing

the

maximum

pressure

could

come upon

When

the

bulkhead

is

divided

zones

by the

abutment of steel decks, the scantlings of the lower stiffeners, that is, those between the tank top, or in single bottom vessels, the top of floors and lowest laid deck, are governed by the full depth as fixing the intensity of 'Tween deck the pressure, and the length of the stiffener as fixing the load. stiffeners are, in the same way, governed by the distance from the top of the
decks, and by the length of the and 'tween decks, except the upper This follows from the 'tween decks, should be bracketed top and bottom.

bulkhead to the lower


Stiffeners

part

of

the

'tween

stiffener.

in

way of holds

consideration that a uniformly loaded girder fixed at the ends


stronger

is

50 per cent,

and five times more rigid than one with free ends. Lloyd's Rules permit bulkhead stifTeners, in small vessels, to be fitted without end brackets, provided their scantlings be increased beyond the tabular requirements. In oil vessels, which are generally built without inner bottoms in way of the oil holds, the knee brackets at the lower ends of the bulkhead stiffeners should be fitted between the floors to the shell. At the edge every watertight bulkhead should have a strong connection

170
to

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
shell-plating,

AND CALCULATIONS.
one
is

inner

bottom
is

(where
to the

fitted),

Double angles make a good


the
latter

are
job,

frequently fitted

shell-plating

and deck-plating. and inner bottom and


particularly
in

but

it

becoming
is

increasingly

common,
less

cargo vessels, to have instead large single bars double-riveted in both flanges

arrangement

is

cheaper and

probably not

strong.

Lloyd's

Rules make provision

for

both methods.

Reference has already been made

Fig.

159.

to

the shell liners required in


rivets

way
for

ot

outside

st rakes,

as

compensation

for the

closer spaced
tight

necessary
the

caulking
liners

through

the shell angles of water-

bulkheads.

When

shell

are not fitted, as with joggled plating

or

framing, bracket outside


less

of
or

strakes

knees between the shell-plating and the bulkhead in way are necessary, except where the hold stringers are 5 feet
joints

apart.

The

on

one

side

only of a

bulkhead

require

to

be

CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS.
caulked.

I7 1

angle

and keelsons pass through bulkheads, caulked fitted on the watertight side, and to give a finished Frequently, hold appearance, plate collars, uncaulked, on the other side. stringers are stopped at the bulkheads, and the longitudinal strength is made good by fitting substantial bracket plates connected to the bulkhead by angles, and to the stringers by a riveted lap (see figs. 159 and 160). The subordinate bulkheads of a ship, such as screens and casings, do

Where hold

stringers

collars

should be

not

call

for

a lengthened

description.

They

are

constructed

of

light

plates

and

bars,

the

former

having

single-riveted

joints.

They
tightness

are
is

not

usually

watertight,
fitting

and

where

perforated

by beams,
take

dust

secured

by

plate

collars.

Where

screens

the place of pillars, as in the case


rigidity
is

of side
for,

bunker casings and centre-line bulkheads, additional


is

called

and
with

obtained by increasing the


size,

thickness

of

plating

and making the


have open
floors,

stiffeners

of substantial
the

the

latter

being

fitted

two frame spaces apart in


vessels

line

beams and attached


is

thereto.

Where

the centre-line bulkhead

attached to the vertical plate of the centre keelson.


usually stopped
in way of the hatches, so as not when required for grain cargoes, the Although made good by wood shifting-boards.
is

A
to

centre-line
interfere

bulkhead

is

unduly with
division

siowage, and,
is

continuity of the

interrupted in this way,


vertical

when

properly built, a centre-line bulkhead


resist

a splendid

web, excellently adapted to

longitudinal

deflecting
to

stresses.

When
quarter
riveted
to

machinery casings
they

in

'tween

decks
built,

have
the

take

the

place

of

pillars,

must

be

strongly

and

stiffeners

should

be

the

beams.
is,

DOORS IN WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS. It


that watertight bulkheads

of

course,

desirable

should be
the

intact,

as their efficiency as subdivisions of


cases,

a hold
cut
in

is

then at

its

highest.

In some

however,

doorways
of

them.

For instance,
to

need

of

a
for

direct

means

access

must be from

the engine-room

the

shaft

tunnel, calls

door in the watertight bulk-

head
the
coal
fitted
it

at

the

after-end

of

the

engine-room,

Again, in

most cargo steamers,


reach
the

where the tunnel abuts upon it. a reserve coal bunker lies immediately before
doors

forward boiler-room bulkhead, in which

must be
cases

fitted

so that the

may
at

the

stokehold
level
in
all

floor.

In hold

special

doors
of

have

been

ceiling

the

watertight
to

bulkheads
hold
of

a vessel,

when
deck.

has

been
the
in

desired
foregoing,

to

pass

from
in

without

going
are decks,

on
so

Besides

particularly
at

passenger vessels,
height
to

doors

frequently
that to

made
their

watertight

bulkheads
get

the

the
in

'tween
the

passengers

may

readily

from

place

place

region

devoted

accommodation.
In designing doors
for watertight

bulkheads

it

is

necessary to

remember

one placed near the foot of a bulkhead would have to withstand considerable pressure, if from any cause a compartment on either side of it The framing of the doorway and the door itself are became flooded.
that

therefore
substantial

made

specially

strong.

Usually
is

these

parts

are

of

cast as

iron
also

of

thickness.

The

door

made

of

wedge

shape,

the

172

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
it

AND CALCULATIONS.
joint,

groove in which
metal
to

works,

any degree of tightness of the


thus
obtainable.

which
of

is

a a

metal

one,

being

As

in

the

case

bilging

door would quickly become inaccessible, arrangements must be provided for working them from a high level. Doors in engine and boiler-room bulkFig.

160.

SECTION
UrPERDECK.

rr

bulb angles so'apart

CONNECTION OF STRINGERS TO BULKHEAD

331

SECTION CF
SIDE STRINGEff

from an upper platform doors in other bulkheads Where doors open in a vertical direction (fig. worked from the deck. are 161) the apparatus for working them commonly consists of a vertical shaft with a screw at one end working in a fixed nut in the door. Where they
heads are usually wrought
;

DOORS IN WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS.


open
in

173
at
its

a horizontal

direction,

the vertical

shaft

is

fitted

lower end

with a small pinion wheel which works a fixed rack on the

door.

Doors in bulkheads which give access


designed to withstand
great water
pressure.

into

'tween

decks

need not be
of
plates
to

Usually, so

they

consist
as

hinged
operated

to

the

bulkhead and
either

secured
the

by snibs

fitted

be

readily

from

side

of

bulkhead.
is

The

joint

and the door frame on the bulkhead


yarn or rubber packing
(fig.

made

watertight

between the door by means of spun


vessels

162).

STEMS,

STERNPOSTS,

AND RUDDERS. In
Fig.

merchant

the

161

SHAFT TOR OPERATING DOOR

BULKHEAD

DETAIL SECTION
OF

DOOR FRAME

l t4t j

-DOOR

COVER PLATE
FORMING GROOVE FOR DOOR

stem
.

consists

of

solid

forged

bar

of

iron

or

steel,

or

of

rolled
hull.

steel,

of

suitable

breadth and

thickness,

and forms the fore-end of the

Nowadays,

are usually straight above the load-waterline with a slight rake say, two feet forward, to minimise the effect of a collision, should this happen, and to overcome the impression of falling aft at the head which a quite The clipper stem, so common at one time, is now vertical stem gives.

stems

in sailing ships, as it is a suitable construction on steamers and also has a fine appearance, it is always found. When associated with a hanging or bar keel, the stem becomes a continuation of the same, being connected to it by a vertical scarph similar to that em-

seldom

built

with a bowsprit,

ployed for uniting the lengths of the

"keel

bar.

When

the

keel

is

of centre

T74

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS*

through plate or side bar type, a modification of the ordinary vertical scarph
is

adopted.
is

By

referring

to

fig.

163,

stem
bars,
this

slotted out to receive the

it will be seen that the after-end of the ends of the centre girder and the two side

The total length of which together make up the thickness of the keel* scarph should be about eighteen times the keel thickness, Or double the

Fig

162,
DETAIL

SHEWING FASTENING

-RUBBER PACKING

DOOR

35 PLATINC

BULKHEAD

35 PLATING WEDGE 5*I *


J

TAPERINCTQ^'

DETAIL AT HINGE

OVAL PINHOLE

"

TO ALLOW DOOR TO CLOSE TIGHTLY

HORIZONTAL SECTION

ALTERNATIVE
BULKHEAD

PLAN

^^^^^^

/P; RUBBER DOOR

length

of

scarph

required
the

for

an

ordinary
points

bar
the

keel,
flat

to

allow a
bars.

reasonable

distance
several

between

terminating

of

side

There are

ways of making a connection between a stem bar and a flat plate 164 shows one adopted by many builders. The lower part of the stem is carried three or four feet on to the fore length
keel.

Fig.

of

the

keel,

STEMS.

175
in

and

is

securely riveted to intercostal plates, which

turn

are

riveted

to

the

floors.

The

lower ends of the frames in this vicinity extend below the top of
line

the stem the

shown dotted in the figure, and the fore end of as to come under the stem and yet fay against the ship's side. The keel-plate may be said to end where it rises on to the side of the stem (fig. 164), as in front of that point it becomes an ordinary strake of shell-plating. The preceding is an efficient plan, and obviates the necessity of tapering down and spreading out fanlike the afterend of the stem a more costly arrangement, but one which gives good work and formerly frequently adopted. It will be observed from fig. 165, which
bar to the
is

keel-plate

dished

so

illustrates

this

method,
the

that

the

keel-plate

is

dished round

the

after

part

of
it.

the

stem, and
in

continued for the distance of a frame space, or two under


previous
case,

Thence, as

the

keel-plate

is

lifted

on

to

the

side

of

Fig.

163.

END

OF

CONTINUOUS CENTRE
GIRDER

(NTERCOSTALS ALS

Vr^jsr-TT"

TACK. RIVETS

STEM
KEEL
t

SIDE

BARS

\
E-

SCARPH
to
it.

the

stem and through riveted


of

Through

riveting

is

also

adopted at the
is

after-end

the

stem,

if
is

practicable,

otherwise

tap
for

riveting

resorted

to.

The
stem,
to

centre

keelson-plate

carried

intercostally

few frame spaces

for-

ward of the after-end of the stem and attached


as
in

to to

tongue formed on the

the

sketch,

or

in

lieu

of a

tongue

bottom

bars

tap-riveted

the

stem.
well as

As
with

the

structure

by means of the keel connection, the stem is thoroughly bound by the main shell-plating. The strakes at their forward
rivets
(see

length
will

ends are arranged to lap on each side of the stem, and to pass through all three thicknesses are employed be noticed that the shell-plating
;

sufficient

in
It

fig.

166).

is

kept back

1-inch

the stem

this

is

to

protect the caulking.

At

least

from the front two rows of rivets are

of
re-

quired to connect the shell-plating to the stem, and these should have the same

176
spacing as the keel

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
rivets,
viz.,

AND CALCULATIONS.
Below the load
it

diameters, centre to centre.

waterline the stem should be maintained at full thickness, as


to

is
it

there liable
is

severe

strains

by grounding
In practice
its

or
it

collision
is

above

that

point

usually

reduced somewhat.
area

tapered to the top, where the sectional


value.

has

three-quarters
facilitate

maximum
latter
is

To
damage
at

construction and reduce the cost of repairs, in


stem, the
usually

the

event of

to

the

made

in

two parts with a scarph

about the

light waterline.

Mention may here be made of the practice of

Fig.
ELEVATION
collision

164.

8ULK

/LINE OF

FRAME HEELS

SECTION AT CD.
LOOKING

SECTION AT A. B.
LOOKING F0RW

An
NTfR COSTAL

They are fitted to join the parts together and fairing, but they are a drawback when a portion of the stem has to be removed, as plates on both sides of the stem have to be taken off in order to punch them out, for which reason they
using tack
the
rivets

in

stem scarphs.
erection

for

purpose

of

are

frequently

omitted.
sternpost

STERNPOSTS. The
In
it

forms

the
also

after-end
in

of the hull structure.

sailing-ships

and paddle steamers, and


rudder.

some twin-screw steamers,


however, this
to

consists, like the stem,

of a simple bar, with the addition of forged gudgeons

for

hinging the

In

single-screw
for

steamers,

part

of

the
for

ship

becomes

more

complicated,

in

addition

providing

facilities

STEMS AND STERNPOSTS.


carrying the

176a
the
hull
at
this

rudder,

the propeller shaft, which leaves

point,

must

be

supported

by

it.

Moreover,

the

strain

caused
this

by

the

continual

working of the shaft has to be counteracted, and


p

can only be done by

Fig. making the post and its connections to the hull of ample strength. of this 167 shows the stern frame of an ordinary cargo steamer. The stem vessel is 11 inches by 3 inches, and the increase in strength of sternpost necessary, for the reasons given, is represented by the increase of the thickness

Fig.

165.

ELEVATION

tNDOFKCEL PLATE
Fig.

166.

of the propeller post,

which
inches,

is

joined
while

to

the

shell-plating,

to

9
is

inches,

the

breadth

remaining

the

rudder

post,

which

not

called

upon
this,

to withstand such severe stresses,

may be 9^
in

inches x 9 inches.

Besides

as previously mentioned, the after lengths of the shell-plating,

which come
plates,

upon the
round the
the
stern

propeller

post,

are

augmented
while

thickness above adjoining


plates
in

being usually of midship thickness,


shaft

the

way of the bossing


is

are

still

further

thickened.
of
rivets

The
large

shell-plating

attached

to

frame

by two

rows

of

diameter,

increased

below

i>]6b

SHIP CONSTRUCTION boss in


is

AND CALCULATIONS.

the

tachment

The hull atover 350 feet in length to three rows. improved by securely connecting the upper arms marked A and B* in fig. 167 to floorplates, also by extending the arm G well forward, and connecting it to the keel-plate and middle line keelson. The size of the aperture is fixed by the diameter of the propeller, for It is of the efficient working of which ample clearance must be allowed.
vessels

further

Fig.

167.

importance to keep the propeller as low


its

down

as

possible

so

as

to
is

ensure

always being under water, as

when
the
post,

partly immersed, the efficiency


is

much
15

reduced.
in

For
that

this

purpose the lower part in way of the aperture


sectional
as
this

reduced
per
with-

depth and increased in width,


over
is

area being
part

increased

cent,

of

the

propeller

has

frequently
is

to

*Arm B

required by Lloyd's Rules in vessels whose longitudinal

number

16,000 and above.

STERN P9STS.
stand
for

176^
of

severe

grounding
the
rudder,

stresses.

The main purpose


the

the
or

after-post

is

hanging
the
basis

for

which
should

necessary

braces

gudgeons
to

are

provided, as

shown.
rudder.
of the

These
In

be
the

spaced
rudder
to

sufficiently

close

properly

support

Lloyd's
of

Rules

tabulated
stock
;

distances
in

are

provided
of
the

on the

diameter

the

Rules

be spaced 4 feet apart in vessels of 10 feet depth, and 5 feet 6 inches apart in vessels of 40 feet depth and upwards, the spacing in- vessels between 10 feet and 40 feet depth being
British Corporation,

gudgeons are required

found by interpolation.
diameter of the
sidered in
association

Gudgeons should have a depth equal rudder stock. These details of the sternpost
with
to

to
are

j^ of the
best

conit

the

rudder.

When
frame

vessels
in

are

of
piece.

large

size

becomes
as

impracticable

make

the

stern

one

Moreover,

outside the hull proper is most liable to damage, it facilitates and makes them less costly, if this portion can be easily disconnected from the remainder. We, therefore, usually find that stern frames in large modern single-screw steamers are built up, as shown in fig. 168,

the

part

repairs

with

scarphs
the

as

shown.

The upper

joint

can

be

disconnected without

dis-

turbing
length

main

structure, while

the lower one only interferes with the aftershell-plating.

of the

lowermost strake of

These scarphs should have


equal to i| times, the width

a length equal to three times, and a breadth


of the frames,

and be secured by four rows of rivets. It should be said that stern frames are built as just described, ue. in several pieces, only when they are made of cast steel but there seems no good reason, except the extra expense and difficulty of forging the scarphs, why, in ordinary simple cases, forged stern frames should not be so made,
y ;

considering the

advantages accruing
said
in

thereto.

A
bodies

word may here be


for

regard

to the

relative

merits of cast steel

and forgings
permit
standing

stern

frames,

rudders,
steel

etc.

The
such

rules

of

the
to

classification

the

use

of

cast

for

items,

subject

their

with-

certain

tests,

and

as

castings

are

cheaper
owner's

than

forgings

they
there

are
are

populaf with
objections
for

some
in

builders.

But,
are,

from
for

an

standpoint
reliable

to

castings.

They
latter

instance,

not

as

as

forgings,
in

while

flaws

the

are

rare,

inherent weaknesses, acquired

the

processes of manufacture, frequently exist in stern frames and rudder castings,

and

these,

though

not

disclosed

by the
parts

usual
in

tests,

are

sure

to

manifest

themselves

subsequently

when

the

are

place

and doing
effectively,

their

work.

Again, a defect in a forged frame

may
in

frequently be

quickly,
its

and
re-

cheaply repaired, but a serious


newal,

flaw

steel

casting

simply means
cause
loss

which,

in

addition

to

considerable
It
is

expense,
to
state,

may

to

the

owners in delaying the


years there has

ship.

only

fair

however, that in recent


large steel castings.

been improvement in the manufacture of

Of
as
in

where the forms of stern frames and rudder are complicated, the case of some war vessels and large passenger liners, steel castings
course,
to because

are

resorted

forgings

are

quite

impracticable.

ij6d

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
far,

AND CALCULATIONS.

So
screw
mention.

reference has been

made
as

exclusively to the stern frames of single-

steamers,

but

those

of

modern
in

twin-screw
the

vessels

call

for

special

In the simplest form,

case

of

small

vessels,

the

stern

Fig.

168.

RUOOGR ARMS AT ** BETWEEN PINTLES

PLAN OF RUDDER

ARM

frame proper
propeller

is

of

the

familiar

L-shape

fitted

to

saiiing-ships,

the

projecting

shafts
is

being

supported
in
figs.

by

means
170.

of a

A
the

bracket
first

on

each
it

side.

This

form

illustrated

169,

In

figure

will

be

STERNPOSTS.
observed
shell,

176*?

that
is

the

upper

which

doubled in the

palm of the bracket is fitted directly on to the vicinity, and the lower one is through-riveted
Fig.

169.

SECTION
LOOKING AFT

DETAIL AT

UPPER PALM

STRONG BEAM AT PALM

"CHECK FOR SHELL PLATING


CHECK FOR PALM
KEEL INCREASED IN
IN

DEPTH

WAY

OF

PALM

Fig.

170.

DETAIL AT

UPPER PALM

ANCLE COLLAR

i 7

6/
being
fitted

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
across
part.

AND CALCULATIONS.
way of the palms,
fitted

plates,

the

ship

in

to

give
is

the

necesto
it

sary rigidity

at

this

In the second case, the upper palm

riveted

a plate inside the ship, an angle collar being


forged or cast

round the
is

strut

where

passes through the shell-plating, and the lower palm

riveted to a projection

on the lower part of the stern frame.


in

Very

often,

order

to

keep the
as

lines

of

shafts

near

the

middle
latter

line,

and thus minimise vibration


overlapped, a

well

as

protect

the

propellers, the

are

screw
cases,

aperture

thus

becoming necessary.
with

The
is

usual

arrangein
fig.

ment
171.

in

such

when

associated of

brackets,
in

as

shown

The

aperture

must be

sufficient

width

fore-and-aft

direction

Fig.

171.

to

take

both

propellers;

it

need
us,

not,

however, be

so

high as

for

single
line.

screw, the

upper point of the propeller path


the

being clear of the middle


is

In the special instance before


as
to

the stern frame


brackets,

designed in such a way


being
riveted
is

take

palms

of

the
easily

the

whole

together.

Other arrangements might

be devised, although that shown


of each
propeller
is

very neat.

The
the

different

fore-and-aft

positions

arrived at by

making

shaft

bossing

longer

on one side than on the


have
to

other.

The A
is

bracket system of supporting the propeller shafts, though simple,

not

suitable
that
in

where high speeds


such cases
It

be

attained.

Experiments
serious

have

shown
tion

the

projecting
for

brackets

cause a

augmentaof

of resistance.

was found,

instance, in

one

case, that

a twin-

PROPELLER BRACKETS.

176^

screw vessel of fine form, the propeller shafts of which were encased in tubes supported by two sets of struts, that the resistance caused by the tubes

amounted
of the
.

set of struts to about 10J per cent. Various attempts have been made to overcome this objection by giving a suitable shape to the arms, which from a more or less circular section, in early vessels, became of a flattened oval shape in those more recently built. The results obtained in this way were better,

to

4J per

-cent,

and by each

total

hull

resistance.

but the resistance was


to

still

serious.

The
lines,

strut

resistance

being mainly due


latterly

the

disturbance

of

the

stream

an

attempt

was

made
right

to

eliminate this

by bossing the form of the

vessel

round the

shafts,

up

Fig.

172.

to

the

stern

frame, thus

allowing the
costly,

streams
otherwise
fast

an

plan,
is

although

somewhat
as

has

proved
vessels

unbroken run aft.* This most satisfactory, and


of large
the
size.

now As
the

frequently adopted, particularly in


well

reducing

resistance

to

speed,

bossing
it

hull

round twin-

screw shafts has an


at
after

obvious advantage in that


It

end.

adds much to the strength also obviates the possibility of any lateral strain being
as

brought upon the


"

shafts,

might happen where they are exposed.

at Bremerhaven,

model of the liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, when tried in the experimental tank was found to have 12 per cent, more resistance with propeller brackets than
with shaft bossing.

when

fitted

Engineering, 9th October, 1908.

176/1

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
an integral part of the
of

When
hull
fin

properly
Fig.

constructed
172

the
in

bossing becomes
section

structure.
it

shows

the

method
from

constructing
ship's

the
to
is

as
line

is

sometimes
shafting
in
is

called

where
way,

the

distance
will

the

side

the

of

considerable.

As
and
it

be seen, each
side
for

main frame

carried

down
is

the

ordinary
to
at

shaped

fitted

and made

overlap

on the reverse the main frame


leaves

a bar suitably

some

distance

above and below the points

which

the normal

frame

line.

The

Fig.

173.

PLAN
S1DL

ELEVATION

STERNPOST

frame-work
bossing

is

strengthened by web-plates,
not

as

shown.

All

the

frames in the

For a considerable distance the eccentricity in form may be met by bossing out the main frame, the object being to obtain the required shape and strength as economically as possible.
need
be
built

in

this

way.

For the purpose


to

of

forming
steel

bearings

for

the

shafts

and a termination
as

the

bossing,
is

special Fig.

casting,
this

sometimes
frame

described

spectacle

frame,

fitted

173

shows

associated

with

an

ordinary

STERNPOSTS.
propeller
figure

7 6/

frame

having an

aperture

fairly

common
is

arrangement.
;

In the
it

the

spectacle

frame forms
rudder

part

of

the propeller post

frequently

is
it.

a distinct casting bolted to the propeller post, which

complete

without
controls
axis

RUDDERS. The
direction of her

is

that

part

of
in

vessel

which

the

movements when
turns
is

-afloat

and
of

motion.

As
and
it

the
as

about
rudder

which
takes of the

vessel

in

the

vicinity

amidships,

the

the * deflecting force, obviously the best position for


vessel.

is

at

either

end

The
it

after-end
is

is

most convenient
there.

for

the purpose,

and, with

a few exceptions,

always placed
the

In most mercantile vessels


forward end
(figs.

rudder
vessels,
is

is

hinged
in

about

an

axis

at

its

168,

174);
area

in

war

and

some few merchant


obvious

ships,

what

is

termed a balanced rudder


the
lies

fitted,
it.

having the a*is so placed

that

about a third of
latter

before

The
it

advantage of

the
star-

type consists in the ease with which


It

can be put over to port or


especially,

board.

has a disadvantage, however, in being somewhat costly, a sufficient


its

reason to debar
to
their

adoption
power.
the

in

ordinary

cargo
type

vessels,

'as

owing
steer-

low speed, a rudder of


of moderate

common
frame of

can be operated

by a

ing gear
Fig.

a modern cargo steamer of large main frame or stock with arms at right angles to it, the latter being spaced close enough to afford sufficient support to a heavy plate which gives the contour of the rudder. The arms, which are forged or cast with the rudder frame, are arranged on alternate sides of the plate, as shown in the sketch. The rivets attaching the arms to the rudder-plate should be of large size, and the arms kept back a little from the outside edge of the plate to protect them from being torn off. The rudder is attached to the stern frame by means of bolts or pintles, which ship into gudgeons on the after-part of the stern frame. These gudgeons are forged or cast solid with the stern frame, and are afterwards

168 shows
is

rudder

size.

It

seen to consist of a vertical

bored out
in

at

the ship the

as

required,

care

being
a
true

taken
axis.

to

keep

their

centres

line

so

that
also

rudder

may have

Formerly,

the

rudder

pintles

were

forged

on the rudder frame, but are now usually portable


style

bolts, as in the illustration given.

Fig.
It

74

shows a
stock
is

of

rudder
that

frequently
are

fitted

in

modern
fitted

vessels.

has

circular

and arms
spaced

separate

forgings

one
case,

at to

each
allow
fitting

pintle.

This

about
wider

double

the

spacing
are

of

the

previous

for

which

the

arms
is

made

relatively

heavier.

In a
the

the parts
on,
is

together the post


fitted

turned in way of the arms, which are


prevent
the
the

shrunk
groove
stresses

key being

to

arms

turning.
to

Usually
fit

cut in
it

the back of the

stock

for

rudder-plate

into,

on
arms

being thus communicated directly to the stock and the rivets


to

in

the

some extent
Fig.
-is

relieved.
is

The weight
of the sternpost.
the

of the rudder, in most cases,

taken by the bottom gudgeon


detail.

175 shows this arrangement in

The
with

socket for
the others-,

bottom

pintle

not continued through the gudgeon as

176;
but
sufficient

SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.


housing
is

allowed

to

prevent

any danger of accidentally

un-

shipping.

To In the present instance, the depth of the socket is 4 inches. minimise friction, the bottom of the pintle is rounded, and a suitable bearing
provided

by

fitting

hemispherical
of

steel

disc

into

the
it

gudgeon
to

socket.

Experience

with

this

style

bearing

has

not

shown

be

completely

Fig.

174.

SINGLE PLATE RUDDER

ARMS AT PINTLES

^^
satisfactory.

The
the

weight of the rudder soon produces wearing, which then becoming greater than
to
if

is

usually

uneven,

the

friction

no disc were used.


the
post
is

The
enable

hole from

bottom of the socket


are
all

the

heel of

to

the disc to be easily removed.

Rudder
what shorter
refer

pintles

alike

except
the
pintle

the

bottom
pintle,
fits

one,
to

which which

is

someshall
is

than

the

others,

and

"lock"'

we

presently.

The

part of each

which

into

the

rudder frame

RUDDERS.
tapered from bottom to top, to prevent
of the pintle
its

176/$

being knocked out.


it

On
driven

the head

a large nut

is

fitted,

which secures
by a
as
steel

in position,

any slackenthrough

ing tendency being guarded the pintle

against
nut,

pin

which

is

immediately over the

shown.

To

prevent accidental

unshipment of the rudder, a locking arrangement


is

must be devised. A simple plan the top one with a bottom collar Another point of importance

to

make one
176).

of the pintles

preferably
rudder

(fig.

for

the

satisfactory

working

of the

is

to provide a

means of

limiting the

turning angle, which, in ordinary cases,

should not exceed 35 to 40 degrees. common design of stopper, it will be

Referring to
seeri

fig.

177,

which shows a
of the rudder

that the

movement

Fig.

175.

beyond a certain inclination is checked by widening out one of the gudgeons on the sternpost and altering the shape of the rudder stock in the vicinity, so that each surface may bear solidly on the other at the required angle. In a very large vessel two such stoppers would be needed, and they should be fitted so as to distribute the pressure equally over the sternpost. Stoppers must also be fitted on deck, the rudder movement being here controlled by stopping the quadrant or tiller arm. Where a good brake is fitted to the tiller, or the quadrant is geared on to the steam steering engine, no deck
stops
are

necessary,

the

control

being sufficient without them.

The
for.

cargo vessel,

is fitted in an ordinary be observed that only bare essentials are provided Where an owner does not object to extra expense in order to obtain is

foregoing

a description of a rudder such as


will

and

it

greater

efficiency,

refinements are introduced.

For instance,

it

is

advantageous

T76/
to to

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
line
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
lignum-vilae
(fig.

bush
also

gudgeons with
the
pintles with

brass

or or

178),

brass

gun-metal

(fig.

179).
parts,

the rudder

made The

to

work more smoothly, and as the


to

and more so By these means when worn, can


is

be renewed with
maintained.

little

trouble or expense, a high standard of efficiency

easily

objection

carrying

the

weight
to.

of

rudder

on

the

bottom gudgeon has already been referred overcome by causing the rudder to bear on several or on all the gudgeons, circular discs or washers of white metal being inserted between the rudder lugs

This

has

sometimes

been

and the gudgeons

for

this

purpose.

Another plan

is

to

fit

solid

washers,

cone-shaped at bottom, into each gudgeon, with pintles having tapered points to suit. The weight of the rudder is thus distributed over all the gudgeons,

and there
these

can

be

little

or

no

side

movement

of

the

rudder.

By both

arrangements,

of
it

course,
is

rudder

than

when

more power will be required to turn the supported on a footstep bearing only, but this is

Fig.

176.

Fig.

177.

no drawback where there

is

an

efficient

steam

steering

gear.

Occasionally

rudders are fitted which do not bear on the gudgeons, the weight being taken

floor.

by a thrust block inside the vessel, usually fitted at the level of the transom With balanced rudders this is the invariable plan, the bottom pintle,
where there
is

one, serving

merely as

guide.

The
when

fitting

of an
it

internal

bearing

to

rudder of ordinary type adds to the

cost,

but

has the ad-

vantage of accessibility, an important consideration


parts.

dealing with working

greatly in size and weight, it becomes necessary means of shipping and unshipping them without disturbing the steering gear and inboard stuffing boxes. It is customary, in such cases, to fit a coupling just under the counter, and this is found to answer the purHorizontal couplings, as illustrated by figs. 168, 174 ancj pose admirably. 180, are common, although others of a vertical type are sometimes fitted (figs. With such an arrangement, to unship a rudder it is only 181 and 181a).

When

rudders increase

to

devise a simple

RUDDERS.
necessary to unscrew the pintle nuts,
thus
allowing the pintles
to

t 7

6m

drop

out,

and

to

disconnect the rudder coupling.

By means of block and


its

tackle, the

rudder may then be easily


Fig.

moved

out of

usual

position.

178.

Fig.

179.

i i

Fig.

180.

Nowadays, the rudder proper


as

is

usually formed

by a

single
still

heavy plate

previously
is

described
design

another

followed,

to

the

sometimes frame to the desired contour, as illustrated in fig.

plan,

once

universal,

and

i76
182.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

Each

side of this

frame
filled

is

covered by thin plating, through-riveted, the


solid with

space thus enclosed being

in

wood

or cement.

This

style

is

Fig.

181.
vertical

M'LACHLAN'S

coupling

.-9 0IA'

Fig.

181a.

'WEDGEW0OD5 SCARPHED
coyPLirsci

v-H

BOLTS g lDlA'

not

so

strong

as

that
as

of

the

single

plate;

it

is

also

more

liable

to

decay

through

corrosion,

the

inside

surfaces

of the

rudder-plating

are

obviously

RUDDERS.
inaccessible
for-

1760
chief

cleaning.
vessels
it

These were
in
is

the the

reasons

of
type.

its

abandonIn
special

ment
cases,
its

in

ordinary

favour

of

single-plate

such as yachts,
appearance.

still

retained for
Fig.

finer

182.

The
latter,

sizes

of the various parts of a rudder

are governed

by the area and shape of the and the speed of the vessel. Knowing these particulars, the twisting moment can be determined and the requisite diameter for the head of the rudder stock calculated. The
aggregate sectional area of the^arms supporting the
single plate

depends to some extent


to

on the
it

bending moment

be sustained, but
this

should be increased beyond

requirement

to allow for shocks

from the

sea, to

which the
suffi-

rudder in stormy weather may be subjected.

The
cient
for

sizes

of the pintles should also be

to withstand these
tear,

shocks and provide

wear and

considerable at these parts.

The

strength of the

coupling joint must be

equal to that of the stock.

This entails flanges

of considerable thickness and a sufficient

numaxis

ber of coupling bolts, the


aggregate
strength

moment
the

of whose

about
torsional

rudder
of

should be equal to the twisting moment, and,


therefore,

to

the

strength

the

rudder stock.

These are the


course,
if

principles

which must be

followed in making detailed calculations.

Of
of

a ship
at

is

to

be

built

to

Lloyd's
part

Rules, the
as

such

calculations,
all

on
are

the

builder
detailed

events,

unnecessary,
are
pro-

dimensions

of

rudders
tables.
is

vided in carefully compiled


the diameter of rudder stock

In these

given^ for vari-

ous
the
in

speeds

under
of

numbers

which

represent

product

the total area of the rudder centre


in
line
feet

square feet abaft the

of of

the
the

pintles,

and

the

distance

centre of gravity of this area abaft the same


line.

SECTION THROUGH A
fitted

B.

As
in.

previously remarked, rudders


instance, as have to

are

sometimes
to

at

the fore ends of

vessels, such, for

navigate

channels too confined to turn

These

rudders
to

are

usually

designed
of the

come

inside

the

line

of
or

the
less

stem,

and

follow

the

shape

vessel,

being

thus

more

176/
buoyant
purposes,
of a
(fig.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
183).

AND CALCULATIONS.
is

The rudder
in

stock

carried

to
is

the

worked by a simple hand-gear.

As a bow rudder
is

mainly for

when not
bolt.

use

it

locked in a fore-and-aft

and emergency position by means


weather-deck

strong

Fig.

183.

PLAN OF TOP OF RUDDER

CHAPTER

VII.

Equilibrium of Floating: Bodies: Metacentric


Stability.

FROM
the
floating
.

our considerations in Chapters


forces
in

I.

and

II.,

we know something
fig.

of
is

operation
at

when,
still

as

depicted

in

184,

vessel

freely

and
or

rest

in

water.

We
or

know,

for

instance
t

That the i downward forces


2.

total

upward

forces,

buoyancy,

mus

equal

the

total

weight

That the resultant of the downward forces acts through <?, the centre and the resultant of the upward forces through B, the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid, already denned as the centre of buoyancy.
of gravity of the weights,
It
is

now

necessary to note that

these

two equal and opposite resultant

Fig.

184.

IL_

forces

must act

in

the

same

vertical

line,

for,

if

the lines of action did not


disturb the equilibrium!
vessel

coincide, a turning

moment would be
force

in operation to

to

Now, suppose an external heel over, as shown in fig.


the displacement
is

to

act

upon the
weights

185.

No
by
LX

have

and cause her been added, thereout of the water

fore

unchanged, and the volume


counterbalanced
the
are

lifted

on

one
;

side
is,

must
the

be

volume
equal.

immersed

on

the

other

that

wedges

W\S

and

SL

As the immersed body is now altered in form, the centre of buoyancy no longer at B but takes up some new position B and as there has been no change in the disposition of the weights, the centre of gravity G The two equal resultant forces act clown through is not altered in position.
is
x

177

78

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
lines

G,

and up through
distance
acting

respectively,

their

of
in

action

having

a
the

perpenturning
original

dicular

GZ

between
vessel

them,

as

drawn
tends

the

figure.

The
to

moment

on the

obviously

to

restore

her

Fig.

185.

position,

and
the

she
centre

is

therefore

said
to

to

be

in

stable

equilibrium.
position
in
fig.

Next,

suppose
say,

of

gravity

be

raised

from

the

184
cargo

by pumping

out

ballast

tank,

and

by putting

quantity

of

Fig.

186.

into

the

'tween

decks

in

order
let

to

keep
will

the

displacement the same,


coincident
with

or by

some
fig.

other

means.

First,

G become
act

exactly

M
and

(see

186).

As

before,

the

weight

downwards

through

the

Fig.

187.

buoyancy upwards
posite
will

in

the

line

B M.
2

The
line,

forces

will

therefore

act

in

op-

directions

in

the

same
In

vertical
this

and

being
will

equal

in

magnitude

neutralise

each

other.

case

there

be no lever tending to

DEFINITION OF TRANSVERSE METACENTRE.


heel
the
vessel,

79

which
is

will

not

tend
of

to

depart

from

its

inclined

position.

The
raised
vessel
lines,
is,

condition

said

to

be

one
at
fig.

neutral
will

above M.
causing

glance

187

Now, let G be show what will happen if the


equilibrium.
forces
will

be inclined as before.
a heeling

The two moment to be


difference

resultant
in

act

in

different

operation
this

on the
heeling

vessel.

There
to
right

however, a very important


existing
vessel,

between
from
the

moment and
not

that

when G was below M>


to
incline

the

tendency being
the
initial

now,

the

but

her

further

position.
is

With G
unstable

above M, therefore, the


equilibrium.

vessel,

when

in

upright

position,

in

We
floating

thus
vessel

see

that

the

relation

between
or

the

points

G and

M
is

in

entirely

determines the nature of her equilibrium.


its

called

the

metacentre

from

being
rise,
if
;

the

meta

limit

of gravity
It

G must not
defined as

a condition

of

stability

beyond which the centre maintained. is to be

may be

follows

Definition of Transverse Metacentre. If a vessel be floating upright at rest and in equilibrium, at a certaifi draughty and be then inclined through a very small angle\ the point in which the vertical line through the

new

centre

of buoyancy
metacentre

intersects

the

middle

line

of the

ship}

is

called
is,

the in

transverse

at

that

draught.

For
It
it

every

draught

there
also

ordinary vessels, a

different

position

of metacentre.
is

The
for

point

changes

with

every inclination from the


for

upright.
to

usual, however,

and
if

sufficiently

correct

practical

purposes,

assume

as

fixed

inclinations

up to
the

10 or 11
distance

degrees.

This

is

important, as within these limits,

we know

G M, we can Moment of Statical

determine the vessel's righting power, since


Stability in foot-l

tons at any angle 6

,,,

x BZ

Hf x

QM

..

Sm

I,

W, the displacement, being given in tons, and G Z or G M in feet. This is known as metacentric stability, G M being called the metacentric height It must be borne in mind that this method applies only up to the beyond these it is unreliable, as M changes rapidly in angles above given
;

position,
is

and G

has no longer

its

initial

value,

which

is

the

only one that

used by the metacentric method.


curves
of
at
stability,

Further on we shall see, when considering

actual

that

in

many

cases

considerable

error

would be

involved, even

moderate angles, by using the above formula

for calculating

the

moment

of stability.
is,

knowledge of a vessel's metacentric height purposes. It is an excellent guide, for instance,


not a vessel

however, useful for

many

for

determining whether or
tanks

may be

safely shifted

in

harbour, or whether ballast

may

be run up, or, in the case of a vessel carrying oil in bulk, how the loading In conducting the first of these operaof cargo should be proceeded with. tions, there need be no inclination from the upright exceeding that for which
the

moment

of stability

may be

written

W
so that in order to
shift

GM

x Sin

ft
it

the

vessel

with

confidence,

is

only necessary to

l8o

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the value
great

AND CALCULATIONS.
sufficient.

make sure that G M should be

of

G
to

is

In

the

two
its

last

operations

enough
if

allow for

the

reduction in

value

due to

the presence of free liquid in the vessel.

We
to

shall return to this point again.

Besides the foregoing,


will

the vessel be of

known

type,

the metacentric height

furnish

good

basis

from which

predict

the

probable

nature

of

her stability at large

angles

of inclination.

The

great

importance of the points


to

G and

M
or

will

now be
of

manifest,
his

and
in

a shipmaster ought
available.

know

for

every
sea,

condition of

lading

vessel

which she may have to put to

what
the

GM

metacentric height he has

In considering these two centres,


of each of the

influences

controlling

the

position

should be carefully noted.


weights,
case.

Obviously,

and we

shall

show presently
M,
however,
is

G is fixed by the distribution how it may be determined in


dis-

any given
of
the

The

point

not affected by the weight


vessel,

tribution, but only

by the underwater volume of the


to

and by the shape


written

waterplane.
relatively

This appears from the formula that gives the height of


the centre
of buoyancy, which
"i

the point

may be

Height of transverse metacentre

M
'

I
1

above centre of buoyancy


where
as

I/

is

the

moment
of

of inertia

of

the

waterplane

about

its

middle

line

axis,

and V the volume of displacement.


the

The numerator
to

right-hand
:

member

of

this

equation

may be

ex-

plained in a popular way, as follows

Imagine

the area of the whole waterplane

be divided into an infinite number of parts, and the distances of the centres of these elements from the middle line ascertained; then, if each of these small areas be multiplied by the square of its distance from the axis, and the

sum

of the products be taken, the result will be the

moment
the

of inertia required.

Although
inertia in

it

involves of an

some

calculation

to

obtain

above

moment
for

of

the

case

ordinary-shaped vessel, owing to the varying nature


waterplane,
it

of the
figure

boundary

line

of the

may be
circle,

quickly obtained
as

any

of simple form

such as a square, a

or a triangle,

established

formulas are then available.


vessel.

We

have a case in point in a floating box-shaped


is

Here
this

the outline of the waterplane


figure

a rectangle, and the


L

inertia of

about the major axis

is

R3

moment
length

of
of

where L

is

the

the vessel,

and 8 the breadth.


for

Applying the formula


the centre of buoyancy

the

height

of the

transverse

metacentre above

we have
L x B*

LxBxD
15 feet;

i2

0'

being the mean draught. 150 feet; breadth, 30 feet;

If the actual

dimensions of the vessel be


then

length,

draught,

12 x 15

CALCULATION OF BM.
Almost as simple
that the expression for half the previous value,
a

131
is

case

occurs

when

the vessel
is,

of constant triangular

section with the apex down.

The

waterplane

as

before,
is

a rectangle,

so

/ is unchanged, but the displacement and we now have


L x B*

obviously only

BM
We
therefore

B2

LxBxD

6D
its

note that a floating vessel of this form has

transverse

metacentre at twice the height above the centre of buoyancy of another having
a rectangular section,
the

Moreover, in a vessel of
greater height above
lute height of the

triangular

extreme dimensions in each case being the same. section, the centre of buoyancy is at a

the

base line than in the other case, so that the absois,

metacentre

on

this account,

still

further increased.
lie

Now,
the

the forms of the 'midship sections of ordinary ship-shaped bodies the

between

two extreme cases


of tapered
of

just

considered,
the

and,
effect

neglecting

for

the

moment

influence
position

lines,

general

of

change of design upon the


grasped.
It
is

the

transverse

metacentre

may be
is

important to

note in the

above formula that B

independent of the length, while the


This

breadth appears in the second power.

shows the influence of breadth


vessels

on

stability,

and explains why broad shallow


case

have always

high

meta-

centres.

A
axis

unique

occurs

where the

vessel

is

a floating
as

cylinder

with

its

horizontal.

In

ordinary vessels

the

metacentre,

we have

seen,

may

In this case, however, be considered as a fixed point only for one draught. the vertical through the centre of buoyancy will intersect the middle line
at

the

that,

since

same point at all draughts. the immersed section is


its

This
part

will

be apparent,
the
centre

if

we consider
to

of a circle, a normal

any waterbuoyancy,

line

through
intersect

middle

point
line

will

pass

through

of

and
for

the of

middle

of the

vessel at the centre


is

of section.
for

Thus,
trans-

a vessel

cylindrical

section,

there

only one

position

the

verse

metacentre.

In

applying

the

formula

BM =

-rj

to

ship-shaped

bodies,
/.

the

work,

as

already stated, mainly consists in


tion
it

obtaining the value of

In actual calculaof equal parts,

is

usual to divide the waterplane into an even

number

suitable for the application of Simpson's

First Rule, to treat the

cubes of the

ordinates,

measured
the

at

the
the

points
latter

of
in

division,

as
feet,

ordinates
two-thirds

of a of

new
the

curve,

and
so
line.

find

area

of

square

quantity

obtained being the

moment

of inertia of the waterplane about the middle

obtain the value of the height of the transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy, this moment of inertia, as we have seen, must be

To

divided

by the volume

of

the

ship's

displacement
practical

in

cubic

feet

up

to

the

waterplane or draught considered.

As

examples of the foregoing, and

l82
in

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
order
in to

AND CALCULATIONS.
us,

impress
particular

the

method upon
vessels,
full

BM

two

cargo

both

of

we shall modern
inches;

calculate
type.

the value
first is

of

The

small deadweight carrier of


length, 275 feet; 3

co-efficient,
feet,
feet,

having the following dimensions:


6

inches;
tons.
is

the

extreme breadth, 39 load draught is 18


shall

inches,

moulded depth, 20 feet, and the displacement


this

4535 work
have

We
in

deal
table

with

the vessel

when
first

in

condition.

The

given

the

below.

In

the

and

second

columns we

numbers of the half ordinates of the load-waterplane, reckoning from the after end, and their breadths as measured at the points of division in the third column are tabulated the cubes of these half ordinates, and in the fourth and fifth, Simpson's Multipliers and the products of these multithe
;

pliers

with

the

cubes,

respectively.

No. of
J.

Ordinates.

APPROXIMATE CALCULATION OF
No. of Ordinat.es.

1!M.

183

1^4
treated,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
ship's
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
displacement

as the volume of a V = t x B x D x G 2 where C 2 these approximations, we get


,

may

always

be

written

co-efficient varying with

the form.

Using

bM
may become k may rise to
it

I/' C t

LttD=
even

X
2

D~ H Dwhile
in
fine

For many classes of merchant vessels k


as
'15.
let

'09,
;

in

vessels

of

full

form

low as
us

*o8,

or

less

ships,

such as yachts,

As a
for

test,

apply

the

approximate
calculations.

formula

to

the

two

examples

which we have
full

made
~
^2

detailed

For the small

vessel,

which

has

ends, k

=
=

^ = 7
87
'

*o8o6

and therefore

BM
In the
larger

-0806 x
the

39

5 Q

X
^

'

9 5

6-77

feet.

18-58

vessel,
finer,

ends

ot

the

load

waterplane

and the underwater

body are both

and making due allowance

and

BM

-0818 x ^

*LL =
27-25
of

9 40

feet.

Values of height of metacentre above


therefore

centre
figures

buoyancy thus obtained are


it

seen to approach

the

actual

very closely.
is

In order
to
for

to fix the position of the

metacentre in the vessel,

necessary

know
2o

the height of the centre of buoyancy.

In approximate calculations,
as

vessels of ordinary

form, this value

may be taken
vessels.

varying between

and
line,

of the
latter

mean moulded
figure

draught, measured
for
full

the

being used

downwards from the waterFor detailed calculations,

the position of the centre of buoyancy,


the vessel, must, of course, be employed.

as

obtained from correct drawings oi

While
metacentre

it

is

most important to know the position of a


floating
at

vessel's

transverse

when

her

load

draught,

it

is

frequently

necessary to

know
tion
is

it

for

other draughts.

critical one,

For some classes of vessels the launching condiand the amount of GM available then should be known.
of
vessels

Cases

are

on

record

capsizing

through

deficient

stability,

while

being launched.

Another important condition

for

which the metacentric height should be


is

known

is

that

called

"light-ship,"

which means that the vessel


cargo
or

complete,

including

machinery,

but

is

without

bunker

coal.

This condition

forms an excellent basis from which to calculate the value of


vessel

GM
that

for

the

when laden

with any kind of cargo.


is

Still

another condition calling for special consideration

when

in

ballast.

Modern

cargo

vessels

frequently

perform

voyages

in

ballast

trim,
will

and

calculations

should be made to find the disposition of ballast which

give a value of

GM,

ensuring the good behaviour of the vessel at sea.

DIAGRAM OF METACENTRES.

185
is

essential to
gravity.

Thus we have, including the loaded one, four conditions for which it know the positions of the transverse metacentre and the centre

of
is

To

enable us to find the former quickly at any draught, a diagram

constructed showing the change in the position of

with change in draught.

(The centre of gravity must be dealt with

specially, as

The

curve of metacentres

is

usually plotted

which the curve of centres of buoyancy is the two curves at any point being the value of
draught.
for

we shall show afterwards). on a diagram, such as fig. 188, on also drawn the distance between

at

the

corresponding
is

In plotting the curve of metacentres, the procedure


curve of centres of buoyancy,

the

same

as

the

which we may assume

to

be already

Fig.

188.

plotted.

That
is

is

to

say,

referring

to
off

fig.

188,
B.

the

height

of

for

various points

draughts

calculated
etc., is

and

spotted

on A

Then each
refers,

of these

},

M^

s,

translated out horizontally, a distance equal to that


it

between
is

the load

draught and the draught to which

and a curve
y

drawn

through them.

To

complete the diagram, a


A,

line

AA

at 45

to

the vertical

where the load waterplane intersects A B. To obtain, now, from such a diagram, the value of B M at any draught, BE say, it is only necessary to draw a horizontal line at that draught to intersect the line AA x aX some point Elt and to draw through the latter point a vertical line

A B

is

drawn from the point

to the
after

curves of
little

buoyancy and metacentres

at

B and
BE.

It

will

be

clear,

consideration, that

is

the

height

of metacentre above

the

centre of buoyancy corresponding to the draught

i86
In
structed
fig.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
diagram,
floating

189
this

are

shown,
for

in

one

curves

of

metacentres
cross

con-

in

way

prismatic

bodies

having
of

sections

of

rectangular,
0.

triangular,

and

circular

form,
to

marked
It
is

respectively

R /?,

7",

The
full

curve

marked
This diagram
for

applys
is

cargo vessel
will

ordinary form

with
the
falls

lines.

very instructive.
triangular

locus
as

of

a vessel of
diminishes
as

section
to

straight

be noticed that line which


in

the
of

draught
vessels

characteristic

be

found

the

dia-

grams

fine

they

approach

very

light

draughts,

the

immersed
for

volume being then more or less triangular in form. cular section, as might be expected, is a horizontal
ciding

The

locus
line,

cir-

straight

coin-

with

the

centre

of

the

section

for

all

draughts.

The curve

for

the

Fig.

189.

vessel

of

box form resembles that


that
is

for

the

ordinary ship in

being convex to
as

the

base;

to

say,

the

position

of

M
02

at

first

falls,

the
is

vessel

lightens.

For a box-shaped
of

vessel,

M=
as

-,

so that, since

constant,

the of

value
the

M
of

continually

increases
is,

diminishes.

The convex shape


to

curve of metacentres
centre

therefore,

entirely

due

the

fact

that,

at
infull

first,

the

buoyancy
in

falls

more quickly than the value of


curves
of

BM
of

creases.

This

peculiarity

the

metacentres
if

of

vessels

form should be carefully noted, as we see that


of
gravity
to

the

position
rises

of the centre the

be

draught
although

another

assumed unchanged, somewhat less


or

while

vessel

from
will

load

the
of the

initial

stability

be

reduced,
will

the

" freeboard,"

height

deck

above

the

waterplane,

be increased.

TO FIND POSITION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY.

187

GRAVITY.

METHODS OF FINDING THE POSITION OF THE CENTRE OF A knowledge of the position of the transverse metacentre at

any draught, as provided by such diagrams as the above, is of itself of no value whatever in predicting a vessel's initial stability. For example, we may
have two similar vessels with identical curves of metacentres, and yet
load
at

the

draught

one

may have
already,

excessive
it

initial

stability,

and
the

the

other
of

be

unstable.

As
to,

stated
is

is

the

relation

between
In
the

positions
vessels

and

G which
the the

of

paramount
as to point.
;

importance.
stability

similar

just

referred

condition
latter

has
stable

been

entirely

influenced

by the
have

position

of

In

the

vessel

the

heavy items

been placed low down in the other, the opposite has been the case. This shows how much the behaviour of a vessel at sea depends on those

who have charge


Fortunately,

of her

stowage.

determined very easily by means of an experiand being thus known for a given condition, the effect of a new As disposition of cargo on the initial stability may be closely estimated. This is well as by experiment, G may be found directly by calculation. the method employed by the naval architect in the preliminary stages of a
ment,
ship's

G may be

design in arranging the positions

of
at

the

fixed

weights.

In warships,
displacements,

yachts,

and

other
for

vessels,

which

sail

practically

constant

the

estimate

the

centre

any defect in the


corrected.
seen,
is

stability

of gravity must be very carefully made, since on completion cannot, without great expense, be
vessels

In

freight-carrying

the
of

stowage
6,

of
its

cargo,

as

we

have

greatly influences

the

final

position

and
its

"light-ship"

position

therefore

not of the same


in
G.
this It

importance.
elaborate
in
all

We
method
ing,

cannot,
of
fact,

work,
is,

details

the

calculation
consistship's

finding

however,

perfectly

simple

in

principle,

in

of a huge

moment
is

calculation, in

which every item of a


its

weight,

including

her

cargo,

multiplied

by

distance

from

two

datum

lines at right angles in the

middle-line plane, the centre of gravity being fixed

by the values obtained when the sum of each of these systems of moments is divided by the total weight of the vessel. The datum lines are taken in the
middle-line
plane,
as

obviously,
lie

since

both sides
in

of

the

ship

are

alike,

the

centre

of gravity

must
to

in

that
briefly

plane.
consists

The experimental method, which


heeling the
effect

we now proceed
a weight
centre across
of gravity, of

explain,

vessel

by moving
ship's

the

deck,

observing

the

consequent

upon the

the

position

M
is

and thence deducing the value of GM. From this, since is known, the height of G may then be determined.
it

In carrying out an experiment


that

is

important to see, in the


/.<?.,

first

place,

the

vessel

floating

quite

freely,

not

aground

at

any

point,

or

by neighbouring vessels, or too tightly moored to the quay. Indeed, it would be better if moorings could be unloosed altogether. The condition of the vessel should next be noted. If she be "light," the holds, ballast tanks, and bunkers, should be empty. If some coal still
remain in the bunkers,
it

unduly

hampered

should

be

trimmed

level

so

that

its

weight

and

IO
position

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of centre
of gravity

AND CALCULATIONS. The


weights and
positions
vessel,

may be
require

determined.
to

of

all

items which

may

still

go on board to complete the

such as deck machinery, small boats,


is

etc.,

must also be noted.

correction

made
in

afterwards to allow for

the

effect

on the

final

position of centre of
If

gravity

by the removal or addition of


loaded trim, the ballast tanks

these

weights.

the

vessel

should

be
be

will

probably be empty, but they should

carefully

sounded,
or

and
is

any
got

loose

water

pumped
to

out.

ballast

tanks

holds

particularly

detrimental

such

Loose water in an experiment.


fair

The apparatus may now be a plumb line and bob, and


weight should
inclination

ready.

This consists of the heeling weight,


edge.

a straight

For a vessel of
so
as
to

size,

the

not be less than about ten


the

tons,

ensure

definite

when
been

weight

is

moved
with

across
lighter

the

deck.

Successful

experi-

ments

have

carried

out

heeling

weight,

when

the

dis-

Fig.

190.

tance

moved has been

considerable,

as,

of course, the heeling

consists of the product of the weight into the distance

moment, which moved, may be made


vessel.

up of a heavy weight into a short distance, or vice versa. The plumb line is usually hung in the middle-line plane of the

convenient

place,

when

the

holds

are

empty,

is

at

a hatchway,

the

line

being suspended at the upper-deck coaming, and the weight

marked on a straight edge arranged for With a loaded vessel this will, of course, not be possible, but a mast-stay, if screwed up tightly, will do quite well to suspend the bob weight from, and a straight edge on which to record the movements of the latter could be fitted in a suitable position near the deck. The method of conductceiling.

movements of the bob the purpose on top of the

ing the

actual experiment

may now be
on
each

described.
side

In the

first

place, half
at

the

heeling

weight

is

arranged

of

the

upper

deck,
is

place

allowing an unobstructed passage across the ship.

The

vessel

in the upright

TO FIND POSITION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY.


position,
is

89

carefully

and the point marked (fig. The weight on one


as

where

the

plumb bob

crosses

the

straight

edge

190).

the

ship,

side is then moved through a distance a feet across shown, causing the plumb line to move out of the centre and

take

up a position R K.
other
in

Now, moving

the

heeling

weight

from

one

side

of the ship to the


to

causes the centre

of gravity of the whole

structure

move

the

same

direction
is

through a distance given by the equation


heeling

G G\=
moved
clearly

777-,
in

where

the

weight

in
in

tons,

a the distance

it

is

feet,

and

W
the

the

total

displacement
vessel
line
;

tons.

The

point

G\

is

the
is

centre

of gravity

of the

in

the inclined
of
the
the

condition.
resultant

Since

there
force

equilibrium,
in

upward

of

action

buoyant
of this

must be
line

the the the

vertical

GJH

and
it

M
is,

being

intersection

vertical

with

middle

line,

by
l

definition,

the

metacentre.
therefore,

From

inspection,

triangles

N R K and G M G

are

similar,

and

GM
The
inclination

JV_R
distance
get

GG,~N K*
being very small,
line.

the

NR

may be taken

as

the

length

of the

plumb

We
length

therefore

GM =
This
is

of^umbline
(uncorrected),

x0fly
all

the

metacentric
the

height

and
of

that

remains
the

to

be
line,

done
is

to

obtain

position

of the

centre

of gravity
the

above

base

to

deduct

this

distance
at
this

from
draft,

the
as

height

transverse

metacentre
of

above the same


centres.

line

measured from the


to

diagram

metaof

Corrections
weights,

are
for

afterwards

made

allow

for

the

removal

the
if

inclining

and

the

addition

and deduction of other

weights,

such be necessary to bring the vessel into the desired condition. It is the custom with certain shipbuilders to heel their vessels
position of the centre of gravity

for

the

when

in the

first

two of the four conditions


" light "

previously

mentioned,
the

viz.,

the

" launching "

and
is

conditions.

With
with. to

other

shipbuilders

"light-ship"
for

condition
light

the
is

only

one

dealt

The
the

information
shipmaster, to
centre
or

obtained

the

condition
for

frequently

supplied

be used as a basis

making estimates of the position

of the
in

of gravity

when

in

ballast,

when
a
put

fully
strict

loaded.

any actual service condition, such as when In these estimates it is, of course,
of the

necessary

to

have

account

weights

of

the

various

items

of

on board, with the positions of their centres above the base, or any other datum line, and to combine the whole in a moment For ballast conditions, particularly where the ballast consists calculation. of water in fixed compartments, and for loaded conditions with homofor loaded conditions with geneous cargoes, this method is quite 'reliable
cargo
or
ballast
;

miscellaneous
feared
that

cargoes,

however,
required

it

is

not

so

satisfactory,

as

it

is

to

be
of

the

care

to

ascertain

the

weight

and

the

centre

190

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
would not always be exercised
centre

gravity of every individual item of the cargo,

and without such

care,

the calculated position of the ship's

of gravity of
his

might be very wide of


vessel

the

mark.
stability,

To make
when
a
special

sure

of

the

condition

with

regard

to

initial

fully

loaded with a mixed cargo,


experiment,

shipmaster

can

always

resort

to

heeling

which

we

have seen to be simple in character and absolutely

reliable.

As a

practical

example of such an experiment,


two vessels
(see

let

us

take

the
at

case
the

of the

smaller of the

page
feet

182),

whose nietacentre

load

draught we

have

found to be 675
of a

above the centre of buoyancy, as recorded particulars


fully

heeling

experiment carried out on her when


vessel,

loaded are

available.

At the time of the experiment the


a

including the
line

heeling weights, had

displacement of 4535
feet,

tons.

was 23
five

inches

long.
lot

The plumb The inclining


on each
side

was hung from


in

stay

and
of

weights, arranged

two

lots

tons,

were placed one


line,

of the

deck, at

equal

distances

from the* centre


deflection

the distance between their centres being 33

feet.

The
of
the

NK

of
the

the

plumb

line

caused
to

by moving

one

portion

weight across

deck from port


transferred

starboard, was

found to be 6\ inches.
in
its

As a check, the weight


position,

across

the the

deck was replaced

old
of

and
have

an

observation
to

taken

of
line,

plumb

line.

It

should,

course,

returned

the

middle

but

scarcely

did

so.

The
port,

other

portion
the the

of the

inclining weight

was next shifted

from starboard to
;

and
In

resulting

deflection

of

the

plumb
the

line

noted

it

was
taken,

5!

inches.

calculation,

the

mean

of

observations

was

viz.,

inches.

Now
1

4535

"*

and, therefore,

GM
positions

23*5

x '0363

=171

feet.

Assuming the
to

of

the
:

nietacentre

and the centre

of

buoyancy

be given, we

have the following

base line

Height of nietacentre above centre of buoyancy

Height of centre

of buoyancy above

Height of nietacentre above base

line

Distance of centre of gravity below nietacentre

Height of centre of gravity above base

line

= 675 = 875 = 15-5 = 171 1379


this

feet. feet. feet. feet. feet.

The
correction

inclining weights were

removed from the


was
lower

ship,

and

was the only


centre of

necessary.
effect

These weights being situated above the


their

ship's

gravity, the

of

removal

to

the

latter

point.

Calling
inclin-

the displacement ing

of the vessel the

including
height
of

the

inclining weights

W, the

weights
/;,

W,

uncorrected
of

of

the
of

centre the

of

gravity

above

the

base

the

height

the

centre

gravity

inclining

weights

above

CALCULATION OF GM,
the

191
(the weights being
in
tons,

base /;

and heights

in

and taking moments about the base feet), we have

Corrected height of centre)


of gravity

above base

Wxh-Wx W-w
H*2 = 4535
x
1

/
'

319 2-iZ

21 x 10
2

= 1377

feet.

There was a
the

slight fall

in

the position of the centre of buoyancy

due

to

reduction in draught, but also a slight increase in the value of

M, the

height of
height

above the base remaining as before.

The

corrected metacentric

thus

became
the

15*5

1377 = 173
already

feet.

To
raising
vessel

estimate
or

change in the position of the centre of gravity due to

lowering weights
is

on board,

or

removing

them from the


:

altogether,

now

a very simple matter.

Let us take a specific case

Assuming 250 tons of cargo are to be discharged from the bridge 'tween decks of the above vessel, at a certain port, find to what extent the centre of gravity and metacentric height will be affected. Taking moments about the
base
line,

we have
above base

New
To
get
is

height of centre of gravity^


line

)~

4525 x 1377
45
25

250 x 26*5
2

altered

plane.

G M, we must allow for the fact that the position of by the change in displacement and in the form of the waterAssuming no change of trim to take place
the

corrected

Change

in draught

Weight of cargo removed Tons per inch of immersion

=
The new draught
metacentres
line
is
is,

-5-

1
1

'36 inches, or "95 feet.

therefore,

1875 -0*95 =

17*8

feet.

From

the

curve

of

the
feet,

corresponding height of transverse metacentre above the base

15*8

and thus we have GM = 15-8 - 13-02

= 278

feet.

As a
i.e.,

further example, take the case of the large

cargo steamer previously

dealt with (see page 182).

This vessel's weight, when in the "light" condition,


is

ready for

sea,

but with no coal or cargo aboard,


feet,

of gravity being 20

inches

above the top of


to

keel.

5134 tons, the centre Assuming the dislet

placement scale and diagram of metacentres

be available,

us

find

the
as

GM

when laden with 10,680

tons
in in

of

cargo

and bunker coal


3320
tons
in

distributed
shelter

follows:

6420

tons tons

of

cargo

lower
bunkers.

holds,

'tween

decks, and 940

of coal

Tabulating our data, we have


tons. tons.

Light weight of ship

Deadweight
Total displacement

= 5134 = 10680 15814

tons.

192

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
find

Turning
this

to

the

displacement scale we

the draught

corresponding to

displacement to be 27 feet 6 J inches to bottom of keel. The transverse metacentre above the base line at this draught (from diagram) is 23-5 feet.

To moment

obtain

the

position
as

of
:

the

centre

of

gravity,

we

must

make

calculation,

follows

APPROXIMATE CALCULATION OF INITIAL STABILITY.


the

193
feet;

height of metacentre above base under the assumed conditions

at

this

draught

is

23-25

so

that

GM
The burning
to

23*25 - 22*56

'69

feet.

out of the

coal

would thus reduce the

initial

stability.

As there would be draught to spare, it might be considered desirable run up some water ballast in order to bring G M to about its previous
Let
of
to
sufficient

value.

water
inches.

be
the

supposed
base,

admitted
the

to

lower
of

the

vessel's

centre
ballast

gravity

3
feet

Then,

assuming

centre

gravity

of

the
line,

and taking moments about we have, representing the weight of the ballast by B
be
2

above

that

(14874
from which
, . ,

B) 22'3i '

= 14874

x 22*56

n B =
ballast

14874 x 22-56- 14874 x 22-31 3


20*31
the

=183 J
-

tons.

The added
the

would increase

draught

'04

3J

inches,

and from
therefore-

diagram we find that the metacentre would

rise

half-an-incb,
-98
feet.

New

value

of

GM =

"69

'25

4-

INITIAL STABILITY
centric
height,

APPROXIMATE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE EFFECT IN THE DUE TO ADDING OR REMOVING WEIGHTS OF MODERATE AMOUNT. In order to make estimates of a vessel's metaor
initial

stability,

like

the

foregoing,

considerable

data

must on
of
its

be available.
tion.

In many instances a
rule*

shipmaster

may

not
still

have
find

this

informaeffect

By an approximate
initial

he

may,

however,

the

the

stability

of

raising

or

lowering,

adding or removing,
the the

a
its

moderate
centre

weight,
gravity

provided

he

knows
the

its

amount
If
to

and
be

distance

of

from
in

the
feet

load-waterplane.

weight
rule,

in

tons,

and h
at

distance

from

load-waterplane,

by
to

this

the

stability

an

inclination
tons,

of

degrees will

be from

affected

the

extent
at
it,

x h x Sin 6 foot

the

correction
or

being

decrease

the

waterplane,

removed
the

if w is added some point below

some point above and an increase if


of

the

conditions
tons

be

opposite

of

these.
stability

Thus,
of
the increase

the

effect

running
to

in

183
will,

of
this

ballast

on the

initial

vessel
it

referred

above,

by

approximate
2)
x

method,

be

to

by the amount

(26-04 -

^3 x Sin 6 foot tons

= 4399
x

Sin Q foot tons.

By
is

the the

exact

method,
that

viz.,

Righting
the

Moment =W
after

GM

x Sin

0,

the

increase
that

difference
before,

between
is

stability

adding

the

ballast

and

existing

(15057 x -98 - 14874 x


so
that

'69) Sin

foot tons

= 4492

Sin Q foot tons,

the

approximation

is

a good

one.

* See a paper by Sir Naval Architects.

Wm. Whyte

in

volume XIX. of the Transactions of the

Institution of

194

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
to

As a
board
the
at
at
initial

further

example, suppose

200 tons of deck cargo

be taken on
be to reduce

feet

above

the

load-waterline.

The

effect

will

which foot tons, by the amount (200 x n) Sin If the cargo were re2200 x '1736 = 381-9 foot tons. moved instead, the initial stability would be increased by the same amount. This method only gives reliable results when the addition or removal of
stability
is

10

degrees

the

weights

causes

no appreciable change
question
of

in

the

form of the

load-line.

SAFE MINIMUM 6 A/. The


been
the subject

of a

minimum
of

value of

has

much debate and


been
at

difference

opinion. the
fact

Those who
that

have favoured a large value have


stiffness

confronted
sea,

with

great

conduces
subject
vessel,

to

bad

behaviour

as

will

appear when we come


indicates

to

the

of rolling.

On

the

other

hand, a very small value


necessarily
so,

crank

and

may mean, although not

an

altogether

unsafe
is

to

one. The only secure manner of dealing with vessels in this respect compare them with others whose performances at sea are known, and

to

adopt values of metacentric heights thus

suggested.

In designing the various classes of warships, the value of the metacentric


height

must be
from

carefully

considered

from

the

point

of
is

view

of

what
vessel, If

ma}
the

be expected
'since

each

vessel

on active
after

service.

This

specially necessary,

G M cannot be
consideration
is

readily altered

the

completion of
platform,

the

weights being then fixed and the displacement more or less constant.
only
as
to

the

obtain

steady
at

gun
is

should be small,
If,

minimum
of
to

of

rolling

motion
such

sea

thereby assured.
to

however,
of
the

other
inertia

considerations
the
their

intervene,

as
in

liability

lose

portion

load-waterplane
design,

when
initial

action,

to

which

some war

vessels,

owing
ficed

are

subject,

the

steady
of

and
It
is

sufficiently

large

value

gun platform must be sacriG M provided to meet all

eventualities.

warships,
to

but

beyond our province to fully discuss the subject as affecting coming to the case of trading merchant vessels, there seems
of of

be

consensus
in

opinion

in

favour

of

limiting
to
to

the
foot

minimum
when
of
filled

value

of

GM

steamers

about

medium

size

one
the

with

homogeneous cargo, which just brings them are on record of vessels which have given a with smaller metacentric heights, when loaded
instance,

load-waterline.

Cases

good
as

account
vessel
is

themselves

above.

In one oft-quoted

the

GM

was as

low

as

'6

feet,

yet

the

proved
to

herself

in

every way a good sea-boat.

The
this

natural feeling, however,


is

have a margin
given above.
is

on the side of
For
order

safety,

and

considered
has
the

to

be provided in ocean-going
value value
of

steamers when the metacentric


sailing-ships,

height

minimum
under

of course; a

much
a

higher

requisite,

in

that

they
give

may
3
will

not
3^-

be

unduly heeled when


as

canvas.

The
a

best

authorities

to

feet

minimum
ballast

value,

and

where

homo-

geneous cargo

not admit

of

this,

should

be carried.

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER

VII.

195
VII.
changes
in

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.

vessel
as

is

floating

at

rest of

in

still
is

water;
raised.

discuss

the

the

character

of

the

equilibrium
2.

the centre
transverse

gravity

Define

the

metacentre
centre
feet

write

down

the

formula
state
its

for

the

height

of
in

the

transverse

metacentre

above the
38

of

buoyancy,

and

numerical value

the

case

of a

rectangular vessel

broad, floating on

even keel

at

a draught of 20 feet.

Ans.
3.

'Oi

feet.

What

is metacentric stability?

vessel of
foot

height of 18 inches;

calculate

the stability in

4000 tons displacement has a metacentric tons at an inclination of 10 degrees. 1041*6 foot tons. Ans.

4.

The

equidistant ordinates of a vessel's load-waterplane, measured on one side of the

middle-line at intervals of 16 feet, are

*2,

6-8,

9-6,

ico, I0'2

io*o,
feet,

9*9,

%%,

and

8 feet,

and
tons.

half ordinates

introduced

at

the

ends

are

'8,

and

7 '3

respectively.

Find

the

height of the transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy, the displacement being 530

Ans.
5.

'46

feet.

prism of circular section


is

floats

in

still

water with
all

its

axis horizontal.

Show

that

the metacentre
6.

at

the centre
of

of the

section

for

draughts.

and triangular section, respectively, float on even keel same breadth at the waterline. Show that the height If of metacentre above the centre of buoyancy in the first case is half that in the second. the breadth be 35 feet and the draught iS feet, what are the values in the two cases?
prisms
rectangular
at the

Two

same draught; they

are also the

Ans.
7.

5-67

feet;

11*34

feet -

A
to
feet

raft

is

supported

by,

and

rigidly

attached

to,

two

rectangular

pontoons
is

placed

wide and floats half immersed when the raft is laden. Calculate the metacentric height, assuming the centre of gravity of raft and lading to be 3 feet above the
parallel

each other and 6 feet apart from centre to centre.


deep,

Each pontoon

feet

and 2

waterline.
8.

Ans,

6*83

feet.

Explain an approximate

method of calculating the height of transverse metacentre


in

above the centre of buoyancy, and work out the numerical value cargo steamer of 48 feet beam and 25 feet draught.
9.

the case of & full-formed

Ans.
its

7*36
it

feet.

How

is

a.

metacentric diagram constructed,

and what are


in
still

uses

Construct such
to

a diagram for a homogeneous rectangular prism afloat


feet

water,

assuming

be 30

broad and 20
10.

feet

deep.
of ^ vessel
the
is

The displacement
moved 8
feet

400 tons
find

the transverse metacentre


feet

the centre of buoyancy, and


12

centre
the

of gravity 3
the

is 5f feet above above the centre of buoyancy. If

tons be

across

deck,

inclination

of the

vessel.

Ans.

degrees.

n.

Explain

how you would

find

the position of the centre of gravity of a


(1).

ship

(2).

By By

calculation.

experiment.

12.

The

centre

of gravity

of a certain
the

cargo vessel of 4500 tons displacement


viz.,

is

found
at

to

be

16 feet above
at
viz.,

the base;
feet,

following weights are then added,

600 tons

10

feet,

are

400 tons removed,


the

15

and 500 tons at 11 feet above the base; the following weights 600 tons from 2 feet, and 100 tons from 14 feet above the base.
Ans.

Calculate

new

height of centre of gravity.

16'39

feet

above the base.

19^
13.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
in
initial

How

would you estimate the change


a

stability of a

vessel

due

to

raising

or

lowering,

adding or removing,

weight of moderate amount?


(1). (2).

Accurately.

Approximately.

14.

Estimate approximately the change in stability at an inclination of 10 degrees, due


150 tons
feet

to

running in
from

of ballast

at

feet

above

the
to

base,

and discharging 100 tons


with being 22
foot
feet.

of

cargo

30

above the base; the load draught


Ans.

begin

Stability

increased

660

tons approximately.

CHAPTER
Trim.
the

VIII.

IN through
of trim.

previous
small

chapter
angles

we examined
in

the condition of
direction
;

vessels

transverse

in

the
is,

present
with

when heeled one we


the
subject

propose to

deal

with

longitudinal

inclinations

that
W

The
in

vessel in

fig.

191

is

supposed to be heeled to a very small angle


tons from forward to aft
respectively, the
lines of

a fore-and-aft direction, by transferring a weight


feet.

through a distance a

W^

and

WL

represent,

flotation

stern

before and and decreased


is

after

the transference.
stem, as shown.

at

the

The draught is increased at the The sum of the distances L


Z. : ,

and

W Wv
books
In
fig.

called

the
of

change

of

trim,

and
the

the

finding

of

this

for

any
enin

proposed

condition
explain
\

lading

constitutes

trim

problem.
that

We

shall

deavour to
text

two

methods
so
well

of

solution

one
It

ordinarily

given

the
191,

other not
the

known.

point

of intersection
the

of the

new and
most
cases,

the

old

water-

lines

is

at

about the middle of


of

length.
Y

actually

coincides
is

with
little

the
aft

centre of gravity of the

waterplane
length
;

W L^
197

which, in
it

a
to

of the

middle

the

however,

is

sufficiently

correct

assume

I9S

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND

CALCULATIONS*.
the

SLj and S
ferring
to

to

be

equal,

and

this

simplifies

work

somewhat.

Re-

the

figure,

obviously

Change of trim =

WW
the

L L

= (W.S + S = length of

tan Q.
(i).

load line x tan Q


centre

Now
the
vessel

the
to

movement of
be

weight a

causes

the
x

of

gravity

of

drawn

aft

through

distance

GG

given

by the

equation of the

GG

=
r,

(W

being the displacement in

tons),

and the
is

resultants

vertical

forces

of weight

and buoyancy, when the ship

once more in equifig.

librium,

act

through the point

Gv

This

is

indicated in

191, as also

the

previous line of vertical forces


the
shifting

through G, corresponding to the condition before

of

IV.

Their point of intersection


distance

is

called

the

longitudinal
height,
shall

metacentre,
latter

and the
of

Gm
the

the

longitudinal
in

metacentric
as
Q,

the see

being

considerable

importance

trim
is

problems,
clearly

we
the

presently.

The

angle

between

two

lines

inclination

between the water

lines,

and therefore

GG = Gm
X

tan

0,

or

Gm

tan

= = =

^w

so that

tan

W x Gm
Change of trim
Length of load-line
Q,

From

(1)

tan Q
/.,

Calling the length of load-line ing

and equating these two values of tan

we

obtain

the

relation

Change
I

of trim

-.

WxGm
of trim

{2h

which
weights

is

the

ordinary formula for change

due

to

any given

shift

of

already

on
200

board.
formula.

One
Take a

or two simple examples will illustrate the application of this


feet

vessel

long of 2000 tons displacement, in which the quantity


find

Gm
aft

is

190

feet,

and
feet.

the

effect

on the
a
little,

flotation

due

to

shifting

50 tons

through

80

Transposing

and

introducing

the

quantities

given,

we have
Change b
of trim

50 x So x 200

2000 x 190
therefore

^'1

feet,
'

say 2^ inches. J D 12 Jinches,

The

draught

forward
aft

will

be

reduced,

approximately,

and the draught


Again,
ing 9
if
it

increased

by the same amount.


the
propeller
in
tips

were found
the
to

that

in

this

vessel were show-

inches above

water

when

the

original
feet
aft,

condition,

the
to

minimum
immerse

weight
the

required

be

shifted,

say,

120

so

as

just

screw,

would be

W =

i'ij

x 2000 x 190 200 x 120

23*715 ' J

tons.

TRIM.

199

In dealing with

questions

like

the

foregoing,

and indeed,
the

in

working out
the

any trim problem,


to

it

frequently saves

time to find at
it

outset

moment
in

alter
1

trim

one

inch.
foot,

To do
since

this

is

only
in

necessary to
feet)

substitute

(2)

inch

(or

T\

the units the

are

for

"change of

trim,"

and

after

transposing,

Avrite

down

equation giving the

moment
c
L

required.

Thus,

Moment

to alter trim

i-i
1

inch

x a

= r

L x 12

Gm ~

foot tons.

In the preceding example

W
and using
for

x a

2000 x 190 200 x 12


the

158"? foot

tons,

'

this

figure

we

get

same
aft

results

as

before
feet

the
-,

effect

of shifting

50

tons

through

80
:

more simply. we have


50 r = -

Thus,

Change b
In
the
the

of trim in inches

....
is

Trimming moment
tt

Moment
as


change
of

x 80
s

~rf to alter trim

inch

158*3
to

2*:.

second
tips

question,

the
there

trim
total

necessary

submerge

propeller

18

inches,

must be a

trimming moment of
the weight,

18 x 158*3

2849*4 foot tons, and as we


aft,

know

that

/,

may be

moved 120

feet

obviously

W =
The moment
in
it

2849*4
1

20

= 2V7S
is

tons

to
it

alter

trim

one

inch

thus seen

to

be very
values

useful,

and

order to have
is

ready to hand for

all

possible conditions as to draught,

frequently
in
{see

found

convenient

to

plot
it

curve
to

of

its

with

varia-

tion

draught.
fig.

In the calculations
as,

is

usual

employ B

instead

of

Gm
and
the

191)

of course, the exact position of the centre of gravity at


is

the various

draughts

unknown, and B m,

readily found.
for

The

difference between

practical

purposes the trim

as we shall see presently, may be G m and B m, however, is usually small, moments thus found are sufficiently acis

curate.

The

plotting of the diagram


for

a simple matter, and


for

as

an exercise,
data.
call-

reader

should draw one

any case

which he may have the


only term
in

LONGITUDINAL METACENTRE. The


ing
for

equation
the

(2)

special

explanation

is

17),

already

described
metacentre.

as

longitudinal

metacentric

height

m
the

being

the

longitudinal

The
179
will

point

is

obviously analogous to
familiar.

the transverse metacentre, with which


of

we are already
also

In
if

fact,

definition

given

on
be

page

apply
points

to

m,

for

transverse

the

word longitudinal

substituted.
;

The

M and m have similar functions in respect to stability but vessels have enormous righting power in a longitudinal direction^ and detailed calculations
of longitudinal
is

stability

are

therefore
in

unnecessary.
with

The

principal

use

of

found,

as

illustrated

above,

dealing
1 .

questions
in

of trim.

CALCULATION OF B m

(fig

191). As

the case of the transverse

200
metacentre,
the

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
height
of the

AND CALCULATIONS.
metacentre
is is

longitudinal

first
:

found

above

the centre of buoyancy.

The same formula

used,

viz.

Bm =
but here

-n-i

is

the

moment
its

of

inertia

of

the

waterplane with
shall

respect

to

transverse axis

through
the

centre of gravity. of

We

see presently, that for

ordinary

vessels
;

calculation

is

rather

more laborious
form, this
length
is,
/,

than
is,

in

the

previous case

for

box-shaped or other vessels of simple


for

however,
6,

not

so.

Take,
d.

example,
192
at

box-shaped
the
to

vessel

of

breadth
course,

and

draught

Fig.

shows

waterplane,

which
line,
is

of

rectangle; xx, drawn

right

angles

the

middle
12

the

axis

of the

moment

of inertia-

l about x x

= Pb

Fig.

192.

Since the volume of displacement

is

Ibd
3

_P_
i2d'
feet,

Bm
If
it

b
b

12

d~

be given that

150

feet,

and d = 15

then
If
in
this

Bm
vessel

-j2

ICO X
12 x

of

KO
15

7-

125 J

feet.

were

of

constant

circular

section,

with

its

longitudinal

axis

the waterplane, the

numerator

the

expression giving
less.

changed, but the volume of displacement would be


should

would be unIn such a case, we

Bm

have

Bm
Simplifying and
substituting

12

values

Bm

CALCULATION OF Bm.

201
nature
of
the
outline

Coming
of the
plexity into

to

ship

forms,

we

find

that

the

varying

waterplane and
the

of the

form of the underwater body introduces com-

calculation.

No
To

simple
find

formula

is

available
it

for

the

moment

of inertia of the waterplane.

this

quantity

is

usual to divide the


of

waterplane by ordinates in number suitable for


Rule, to calculate the

the

application

Simpson's

moment
calculate
to

of inertia of elementary strips of area at each


axis,

of these ordinates about of a


to

some chosen
the

to treat these

moments
This
the

as ordinates
area,

new

curve,

and

area

of

the

latter.

subject of

further

correction

be In
is

explained

presently,

gives
better

moment

inertia

required.

The

foregoing

may,
fig.

perhaps,

be

understood
a

by a
a load

simple

graphic

explanation.

193,
axis

ABO
in

represents

half of

waterplane of a vessel.
is

xX
is

the

about which the moment of inertia


the
vicinity

to

be calculated,

and

usually

taken

of

the

mid-length.

Fig,

193.

The

ordinates

interval

6 b 62 63 between them is
,

etc.,

are

numbered
the

from

aft,

and

the

common
a,

h.

Calling

breadth of each

little

strip

we

may write Moment of

inertia of elementary strip at b\

about x X

62 b3 b4

b5

strips

= = = =

x (4A) 2 a
62 x
(3//)*

63 x
64 x b5 x

0. = gb 2 h 2 a. (2hfa = 4b h a, {hfa = 6 4 A 3 a. 0. a = 0.
a
2 3

In the same way, moments of inertia of


of
the

of area

on the other
line

side

XX may
moments
2

be found.
of
inertia

At the points of division on the middle


of

AC, the
base in
0,

the

strips
a,

are

erected as

rectangles,

the

each case being

the

small
Fair

breadth

and the

ordinates,

the

quantities

963 h% 4& 3 /?

etc.

enclose areas as

drawn through the tops of these rectangles shown, which, added together, represent the moment of inertia
curves

of the plane about the chosen axis.

202

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
inertia
is

Now,
gravity

the

axis

of

the

moment
area.

of

must
so

contain
placed,

the

centre

of

of

the the

waterplane
case,

If

XX

not

which

generally

would
of the

be

correction

must

be
viz.,

made.

This

is

done by means

formula explained on page 63,


/,

= / + Ak2
of the

where

is

the

moment

of
its

inertia

plane

about
area
of

an

axis

through
axis

the centre

of gravity,

moment

of inertia

about any parallel


the

XX

h the distance between these axes, and Applying this formula to the above case,
tance k
t

A
it

the

waterplane.

is

necessary to
centre
this

find

the
of

dis-

which

is

obtained

if

the

position

of

the

ot

gravity

the

plane

is

known.
obtained

We
7h

have already seen how to find


the

latter

point,

and,

having
written

value

of

the

required

quantity

may

be

at

once

down.
the
transverse
for

As a numerical example, take


calculated

B M.
to

scarcely calls

explanation.

the 470 feet vessel for which we have The table below exhibits the full work, and It may be mentioned, however, that columns

and

are
its

introduced
centre of

determine the
the

area

of

the
axis

waterplane, and
at

the
5
in-

position
also

of
as

gravity from

assumed

ordinate
(fig.

No.
193)

that,

each ordinate of the


the
interval

moment
interval

of inertia

diagrams

volves
areas

the

square of
the

between the ordinates, the finding of the


in

introduces
as

cube of the

the

expression for the

moment

of inertia,

shown below.

No.

of

Ordinates.

CALCULATION OF

Bin,
3 4S40'S X (46 "Q^) X

203

M.I.

about

axis

through

No.
C.G.

ordinate

312890090.

M.I. about axis through

of

L.W.P. = 312890090- (22388 x (3'o6) 2 )

=
The displacement
so
that,

312680458.

of the

vessel

is

15814 tons;

Bm =

I
-77

^126804^8
Q 15814x35

565 3 *

feet-

culated for various


draught,
trim

For easy reference, values of B m, such as the above, are usually caldraughts and plotted in a diagram from which, given a
the corresponding

B ffi may be

read

off.
;

Of

course,

for

accurate

G m and not B m is required the distance between B and G should therefore be deducted from the calculated distance B m, G In the above case, for instance, the centre of being usually above B. gravity is 6 feet above the centre of buoyancy, and, consequently
calculations,

Gm

= 565 Fig.

559

feet.

194.

A
i=u_

r-

The
ing trim

foregoing principles
calculations
1.

will

be

more
cases

clearly
:

understood by the followcentre

for

a few actual

Example
the centre
of
;

Suppose
of
will

150 tons of cargo, having


the
load-waterplane,
is

its

80

feet before

gravity

above vessel

what

be discharged from the be the new draughts forward and aft, it being given
to

that the vessel to begin with

In questions such as
is

usual
its

to

assume, in
in

on even keel at 27 feet 6 inches? and in those involving additions of cargo, it the first place, that the removed or added weight
is

this,

has
layer

centre

the vertical
rises

plane,

containing the
or
sinks
into

centre

of gravity

of the
this

of

volume which
condition,
For, in

out
will

of

the
sink

water.

Under
a

assumed
distance.

vessel

obviously rise

or

through

parallel

fig.

194,

if

b be the centre of gravity of the layer through

which a vessel
of b
vessel,

from
then

by the removal of a weight w/, and a be the distance the vertical through fl, the original centre of buoyancy of the
rises

W
the
effect

x a

Moment
the

tending to depress bow,


layer

of

the removal of

of

displacement being to cause


:

the

and if, as assumed, the buoyancy of the vessel to move aft centre weight before removal had its centre in the vertical containing 6, another moment due to removing w will also be in operation, in this case tending
of

204
to

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the

AND CALCULATIONS.

These two moments are equal and neutralise each other, W1L1 without changing trim. rises to the waterplane floating at the waterplane L b and the On the other hand, if the vessel be weight w be added with its centre of gravity in the same vertical as 6, the
raise

bow.

and

thus

the

vessel

moment due
raise

to

the

increased
that
will

the
of

bow, while

due

to

buoyancy will be w x a, and will tend to the added weight, being of equal amount
;

but
will

opposite

sense,

tend to depress the bow


line

so that the final effect

be to sink the vessel to the


It

without change of trim.

should be noted
waterplane.
these

that,

where the weights to be added or removed are


in

moderate, 6
of

may be taken

as

the vertical containing the centre of gravity

the

Applying
of
the

principles

to

the
is

working

out

of

our

question,

it

is

assumed that the 150 tons of cargo


waterplane,
to
rise

immediately over the centre of gravity

the

effect

of

its

removal

therefore

being

to

cause

the

vessel

through a parallel

distance
=

,-

150 r t~Ions per inch of immersion

150
53-3

2f inches, nearly. 4 J
per

The

reader already knows

how

to

find

the

tons

inch at a given water-

plane.

We
the

next

take

account of the

fact

that

the

cargo

is

80
that

feet

forward of

assumed
has
feet

position.

A
80

little

consideration
before
effect

will

show
of

the

removal of
the
water-

150 tons from a


plane,
at

point

feet

the
as

centre

gravity

of

the

same
that

trimming
point.

the

addition

of

the

same weight
its

80

abaft

By removing
by stern
,

the weight

from

true

posi-

tion,

we

therefore

get
vessel

Moment trimming
Now,

150 x 80
x

12,000 foot tons.

Moment

to alter trim

W men =
.
-.

Gm

foot tons,

L x 12 i5 8l 4 x 559 470 x 12 so that,

=
.

1570 foot tons,

Trim by
draughts will

stern

12000 2000 =
i57o

7-f

inches, nearly.

The

final

be
27'

Forward,
Aft,

6"

27' 6"

- 2|" - 2f +
of

J"

=26'

n-|"
7

3 f"

27'

We
and
that

have

assumed the
is

stern.

This
fig.

(see

trim to be divided equally at stem Allowance should be made for the fact 191), the point in which the water-lines intersect, which coin-

change

not quite correct.

cides

with

the

centre of gravity of the

load-waterplane,

is

not usually at the

mid-length,

and the

change

of

trim,

forward

and

aft,

should

be

allotted

according to the

proportion

LL

WW

S
X

8W

TRIM EXAMPLES.
In small changes of
finement,
as
trim,

205
to

however,
is

it

is

not usual
;

proceed to
case,
it

this
is

re-

the

difference

inappreciable

in

the

present

less

than a quarter-of-an-inch.

Example 2. A
feet
aft

vessel

360

feet

long,

and 20
of

feet

forward,

has has
the

to

cross

48 feet broad, and drawing 26 a bar which will only admit of


tank
of

draught

25

feet.

She
to

fore-peak

160
will

tons trim

capacity.

Show by
sufficiently

calculation
to

whether

filling

of
the

this

tank

the

vessel

enable her
is

pass

over

bar.

The
of

centre
gravity

of gravity of
the
to

of

the

water ballast

166 feet forward of the


per
foot

centre
33,

loadalter

waterplane,
trim

the tons

inch
tons.

of immersion

is

and the moment

one inch,

700

From
the

the

information given,
ballast

we may

write

Sinkage, assuming
centre

immediately over^
j J

of gravity ffravitv
to

of load-waternlane load-waterplane
actual

77 = 33
700

160

4 84

'

'

^
^8

inches.

Trim by head due

position

oi\

166x160

ballast

}/
cross
at

inches.

Assuming waterplanes

to

mid-length
o''

New New
we thus
small
in

draught forward

draught
vessel

aft

=20' 26'

o"

+ +

5"
5"

+
-

1' 7''
1
7''

22'

o"

>

24/ 10";

see

the

may,
the
to

with

care,

be

safely

navigated across
of

the
trim

bar.

In the two previous cases, the weights causing the change

are
it

comparison with

total

displacements
the

had

they
layer

been
to

large,

would have been incorrect


vertical

assume b of
in

parallel

be
of

in
Its

the
true

containing the centre


is

of gravity of the
the
line

original

waterplane.
centres
in
fig.

position

obviously somewhere

joining
is

the

gravity
If the

of the
areas

two planes enclosing the layer;

do

this

line

194.

A,

Ah

of the

planes

WL

and W\L h be known, the position of b may

be determined from the relation

be
Very
in
little

A;
taken
as the

error

is

involved
is

if

be

mid-point

of

tfe,

and
large

most cases this Another point


of trim,
so

done.

to

be

borne
shape

in

mind
after

is,

that

in

dealing

with

changes

the plane
altered
in

of flotation,
as

movement
metacentric

of the weights,

may
the

have become

to

materially

affect

the

value

of

moment

of

inertia,
it

and,

therefore,
first
;

of

the

height.

In

actual

calculations,

is

customary to

approximate the trim by using the


for

Gm

given by the original waterplane

and,

final

result,

to

employ a mean

G m between
planes.

those

corresponding to the approximate and the original waterlet


2,
it

trim

in

Taking an actual case, the vessel of Example


tons
of

be required to find the draught and


discharging
ballast.

after

1000 tons
reduction

of
in

coal

and

cargo

and loading 300

water

The

displace-

206

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
to

ment

700
plane

tons,

and,

assuming the weights


b,

have

their

centres

in

the

vertical

containing

the

centre

of buoyancy

of the

layer

Thickness of parallel layer


b
is

700

=21

inches.
original
b.
:

found to be one foot forward of the centre of gravity of the

waterplane,

and the

leverages

of

the

weights

are

measured from

The

work of calculating the trimming moment may be tabulated as follows

MR. LONG'S METHOD.


points

207
in

of
the

advantage,

is

described

by
of

Mr.

Long

paper

read

recently

before

North-East Coast
system, use
is

Institution

of Engineers and

Shipbuilders.
lines

In
find

this

made

what are called trim


obtained as follows:
the
is

or

curves

to

the

trim corresponding to any

mean draught and


is

longitudinal position of

the centre of gravity.


is

A
fig.

trim line
195,
to

First,

a level line

drawn, as
line
is

WL

in

represent
a

mean draught
taken as
the

for

which the
of the

trim

required.

On
to

this

point
level

B
keel,

position

longitudinal centre of buoyancy at ing


its

and a datum
2

line

drawn show-

relation,

say,

amidships.
the vessel

The
also

horizontal

distance

from

of
is

the

centre

of buoyancy,

with

trimming
the

feet

by the

stern,

then

calculated

and marked
are
erected,

off at

B2

distance abaft
is

of the centre of
.

Z? 4 At B 2 and and the corresponding trims marked off, the same scale being used throughout. Through the points thus found and the point B a line is drawn this is the trim line required.

buoyancy, with the vessel trimming 4 feet

aft,

plotted as at

verticals

Fig.

195.

Obviously,
trim

we have here
feet,

all

the

up

to

due
of

to

the

movement

information necessary to determine any of weights on board ; for, if the

distance

the

centre

gravity

the
say,

weights

be

ascertained

travels aft on account of the movement of and plotted from B along the level line to G,

and a
trim

vertical

be raised to intercept the trim line at


as

GO

must be

the

by the

stern,

the

centre

of buoyancy and

centre

of gravity are

again in

the same vertical line. For forward trims the trim


the

line

should be continued below


of buoyancy in
that

its

level

line
It

to

indicate

movement

of the

centre

direction.

should be noted that the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy are here assumed to travel the same distance when a change of trim takes place.

This

is not quite true, as a glance at fig. 191 will show; B being below and therefore more remote from M, moves a greater distance. For quite

accurate

work,

therefore,

the

distance

plotted the

from
of

B towards
gravity

(fig.

19c)

should

be

the

calculated

travel

of

centre

plus

B G

tan

203
(see
fig.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
191).
It
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
to
this

not necessary to proceed


is

refinement in ordinary

cases,

as

the

error

thus involved

inappreciable.
is

One advantage
calculations are
gravity consequent

of the trim line system

the

absence of formulae.
of the
will

No
of

required except a

simple one for the travel

centre

on the movement of the weights.


able the
to

This
1

be

seen

by
the

an example.

It

will

be interesting to work out Example

(page 203) by this


trim
line

method
load

we

are

do

this,

as
to.

fig.

195

is

the

at

draught

of

vessel

referred

Employing

the

figures

given,

we

get

Fig.

196.

Travel

of centre

ot

gravity

"i

on removal of weight
Plotting
this line

/
F,

80x150 " 15814-150 =


erecting

distance
at
is

from

to

and

perpendicular
as

to

meet

the

trim

G,

required.

This

we obtain FG, or 7I the same result as before.


the

inches,

the

trim

by stern

example is small in comparison we know the ordinary metacentric Where the weights and moments are great, method is as accurate as any. however, only approximate results are obtainable by the ordinary method due to the fluctuating nature of the metacentric height. In this respect the
weight in
foregoing
cases

The trimming
the

with

displacement, and

for

such

BILGING.
trim line

209
practically accurate
for
all

method

excels

the other, as
large.

it

is

changes
only
is

of trim and draught,


It
is

however

perhaps scarcely
its

necessary

to

point

out

that

trim

line

is

reliable

at

considerable,

own draught, and that where the change of displacement Experience goes to show that a new curve is required.
the

in

ordinary

cases
in

tendency

of
this

trim

lines

is

to

become
be
light

less

steep
for

with
usethis

reduction
ful

draught.
as

For
of

reason

they

should

drawn

draughts,

those

the
in

load,

ballast,

and

conditions,

and

would probably be
of
trim,

sufficient

most
for

cases.

By
a
at

constructing
line

cross

curves

however,
limits

as

is

done
cross
full

stability,

trim

for

any

draught

within

the

of

the

curves
trim

can

once
for
1.

be
a

obtained.
vessel.

Such a
Fig.

diagram
represents
are

obviously
the

provides
of

information
of

196
lines
in

case

the

steamer
trim

Example
have

The
drawn.

horizontal

the

waterplanes for which


latter intersect their
2
feet,

lines

been

The

points

which the

corresponding level waterplanes, and where they

indicate trims of

feet,

and 8

head, are enclosed by small circles.

feet by the stern, and 2 feet by the Curves through these points give the cross

curves
feet,

required.
desired,

If,

now, a trim line at an intermediate draught, say of 26


is

be
at

it

only

necessary
feet,
etc.,

to

draw a
line

level

line

at

this

point,

and
ing the

heights

of

feet,

parallel

lines

to

cut

the

correspond-

cross

curves
line

at

A,

5,

and

0,

through

these

points

being

trim

required.

BILGING.

Given

a diagram

like

that just
is

described,

any trim question

drawn can be readily and quickly dealt with. Consider, for instance, the important trim problem of finding the floating condition of a vessel consequent on one or more of her compartments being bilged and in free communication with the sea. Such a case is depicted in fig. 197, in which a vessel is shown bilged in the after compartment of the
relating to the ship for

which the diagram

hold.

W\L\
at
rest
X

is
;

the

line

of

flotation

after

the accident,

with
is

the
to

ship

once

more

WL

the

original

waterline.

The problem

determine

the line

W LV
the

Now
weight,

change of trim
of

is

here

caused, not by an added


it

or

but by a loss of buoyancy, and


loss

is

usual

to

treat

the

deducted problem as
the the bilged

one

of

buoyancy.
easily

By an
dealt

exercise

of
if

imagination,
the

however,

question

may be more
be be
the

with

for,

hole

into

compartment
trim
in
will

assumed
affected,

closed

the
lost

vessel

being

once
will

more
have

at

rest

the
place

not

but
as

an

important

change
will

taken

her floating condition,


water
in

the

the

compartment
thus,
it

buoyancy become, for


necessary
of
this

have been restored and


purposes, the

practical

weight
the
of

carried.

Viewed
of

is

only

to

obtain
for

weight

and

position

the

centre

of

gravity

water
is

complete
in

solution

the

problem.
as

The
:

process
the

of calculation

tentative
in

be

follows

character and

may
the

First,

weight

of water

the

compartment

up

to

original waterplane

WL

should be found, and the parallel sinkage determined


to

assuming compartment open

the

sea and

the admitted water

placed with

2T0
its

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
centre

AND CALCULATIONS.

of gravity in

the vertical

plane containing the centre of gravity of

This distance, measured in the trim diaadded layer of displacement. gram above the height of the original waterplane, will give the point from
the

which the level' line and corresponding trim line should be drawn. can then be obtained, as already described, by finding the travel
centre

The
aft

trim

of the

of
is,

gravity,

assuming the weight to


a
of
the
first

be translated to
It

its

true

position.

This

of
the the

course,

approximation.
in

will

next

be
the

necessary

to
to

calculate
rise

weight
level

water

the

compartment, assuming the surface

to

of

new
If

draughts, the

and

to

use

it

in

same way
differ

in

another

trim

estimate.

second

approximation

should

much

Fig

197.

w--

from the

first, it may be necessary to proceed to a ence of the calculator must guide him here.

third.

But the
feet

experi-

As a
feet

numerical

example,

take

box-shaped

vessel,

210
aft;

long,

30

broad, and

20 feet

deep, drawing

10 feet forward and

and suppose

compartment at the extreme after-end, 10 feet long, to communication with the sea. It will be necessary first to draw out the trim diagram. This is a simple matter owing to the regular nature of the vessel's shape. We begin by obtaining the trim line at 10 feet
watertight

an empty

be in free

Fig.

198.

draught.
level
stern,

A B

D,

fig.

198,

shows

the
4

vessel

in

side
2

elevation,

WL
feet
salt

is

the

keel

water-line,

W^U

and

L4

those

when
to

feet

and 4
in

by the
water,

respectively.
is-

Now, assuming the


210 x 30 x 10

vessel

be

floating

her

displacement

^55
and in passing from the water-line

= 1800

tons.

WL

to water-line

L% the wedge of

dis-

BILGING.

211
2-

placement
length,

LSL 2

moves
i

to

the

position

WSW
,

As S L
is

is

half the vessel's

and L L 2

foot,

the

volume of the wedge


1

105 x

x 30
of

-.

1575 cubic
travels'

feet,

and

in

moving

aft,

its

centre
or,

gravity
2

horizontal

distance

g g
l

2l

210 x

140

feet.

The
B
to
Z?2>

corresponding

movement of

the

vessel's

centre of buoyancy

is

from

and from what we know of moments, obviously

BB

1575 x 140
2

3-5 feet.

1800 x 35

fig.

199.

The
stern,

horizontal travel of the centre of buoyancy, with the vessel 4 feet by the
is

clearly

just

double

this

amount, or

feet.

This

is

all

the infortrim lines

mation needed to construct the trim


Fig.

line at the initial draught.

The

corresponding to other displacements would be obtained in the same manner.

199

is

the

complete
7

diagram
6

for

this

vessel,

and

shows

cross

curves
in

with a range
position
to

from

feet

inches

to

15

feet

draught.

We

are

now

deal

with

our bilging question.


initial

Beginning with the


.
and,

condition,
1

we have
10 x 10 x
-jo

Weight of water

-,

in bilged

compartment =

85*71 tons,

2T2
Parallel

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
sinkage
1

AND CALCULATIONS.
^

assuming water

situated

amidships
the sea
also,

and compartment

open

to,I

JO

=
x 3

6 inches,

Horizontal travel*
gravity,

aft

of vessel's centre of
j

assuming the water

at

the inits

creased draught to
position

move

into
to

true

~~

90 x 100 1890

and the
fig.

ship's

bottom

be intact
at

Referring to
a level line at
line

199,

we can draw

once the trim


4*76

line
feet

corresponding to
along this level
2 feet

10 feet 6 inches, and by measuring

from the
trim

vertical

AB, and erecting a perpendicular, we get


stern.

10 J inches

as

the

by the

The draughts

of the

vessel

will

thus be
;

forward,
Aft,

100+0 15^=9
10' o"

6"

1'

si"

11'

"FThe

In the second approximation, we


weight
of water
in

start

with the vessel in this trim.


will

the

bilged

compartment
1
1

now be
101*66 tons.

"86 x

10 x ^o

35

The

Parallel sinkage

= ior66

x 2C x 12

= 64
the

,o., inches

nearly,

210 x 30

and taking the centre of gravity of the water of the compartment, Ave get as before
Travel of vessel's centre of gravity duel
,
. .

at

middle of

the

length

to admission 01 water

ioi"66 x 100

iroT'66

=
6|

S'^S feet
"

aft.

From
3 feet

the
2 J

trim
inches.

diagram we find the corresponding trim by the stern to be


equally

Dividing
parallel

this

forward

sinkage,

the

draughts

and become
o''

aft,

and

adding

inches

as

the

Forward,
Aft,

10' 10'

o"

+ +

6J 61

(1'

7^")

+
8'

(i'

7f")

= =

8'

n";
J".

12'

By a

third

approximation we obtain the draughts


Forward,
Aft,

n"
2f,
equilibrium whether the after compart-

12'

in

which condition the vessel


to

will

float in

ment be now open


obtained

the

sea

or

by the ordinary method,

i.e.,

tudinal metacentre, the

moment

to

Of course, the same result could be by calculating the height of the longialter trim, and the heeling moment due to
not.

The trimming

of the vessel causes die water in the compartment to change level,

and a

small quantity of the water to

move

aft

this affects the position of the ship's centre of gravity,

and therefore the

trim, but to

no appreciable extent, except

in the case of large

compartments.

APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS.
the
to

2*

admission
alter

of

the

water,

and

finally

dividing deal

the
the

latter

by

the
in

moment
this

trim.

We

do not propose
it

to

with
fully

problem

way,

as

the

principles

involved have

already

been
an

explained.

The

student,

however, should work

out himself as

exercise.

APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS. Although


know nothing
he
is
still

commanding

officer

may

regarding

his

able to

estimate,

beyond her dimensions and displacement, roughly, at least, the trimming effect due to the
vessel

addition,

removal, or

movement

of weights.

In the formula

Moment
if

to alter trim

inch

W
is

Gm
,

loot tons,

12 x L

we assume G

to

be equal
at

to

L,

which

roughly true

in

the

case

ot

ordinary cargo vessels

their

load

displacements, the

trimming moment per

inch

becomes
I

foot tons.
2

Applying

this

simple formula to
to
alter

the

example on page

198,

we

get

Moment
and

trim

inch

2000
-

-
12

166*6 foot tons,

Change
which compares with
25

of trim

So x 80
"

rr

24 inches,

inches
1,

obtained

by the exact method.

In the case of Example

page
1

203,

Moment
For the
the centre
effect

to

alter

trim

inch

15814 =
12

1318 foot
a
position

tons.

of

discharging
of the

150

tons

from

80

feet

before

of gravity

load

waterplane,

we thus have
.

Trim by

stern

150 x 80
q
~

9 inches, nearly.

The
not

ordinary
for

formula

gives

7J

inches

the

approximation
either way, in

is

thus

near

enough

practical

purposes, an

inch

or two

ordinary cases,
rapidly

being

of

great

importance.

As
is

the

value

of
for

Bm
of

rises

with

reduction in draught, the

formula
is

inapplicable
in

draughts other than the


vessels

load

draught.

Also,

it

unsuitable

the

case

abnormally shallow draught in relation to length, as


from being even approximately equal.

which are and L are then


the
foregoing,

of
far

An

approximate

formula,

giving

closer

results

than

has

By this rule, for the height of the longibeen devised by M. Normand.* tudinal metacentre above the centre of buoyancy in ordinary cargo steamers,
we have

Bm
*

-0735

A- x L ~
b

~xT

feet

'

See a paper

in the Transactions of the Institution of

Naval Architects

for

18S2.

214
where

Srilt>

CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.


in square
feet.

A
L

area of load waterplane

= length on the load waterline in feet. b = breadth of ship amidships in feet. V = volume of displacement in cubic feet. Assuming Bm = G m, A x L V ~n Moment to alter trim i inch = - x '0735
1
,

L x 12

=
This

-000175

A2
t- foot tons.

is Normand's formula. Now, if T be the tons per inch of immersion,

420

A = 420 T A 2 = 176400 P.
Substituting
this

value
to

of A 2
alter

the formula takes

the convenient
7~ 2

shape

Moment

trim

inch
1,
-

30 'o x
r
203,

foot tons.

Applying the Rule to Example

page
,

we

get

Moment
the

to

alter

trim

inch

= =

30*9 ^^ x

SV3 x ^^ SVS ^-f

1567 foot tons;

previous

value

being

1570 foot tons.


2

In the case of Example

Moment
Besides
of the

to

alter

trim

inch
the

= ^
exact
in

y
value.
trim-line
It

701 foot tons,

which compares with

700

tons,

foregoing,

we have

the

method a ready means


lines

making approximate estimates of


lines,

trim.

happens that the trim


different
It

in

ordinary cases are practically straight, and

make

certain definite angles with the


vessels

corresponding level
type,

also that
at

these

angles, in

of similar

are about the


that
in

same
as

corresponding draughts.

has been suggested,

therefore,

type vessels a note should

be made of the trim angles at

useful

draughts,

such
the

those

of

The
with

trim line in
sufficient

case

of any

ballast, and light conditions. new design could then be plotted at once

the

load,

accuracy for

preliminary calculations.

If

only one
is

trim
it

should

be required and the angle of the corresponding trim line

known,

can be

found quickly by means of the formula

Change of trim
where

in inches

x C x

12,

W =
d

weight shifted,
distance shifted,

= Q =

whole displacement,
tangent of the trim line angle.

APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS.

2t$

varies considerably with type of vessel.


lines

Ships of very light draught relatively

to their length, have flatter trim

than those of ordinary proportions, but

an average value at the load draught of cargo steamers 300 to 500 feet in length, and of the usual fullness, is "9163, corresponding to a trim line angle of 42 J. Assuming this trim line angle in the case of Example 1, page 203

Change of trim = to
which
other
is

_.

15814it

150 x 80 5 150

x 016-? x 12 J

=8 '4 t

inches,
i

a
;

cases

good approximation. an officer might try

The
on

student
his

should
ship.

apply

the

rule

in

own

TRIM INFORMATION FOR COMMANDING OFFICERS. An


use to which the trim
line

important
of inballast-

method may be
to

applied,

is

the

supplying

formation to masters
ing
operations.

and others who have

deal with

loading and

With a good-sized diagram, showing the trim curves of his a master should be able to decide in a few minutes any question of trim, provided the weights to be shipped and unshipped, and their movements, be known. We have already fully explained the procedure. If builders would supply such trim diagrams to new vessels, with instructions as to their use, we are confident they would come to be
vessel,

and a

scale,

highly

appreciated.

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.

VIII.
feet

Define the longitudinal


feet

metacentre.

A
of

prism of rectangular section 200


feet

long,

and 33
the

broad,

floats

at

a draught of 11

forward and

aft,

calculate

the

height of

longitudinal metacentre

above the centre

buoyancy.

Ans.

303

feet.

2.

The
line

equidistant
are

middle
at

ordinates
I0'6,

of

vessel's

waterplane
10*9,
9/6,

measured

on

one

side

of

the

"2,

7"2,

I2"0,

12*0,
feet,

I2'0,

and
the

feet,

and

half-oi'dinates

the

ends have values 3*8 and

77

respectively;

find

height

of the longitudinal

metacentre
feet,

above the centre of buoyancy, the volume of displacement


interval

being 20,000 cubic

and longitudinal

between the ordinates 15

feet.

Ans.
Obtain
the

102-26
feet

feet.

3.

expression

giving

the
a

change
distance

of

trim
feet.

consequent

on
300

moving a small
in

weight
floats

w
at

tons

longitudinally

through

A
is

vessel

length
feet,

a level

draught of 17 feet; she has a longitudinal metacentric height of 400


;

and a displacement of 4500 tons find the new draught forward and

a weight
aft.

of

50

tons
f

moved

aft

through
feet,

100
inches.

feet

Ans. -Draught

Forward,

16
J?

^ ^^
7

4.

Deduce the moment


per

to

change trim
of

one

inch

in

the

case

of

the

vessel

of

the

last

example.

Given that the tons


and
aft

inch

immersion
have

is

30,

calculate

the
in

new draught forward


the
positions

when

the

following weights

been placed

on

board

named.

216

SHI**

CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULaI'IONS.


Distance from Centre of Gravity of Waterplane.

Weights Tons).

20 45
15

lool

80 -before.

40)
50] 80
1

60 40
30 Ans.

J-

abaft.

10

Moment

to

change trim one inch,

500 foot tons. 3f inches.


lQi inches<

(Forward,

17 I7

feet, feetj

Draught

| Aftj

it

Suppose a weight of moderate amount to be put on board a vessel, where must 5. be placed so that the ship shall be bodily deeper in the water without change of trim? Describe, clearly, why it is that vessels in passing from salt water to fresh water
trim
slightly

usually change
6.

as

well as change

their

draught of water.
in

It

is

desired

that
in

the

draught

of

water

aft

steamship

shall

be

constant,

whether the coals are


centre of gravity of
fulfilled.
7.
8.

or

out of the ship.

Show how
in

the

the

coals

may be
Describe

found,

order

that

approximate position of the the desired condition may be

What

is

a trim line?
vessel,

how
long,

such a line

is

obtained, and explain

its

uses.
at

box-shaped
centre

260

feet

40
line

feet
for

broad,
this

and 25

feet

deep,

floats

an

even draught of 20
aft,

feet,

construct

the

trim

draught.

If

100 tons be shipped


aft,

with

its

100 feet from

amidships,

find

the

new draught forward and


f

using

the trim

line.

Forward,
_

19 2[

feet,

Ans. -Draught
9.

| Aft

^
feet
,

6f inches. ^ches.

Referring
at

to

the

vessel

of

the

previous
in

question
free

if

watertight

situated
will

the extreme

after-end

be bilged and
the
its

communication with
10

the

compartment sea, what


the
full

be

the

new

floating

condition,
half

bilged

compartment being
occupied by cargo?

long,

breadth of the vessel,

and with

space

Ans.
10. It
is

Draught
fa

(Forward,
\ I^Aft,
.

19 feet,
21
r feet,

2|
..

inches.
.

desired

that

a certain

vessel

shall

float

with

any two

7i inches. compartments in open

communication with the


11.

sea.

Describe in detail

the calculations involved.


feet

to cross a bar

steamer 330 feet long, 48 feet broad, drawing 24 feet aft, and 20 over which there is a depth of water of 23 feet, 6 inches.

forward, has
vessel has a
this

The

fore-peak

tank with a capacity of 100 tons.


the tank will

Given that the centre of gravity of


sufficiently to
is

tank

space

is

150 feet forward of the centre of gravity of the load-water plane, find, by an approximate
if

method,

filling

modify the draught


in tons to begin with
if
it

admit of the vessel cross-

ing the bar.


12.

The displacement
to

78CK).

Referring
is

the

previous question,

be given

that

the

longitudinal

metacentric

height

345

feet,

and the tons per inch of immersion

33, estimate correctly the effect

on the

draught of

filling

the fore-peak tank.

Ans.

Draught &

/'Forward,
-.

21

feet,
.

2 inches.
.

l^Aft,

23

feet,

4 inches.

CHAPTER

IX.

Stability of Ships at Large Angles of Inclination.

IN for
centre

Chapter VII.
a
vessel

we saw how when inclined

to

obtain

the

righting

or

upsetting

moment
upright

through
to

initial

angles

about

the

position.

We

learned that up

angles

of

10

or

n
Q.

degrees, the

meta-

may be

considered as fixed in position, and that inside these limits the

Heeling
Thus,
tained,

Moment *
vessels

x Sin.

taking

the

two

cargo

for

which the values

of

were

ob-

we have

Righting

moment

at

10 degrees (small vessel)

Do.

do.

(large vessel)

= 4525 = 1359 = 15814 2 333

x 1-73 x '1736
foot tons.

x "85 x '1736
f ot tons.

Fig.

200.

For

inclinations

much exceeding
type

10

to

12

degrees,

however,

except

in

the instance

of a

single

of vessel,

the

righting
to,

moment cannot be
is

obso

tained by this

method.
all

The exception
immersed
cross
line.

referred

where a vessel

is

designed that

the

sections

are

circular

segments with a

common
bodies of
point
the

centre
this for
all

in

the middle the


line

form

of

We have already shown that for floating upward pressure passes through the same
that,
if

transverse inclinations, so

there

is

no disturbance

in

weights, the distance


Fig.

GM
t

will

remain unchanged as the vessel heels from


in-

angle to angle.
clined
to

200 represents a vessel of constant circular section


if

some angle Q G M is the metacentric height, and displacement, we have, by applying the metacentric method
217

be the

!l8

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Righting

AND CALCULATIONS.

moment

in foot tons

= =

W x 6M W xGZ,
sine of
case,
it

x Sin.

GZ
to

being the arm

of the

righting

couple.
is

The

only variable in

this

expression
for
this
it,

the

the angle
is

therefore,

construct

stability
line,

curve
set

simple

only necessary to
the various angles

draw a horizontal
at
z 5j

off

on
the

to a

convenient
at

scale,

3> 45) etc., degrees, erect

perpendiculars
various

the points of division, on

these

perpendiculars

scale

off
fair

values

of righting

moment

as

ob-

tained above, and

draw a

curve

through the points so found.


20
feet in

As a
with
ing
the
its

specific in

case take a

cylindrical vessel,

diameter, floating

axis

the waterplane. the


to

We
of
feet

shall

deal only with


is

the levers or rightIf

arms,
centre

so

that

length

the

vessel

immaterial.

of gravity of

be
at

below the centre of the

figure,

using a table
for

sines,

once write
the
at

down

the value

of

the

we assume we may, righting arm

any

inclination.
to

Obviously,
value

righting

degrees

maximum

90 degrees,

arm increases from zero at o and thence gradually decreases

Fig.

201.

5
to

'

w3

t5

GIQPK.J OF INCLINATION

zero

again

at

1S0
lever

degrees
at

obviously,
Q,

too,
is

by
the

drawing

a
as

diagram,
at

the

righting

arm
Q.

or
is,

an

angle

say,

same
is
:

the

angle

180
to

It

therefore,

only necessary

to

calculate

values
close

from o degree

90 degrees; and at intervals of 15 degrees, which purpose of constructing a curve, these are as follows
Inclination, in Degrees.

enough

for

the

Sine of Angie.

Righting" Arms, in Feet.

258S
5

3 45 60
75

7071
S66
"9 6

59

90

STABILITY OF SUBMARINES.

219

by the displacement,
a

if

the

also represent the righting

scales be always altered to suit, this curve will moments of all vessels of all circular section having

metacentric height of

feet
cylindrical

SUBMARINE VESSELS. The


assumed
to
float

vessel

just

referred

to

is

with

part

of

its

bulk

above

the

surface

the

case

of

Fig.

202.

WATER SURFACE.

Fig.

203.

WATER SURFACE.

ordinary

vessels

but

even when totally submerged. A are examples in point.


easily
case.

when properly designed, a vessel may have The submarines, now so much in

stability

evidence,

obtained
Figs.

stability curve of a submerged vessel may be by a method analogous to that employed in the previous 202 and 203 show a submarine floating upright and heeled,

respectively.

B,

the

centre

of

buoyancy,

is

also
B,

the

centre

of

bulk
is

is

the
as

centre
in
fig.

of

gravity.

Here,

being

below

when

the vessel

heeled

203, the

tendency of the resultant forces of weight and buoyancy

220
is

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
restore

AND CALCULATIONS.
in
fig.

to

the

vessel

to

the

position

202.

If

G were above
heel
still

B,

and the
until

vessel

then

inclined,

the

tendency would

be

to

further

G became

vertically

below B

the
in

position

of stable

equilibrium.

Applying the formula

BM=-.j,
Thus,
as

since
this

/=

o,

BM

is

zero,

and

therefore,

B and M are much the same


case of the
sines

coincident.

special

case,

B
so

and
one,
that,

BG
for at

have

functions

M
at

and
the

GM
has

in

the

preceding
Sin
lever
at
;

any
the

angle 6 the righting or


cylinder

upsetting

moment = B G
surface,

as

in

floating

the

varies

directly

as

the

of

the

angles

of

inclination,
at

zero

values

degrees
if

and
is

180
feet,

degrees,
fig.

and a maximum value


the
stability

90

degrees.

Clearly,

BG
on
for

20 1,
also

curve

for

cylindrical

vessel

floating

the

surface

may

be

taken

to

represent

the

curve

of

righting

arms

the

sub-

merged

vessel.

Fig.

204.

Fig.

205.

A
vessels either

noteworthy
is

point

in

curves
the

of

righting

arms
from

of

totally

submerged
the
line

that

they
or

represent

stability

when

inclined

in
fact

any direction,
that

transverse

longitudinal,

which

follows

the
viz.,

of buoyancy must always pass through the same point,

the centre of bulk.

This is, of course, by no means the case in vessels floating at the surface, which have enormous righting power when inclined longitudinally. VESSELS OF NORMAL FORMS. The case of an ordinary vessel, it need hardly be said, admits of no such simple treatment as those just
dealt
Fig.

with,

owing

to

the

increased
section, G,

difficulty

of

obtaining

values

of

G Z.
at

204

shows, in

cross
is

an

ordinary
the

vessel

floating
is

upright

waterplane
equilibrium.

W L. M
Fig.

above

therefore

condition
to

one

of

stable

205

shows the same vessel heeled


the

a large
to
travel

inclination.

The movement
supposed
gravity
line

has

caused
resultant

centre

of

buoyancy B

out to
weights
centre

Bh
are
of

through which the


to
is

buoyant
position.

pressure
the

now
the

passes.

No
the
at

have

been unchanged

shifted in

during

heeling,

so

that

the

Unlike
the

case

of

cylinder,

the

of

upward force does

not

intersect

middle

line

the

metacenire,

VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES.

221
values.

GM
then,

in

fig.

204

and

GA

in

fig.

205

having

different

Obviously,

the

equation

Righting
is

Moment =
in

W x GM
obtain

x Sin Q
the
values
to

no longer applicable, and

order

to

of righting arms

or righting

moments
case,

at

large

inclinations

we must

resort

another method.

In

this

to
is

find the lever

GZ
to

between the
out,
it

verticals

through

G and
:

B when
Referring

the
to

vessel
fig.

inclined
as

to

any angle, we must proceed as follows


pointed
the
transference
the
is

205,

previously

of

the

wedge of displacement from


ancy to travel from B
line to

WSW
x
.

LSL

compels
these

centre

of buoyto

line

joining

points

parallel

the

joining $$<& the

centres

of gravity of the wedges,

and
^

^ Volume
1

of wedge x

g g2
1

Volume

of displacement*

Now, through B draw a horizontal line to cut the verticals through G and in N and/?; and from g and g.2 drop perpendiculars g h b g 2 h 2 on W\ L
1%
x Y
x

then

clearly,
"~

Volume Volume

of wedge x h x

/z 2

of displacement"

Also,

and
so that,

BR - BN = NR = GZ; BN = BG sin 0;
Volume GZ - ^r^ Volume
r.
-,

of wedge x h
,

,.

01

displacement
lever

n -f - BG
y

h.->

sin.

0;

this

as

and the equation is known expression which cannot be quite easily obtained, is U x h\h^ the horizontal moment due to the transverse movement of the wedge of displacement, and we now propose to show how this is calculated, and the stability lever or moment arrived at. VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES. A body plan of the ship
is

the

value

of the

stability

required,

Atwood's formula.

The

only portion

of this

is

prepared with

transverse

sections,
to

spaced as for a displacement calculation,


inclinations

and with

radial planes

drawn
the

represent the floating condition of the vessel


at all the

when
for

upright,

and when inclined


of

required to give data

the
full

construction

stability

curve.

The

sections

should

represent

volume available for buoyancy, and be drawn to the top watertight With regard to the radial deck and to the outside of the shell-plating. it is found convenient to draw them so as to intersect in the middleplanes,
the
line in

plane

{see

0,

fig.

206),

although

this

does

not

usually

ensure

that

the

be of equal volumes, as, of course, they must be; but it allows all the inclined planes up to any maximum inclination to be drawn at once, while the correction due to the inequality of the wedges can

and out wedges

shall

easily

be made afterwards.
furnish spots close
radial

To
curve,

enough
the

to

obtain the correct form of the stability


at

the

planes

should
in

be drawn
vessel

intervals

of

about

to

15

degrees.

Discontinuities

should

be

carefully

dealt with.

The

222
entrance
into

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the water

AND CALCULATIONS.

of the deck edge, for instance, causes a sudden form of the immersed wedge, and to ensure accuracy in finding the volumes and moments of wedges by Simpson's Rules, a radial plane should occur at this point, with a suitable number of radial planes on each

change

in

the

side

of

it.

These
ordinates, or

particulars

attended
of

to,

the
at

breadths
0,
is

sections

of

the point

proceeded with,
emerged, and

measurement and tabulation of the various radial planes on each side those of the immersed side being kept
the

separate

from

the

those
Fig.

of

the

various

planes

separate

from

206.

each other.
its

At each

moment about To show how

radial plane, the volume of an elementary wedge and a fore-and-aft horizontal axis through is next calculated. this is done, let b be the length in feet of an ordinate

of a radial plane, say, on the immersed side; then the sectional area at this ordinate of a very small wedge of the immersed volume, treating it as a

segment of a
of

circle,

will

be
if

b t

9 square

feet,

Q being the
in
feet

circular

measure

the

wedge angle; and


volume
in

be the thickness
a
will

of a thin transverse

slice,

its

cubic feet

be - b 2

VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES.

223

of the

Having obtained such values for slices at various sections in the length wedge, to find the volume of the latter becomes simply a matter of
the
area
of

finding

of a plane
the
vessel

surface, for, if

a base line representing to scale


at

the

length of

be

taken,

and

points

corresponding
t

to

the
rect-

positions
angles,

the

various
little

sections

the

quantities
base,

be

set

off

as

each on the

quantity

t as

and a curve be drawn through

the tops of the

rectangles, an area will be


all

enclosed representing the

sum

of

the volumes of

the slices into which the

wedge may be supposed divided,

and, therefore, the volume

of the whole elementary wedge.

The moment
instance, taking

of an

elementary wedge
radial

may be

similarly dealt with.

For
0,

the

same

plane and
Fig.

ordinate, the distance

from

of

207.

224

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
scale
at

AND CALCULATIONS.
the

on some
off

the

circular

measure
angles
at

of

maximum wedge
the

angle.

Mark

points

the

various

which

volumes

of

the

elementary

wedges have been calculated, and plot rectangles, each on a base 9 (9 = the circular measure of the elementary wedge angle), representing the volumes of the corresponding elementary wedges. A curve through the tops of these rectangles will enclose an area A C D B, representing the sum of the volumes
of
all

the

elementary wedges, that


the

is

to say,

the

volume of the whole wedge.


the
limits

To

find

volume
to

of

any wedge within


ordinate
area
at

of

A CD
angle,

B,

it

is

simply necessary

plot

an

the
cut

correct
off.

wedge
Separate

and

by
are

Simpson's
necessary

Rules
for

calculate

the

thus

diagrams

Coming to the moments immersed and emerged wedges. of the full wedges, it must be noted that while the moments of the elementary wedges are, in the first instance, calculated about a longitudinal
the

Fig.

208.

15

3o

DECREES OF INCLINATION
through
for

axis

(the
statical

point

of

intersection of are

the radial a
in

planes) the

moments
plane

required

stability
fig.

taken

about

longitudinal

vertical

through

(see

y,

209),

and,
the

therefore,

combining
immersion
cosine

the

elementary
emersion,

moments

to

obtain

those

of

full

wedges
with the

of

and

each of the
the particular

former has to be multiplied by the


elementary wedge makes

of the

angle which
in

horizontal.

For instance,

calculating the

moment

of wedges of 30 degrees, the

moment

of the elementary

wedges
cosine
of

at

o degrees about a longitudinal axis through


at,

has to be multiplied

by the cosine of 30 degrees, and those

say,

15

and 30 degrees, by the

Fig. 208 is the complete diagram of 15 and o degrees, respectively. moments, the abcissse being in circular measure, A B representing 30 deSince the sum of the moments is required, the diagram takes grees. account of the wedges on both sides of the axis y y. Thus the little rect-

angle

at
at

AC
o

is

the

sum

of

the

moments

of

the

in

and out elementary


the
rectangle
at

wedges

degrees

multiplied

by cosine 30 degrees;

EF

VOLUMES AND MOMENTS OF WEDGES.


the

225

sum

of the

moments
degrees

of the in and out elementary wedges at 15 degrees

multiplied

quantity

and the rectangle at DB the corresponding by cosine o degrees. Clearly, from our preceding remarks, the whole area A G D B represents the sum of the moments of the immersed and emerged wedges at 30 degrees about the axis y y. It will be seen that, in the case of the moments, a new diagram is required for each inclination at which the righting arm or moment is calculated, as the elementary wedge at the limiting inclination must always be multiplied by cosine o degrees, and the others by the cosine of the angle which each of them makes with the limiting radial plane. Such are the principles to be followed in finding the volumes and moments of the various in and out wedges, and they are seen to present
by cosine
30
15 degrees;
at

multiplied

Fig. 209.

no greater
to

difficulty

than

is

involved in
areas.

the

application

of

Simpson's

Rules

the

calculation

of plane

must not be forgotten that the moments to be corrected on account of the immersed and emerged wedges, as drawn in the body plan, being unThis may be done as follows equal in volume. Suppose the immersed
of the

CORRECTION OF WEDGES. It
various wedges,

found as above, have

wedge

in the water than she should be, and the vertical distance between the true and the assumed wateris
is

in

excess,

then the vessel

shown deeper

planes,

or

Thickness of layer J

-7

?.

Area of inclined waterplane


of
the
in


~.

where

V and
x

V2

are

the

volumes

and

out

wedges,

as

drawn.

226
Let
fig.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
with;
let

209 represent
Since
the

the

case

dealt

WL

be
the

the

upright

water-

plane,
plane.

W\Lx> the

uncorrected inclined plane, and


correct
is

W
x

L2

corrected

inclined

wedges are

WS W
Call

and L 2 SL, the moment of the

volume W\
Lx

to

be added, and that of L


calculated.

S L2
x

deducted,
2

from

the

moments of wedges

as
x

volume

W 0SW

Vh

and volume

S L2

u2

and
t

let

od and od2
u

be the distances of their centres of gravity


is

from axis y y

then the correction


x x

xod -v xod
2

(1).

If

the centre

of gravity

of the

whole

layer

W\ L L2
x

be

at

distance

on the immersed side of the


ul

axis
2

xodi-u xod2 ^ (Vi + u 2 ) x


Fig. 210.

and equation (1) will be negative, and the correction a deduction. If x be on the emerged side, (1) will be positive, and the correction an addition. Now, suppose the emerged wedge to be in excess (see fig. 210). In this case, the moment of the volume S 2 will be deducted from, and that of volume L S 2 added to, the calculated moment of the wedges. Using the same symbols, we have

W
x

t/ 2

Correction

od2 -v

od

(2)

and

this

is

also

equal

to

(u x

+ U 2) X, where x

is

the

distance

of

centre

whole layer from the axis y y. If x be on the emerged side, equation (2) will be negative, and the correction a deduction if on the immersed side, positive, and the correction an addition. A little consideration will make this quite clear. Rules for the correction of the moments of wedges may now be stated as follows
of gravity

of the

1.

If

the

immersed wedge be

in

excess,

and the centre of

gravity

of

CORRECTION OF WEDGES.
the
layer

227
of

on the immersed side


be a deduction;
but

of the axis
if
it

moments, the
side,

cor-

rection will
addition.
2.

be on the emerged

an

emerged wedge be in excess, and the centre of gravity of on the emerged side, the correction will be a deduction, but if it be on the immersed side, an addition. In most cases the layer is small, and the centre of gravity of the inIf

the

the

layer

clined

plane

may be used
large,

for
its

that

of

the

layer.

This simplifies the work,

but

if

the layer be
distance

centre

of

gravity

must be calculated,
arrive
at

and

its

correct

from
lever

the

axis

employed.
written

Thus we

the value

of

the quantity u x h\ h 2 at

any

inclination,

and by Atwood's formula the length


the
stability

of the

stability

may be
as

down.
curve
for

As a
vessel,

practical
for

example,

let

us

obtain

an

actual

such,

instance,

the

large

cargo

steamer whose dimensions and


a

other particulars

are

given on
to

page
full

182.

This
of cargo,
feet

vessel,

laden

her

draught,
feet.

has,

with

certain

distribution
is

metacentric height of '85


line,

The

centre

of

gravity

22*65

and the centre of buoyancy 14*4 feet above the same line, so that B G, the distance between the centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity, is 22*65 -14*4, or ^' 2 5 feet Let this be the basis of
above the base
-

our calculation.
Fig.

206 shows the body plan drawn out as already directed, with trans-

verse

sections

and

radial

planes,

the

former

showing

the

vessel's

shape

at

each tenth part of the length, and also at intermediate positions towards the

and the latter being drawn at intervals of 14J degrees so as to ensure a radial plane striking the deck edge, which becomes immersed at 29 degrees. Before starting to measure the ordinates, sheets must be prepared (see
ends,

Table
of
the

I.)

with

suitable

number

of

columns
sheets
as

to

take

the

calculations

for

the areas of the radial planes and the functions for the volumes and

moments
radial

elementary wedges.

Two
give

such
sides,

are

required

for

each

plane, the
separate.

immersed and emerged


In

previously mentioned, being


for

kept

Table

I.

we

the

calculations

the

elementary wedges

on each side of the axis at 29 degrees inclination. As the work is the same for each elementary wedge, the method followed is amply illustrated in this table, which is drawn up in accordance with explanations given for the
general
case.

Having
wedges,
inclined
it

obtained
is

the
to

requisite

information
the
values

for

the the

various
righting

elementary

utilised

determine

of
14-J-

arms when

to

angles
deal

increasing

by increments of

degrees.
to

Let

us

with

the

vessel

when
is

inclined,

say,

29

degrees.

The
deis

elementary wedges required are those at o degrees,


grees, respectively.

14^-

degrees

and 29
II.,

The
of
the

information

combined, as
entailed
in

in

Table

which
areas

seen

to

consist

numerical

work

deducing

the

of

the volume

and moment diagrams previously described.

22>

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

TABLE
Elementary

I.

SPECIMEN STABILITY CALCULATION.

229

TABLE
Immersed Wedge.

II.

Calculation for Stability (Statical) at 29 Degrees Inclination.

230
ordinate

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
given by
fig.

AND CALCULATIONS.

211
is

and

this

information

must be multiplied by the displacement in tons, also included in Table III.

TABLE
Righting

III.

Arms and

TANGENT TO STABILITY CURVE AT ORIGIN.

23I

By

the

metacentric

method

and

GZ = GZ
the

Gt
Gi
measure

Now
for

denominators of these fractions are


in

in
5

circular

let

them

be expressed
i,

degrees, Q becoming a\ and


that

7 '3

degrees
the

being substituted

there
is
1
;

being
the

measure

number of degrees in equation may now be written

angle

whose

circular

GZ

GM
57'3'

Referring to
the
origin

fig.

212,

if

G Z be
a

the

stability

lever

at

point

close

to

of

the

curve,

and

the

distance

in

degrees

measured along

Fig.

212.

fr<f*i

573
line

the base
in

up
line,

to

this

lever,

the

small

portion

of

the

curve

will

lie

a straight

tangent to the

curve at this place.

The tangent of the angle which this line, and therefore the stability curve near
the origin,

GZ
a

makes with the base


or

GM
57'3

which
at

is

the

value

employed above

in

setting

off

the

tangent

to

the

curve

the

origin.

CROSS CURVES. The


seen
to

foregoing method of obtaining curves of stability


calculation.
It

is

involve

considerable
stability

has

also

another

drawback.

For most vessels several


indeed,
ing

diagrams are required.


the
viz.,

Such curves should,


to

be available
the

for

at

least

four

conditions launching,

referred

when
ballast,

deal-

with

metacentric

height,

the

light-ship,

and
four

fully-loaded

conditions.

By

the

above

method we

should

thus

have

And, moreover, if the vessel happened to be loaded troublesome calculations. or ballasted to draughts other than those originally allowed for, it would
not be possible to ascertain her condition as
calculations.

regards

stability

without

fresh

232

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

This defect in Barnes' method, as that by means of the wedges is called, was quickly seen when, a good many years ago, scientific attention was turned Many ingenious schemes were proin earnest to this important subject. pounded for arriving quickly at the knowledge of a vessel's stability under
all

conditions

of

draught

and
is

lading,

of

most generally employed,


the
abscissae

that

known
is

which the best and simplest, and Here as the cross-curve method.
terms
of displacement,

of the

stability

diagram

in

instead

of

Fig.

213.

Too

>

egrees
there
is

of

inclination,

as

in

the

ordinary

case.
for

a series of

curves,

each exhibiting

In the complete diagram one inclination variations in


in

the the

righting

arms or righting moments, as the case may be, with change

displacement.

In
15,
it

fig.

30,

45,

213 a cross-curve stability diagram is depicted, with curves at 60 degrees, and so on. The great value of this diagram is that
us
at

supplies

once with

the

stability

at

every

displacement or draught,

and every inclination from the upright within the limits of the calculation. For example, suppose we require to know the vessel's stability when floating at a draught corresponding to a displacement of, say, 4000 tons ; it is only necessary to draw a line at this point in the scale of tons perpendicular to the base of the diagram, to measure the distances A B, AC, AD, etc., cut
off

ordinates

by the curves at 15, 30, 45 degrees, etc., to set off these distances as in a diagram having degrees of inclination as abscissae, and draw a
so

curve through the points

obtained.

an ordinary curve of

stability

such as

The result, subject to a correction, is might be obtained by Barnes' method

CROSS CURVES.
(see

233
the
cross
it

curve

A,

fig.

214).

We
of

thus

see

that

curves
is

lie

in

planes

perpendicular to those
stance
the

the
their

ordinary curves, and

from

this

circum-

former derive

name.
sets

The

relation

between these two


Fig.

of curves

may be simply

illustrated

214.

DEGREES OF INCLINATION

as to

follows

: Take
these

a model representing half a

solid

cylinder,
parallel

and assume
to

it

be cut by planes perpendicular to the base


will

and

the

longitu-

dinal axis;
lines.

intersect
it

Next, suppose

to

the curved surface of the model in straight be cut by planes perpendicular to the base and

Fig.

215.

w/

234

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Fig.

AND CALCULATIONS.
216.

CORRECTION FOR CENTRE OF GRAVITY.

235
is

CORRECTION FOR POSITION OF CENTRE OF GRAVITY.-It


to

be

noted

that

an

ordinary

curve

of

stability

obtained

by simply
will

trans-

ferring

distances

from the cross-curve diagram, as described above,


if

truly

represent the stability condition only

the centre of gravity, at the particular

displacement,

is

coincident
of
course,

with

that

used

in

constructing
the
case,

the and,

cross-curve as

would not usually be indicated, a correction must be made.


diagram.
This,
If the
?!

already

true position of the centre of gravity

G be below
as
if

the assumed one

(see

fig.

215),

the

ordinary

curve of

stability,
sin. ft
if

transferred,

must be

in-

creased

throughout

by the amount G

the

curve

shows righting

Should the assumed one, the process of correction would be the same, except that it would now, in each case, be a deduction. Assuming, for illustration, 6\ to be 6 inches above G, in the case represented by fig. 215, the stability curve would take the

arms, and
true

by

G G\

sin.

Q foot

tons,

righting

moments.

position

of the centre of gravity

be above the

amended form B
very simple
with
as
in

(fig.

214).

CALCULATIONS FOR CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY. These


and may be
sections
briefly described
:

are

First,

the

body plan
at

is

prepared
intervals,

transverse

showing the form of the vessel


calculations.
side,
It
is

regular
to

ordinary

displacement

an

advantage

have

the

fore-and-after bodies

drawn on each
is

and
for

this is

sometimes done, although

separate

drawing

frequently used

each
is

tangent to the midship section, a base line


the

body (see fig. 216). Next, drawn inclined as required to

middle line of the vessel, and above the base, waterplanes are introduced at sufficiently close intervals to take account of the vessel's form, and to suit Simpson's Rule, these waterplanes intersecting the middle-line
plane in parallel lines
;

usually

an intermediate waterplane
first

is
is

introduced benot

tween
fig.

the

base

line

and the
is

waterplane,

but

this

shown

in

216.

As
line

the

deck edge

a point of discontinuity, a waterplane should


is

occur there.
vertical

Lastly,

a position of the centre of gravity


it

assumed, and a

drawn through

to

form

the

axis

of

the

stability

moments.
all

This position of the centre


cross-curve
stability

of

gravity

remains

constant throughout

the

calculations.
is

The
position
that
off

next step
of
its

to find the area of

each waterplane and the transverse


chosen
axis.
It

centre

of gravity from

the

plane
its

which does
area and

not

cut

the

middle

line

has

to

should be noted be specially laid

and

centre

of gravity determined. of the centre of gravity of a


the
water-

To
plane,
case,
it

calculate the
is

transverse position

which
is

not

symmetrical

about
gravity
at

middle
a

line
for

as

in

the

present
trans29),

convenient to follow the


of

method
of

described

finding
(see

the

verse
that

position
is,

the

centre

of

half waterplane

page

taking

one side of the plane

a time, put the

ordinates

and the

ordinates
in

squared separately through


case.

each

Simpson's Rule, and add the products Deal in the same way with the ordinates on the other side.
divide by
2,

Subtract one total of functions of squares from the other;

and

236
again by
respective

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the

AND CALCULATIONS.
products
distance

sum

of

the

totals

of
is

the the

of
of

the

ordinates centre

by

their

multipliers.
line

The

result

the

of

gravity
in

from
verse

the

of intersection of the

middle-line plane with the waterplane


in
this

question.

All

the
of

planes
the

are

treated

way, and

positions
in

centres
to

of

gravity
:

thus

and transobtained, are combined as


the
areas

shown
(i)
(2)

the

subjoined table

obtain

The displacement below each of the waterplanes. The horizontal distance of the vertical through the
the vertical through the centre of gravity.

centre

of buoy-

ancy corresponding to the displacement below each waterplane from


Referring
to

the

table,

if

is

the

sum

of the

products

of the water-

plane areas with their respective multipliers up to any waterplane, and

the

sum

of these

products multiplied in each case by the distance of the centre

Areas of Waterplanes.

THE MECHANICAL INTEGRATOR.


in reference

237

to the drawing in such a way that the movement of the pointer round the various sections of the body plan causes readings to be indicated on dials associated with the little wheels, from which, when affected by certain multipliers, the displacement and the moment of the displacement about a

chosen axis may be derived.


ancy from the axis
it

To

find

the distance
divide

of the
the

centre

of buoythe
dis-

is

only

necessary to

moment by

placement. Full descriptions of the work of calculating the stability in this way are provided in Reed's Stability of Ships, and Attwood's Theoretical

Naval
mation.

Architecture,

and

to

these

the

student

is

referred

for

further

infor-

CAUSES WHICH INFLUENCE THE FORMS OF STABILITY CURVESBEAM. We saw in a previous chapter that beam is the element in design
most powerfully
centre
affecting
that,
It

the
in
is,

height
fact,

of

the

transverse
in

metacentre above the


as

of buoyancy;

the

height
clear

similar vessels varies

the

square
affect

of
the

the beams.

therefore,

that
at

beam
initial

will

also

intimately

forms of

stability

curves,

particularly

angles.

This

may

be shown very simply, as

follows.

By

the

metacentric

method we have

Righting arm at inclination Q

= GM

x Sin. 9,

Fig.

217.

O*0*XS Q9 INCLINATION

6t

*0

from which
height,

it

is

seen that the lever of stability varies directly as the metacentric


therefore, a

and
of

that,

broad vessel with a high metacentre and a large


curve
for
initially

value

GM
the

will

have a
effect

stability

steeper

than a narrow one,

and
fig.

vice

versa.

Using the box form

purposes
stability

of illustration,

we show
to

in

217
the

actual
is

on
at

the

whole

curve

of
at

adding

the

beam.
with
vessel

Curve A
centre

for

a vessel
9

100' x 20' x 20',


feet

floating

15 feet draught,

of

gravity

above
as

the

base.

Curve

is

for

100' x 30' x 20', the

particulars

to

draught

and position of centre

of gravity remaining
steeper
tages

and

to

As expected, the latter curve is seen to be as before. have enhanced values of righting arms, although these advanwith a shortening of
as

are

associated

range.

This
in

shortening

of

range
G, for

becomes

more

pronounced
to

the

vessel
feet

increases

beam

curve

instance, corresponds

a vessel of 35
cases.

beam, with other particulars the

same as the preceding


stability
is

INFLUENCE OF FREEBOARD. Another


freeboard,
i.e.,

clear

height

important element affecting between load-waterplane and top-deck.

238

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
vessels depicted in
fig.

AND CALCULATIONS.
218 and 219 are of the same breadth

The box-shaped

figs.

and draughts, but


at

219 has greater freeboard.

The
it

stability curves

for these

vessels are depicted at

and D
in

in

fig.

220,

and

which the deck edge

the

one with

up to the angle low freeboard becomes immersed,


is

seen

that,

Fig.

218.

they

are

identical.

At
the

this

point

the

curve

for

the

shallow vessel

receives

a check,
begins
rapidly
to

and
fall.

as

deck enters the water, quickly reaches a


curve
of

maximum and
to
rise
if

The

the

other

vessel,

however,
is

continues

with

further

inclination.

The
Fig.

explanation

simple,

indeed

not

219.

quite

obvious.
just

In

the

figures

the

vessels

are

shown inclined
deck awash.
water.

to

the

angle

which
of

brings

the
is,

high

freeboard

vessel's

the

other

one

of

course,

considerably under

The deck edge The points g^ g.2


in

mark the

centres

of buoyancy

of the

wedges of immersion and emersion

INFLUENCE OF FREEBOARD.
the

239
centres
the
in

shallow vessel,

and

the

points

ga g4
less

the

corresponding
,

the

other.

Clearly, the distance


in

g gi
1

is

than g 3 g 4
fig.

and,

as

volumes of

the

wedges are greater

fig.

219 than in
x

218,

Oi

g g2
1

<u

x g 3 g,

where
the

v1

and
at

u 2 are
this

the volumes

of

the

wedges

in

each

case.

As

the

quantities in this

equation are measures of the


inclination

stability,

the relation

between

is apparent. Beyond this angle both deck and the centres g 3 g 4 begin to approach each other, but much more slowly than the centres gig 2 the actual differences in It the values of the righting arms of the two vessels are shown in fig. 220. should be stated that the centre of gravity is assumed at the same height in each case; in each case also the breadth is 35 feet, and draught 15 feet, while one has 5 feet freeboard (curve C)* and the other 10 feet

curves

edges are

under

the

surface

(curve

D)
Fig.

220.

240
extent.
5

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
If

AND CALCULATIONS.
gravity
to

we assume
to

the

centre

of

be

raised

feet
will

by the
be
that

feet

addition

the

depth,

the

corresponding

stability
is

curve

marked
in

E
still

(fig.

220).

considerable reduction
levers.

seen to have taken place

the

lengths

of the

righting

These
is

are,

however,

except at

initial

angles,

considerably greater

than those of the low freeboard vessel with


range
also
greater.

the

lower centre of gravity.

The

CHANGE
influence
tion.

IN
great

HEIGHT OF THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY. The


the extent centre

powerful
illustra-

of a

raising

of gravity
position

is

manifest
point
is

from the

last

To

the

of

this

dependent upon the

nature of the

stowage.

shipmaster
If

may

therefore

often
is

make
the
in

the stability
in
stability,

of his vessel what he pleases.

he finds that she


weights
thus

deficient

he cannot correct the he


the
can,
light
it

defect

by increasing the
heavy
and,

may
ones

be,

stow
up,

the

beam or low down


the

freeboard,

but

the

hold,
of

and

higher

by

lowering

centre

gravity,

attain

the

same end.
221.

Fig,

,_
.

*x
1

CURVES FOR VESSELS OF NORMAL FORM,


position

241

of

centre

of

gravity,

we
are,

have

cited

cases

of

box-shaped
In

vessels
fig.

only;
for

vessels

of ordinary form
effect

however, affected
freeboard
is

similarly.

222,

example, the
stability
;

due
a
;

to

beam and

shown.*
This

A represents

the
feet

curve
32*1

of

cargo

steamer whose

dimensions are
feet.

length,
vessel

289*5
as-

breadth,

feet

depth,

moulded,
Fig,

23*1

was

222,

sumed
geneous

to

cargo

have 300 tons of coal in bunkers, and to be laden with a homowhich completely filled the holds and 'tween decks and

brought her down to her load-waterline.

She had a regulation freeboard of


effect

4
2

feet
feet,

inches.

Curve
of

B shows
lading

the

of

reducing

the

breadth
power,

by
as

the

conditions

being

as

before,

The

righting

Fig.

223.

OEUl OF INCLINATION

~5o

So

Co

in

the

case

of the

box

vessel,

is

seen

to

be

much reduced by
the

this

altera-

tion.

Curve
crease
of

G
6

illustrates

the
the

stability

curve
the

of

same
of the

vessel

after

an

in-

inches

in

freeboard,
104.

density

cargo

being

kept

See Reed's

"Stability

of Ships," p.

242
as
before,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
to

and the surplus space assumed

be

at

the

ends of the 'tween

decks.

Further illustrations of stability curves of actual ships are depicted in


223,

fig.

the particulars of the vessels


variation
4.

being given in the table below.

Consider1

able

in

stability

is

here

shown.

Compare,

for

example, curves
excessive
stability

and
the

The
of

first

may be
in

considered
this

an

example
This

of

other

deficiency

respect.

vessels

were

on

service.

During
table,*

the

voyages
1

was borne out when made by each when in

the

the

conditions

stated

in

the

No.

vessel

met

severe

weather

and

Description.

to

Three-deck vessel Raised quarter-deck


vessel

Spar-deck vessel

Three-deck
flush,

vessel,
for

except

small forecastle

Quarter-deck vessel Quarter-deck type,


erections length Shelter-deck vessel modern type
Shelter,

deck

vessel,

modern type

EXAMPLES OF STABILITY CURVES.


She
first

243
for

listed

to

one

side,

remained in that position


to

some
the

time,

then

returned to the upright, but almost immediately lolled over to the other side.

She continued
manner,
further
until

for

some time

heel

from
could

one
not

side

to

other

in

this

eventually she

was struck by a sea which caused her to heel


she
right
herself.

over,

from which
into

position

The

water

then poured

and the vessel went down by the stern.* The curve of No. 6 is not so bad as that of No. 5. The maximum lever is '51 feet, and the range is seen to be 78 degrees. But the vessel was always considered very tender and had to be
the

engine-room

through

the

casing

door,

handled with
Curves
that,

care.
7

Nos.

and 8

exhibit two

stability conditions
is

of a

large
as
it

modern
shows

cargo vessel of good


with
so

freeboard.

No. 8
to

particularly interesting,
'2

small a

metacentric height as
satisfactory as

feet,

there

may be
of

associated

stability

curve quite
instances,

range

and lengths of righting arms.


of
stability

In some

indeed,

vessels

having

curves
heights.

large

area

and range have had negative metacentric


Fig.

Such

vessels are

unstable

224.

ntr

20

30

40

50

60

ro

DEGREE*
in

OF
to

INCLINATION

the

upright

position

and

loll

over

one
vessel

side

or

the

other.

In

the

case of vessel
centric height

No.
angle

8,

if

the centre of gravity were raised 6 inches, the meta-

would be
of

13

'3

feet,

and the

upright to an
line.

degrees, her

stability

would be unstable from the curve lying below the base

She would thus loll over to this angle for her position of equilibrium. Beyond 13 degrees the curve would rise above the base line, the maximum lever reaching 1*95 feet at an angle of 53 degrees, and the range 81
degrees.

The

curve

-is

depicted in
stability.

fig.

224, which

considerable reserve of
safety obviously does
(see p.

In such a case as

shows the vessel to have this, a vessel's ultimate

194).

The

latter,

not depend on there being a positive metacentric height however, is necessary in order that she shall float
easily inclined

upright
the

and not be too


instance,
to

by the action of external

forces.

In
quiet

present
the

gain

positive

G M,

if

the

vessel

were

in

water,

centre

of

gravity
it

might
cases

be

lowered

by

filling
it

the
to

double bottom, but

may be pointed

out that
the

a compartment of would not be proper


condition.
It

do such a thing
*

in

all

of instability in

upright

See an interesting paper by Mr. Pescod on "Stability of Small Steamers," read before the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders, in 1903,

244

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
in

AND CALCULATIONS.
when
in

would have been improper

the case of vessel No. 5 for instance,

and would probably have hastened the disaster which eventually came upon her (see also chapter on Loading and Ballasting). SAFE CURVE OF STABILITY. The curves of vessels Nos. 4, 5 and
the condition described above,
6,

which show unsafe conditions of


arise,

stability,

also cause the question naturally

to

"What

does

constitute

safe

minimum

curve

of

stability

"

In

attempting an answer for any given case, two things are to be chiefly borne
in

mind

the

size

of the

vessel

and the nature of her


Fig.

cargo.

225.

u
b.

(.0

DYNAMICAL STABILITY.
curves,
feet at

245
righting
5

using

fig.

225

as a basis.

To
the
in

obtain a
centre

minimum
foot,

arm of
would

*8

30 degrees in these cases,


1*04
feet,

of gravity in No.
-5

re-

quire to be lowered
heights

and

No.

6,

making the metacentric

and 1*42 feet, respectively. It will be noticed that the righting and the range in each case, exceed those of the standard curve (see fig. 225). These curves are for small vessels, and, for reasons already given, we do not say that even the modified curves leave nothing to be desired the stability conditions, however, exhibited by them are a

179

feet

arm

at

45 degrees,

great

improvement on those of the


is

original

curves.
stability

DYNAMICAL STABILITY. The


angle
It

dynamical
her

of a vessel
to
that

at

any

the

work

done

in

inclining

from

the

upright

angle.

should be carefully distinguished from

statical stability,

supporting the vessel at the given inclination


the original position.
(1)

In heeling a

vessel,

which is the moment and tending to return her to work is done as follows
:

In raising the centre of

gravity.

(2)
(3)
(4)

In depressing the centre of buoyancy.


In creating waves and eddies. In surface
friction.

Fig.

227.

Fig.

228.

Comparing figs. 227 and 228, which show a vessel upright and inclined, we note the movement of the centres of gravity and buoyancy, the former point being obviously nearer the load-waterplane, and the latter Items (1) and (2) constitute further from it, in fig. 228 than in fig. 227, items (3) and (4) cannot, from the dynamical stability as usually calculated the nature of the case, be correctly estimated, and in practice are therefore The result, however, is on the safe side. ignored. The quickest way of obtaining the dynamical stability is by means of
respectively,
;

a curve of
the

moments
such a

of

statical

stability

for,

as
to

shall

be shown presently,
truly

area

of

diagram

from
in

the

origin

any angle
to

represents

the work
course, the

done
effect

on

the vessel

inclining

her

that

angle,

omitting,

of

of surface

friction,

wave and eddy-making


following
:

resistances.

As a

preliminary,

consider

the

If

force

lbs.

acting

on

246 a body causes


it

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
to

AND CALCULATIONS.
feet,

move
tell

in

any direction through a distance h


the

then,

works on mechanics

us

that

For example,

if

Work done on the body F x h foot lbs. F be 10 lbs. and h 5 feet Work done = 10 x 5 50 foot lbs.

If the force
is

employed
parallel

in

equal

moves along a curved path, the length of the path traversed calculating the work done. Consider now a case of two forces acting on a body free to turn. The body will revolve
its

about an axis passing through


plication

centre

of

gravity.

If

the

points

of

ap-

of the
it

forces

be

fixed,

the
(see

latter will
fig.

move
if

with

the

body, and in
in
lbs.

turning
the

through any angle


feet.

229)

the

forces

be

and

distances in

Work done =
Since A
angle,

(P x A B) + (P x = P{AB + CD) foot x


Q,

D)
lbs.

B = A we may

Q,

and C D =

being the circular measure of the

write
Fig.

229.

Work done = P(A0 + = P x A


that
is,

0) 6 x
foot lbs.,

the work

done up

to

any angle

is

given by the product of the turna vessel be assumed


heeling
vessel

ing

couple and the circular

measure of the angle.


let

Applying these principles to the case of a ship,


floating
at rest

in

stable

equilibrium,
If,

then

let

an

external

couple
upright,

be supposed to act upon her. this heeling couple be assumed


righting

starting

at

zero

with

the
to

to

grow so
couple
also
at

as
at

always

be
will

equal to the
represent the

couple, the

righting

moment diagram
will

any point

value
the

of

the
of

heeling
righting

or

upsetting

the

same
the

point,

and, generally,
of upsetting

curve

moments
214,

represent

curve

moments.
Reverting
to
fig.

curve

shows

an

ordinary
say.

curve
the

of

righting

moments.

Consider an ordinate at 30 degrees,

On

above assump-

DYNAMICAL STABILITY.
tion,
it

247
at

gives

the

value

of

the

upsetting

couple

that
If

angle.

Let

now
by
it

the

vessel

be further inclined through one degree.


this

the

upsetting couple

be
will

assumed constant through

small

inclination,

the

work

done

of

be equal to the ordinate at 30 degrees multiplied by the circular measure one degree. If the base line of the righting moment diagram be in
parallel

terms of circular measure, and a line


the

to

the

base be drawn through

top

of

the

ordinate

at

30

degrees,

the

work
little

done

by the

upsetting

couple

will

be represented by the area of the


if

rectangle

thus enclosed.
so as
to

At 31
equal
the

degrees,

the

upsetting
at

moment be assumed augmented


that
angle,

the

righting
is

vessel

by the
line

little

and to remain constant while heeled through one degree, the work done will be represented rectangle between 31 and 32 degrees, the base line, and a
the

moment

parallel

to

base

through the ordinate at 31


the
origin

degrees.

Proceeding thus by intervals of one degree,


setting

moment from

the

to

any angle
little

H
in

the area

OHK
of the

less

the

sum

of

the

triangles

work done by the upwill be represented by between the curve and


fig.

the tops
black).

little

rectangles

(those

indicated

214

are

shown
is

in

But by making the

intervals

infinitely

small,

the

difference

between

the

area

OHK, and
small.

the

work

done
the

by

the

upsetting
say,

couple,

made
the
is

infinitely

We
the

may,
angle
the

therefore,

ultimately

that

on

inclining
stability,

vessel
truly

through
represented

OH,
area

work

done,
of

or

dynamical
stability

by

of

the

curve

statical

from

the
a

up to that angle. An ordinary curve of stability new importance, since, besides showing the variation in the
origin

thus

assumes

statical

righting

moment from
also

point to point, as the vessel is inclined from the upright, it measures the amount of energy that must be expended to incline her. Practical Example. Assuming the values of the righting moments in

curve

A,

fig.

214,

at

intervals

of

15

degrees,
is

to

be

o,

1200,

4900,

9500,
at

and
origin

8000
to

foot

tons,
is

respectively,

what

the

dynamical

stability

60

degrees?

This

merely a case of obtaining the area of curve A from the


at

an

ordinate

60

degrees

by means of Simpson's Rules.


:

It

is

convenient to arrange the figures as follows


Degrees of Inclination.

248

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
stability*
is

A
case
sails.

knowledge
In

of
as

the

dynamical
guide
the
act in
sails

particularly

useful

in

the the

of

sailing-ships

fixing

the

area

and
braced

distribution
to

of

such

estimates,

are

assumed
heeled

fore-and-aft

plane and the

pressure

to

dead upon them.


sailing-vessel

Let

fig.

229

represent

an angle That is,

Q.

Here the upsetting and

righting

to, and held steadily at, moments are obviously equal.

Pxh =
P

WxGM xSin
Fig.

ft 0,

being the total wind pressure in tons at the angle

h the

vertical distance

229.

*The dynamical
formula.

stability

may

also

be

obtained

by an equation known

as

Moseley's

Simply

stated, this consists in multiplying the vertical

movement between

the centre of

to figs. 227

buoyancy and centre of gravity during the inclination by the weight of the vessel. Reverting and 22S, B G is the distance between the centres when the vessel is upright B Z
;

the distance

when she

is

inclined.

Therefore
in inclining"!

Work done
Now, B V Z
(f)

vessel to given

angle/

^^ ~BG)W

foot tons.

R + RZ, and = BG cos d. To find B 1 R we must multiply the volume X of the -wedge of displacement transferred across the ship by the vertical travel of its centre of gravity i.e., g l h l + g 2 h 2 and divide by the volume of displacement (V). Thus,
,

-B

RZ

Substituting in

first

equation,
in

B R = y(g h + g z h 2 we get
1 1 l

).

Work done

foot tons

= W\^y{g

hl

g2 h2

+ BG

cos 6 -

B g)
*))

= ^(yteA +

MJ- A 6(i -cos.

DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF SAILING


in feet at the

SHIPS.

249

of the
the

sail

area,

resultant

same inclination between the centre of effort, or centre of gravity and the centre of lateral resistance, the point through which fluid pressure is taken to act, W the displacement in tons^ and
feet.

GM

the

metacentric height in
is

It

may be mentioned
be
area
at

that the centre of

lateral

resistance

usually

assumed
given
as
it

to

mid draught.
sail-

From
ing-ship

the

above formula, the


under
a
as

magnitude of the angle to which a


sail
is

will

heel

and wind
to
this

pressure

is

seen
level

to

vary inversely
possible,

GM, and

desirable

have the deck as


class

as

the

importance of a large
it

GM

in

of

vessel
3 to

is

apparent.

In medium-sized sailing-ships

should not be

less

than

any special

case,
is

the
to

best

way of showing the


as
First,

effect

of the

3J feet. In wind pressure


to

on the
pressure

stability

draw a curve of upsetting moments due


diagram
follows
:

the

wind

same This may be done as


the
position
sails
is

on

the the
to

corresponding
upsetting the
total

curve
in

of
the

stability.

moment

upright

calculated,

this

being

equal

in

tons

multiplied

by the
to

vertical

distance

in

wind pressure on the feet between the centre

of effort and

centre of lateral resistance.


is

Then
is

the upsetting

moment
this

acting

when
duced,

the

vessel
sail

inclined

the

upright

obtained.
total

In

case,

the
re-

effective

area,

and
to

therefore,

the

effective

wind
the

pressure,

are

being

equal
the

the

values
the

corresponding
angle
in

to

upright
also

position
effective

multiplied
leverage
is

by
the

cosine
to

of

of

inclination;

the

equal

the

leverage

the

cosine

of

angle

of

inclination.

Thus,

The

upsetting

moment =
{
let

^>
in

at
feet.

previous

case

multiplied

any angle Q
in

by the

x cos. 6 foot tons.

Employing symbols,

A = Total sail area H Distance in feet


resistance
/)

square

between centre of
upright).

effort

and centre of

lateral

(vessel

= Wind

pressure per square foot in

lbs.

Then, with vessel inclined


Effective Effective
sail

some angle 0, area = A cos. Q.


at

lever

= H

cos. cos.

6.

Upsetting

Moment = A
steady angle

x
cos.
2

H
Q.

cos.

Q x p
full
is

= A Hp
In calculating
is

the

of
i

heel
lb.

for

a vessel under

sail,

it

usual to assume a wind-pressure of

per square foot, which

taken to

be the force of the wind in a fresh breeze.


squall,

however, a

much
the

larger wind-pressure

is

In estimating the effect of a assumed.


this

Values of upsetting moments obtained in

way are

set

off at

corres-

ponding
curve "

points

on

base

line

of

the

stability

diagram,

and a

"wind

drawn.

curve,

EFFECT OF A SQUALL. In fig. 230, OBD is and A BG F a curve of upsetting moments due
curve
constructed in
the

an
to

ordinary stability
the wind pressure

or wind

way described.

Referring to this

diagram

25
it

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

will

be

observed that
equal.
in

at

an

inclination

P
for

the the

upsetting

and

righting

moments
held
at

are

This

tells

us

that

but

energy which

the vessel

has stored up
the

virtue

of the unresisted
P.

moment

area

B A,

she would be
to

inclination

As
P,

it is

is,

she passes

beyond P

some angle

OH, when

the

energy

of

motion

is

approximately

twice

overcome by the stability reserve thus a sudden squall striking the


Fig.

BOD.
vessel

230.

FT

DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF SAILING


Fig.
refers
23
1

SHIPS.

251

illustrates

this

condition.

The

stability
;

curve

above
the

the
line

line

to inclinations on one side of the upright that below on the other side. represented by The inclination to windward is A. At this point there is a righting lever A B tending to return the vessel to the upright position; and as the energy which heeled her thus has been expended, the influence of the righting moment is about to be felt. At this instant the squall is supposed to strike the vessel. AC D EG F is the wind to

those

curve,

and the returning moment becomes suddenly increased from A B

to

C,

causing the vessel to return rapidly to the upright, her angular velocity continuing to increase until the angle corresponding to the point
of the

E on

the other side

upright
is

is

reached,

when

it

is

a maximum.

Beyond

this,

the righting

moment, and as the vessel becomes further inclined to leeward, her kinetic energy and angular velocity gradually decrease, the vessel coming finally to rest at some angle the excess //, when of upsetting moment, represented by the area B , is absorbed by the excess of dynamical stability EKME. Her energy of motion being now expended, the vessel begins to return by virtue of her excess of righting moment and, if the wind curve be assumed to remain as before, she will oscillate for a
in excess of the upsetting
little

moment

about the angle corresponding to the point


angle.

E and

finally

come

to rest

at

that

We
the hull

have neglected the retarding


surface,

effect

of the as

friction

of the water and

and of such head


the
inclinations
to

resistances

bilge

keels.

These convessel,

siderably reduce

which the wind heels the


assistance

and
air

if

wind were suddenly to fall, would, with the sistance on the sails, gradually bring her to rest.
the

of the

re-

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.

IX.
<%

What

is

a curve of statical stability?

How

is

such

curve usually

drawn?

2.

Distinguish between the terms "righting

arm" and
is

"righting moment."
;

vessel has

a displacement of 4000 tons and a metacentric height of 2 feet


righting

what are the values of the


?

arm and

righting

moment when

the vessel

heeled to an inclination of 10 degrees

Arts. R.A.
3.

-348 foot;

R.M.=

1392 foot tons.


righting

In the case of vessels of ordinary form, correct values


at

moment cannot be obtained


why.
4.

large

inclinations
is

For what
Construct

special form of vessel


<x

of righting arm and by using the metacentric height the metacentric height method correct ?
for

explain

curve
its

of

righting

arms

a vessel

of

cylindrical

section,

15

feet

in

diameter, floating with

axis in the waterplane, the centre of gravity being

iS inches below

the middle of the section.


5.

A
in

vessel's
to

metacentric

height

is

feet

6 inches
origin,

show

how you would


that

construct
is

the tangent
correct
6.

the

curve

of

righting arms

at

the

and prove

your

method

principle.

Show

that in a submarine vessel floating

below the

surface, the centre of

buoyancy and

metacentre coincide with the centre of bulk, and explain what in


ditions of equilibrium.

this special case are the con-

252
7.
if
If,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
in the previous case, the centre

AND CALCULATIONS.
show
that

of gravity be below the centre of bulk,

the vessel be turned about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of bulk, the curve of

stability will

be the same whatever be the direction of the


for

axis.

8.

Prove Atwood's formula


a.

the
is

statical

stability

of a

vessel
its

at
uses.

any angle of

heel.

Show how
9.

statical

stability

diagram

constructed,

and explain

Explain the terms "angle of

maximum
feet

stability, "

and "range," as applied


at
feet,

to curves

of stability.
of 17 feet
of righting

box-shaped vessel 35

broad, and 35 feet deep, floats

a level draught
the

6 inches.

The

metacentric height of the vessel being 2

construct

curve

arms, indicating the "angle of

maximum

stability," the value

of the

"maximum

righting lever," and the " range."


10.

Describe in detail

angles of inclination of a vessel of


11.

how you would proceed known form.

to obtain

the statical stability at large

vessel

having a deep forward well ships a heavy sea.


discuss
safety is

Assuming the water ports


filling

to

be

set

vessel's

up with rust and inoperative, stability, and state whether her


In Barnes'

the

effect

of the

of

the well on

the

likely

to

be thus endangered.
vessel, show clearly how moments of the wedges of 263,00x3, and the vessel's dis-

12.

Method
is

of calculating the statical

stability of a

the

"wedge
is

correction"

made.
for

The uncorrected sum

of the

immersion and of emersion


placement

2000

tons.

The volume

an inclination of 30 degrees is of the layer is 600 cubic feet, and the horizontal distance

of the centre of gravity of the radial plane at 30 degrees from the intersection with the middle1*5 feet. Find the value of the righting arm (1) assuming the immersed wedge and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the immersed side; (2) assuming the immersed wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the emerged side (3) assuming the emerged wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the immersed side (4) assuming the emerged wedge in excess and the centre of gravity of the radial plane on the emerged side.
line plane is

in excess

Note.

The

centre of gravity of the layer

may be assumed

to be in the

same

vertical with

the centre of gravity of the radial plane,

and B 6

5 feet.

Ans.f^
13.

and

M'
(3),

Ri S htin S
,,

Arms

*\(2) and

= =

1*24 feet.
1-27
,,

vessel
.

clination

of 30
1

depth of
the

whose displacement is 3000 tons, has a righting-arm of 1 foot at an inCargo weighing 300 tons, whose centre of gravity is in the middle line at foot below the common centre of gravity, is discharged; and the vertical
of
is

through

centre

buoyancy of the

layer

through which
side

the

vessel

rises

when

at

an
of

inclination

of

30

6 inches on the

immersed

of

the

vertical

through the centre

buoyancy of the vessel corresponding with the load draught at that inclination. length of the righting arm after the removal of the cargo.
Arts.

Find the

fths

of a foot.

14.

What

are

cross curves of stability?

How

are these related to the ordinary stability

curves

15.

vessel of constant circular


1

section,
;

120 feet long and 14 feet in diameter, has

its

centre of gravity

'5

feet
,

below the axis

construct to scale cross curves of stability for trans-

verse inclinations of 30
16.

60% and 90

Referring to the previous question, deduce an ordinary curve of stability for the vessel
If

when
made

floating with its axis in the waterline.

the centre of gravity be 9 inches below the

position

assumed

in

making the

cross

curves,

show how the necessary

correction

would be

at the various inclinations,

and plot the new curve.

QUESTIONS.
17.

253 how you would


prepare the body plan

The

plans of a vessel being given, state hilly

for the calculation of a cross curve of stability. 18.

vessel

inclined

transversely

is

cut

by a

series

of horizontal equidistant

planes at

intervals

of 3 feet, the

intersection of the middle-line plane being parallel to the top of keel.

The
o,

first

plane touches the vessel's bottom tangentially.

The

areas of the successive planes are

and 1 150 square feet, and the horizontal distances in feet of their respective centres of gravity from the vertical through the vessel's centre of gravity, omitting the tangent plane, are 1 "4, *9, '4, and *l, on the immersed side. Construct the cross curve of stability.
30 590) 880,
19.

What

are the causes which influence the forms of curves of stability?

Give an example

of such curves for


(1)

a flush-deck vessel of low freeboard;

(2) the

same

vessel fitted with a continuous watertight shelter deck.

20.

Discuss the comparative effect on curves of stability of increase of breadth and in-

crease of freeboard.
at a level

Taking
ft,,

rectangular vessel 100

ft.

long, 20
ft.

ft.

broad, 15

ft.

deep, floating
effect

draught of 12

with the centre of gravity at 7

above the base; show the

on the

stability curve of
(1)
(2)

an increase of 4 an increase of 4

ft. ft.

in

beam,

in freeboard,

the draught and position of centre of gravity remaining the same in each case.
21.

What

is

meant by the dynamical

stability of

a vessel?
is

In inclining a vessel from the

upright position explain the several ways in which work


22.

done.
floats in
is
I

A
at

rectangular pontoon 100 feet long, 25 feet broad and 25 feet deep,

salt-

water

half

depth with

one

of

its

sides

horizontal
.

the

metacentric

height

foot.

Calculate the dynamical

stability at

an angle of 45

Ans.
23.

487

foot tons.
is

Prove that the work done in inclining a vessel from the upright to any angle,

equal

to the area of the curve of righting


24.

moments up

to that angle.

The

ordinates of n curve of righting arms measured at equal angular intervals of io,

starting

from the upright, are

o,

*4,

7,

-9,

and i*o

feet.

Find the dynamical


Ans.

stability at

40

inclination,

the displacement being 2500 tons.

102 foot tons.

CHAPTER
Rolling.

X.

THE
fluid,

time
plete

that

a vessel, rolling freely in

undisturbed water, takes to comis

an

oscillation

from port
roll.

to

starboard, or vice versa,


investigations
is

called her

period of a

single

Theoretical

in

this

subject are

based on the assumption that the rolling


so
that in

medium
of
roll,

a perfect or frictionless
fact
is

calculating
to

the

period

the

that

water

offers

substantial

resistance
is

the

movement
be
nearly
greatly

of the
true,

vessel

ignored.
actual

The

result

thus

obtained
fluid
little

found to

since,

from
arc

rolling

experi-

ments,
to

resistance,

while

limiting

the

of

oscillation,

appears

have

influence

on the period.
were wont to think that

if a vessel had great initial and was, therefore, difficult to move, she would also be steady in a They were struck with the apparent analogy between a rolling ship seaway. and an oscillating pendulum, and thought that a ship might be looked upon as a simple pendulum suspended at the metacentre of length equal to G M, the distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity. Now, the period in seconds of a single swing of a simple pendulum,

Early

investigators

stability,

from

left

to

right,

or

vice versa, is

3-1416

J L,
and

where
gravity.

is

the

length

of

the

pendulum,

the

acceleration

due

to

If

the

above analogy between the pendulum and the ship were


for
/

correct,
ship's

G
to

might be substituted
period would

in

this

formula, and, consequently, the

rolling

lengthen with increase in


case,
all

G M.

We
is,

find,

however, such

be by no means the
those
is

experience

going to show that vessels of

small

metacentric heights are of longer periods, that

make

fewer rolls

per

minute, than
that

having

large

metacentric
its

heights.

Thus, the assumption


at the
at

ship

a simple pendulum, with

whole weight concentrated


of
oscillation

centre
clearly

of

gravity,

and with a
fact,

fixed

axis

the

point

M,

is

an erroneous one.
a ship has
vessels

As a matter of
stantaneous
centre
axis
is

no
not

fixed
at
it

axis

of
in

oscillation.

The
of

in-

for
it

most
is

M,
as
it

but

the

vicinity

the

of gravity,

and
this

usual to assume
fair

passing through that

point,

While accepting

as

approximation,
gravity
itself,

be forgotten

that

the

centre

of

must not at the same time though fixed relatively to the

254

INSTANTANEOUS ROLLING
ship,

AXIS.
vessel
rolls.

255

really

describes

path

in

space
as

as

the
:

To
the

obtain

the

instantaneous axis
Referring
flotation,
i.e.,

we may proceed
fig.

follows

to

232,

let

WL

be

the

waterplane,
to

FF

curve

of

section

of

the

surface

tangent

the

various

waterplanes

which cut
flotation

of gravity.

a constant displacement as the vessel rolls, and G the centre Now, neglecting the presence of the ship, assume the surface of and the level water surface to become solid, and the former to roll
off

or slip

without friction along the latter as


of the
surfaces

the vessel oscillates.


is

F,

the

point

of contact

FF

and

W L,

a point in the

oscillating vessel,

and will move, at any instant, about a centre somewhere Another determinable point in the vessel is the centre of
vertical

in

the

line
It

F 0,
has
freely

gravity.
is

motion only, since the forces acting when the vessel

rolling

Fig.

232.

are

purely vertical

therefore, the

centre
the
lines

about which

turns
is

is

in

the line
0,

0.

The
is

axis

of

the

vessel

at

instant

considered

obviously at
point
in

the point

of

intersection
G,

of

the

FO
error

and GO.
is

The

most

cases
that

near
axis

so

that

very

little

introduced

by the
ship

assumption
rolling

the

passes

through G.

Let
resistedly
offers

us
in

consider
still

what actually takes


This
case
is

place

when a

is

unit

water.

purely

hypothetical

one,

but

a convenient starting-point.
floating
roll

Suppose a vessel
force
is

freely

and

at

rest

is

acted upon by an external


to
port. at

causing her to

through some angle,


stability of

say,

The work done


the angle at which

represented

by the dynamical
rest.

the vessel
to

she comes to
of
the

She has then energy due


takes
effect

position, which,

on removal
the
upright.

external

force,

in

returning

her

towards

256

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
the
vertical
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
of
position

When
into

reached
the

the
vessel
carries

energy

becomes
to

transformed
velocity.

energy

of of

motion,

attaining

maximum
to

angular

The energy
angle as
of
that
position,

motion
in

now
turn,

the

vessel

starboard,

the

same
so

reached on the port


sends

side,

where she once more regains energy

which,

her

back

to

the

upright.

And

the

rolling

goes on, since,


for

The formula

by our assumption, there is no external resistance. a single roll in the above hypothetical circumstances is

vg
where T
is

m
m
the metacentric height in
feet
feet,

the time

seconds of a single
gravity
as

roll,

and g the acceleration due to The symbol k is known


this

(=

32*2

per

second per second).


of
the
gyration.

the

transverse

radius
if

What
of

quantity
oscillating

is

may be
vessel

explained

by stating

that

whole weight

be concentrated at a point distant k from the axis of oscillation, the effect would be the same as with the vessel as she To find the same. is, that is, the period of oscillation would be the value of k in any case, it is necessary to assume the vessel's weight
the

could

divided into very small elements w, say, and to obtain the distance between the
centre
to

of each

of these

elements and
distances,

the

rolling

axis

then,
total

if

r be

taken
of the

represent

any of these

and
the

be

the

weight

vessel

Sum

of

all

products

x r2
'

W
expression
;

The numerator
vessel

of

this

for

k2
this

is

the

moment

of

inertia

of

the

about the chosen axis

calling

Using the value given

for

g,

the

formula for

the

period

may be

written

r=
We now
motion,
i.e.,

k
'554
r:

see

why

vessels having large metacentric heights

are
for

of quicker
evidently

shorter

period, than

those
/??,

with

smaller
vice

values,

T
is

becomes reduced with increase of


increased
or

and

versa.

Also, the

period

of

gyration,

which

decreased with corresponding changes in the value of the radius varies according to the distribution of the weights on

board the
gravity,

ship, being increased by spreading them out from the centre of and decreased by crowding them about that point.

As a
gyration

practical

example,

let

us

obtain

the

rolling
is

period for a vessel of


2*5
feet,

3000 tons displacement, whose metacentric height


17*16
feet.

and radius of

By

substitution

'554

=
17-16
2-5

we

get

6 seconds.

STILL
Vertical

WATER ROLLING

PERIOD,

257

movements of weights have


i.e.,

greater influence

on the period than


if

horizontal
raised
feet
this

movements.
feet,
it,

For instance, in the above


7

vessel,

120 tons were

14

above
well
as

below the centre of gravity to one 7 the period would be increased to 6*8 seconds, while winging out
from a position
feet
still-water

weight 14 feet from the centre would only lengthen the period to 6'i seconds.

As

by calculation, the
this
it

rolling period

may be found
rolls

experi-

mentally.
artificial

To do
means,

is

only necessary to set the vessel rolling by she

some
in

and

to

note the number of complete


a single
roll

makes

certain

time.

time by the
per
roll,

The period of number of rollsall

may

then be got by dividing the


fact

This follows from the

that the time taken


statical

for

inclinations
is,

up
12

to

which the curves of


15

stability

are

straight

lines

that

about

to

degrees is the same, a


it

characteristic

known
It

as

Isochronism.
well
to
state

may be

here

that
in to

is

important
to

to

know
her
still

the

value
bebut,

of a vessel's

still-water

rolling

period
roll

order

predict

probable
water,

haviour at sea.
as

Vessels

seldom

dangerous angles in

we

shall

see
to

presently,

may do
with

so

among

waves,

unless precautions have


periods.

been taken
will

provide them

suitable

still-water

SEA WAVES, Before


it

dealing with the rolling of a vessel

among

waves,
in
of

be necessary to give some attention to the structure of the

latter

the light of

water on a

modern theory, in order vessel when the surface of


are

to obtain

a clear idea of the action


is

the former

undulated into wave shape.

principal
to

by the action of wind on the sea, and are the roll. There have been various theories as the action of wave water, the most satisfactory of which, and the one now
generated
agents

Waves

causing ships to

generally

accepted

as

representing

the

case

best,

being

that

known
wave
orbits

as

the

trochoidal theory.

The groundwork
and
that

of this theory
of

is,

that only the form of the

travels,

the

particles

water affected

move

in

small

circular

about

That some such action does take place will be obvious to anyone who observes the movements of a piece of driftwood afloat among waves. It will be noted that the wood does not travel with the wave, but merely moves backwards and forwards, showing clearly that the water particles supporting it move only a short distance as the wave passes. According to this theory, a section of a wave in the plane of the line
horizontal
axes.

of advance,

has

for

its

outline

a trochoid,

i.e.,

line

described by a point

having uniform circular and linear motion.


ing

rough, but simple way of drawthe

a trochoid,

is

as

follows

Take
;

any point between

centre
rolled
is

and the
without

circumference in a circular paper disc,


slipping along a horizontal line

and

let

the

latter

be

the path described by the point

a trochoid.
originally

The

reader should try this for himself.

horizontal layers below the surface become,


into trochoidal forms
face,
crest.

The theory also states that when under wave motion,


as

distorted

of the

same general character

that of the upper sur-

and that columns of water originally vertical curve towards the wave The hollows and crests of the various trochoids are immediately under

258

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
all

each other, and, therefore, the trochoids are

of the

same

length.

But they
particles

become
moving
Fig.

flatter

as

the

depth below the upper surface increases,


orbits,

the

in

smaller

and smaller
in
to.

until

finally

the

wave, form disappears.

233, which

exhibits

section part

of a trochoidal wave, illustrates

some

of the points referred


in
in
still

In this figure the original surfaces and subsurfaces

water

are

shown
full

by dotted horizontal
lines.

lines,

the

same

surfaces

when
these

wave form
are

by
also
full)

curved
seen

The
lines
at

orbits

of

surface

and subsurface
of

particles orbits

indicated.

The
to
in

containing
levels

the

centres

(shown

are

be

higher

than the corresponding


energy of position.
that

still-water lines,

showing that

the wave, as well as kinetic energy, or energy

of motion, the particles have also potential

energy or
is,

Another
particle

fundamental

point
affected

in

this

theory

the

pressure

of

a
its

in

the

wave and
as

is

by

the

centrifugal

force

generated
in

by

orbital
ticle

motion,
;

acts

normally to the particular surface


slope
varies
at

which the pardirections

lies

so

that,

the

each subsurface,

the

of

Fig.

233.

the

normals

also

continually

vary.

All

this

has

to

be
act

considering

the

resultant

of

the

wave

forces

which

remembered on a vessel
crest

when
afloat

among waves. The length


the

of a

wave
is

is

the
is

horizontal distance from


vertical

to

crest,

or

hollow to hollow; the height


period
length.
:

the
it

distance
to

from

hollow

to

crest;
its

of a

wave

the

time

takes

move a

distance equal to

own

From

calculations

based on the trochoidal theory, we have the

following
t,

r Period of wave in seconds


,

V1416 ^
9

x lensrth 5

v
Speed of wave second
in feet per)

length
-
,

v 5-124
-.

/length x a
x 3-1416

of observations of actual waves.

Results obtained from these formulae are found to agree closely with those Atlantic storm waves 600 feet in length, for

SEA WAVES.
instance,
this

259

have observed periods of 11


of wave,

seconds, and from the formulas, using

length

we

get

Period

v
Speed

/
5* I2 4

io'8 seconds.

5*124 x 600

55*4 feet per second.

The
tude
the

heights of waves have an important influence

on

rolling.

The magniratio

of the height

maximum
to

angle

of slope
it

of a wave

depends upon the

of

the

length,

and

will

be

found that the extent of the arc


governed by the value of
this slope

through which a vessel


angle.
"sir

oscillates, is largely

The

heights of well-defined ocean waves are usually found to vary from


in

to

tV f tne ^ngths,

long and in short waves, respectively, the steepness


length.

of waves

decreasing with increase in

ROLLING AMONG WAVES. We


internal

have

seen

that

the

effect

of

the

wave forces

is

to

cause the resultant buoyant pressure


it

water particle to act

normally to the wave slope, and


act

on a surface must now be added


floating
particle

same forces body, and cause the


that

the

upon the weight of any small


force
also
to act

or

resultant

normally to the wave slope,


truth
:

but in a line opposite to that of buoyancy.


experimentally by Dr.
of

The

of this

was

proved

Froude

in

the following

manner

Taking

a small float

cork he fitted it with an inclined mast, from the top of which he susHe then placed the float on waves, when it pended a simple pendulum. was observed that the pendulum did not hang vertically but took up a position perpendicular to the wave slope. Now, a ship displaces a considerable amount of wave water, and cannot, It intersects many properly speaking, be looked upon as a surface particle. subsurfaces, the pressures on the particles of which act normally to the curves of these subsurfaces, and the resultant pressure, on the whole body,
is

normal to a mean subsurface


the vessel
as

but

in

actual
to

calculations

it

is

usual
it

to
for

consider
all

very

small

relatively
particle,

the

wave, and

to

treat

practical purposes as a surface

the resultant lines of pressure

and
of

weight
the

being assumed

to

act

normally to the slope of the upper surface

wave.

On
parallel

this

assumption, a vessel

among waves
illustrated

will

tend to place her masts

to

the normal to the wave slope, which virtually becomes her upright

position of equilibrium.
that
is,

This

is

in

fig.

234, where the centre line,


to

the

line

of

the
in

masts,

is

shown inclined
tending
with
to to

the

wave normal, with


into
parallel

moment
of

GZ

operation
parallel

bring

them

lines

and thus place the deck


angle
inclination

the

wave
is

slope.
at

In

calculating the

of the vessel
righting

the vertical

any instant when among

waves, this
to

modified

moment, which
of the
ship's

the
.

angle

between the
is

line

assumed to be proportional masts and the wave normal at


of

that

instant,
It
is

employed.
our
intention
to

not

attempt

description

these

calculations,

260
as

SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS.


they are
It
is

difficult

and would be quite out of place


in

in

a work of

this

kind.
vessel

easy,

however,

general

terms,

to

predict

the

behaviour of a

among waves when the periods of ship and waves are known. Where the still water period of a vessel is very short in comparison
the

with

period

of

the

waves she
to

is

among, caused by her being


masts
close
to

specially

broad and shallow, or having a cargo of great density placed low


her holds, she
will

down

in

tend

keep
decks

her

depicted in
she
will

fig.

235.

Her motions
her

will

generally

keep

clear

wave normal, as be quick and jerky, and although of water, she cannot otherwise be
the

Fig.

234.

considered
especially

satisfactory.

Her

rapid

motions
will

are

likely

to

strain

the

hull,

during rough weather, and she

obviously be

an uncomfortable
reversed,
period.

boat

in

which to traveL
results
still

Different
i.e.,

are

obtained when
period
will
is

the

ratio

of the

periods

is

when
vessel

the so

water

very long

compared with the wave


roller,

circumstanced

be

an

easy

plained.

approaches her.
ately

Assume such a vessel, for example, to Under the influence of the wave
to
will

may be readily exbe upright when a wave


as

begin

heel,

but her period

being

wave,

she

not

have

gone

far

when

forces, she will immedicompared with that of the the wave normal, having passed

long

Fig.

235.

through
wave,

its

maximum
passes,

angle

to

the

vertical,

at

about
a

the
crest

mid-height

of

the

will

have returned to the


the
arrest

upright,

bringing

under the

vessel.

As the
will

crest

tendency of the wave pressures in the back

slope

be to
so

the inclination of the vessel,

and return her


inclined
to

to the upright.

And
This
the

the

next

hollow
in

will

find

her

little

the

other

side.

inclination

will,

turn,

be arrested
of such
deck.

by the

following

wave,

and thus

departure

from

the

upright
level

maintain
desirable

a
in
it

comparatively
warships
also to

ensure

reasons

is

sought after in

small, and she will Such a state, of things is highly a steady gun platform, and for obvious merchant vessels.

a vessel will be

ROLLING AMONG WAVES.

261

From

the

formula
v

m
rolling

it

is

seen

that

in

order

to

obtain

long

period,

/f,

the

radius

of

must be increased, and aw, the metacentric height, must be reduced, as much as possible. This would mean concentrating the weights away from the middle line, narrowing the beam, or raising the position of the
gyration,

centre of gravity.

More important

considerations than those of rolling limit the

extent to which the foregoing modifications


able, for instance, in

may be carried out. It is impracticmerchant vessels to bank the weights against the sides,
cargoes

although
while
to

with general

something may be done by judicious stowage,


of

bring

down

the value

by reducing the beam or stowing the


affect

weights
designer

high in the vessel

might seriously
that.

the

stability,

and no
guide

careful

would recklessly do
that,

Experience
speaking,

must

be the
of
great

here,

it

being

remembered
smaller
case
critical

generally
of

vessels

displacements

may have

values
arises

than those of small displacement.


the
half
is

when
as

period

of the

waves

is

the

same

as the ship's

still-water

period,

and she
this

rolling broadside

on

to

the former,

a state of things

known

synchronism.
of

In

fig.

236 the

effect

coincidence of the

effective

time

of

the

Fig.

236.

two periods on a
without resistance,

vessel's
is

behaviour when rolling in a frictionless


Referring to this
figure,

fluid,

i.e.,

A the vessel is in the hollow, and is supposed to be upright when the wave reaches her. As she rises on the latter, the internal wave forces cause her to heel from the upright, and her period agreeing with the half period of the wave, she On the back slope the reaches the end of a roll at the first wave crest.
depicted.
at

wave

forces

will

assist

the

ordinary

statical

moment
other
will

to

return

her

to

the

upright,

and to a
will

maximum
at

which she

reach

the

on the hollow, and which


inclination

side

of the

vertical,
if

be greater than
of motion,

she

had
the
tion

oscillated

under her

statical
will will

moment

alone.

The wave
direction
roll,

forces in concert

with her statical next


will
crest,

moment
where she

again change the

and

at

complete another

her

maximum
to
roll,

inclina-

be

further

increased.
inclination

Thus
at

she

will

continue

reaching

greater

maximum

each

crest

and hollow,
of

until

she finally

upsets.

Theoretical

investigations

show

that

the

increment

roll

due to the

wave impulse
if

is

equal to

this

were

Thus, f, or about if times the maximum wave slope. degrees, the maximum inclination would be increased each

262
Lime

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

effect

by 9 degrees, and her arc of oscillation by 18 degrees; so that the of a few such waves would be to put the vessel on her beam ends. Dr. Froude proved the truth of the foregoing theory by experimenting
little

with
that

models
after

in

a tank.
in
still

of

the

models
the see

water,

Waves were generated having a period double and the latter when placed in the tank
is

were upset

passage of a few waves.


a
vessel

We
on
to

thus

that

most
is

seriously

situated

when broadside
still-water

waves whose period of advance

double that of her own


the

wave impulse as above described, resembles an oscillating pendulum which has additional force applied to it periodically at the end of an oscillation in one direction, and just when it is about to return, the effect of which is to increase the angle of swing each time. Another illustration is given by a body of soldiers
period.

In

some

respects

the

ship,

in

receiving

crossing

a bridge, when the period of march keeps


of the
bridge,

time with the period of

vibration

state

of

things

which,

continued

long

enough,

would greatly increase the amplitude of the


bring
the
structure

vibrations,

and might eventually


obvious
inferences

down.
foregoing

Summarising
there

the
:

remarks
are

and
very

deducing
short
in

from,

(1)

we note That vessels whose periods


waves, will
that

comparison with the


stormy
weather,
transverse

tend
angular

to

place

their

masts parallel to the wave normals

the

velocity

of

such vessels
rolling

may, in
that

become very
straining

great

and the

heavy;

excessive

may

thus be developed, with a particular tendency to throw

out
(2)

the

masts.

That

vessels

of long

periods
less,

(single

roll),

if

among waves
and
is

with half
to

periods considerably

are likely to be slow rollers,


;

incline

through moderate angles from the upright


sirable
state

that this

a most de-

of things

in

both

mercantile

and war
time
;

vessels,

and
of

after

sufficiently
(3)

allowing for

stability,

should be aimed at in new designs.

That
as

vessels

having
if

periods

which

keep

with

those

the

waves are badly,


has
is

not dangerously, situated

that such

synchronism,

able,

been borne out in actual cases of which records are availlikely to conduce to heavy rolling and severe transverse

straining.

A
pected
herself
vessels,

practical

of H.M.S.
to to

example of the effect of synchronism is afforded in the case Royal Sovereign, a large warship which from her design was exbe
very

steady

among waves
occasion,
swell

at

sea,

and
in

in

general
of

proved
other

be so
her

but on one
a slight
arc

when

sailing

company
she
degrees,
slightly

there

being

on the sea
periods,

at

the
to

time,

rolled

conthe

siderably,

maximum
which
the

of oscillation
of

reaching

32

while

other

vessels,,

were
the

quicker
to

were

but

affected.

Observation

showed

waves

have

period
roll

which

synchronised
seconds.

ap-

proximately with

Royal Sovereign's

single
to

period

of 8

On
she

another occasion,

when broadside on

a series

of synchronising waves,

ROLLING AMONG WAVES.


rolled

263
Excessive rolling
is

through

maximum

arcs

of

50 to 60 degrees.
class,

also

reported of another vessel of this

H.M.S. Resolution, the circumstances pointing to sychronism between the ship and apparent wave periods. These examples show how difficult it is to altogether avoid the effects
of

synchronism.

Actual
feet

observation
in

has

shown
of

ordinary
10
to

storm

waves

to

average
in

500 to 600
cases
still-water

length, with

periods

seconds,

only

exceptional

longer

waves
escape

being

met

with.

Consequently,
class

vessels

having

periods

of 8

seconds like the


synchronism.

Royal Sovereign
Experience,

should
has
to
is

be

expected
that

to

practically

however,

shown
happen.
better

circumstances

may
there of

arise
is

which

shall

cause

the of

unexpected
long
case,

But
situated

even where
than
are

synchronism, a vessel
period.

period
the

one
latter.

short
less

In

the

former
smaller

waves
sloperoll

keeping
angles
at

time

longer

and
is

steep

and have
vessel

maximum

than in

the

Thus, the increment added to the angle of


less

each hollow and

crest

in

the

of

long period

than in the

other.

Of
matters

course, a master with his vessel well

in

hand

is

usually able

to

help
of

considerably

when
he

his

vessel

is

rolling

excessively

on
is

account
lying

synchronism.
side

Should the
the

rolling

become
disturb

heaviest

when she
of
the

broad-

on

to to

waves,

may

the

coincidence
lengthen

the

periods

by

changing
the

an

oblique

course,

which would
a
cure
in

effective

time of

wave.

Should,
course,
into

however, the

synchronism be developed when


'

sailing

on
turn

an
his

oblique
vessel

he

may

affect

various

ways.

He may

wave trough, or direct her head to the line of crests, keep the original course, he may change the effective Thus, time of the waves by increasing or reducing the speed of the vessel. by skilful navigation, much can be done even with a vessel of bad design. RESISTANCE TO ROLLING. Although synchronism will always tend to make rolling heavy, as in the case of the Royal Sovereign, the resistance due to the friction of the water with the surface of an oscillating vessel,
the
or
if

he wishes

to

with
all

that

spent

in

the
for

creation

of waves,

etc.,
is

will

minimise
in

the
still

rolling

at

times.
at

Suppose,

instance,

a vessel
force

set

rolling

water,
is

that,

a given

instant,

the

external

causing

her

motion
of

and removed,
will

thus

allowing

her

to
to

roll

freely.

Her maximum range


In
to

oscillations

immediately

begin

diminish.
angle,

any

single

oscillation,

the

difference

between
port,
will

the

maximum
a

say

starboard,

from

the

following

one

to

be

measure

of

the

resistance

overcome.

But when

among

waves whose period keeps time with that of her own motion, the periodical impulse given by the wave will cause the maximum inclination to be increased with

each oscillation, so long as the resistance of the water


of
force

is

less

than
angle,

the

increment
the
in

due

to

the

wave
as

impulse.

With
And,

increase

of

however,
arcs

speed
nearly

of
the

oscillation

will

increase,

since

vessels

describe
since

the

largest

same time
which

the

smallest.

the

resistance
tions
is

of

the

water increases rapidly with the speed,


to

a range

of oscillato

soon

reached,

sustain

the

repeated

impulse

due

syn-

264
chronism
oscillation
is

Ship construction
necessary.
large

and calculations.
the

Moreover,
only
disturb
critical

are
is

are
to

slightly

difference

sufficient

not

occur

at

the

same
thus

when the arcs of when they are small, the The wave impulse does the synchronism. time, and a fraction of the moment each
although
period
greater

than

resistance
velocity,

being
the

unbalanced,
less

it

takes

effect

in

reducing

the

angular
the

rolling

becoming

heavy.

This reduction

may

increase

and again cause synchronism, with consequent increase in the rolling, which, as before, will in turn be arrested. We thus see that oscillations sufficient to place a vessel on her be:im ends, or to overturn her, are
period,

unlikely

to

occur in a resisting

medium such

as

water.

ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE. Many


out experiments on
parts,
viz.,

years ago, Dr.

Froude
it

carrying
three

the
(1)

resistance
to

of vessels to rolling,

divided

into

that

due

the

hull

surface;

(2)
;

to

keel,

bilge-keels,

dead-

wood, and the

flat

parts of the vessel at either


results

He

obtained
of the

quantitative
vessels,

plans

and

end (3) to surface disturbance. by calculating items (1) and (2) from the placing the difference between the sum of these
obtained from
hull

items and

the actual

resistance

experiments

to

the

credit

of
2

item

(3).

The
of

results

showed the
leaving

surface
flat

resistance to be less than


resistance

per cent., and the keel, bilge-keel,

and

surface

from
to

18

to

20
dis-

per

cent,

the

total,

about

80 per cent,
ot

as

due
small

surface

turbance and the creation of waves.

While
sufficient

it

is

known
for

that
this

the

creation

very

to

account

residual

resistance,
(2)

subsequent
of

experiments

wave would be and


under-estimated.
Dr.

investigations

have

shown

that
for

item
the

has

probably been
flat

In
took

making
i*6

his

calculations

resistance

surfaces,

Froude
of
flat

lbs.

as

co-efficient

of resistance per

square foot at a velocity of

one foot per second, and assumed the resistance to vary as the square This co-efficient he had obtained previously by oscillating a the velocity.
board
lished
in

deep water.
this
figure,

In the case of bilge-keels,


taken with the
value
ot

it

is

now

pretty well estabbilge


keels,

that

surface

area

of the

does

not
that

represent
the

the

extinctive

these
to

appendages.
the
fitting

On
of

the assumption
keels,

whole work of extinction,


to

due
the

bilge

might
square

be
foot
Sir

credited

a virtual increase in

co-efficient

of

resistance

per

of bilge area,
Philip

and
of

that the

resistance varied as the square of the velocity,


in

Watts pointed out


instead
i'6

that,

the

case

of
at

the

warships

Volage

and

Inconstant^
foot

lbs.,

the

co-efficients
7*2
lbs.,

mean

velocity

of one

per

second should be 87 and


rolling

respectively.

In
ship

experiments
displacement,
11
lbs.

carried
similar

out

of

large

1895 on H.M.S. Revenge^ a warresults were obtained, the corresponding


in

co-efficient
for

being

for

a swing of 10
Sir

degrees,

rising to

about 16

lbs.

a swing of 4 degrees.

Commenting on
*

these

results,

Wm. Whyte*

pointed out

that,

as well

See a paper by Sir


1895.

Wm. Whyte

in the

Transactions of the Institution of Naval Archi-

tects for

RESISTANCE TO ROLLING.
as offering direct
resistance,

265
resistance
oscillating

bilge keels

create

further

by

indirectly

influencing

the

stream-line motions that exist about


fully

an

ship.

Investigation* has

borne

this

out.
if

Professor

Bryan has shown that

the

motion of a
gives
rise

rolling

vessel,

particularly
in

bilge,

to

counter

currents

be of sharp form at the the water which strike the surface


she
;

of the bilge-keels and increase their extinctive value


of
the
bilge-keels

also,

that the presence

cause

discontinuous
is

motions

in

the

surrounding

stream

lines,

the result of which

a gradual reduction in the speed of the streams


tending
to to

as

they approach the keels and an increase of pressure on the hull surface,
rise

giving

to

turning

moments
the

arrest

the

angular

motion

of

the ship.
estimates

Crediting these
the
effect
*

resistances

the

bilge-keel area,

Professor
to

Bryan
Dr.

of

counter

currents

as

equivalent

doubling

Froude's co-efficient, and the effect of the discontinuous


ling
it.

motion to quadrup-

It

should be stated that the foregoing analysis


has no forward

is

based on the assumption that

the vessel

motion,

but rolling motion only.


it

From

the results

of rolling experiments! with a destroyer,

is

shown

that the effect of discon-

tinuous motion
increasing

is

much
the
create

reduced,

when a
for

ship has motion ahead, the diminution

with

the

speed

ahead

the

same angle of
the water
at

roll

the apparent

reason

being

that

keel

surfaces

strike

an oblique angle,

and thus do not


forward

such masses of dead water as when rolling without

motion.

But however the work done by bilge-keels be analysed, the point of most concerning them is that they are invaluable as a means of Experience has amply shown this in a general way, but reducing rolling. deduced from actual experiments are perhaps more convincing. figures H.M.S. Repulse, a large battleship, was, as an experiment, fitted with bilgekeels 200 feet long and 3 feet deep, and when amongst synchronous waves at sea, was found to reach only half the maximum angles of oscillation atIn tained by her accompanying sister vessels, which were without bilge-keels. the years 1894-5, rolling experiments, with and without bilge-keels, were conducted on the Revenge, a vessel of the same class as the Repulse. In still water it was found that, starting with an inclination of 6 degrees, without
importance
bilge-keels
it

took 45
that,

to

50 swings to
those
6
at

reduce

the angle
8

to

degrees,

and
it

with

bilge-keels,

similar
starting

to

on the Repulse, only

swings.

Again,

was noticed

degrees inclination, after

18

swings the vessel

without bilge-keels reached an angle of 3! degrees, and with bilge-keels, In the case of the destroyer above referred to, an angle of 1 degree. the decrement of roll for 4 degrees mean angle of roll was, without bilge Most important of all keels, '24 degrees, and with bilge-keels, '5 degrees. perhaps the effect of bilge-keels on rolling when vessels have motion is *See a paper
in

the

Transactions of the

Institution

of Naval Architects for

1900.

fSee an
of Naval

interesting

paper by Mr. A.

W. Johns

in the

Transactions of the Institution

Architects for

1905.

266
ahead.
the

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
5

In the case of the Revenge^ starting at an angle of


in

degrees from

vertical

each

case,

after

ahead was
swings
the

2-95

degrees,

and

at

4 a speed of 12 were
resistance

swings

the

inclination

with

no motion
after

knots, 2*2

degrees;

16

corresponding
the
17

inclinations

1*15
to

degrees

and

'25

degrees.

In the case of
angle of
roll,

destroyer
knots, was

the

at

3 J times greater
extinctive

rolling for 4 degrees mean than when not under weigh.

The reason
under weigh
set in
is

of

the
to

greater

value

of

bilge-keels

in

vessels to

due motion, and


lost

their

having at each instant


so

new masses
continually

of water
left

the

energy

imparted

being

behind
that

and thus

to

the

ship.

The experiments
keels.

with

the

destroyer brought

out another point,

viz.,

forward motion tends to reduce the rolling period both with and without bilge

no motion ahead was found to be At about 17 knots speed the corresponding figures were 5*4 and 5*46 respectively. At higher speeds the reduction was still more marked. Another point to be noted in respect to bilge-keels is that they are more effective in small quick-rolling vessels than in large vessels of slow angular motions. This follows because the resistance bilge-keels meet with from the water increases with their speed of motion through it, and because the power of this resistance in arresting angular motion is greatest when the oscillating body to which the bilge-keels are attached is of relatively small weight and inertia. The importance of having these appendages
in seconds with
5 '61.

The double period

with keels, 5 '5 9; without keels,

on small vessels of quick-rolling period


bilge-keels

is

thus apparent.

The advantages
to

of

are

now

generally recognised,
vessels.

and they
they
are

are regularly fitted

both

war and merchant depth;


in

In warships

frequently

of

considerable

and

merchant vessels they are seldom more than 12 to 15 inches deep, are often less but even when so limited in size, their effect on the
;

behaviour of vessels at sea has been most beneficial.

WATER CHAMBERS. Besides


successful

bilge-keels,
for

various

other

more

or

less

methods have been advanced

minimising the rolling of


filled

ships.

The

best

known

of these the

consists

in

having a chamber partially

with

water fitted

across

ship,

so

that

when
to

the vessel

rolls,

say,

from port to
acts
position.

starboard, the water, having a free surface, rushes in the

same direction and


upright

against

the

righting

moment
This was

operating

return

her to the

The
in

efficiency of the

method has been found


borne
out

the
of

chamber.

sea

H.M.S.
reduced
the
in best

Inflexible^

to depend on the depth of water by observations of the behaviour at which had such a chamber, her mean angle of roll

being being
tested

20

to

25

per

cent,

with

the

result

obtained.
still

The
the

value

of a water

chamber about half full, this chamber was further


with
the
in

series

of

water
as

rolling

experiments

Edinburgh^ a
this

warship of the
16
feet

same
7

class

Inflexible.
full

The chamber
width
at

long,

feet

deep,

and had a
also

of

67

feet;

bulkheads
51 \
feet,

the

chamber

could

be

tried

breadths

case was by means of of 43 feet and

respectively.

Increasing
at

effect,

the extinctive value

67

breadth was found to have a powerful feet being three times that at 43 feet. It
the

THE GYROSCOPE.
was also found that the most
the natural
effective

267

depth of water was that which made


the

period

of

the of the

wave
ship.

traversing

chamber, the same


chamber,
ship,
fitted on showed the

as

the

natural

rolling

period
with

Experiments
of the

a
at

model
the

of

the

water
as

frame

designed to oscillate

same period

the

efficiency

system to be greatest at small angles of inclination. For various reasons the water chamber method has not become popular.

In the case of warships, changes in design have led to longer natural rolling

and a reduced necessity for special means of extinguishing rolling. for instance, had a G M of 8 feet, while modern battleships have seldom greater metacentric heights than about 3 feet. In the case of merchant vessels, the expense of fitting up a water chamber, and the loss of valuable space which would be entailed by its presence in the hold, has stood in the way of its general adoption, particularly as the inexpensive method of fitting bilge-keels has produced satisfactory results. THE GYROSCOPE. A proposal for extinguishing rolling motion, which some authorities think is likely to be widely adopted in the future, has been brought forward in recent years by Dr. Otto Schlick. In Dr. Schlick's words, "the method depends in principle on the gyroscopic action of a flywheel, which is set up in a particular manner on board a steamer, and made to rotate rapidly. " The principle of the apparatus, and the method of
periods,

The

Inflexible^

application,

is

fully

explained
of

by

Dr.

Schlick
in

in

an

interesting

paper
the

read

before
is

the

Institution
for
details.

Naval Architects
has,

1904,

and

to

this

reader

referred

So
the
case

far

the

apparatus
vessels,

we
from

believe,

only

been
results
first

practically

applied
trials,

in

of two

but

the

reported
one.

of

these

the
is

system appears to be a highly

efficient

The
of

of these vessels
tons

German
In
of
this

torpedo-boat,

116

feet

long,

and

about

56

displacement.

case* the gyroscope, which was fitted for purely experimental purposes,

has a flywheel one


ship
of
1

metre in diameter, with a proportionate weight to weight


114.
It
is

to

steam

driven,

the

periphery

of
in

the

wheel
steam-

being
tight

provided with
casing,

rings

of as

blades,

and
is

the

wheel

enclosed

and worked

a turbine.

The
the
at

casing containing

the

wheel

carried

on two horizontal trunnions


the
vessel
latter
is is

having their axis athwartships, the steam supply and exhaust passing through
trunnions
rest

as

in

an

oscillating

engine.
is
;

When
the

upright
in
to

and

the

spindle
in

of the flywheel
horizontal

vertical,

and the

when
free

motion

thus

rotates in

plane

also

apparatus

become
effect

inclined

a fore-and-aft direction.

With the gyroscope


is

in

action,

the

of the

transverse

heeling of the vessel

to

cause

the

apparatus to become
of the
vessel's

inclined,

oscillations

and moments to be produced reducing the To control and also their magnitude.

velocity

the

fore-and-aft

move-

*See a paper by Sir

Wm. Whyte

in the

T.I.N.A.

for

1907.

268

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of the

AND CALCULATIONS.
movement
of

ments

gyroscope
is

and

the

rotary

the

flywheel,

an

arrangement of brakes
water.

provided.

At the commencement of the experiments the torpedo boat was rolled in With the gyroscope at rest, a double-roll period of 4*136 seconds was obtained ; with the apparatus in action, and the flywheel running at 1600 revolutions a minute, the period was found to be 6 seconds, an instill

crease

of 45
roll

per

cent.
effect

The
an angle

extinguishing

was

found to be
at

enormous.
rest,
it
;

Starting

from
single

of
to

10

degrees,

with

the

gyroscope
to

took

twenty

oscillations

reduce

the

inclination

half
little

a degree

with the

gyroscope
oscilla-

in action, the
tions.

same angle was reached


trials

in

more than two

single

The
sea,

sea

were quite as remarkable


roll

when through
the effect
practically to

the state of the

the

vessel

was caused to

considerably,
play,

of the

action

of

the

apparatus,

when

brought

into

was

extinguish

the

rolling
fixed,

motion.

On

two occasions,

for instance,

the vessel, with the gyroscope

reached arcs of rolling of 30 degrees,


to
act,

which,
to
1

on the apparatus being


degree
or

allowed

became

immediately reduced
being
LochieL
it

ij

degrees.

The
is

results

of other

observations were
as

equally convincing.
fitted

The
the

other vessel referred to

with

Dr.

Schlick's

apparatus
gyro-

coasting

passenger

steamer
the

Very
stated

few

details

of the
is

scope in this case are available, but


electrically.

is

that

the

flywheel

driven
to

From
as

the
in

reports,

roll-extinguishing

effect

appears
vessel

be

quite
to

as

great

the

torpedo-boat.

On
to
to

occasions

the

was found
rest,

be

rolling

through arcs of
bringing
it

32

degrees, the

gyroscope being at
the
arc
to

and
2

the

effect

of

into

action

was

reduce
those

from

to

degrees,
It

oscillations

scarcely

perceptible
far this

on board.

remains to be seen
at

how may
and

motions
vessels

sea will be adopted in the future,


trial

unique system of extinguishing rolling but it is not unlikely that the


steamers

success of the Lochiel


of the

lead to the installation of gyroscopes in other


also
in

same

class,

engaged

in

cross-channel

passenger

traffic.

PITCHING AND HEAVING. A


in If

many

directions,

broadside

on,

vessel among waves will have motions depending on her position with regard to the crest lines. the principal motions will be those of transverse rolling,

be also more or less vertical dipping oscillations due to the wedges of immersion and emersion being instantaneously dissimilar in volume. If head on to the waves, while there will be some transverse rolling, the
but there will
chief motions will consist of pitching,
axis
i.e.,

longitudinal rolling about a transverse

in part to the dipping motions above mentioned, and in part to the excesses of weight and buoyancy which occur as the vessel rides over the waves. If, however, the vessel
lie

through the centre of gravity,

and heaving, due

in

an

oblique

direction

relatively
will

to
set

the
up,

wave
as
will

crests,

simultaneous
heaving.

skew

rolling

and pitching motions


conditions
in

be

well

as

The

each of these cases

be modified to a greater or

PITCHING AND HEAVING.


less

269

extent by the forward


oscillations

motion due to the propeller.


thus
affected,

We

have seen how

transverse

are

and we
still

shall

consider presently the

influence of speed

on pitching and heaving.


water

The
the

period of unresisted pitching in

may be determined by
through
the
centre

formula which gives the period of similar transverse oscillations, provided

be the radius of gyration about a transverse

axis

of

gravity,
7",

and
as

the longitudinal metacentric

height.

before,

being the period in seconds,

the

formula

is

= 6 ri4io

J 9 M' a
I

of gyration

As an example, take a vessel of 4000 tons displacement, with a radius of no feet, and a longitudinal metacentric height of 285 feet.
T /
, = V1416 // IIO J 32-2
*

In this case

X IIO
x 285
7T

3'6i seconds.
"*

The corresponding
seconds,
i.e.,

transverse

rolling

period
;

for
this,

this

vessel

is

about 8
is

more than double the other


a
vessel

and
place

in

most

cases,

the

proportion between the two periods.

In
effective

pitching,

always

tends
is

to

her

masts

normal to

the

wave
will

slope.

When

a vessel

long in

comparison with the waves,

wave slope will depart very little from the horizontal, and the be slight; when the opposite is the case, i.e., when the vessel the waves, the extent of the pitching will be governed is short relatively to by the natural pitching period, the period of the waves, and the course and If the wave period be long, speed of the vessel relatively to the waves. and that of the vessel very short, she will follow the slope of the wave but if the wave period be naturally short, or, if it be made so by the speed
the
effective

pitching

of the
to
rise

vessel,

pitching

is

likely

to

become
crest
;

excessive,

as

the vessel

will

fail

on each successive wave

her

ends

will

thus

become

buried,

longitudinal

and the periodical impulses received from the waves will conduce to larger oscillations. Pitching, then, which is in the first instance caused by the passage of waves, will, like rolling, become excessive if the wave period
Every seaman
likes
his

keeps time with her natural pitching period.


vessel
to

be

lively

fore
will

and

aft,

i.e.,

to

have a
will

short pitching period.

In such a case a vessel

follow approximately the

wave

slope,

especially if she

be short relatively to the wave length, and

This vessel will rise on the waves instead of burying her ends into them. than a slower moving boat, and will not be subjected to the same be drier hammering stress which continual plunging into waves is bound to set up.

In order to obtain a short


increased.

pitching

period,

thus

seen to be desirable,

the radius of gyration must be reduced or the longitudinal metacentric height

This follows from the formula

for

the period given above.

The

270

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

metacentric height cannot be affected to any appreciable extent, as the length and displacement, on which its value depends, are fixed by more important considerations than those of pitching
;

the radius of gyration, however,

may

obviously

be reduced by concentrating the heavy weights amidships, and in a merchant ship this should be done as far as possible in stowing the cargo.

Of
sea,

course, just as in the case of transverse rolling, a master

may
sailing

frequently

help matters.

Should pitching become excessive when he

is

head

to

he may change to an oblique course and thus lengthen or, the apparent wave period, and give his vessel time to rise on the waves same end. without changing his course, he may reduce speed and attain the

due

to synchronism,

On
much.
unison
kind are

the subject of vertical

heaving and dipping


it

it

is

unnecessary to say

From what we know


likely

of synchronism,
if

is

clear

that
is

motions of
in

this

to

be
of

excessive,

the

period of

dipping

approximate

Pronounced heaving will not endanger a was noticed in a previous chapter, the longitudinal bending moments, and therefore the stresses brought upon the hull, may be
with
that

the

waves.

vessel's safety, although,

as

considerably affected
vessels

thereby.

It

may be

said

that,

as

usually
to

constructed,
all

are

provided

with a

sufficient

margin of

strength

meet

such

demands.

QUESTIONS ON CHAPTER
1.

X.

How

would you
that

set

about obtaining the instantaneous axis of an oscillating ship?


for

2.
j.\

Write down the formula


supposition
?

the

period in seconds of a single oscillation of a ship

the

there

is

no

resistance.

What
a
certain

use

is

made

of this

formula by the

naval architect
3.

Given that the metacentric height


18,

in

vessel

is

feet

and the radius

of

gyration
4.

calculate

the

period of a single
is

roll.

Ans.

7 seconds.
;

The

radius of gyration of a vessel


If

16,

and the single


Ans.

roll

period 5 seconds

find

the

metacentric height.

the

metacentric height be

reduced one foot, what would be the

periodic time?
5.

3"i4

feet;

6 o6 seconds.

What

is

Isochronism?

In rolling through large angles


6.

To what how will

inclinations are vessels of ordinary form isochronous?

the period be affected?

Explain
Calculate

briefly the

modern theory concerning


in

the form

and action of sea waves?


second of
a wave 500
50-6.

7.

the

period

seconds

and

the

speed in feet per

feet

long.
8.

Ans.
is

9S8;

What

waves tends to

Explain why a meant by the term "effective wave slope"? place her masts parallel to the normal to the wave slope as

vessel

among
her

virtually

upright position of equilibrium.


9.

Show

that

the behaviour the

of a vessel at sea depends largely on the relation between

her still-water period and


10.

period of the waves she

may

encounter.
if

What

difference in the behaviour of a vessel

would you expect

her single

roll

period

were
(1) (2)

longer than the half period of the waves;

much

shorter than the half period of the waves?

QUESTIONS.
11.

271

Explain the terms "steady," " crank," and "stiff," as applied to a vessel's condition
at sea.
is

when among waves


12.

Under what circumstances


single
roll

the
is

rolling

of a ship
;

likely

to

be most severe?
expect her to behave

The
if

period

of a vessel

6 seconds

how would you

broadside on to a regular series of waves of 12 seconds period?


13.

Referring to the previous question,

if

the

maximum

slope angle of the

waves be 5
expect

degrees and the vessel upright

when

a wave reaches her, in what position would you


to offer

her to be after the passage of six waves, assuming the water


14.

no resistance?
exceptionally
severe,
to

If

a shipmaster finds the rolling


justly attribute it?

of

his

vessel

to

become

what cause may he the rolling motion ?


15. 16.

What

steps should

he take with a view to reducing

Give an analysis of the resistance encountered by a vessel when rolling

freely.
?

What

are bilge-keels
of motion

In what

way do they

affect

the

rolling

motions of vessels

Discuss the effect


17.

ahead on the action of bilge-keels.


effective in reducing rolling in small vessels

Bilge-keels are

more

of short period than

in large slow-rolling vessels.


18.

Explain why.

What

are

water

chambers?

Show how

they

tend

to

diminish

the

rolling

of

ships

in

which they are


19.

installed.

Explain the terms

" pitching

"

and "heaving."
calculate

Give the formula


vessel

for

the

pitching

period of a vessel in seconds.


longitudinal

The

pitching period
the

of a

being 4 seconds,

and her
feet.

metacentric height 400

feet,

radius

of gyration.

A n s. 144*4
20.
21.

Is

a short or long pitching period preferable?


is

Give a reason
pitch

for

your answer?

Under what circumstances

master,
tain

who

has his vessel

well

Explain how a under control, might help matters in such a case and oba vessel likely to
excessively?

easier

fore-and-aft motions.

CHAPTER XL

Loading and Ballasting.


IT
a

should
simply

now be
to
fill

clear

that

to

efficiently

load

a vessel
possible

does
time.

not

mean
the

her

with

cargo

in

the

shortest
to

In

previous
vessel's

chapters
qualities

we

have

endeavoured

sea

depends

upon
so

the
that

show that the nature of manner in which the weights,


skilful

including

the

cargo,
efficient

are

distributed,

stevedoring

is

almost as

important as

designing.

We
qualities

have- already seen that

the

characteristics

controlling
it

a vessel's sea
in

have a conflicting
to

interdependence, which makes


the values

difficult

any
great
that

given case
that

arrange for

necessary to
is

the

best

all-round results

with great stability heavy rolling

frequently associated,
of
stability.

and with
thus
clear

steadiness

dangerously
care

small

margin
is

It

is

considerable
into

and experience

necessary in order to put cargo properly


of
this

a vessel.

The superintendence
sort

trusted only to thoroughly-experienced

persons,

work should, therefore, be and owners who take no

enpreto

cautions

of this
all

may

find

the

subsequent behaviour of
officer

their vessels

be scarcely

that

might be desired.

An
to

intelligent

and experienced
strive
for,

can,

with
vessel.

care,

usually
if

do much

bring about a satisfactory


all

condition
his

of his

Even
safer

he does not

gain

he may
than
if

vessel

should

still

be

and more com-

fortable

loaded in any haphazard way.


loading general cargoes, an officer
his
vessel.

GENERAL CARGOES. In
his

who knows

business

will

be guided by the characteristics of

narrow and deep,


lighter

he

will

place

the

If she be heavy weights low in the holds and the

weights
of
in

higher

up, thus

ensuring

a comparatively low position


of
the

of the

centre
position

gravity,

necessary
of
this

on
type.

account
If

metacentre

being

low

in

vessels
will

the

vessel

be

broad and
placing

shallow, the

metacentre

be relatively high, and to obviate a too great value of


a
in

GM

he

will

aim

at

higher
the

position

of

centre

of

gravity,

the

heavy
that

weights

higher

vessel.

Besides
the

this,

following
distributed

the

principles

of Chapter
in

weights
trim.

are

longitudinally
sufficient

such

VIIL, he way as

will

see

to

secure

a a

suitable

Thus, with
steadiness

stability,

steadiness

among waves and


without
affecting

satisfactory fore-and-aft flotation

The

vessel's

may be secured. may be further improved,


272

the

GENERAL CARGOES.
stability,
if,

273
of
is

without raising
ship's
sides,

them,
the

the heavy

items

cargo
thus
to

can be banked

against the
roll

as

radius

of

gyration

increased
indicate
vessel's

and the
that,

period

lengthened.
very
little

Actual

experience

appears

in

ordinary

cases,
effect

can thus be done to improve a


the
it

condition,
of.
is

but the

of "winging"
of

weights
is

should not be
to
is

lost

sight
out,

The
a

nature

cargo,

hardly necessary
of
loading.
to
It

point
also

always
that

determining

factor

of

the

style

admitted
and,

circumstances
cargo

may

not

always
for

be

favourable
at

good
correct

stowage.
time,

Suitable
in

may not be
the
at

available

shipment
rather

the

con-

sequence,

heavy items may occupy positions either too high or too low,
of the vessel

and
of

the

centre

than at the sides

but such a state


a

things

may be
of

considered
various

exceptional.
for

When
are

the

weights

particulars
for

the
in

items
to

shipment

available,

and other good plan is


of

the

officer

charge

make a rough estimate

of

the

position

the

centre

of gravity.

In

may

be

determined
of

way the best places for individual items of cargo before commencing operations, and, although in the
this

process

loading
for.

departures

may

require

to

be

made,

these

may

readily

be allowed
as

On

completion of the stowage, the metacentric height may,

and,

checked by means of an inclining experiment, Also, the by transposing some of the weights. roll period may be ascertained by forcibly heeling the vessel and counting It is to be feared the value of the number of rolls as already described. Owners make much of the such experiments is not fully appreciated. trouble and loss of time involved, and do not give the encouragement they
previously
if

suggested,

be

necessary,

corrected

might to their commanding


of a
care
at

officers,

and hence we

find well-proportioned
rolling,

designed vessels developing tendencies to excessive


little

and which the exercise

the

time of loading would have done


that

much

to

obviate.

It

cannot

be

doubted
of

the

carrying

out
to

of

the

experiments above
officer

described would

afford

invaluable

experience

commanding
ship
to

as

to

how
best
ship."

particular
results
It

kinds
sea.

cargo

should be stowed in his


officer
-

to

obtain
his

the

at

Such

an

might
that

be
a

said
is

"know
upon

own
take

sometimes happens,
officer

however,

man

called
is

to

charge of the loading of a ship of whose qualities he

in total ignorance.

In such a case an
condition

should be quick to notice changes in the vessel's


of
loading.
If

during
list

the
port
at

process
or

he
take

should
it

observe
stability,

her
in

to

suddenly
upright

to

starboard,
is

he
of
of

may
small,

her

the

position

least,

dangerously
centre
state

the

sudden
the

movement being
metacentre,

caused
the

by the
will

raising

of
into

the
a

gravity

above

and

vessel

being

put
fig.

unstable

equilibrium.

Her

stability

curve
to

resemble
at

224,

that

is,

she will
to

be

unstable

from the upright

the

angle

which
to

she

has a

come
list

account
as

attempt

cure

such

he

might
matters
S

quite

correctly

do
if

if

must on no moving weights to the high side, the list had been a gradual one due to
rest.

The

officer

by

uneven

loading.

In
worse,

the

present
the

case

the

raising

of

the

weights
small,

would
might

make

and,

reserve

of

stability

were

74
actual

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
disaster.

AND CALCULATIONS.
cure
is

culminate in

The
in

only

to

bring

down
board,
is

the
or

centre

of gravity by lowering
additional

the

position

of weights
holds.

already on

shipping

weights

low down
ballast
stability

the
but,

A
be

good way
seen

to

run
this

up

compartment of a
be dangerous
if

tank,

as

will

later

on,

might

the

reserve

were small.

HOMOGENEOUS CARGOES. In
sumed
certain

the foregoing remarks we have asmore or less general cargo. The case, however, is different with homogeneous cargoes, as we shall now proceed to show.

Suppose, for instance, a vessel

has

her
to

whole

cargo

space

filled

with a

homogeneous
line.

cargo, of such
is

density as

just

bring

her to the load water-

This
centre

a trying condition of loading, as an unfavourable position of


gravity

the

of

cannot
is

now be

corrected
part

by

shifting
this

about the cargo.


few

The
it

only

plan

open

to

discharge

of

it,

and

owners would

contemplate with any satisfaction.


be,

Such a
of

resort,

however,

unpleasant though

would, under such circumstances

of loading

and position of centre of


at

gravity,

be
at

unavoidable
all.

if

the

safety

the

ship

sea

were

to

be

con-

sidered

Of
this
safety.

course,

vessels

intended

frequent] y

to

load

homogeneous cargoes
full

of

critical

density can always be designed to carry a

cargo with perfect


this

The
in
it

naval

architect

would, in such a case,

make

the

one conproperly,

dition
since

which the vessel should


is

have

sufficient

stability

and trim

the

only one

over

which stowage has no control.


design has been demonstrated

actual

The importance of good experience. The late


the
Institution

by the results of
at

Dr. Elgar, in

a paper on
in

"Losses

Sea," read
analysis
that

before
British

of

Naval

Architects
period, design.

1886,

made an

of

shipwrecks

over a certain

and showed conclusively

many
with

of the disasters were due to of such a

bad
as

Few

of the vessels lost were, indeed,


stability

proportions

as

to

admit of

sufficient

when

fully

laden

homogeneous cargo such


It

above described, and many of them were so

laden.

should

be mentioned that the proportionately narrow and


these mainly belonged,
is

deep
the

class

of vessels, to which

no longer popular
is

modern
cargoes,

tendency

is

towards greater breadth, and

this

in

the
as

right

direction.

With homogeneous cargoes of other


due to
cargo
faulty

densities,

with

general

something may be done to correct a high position of the centre of gravity


density, for instance, the whole and the margin of draught taken up if the vessel has no tanks, heavy dry ballast by running in water ballast may be put in the bottom of the holds before the cargo is loaded. With cargoes of greater density, the whole internal space will not be required, and so the position of the centre of gravity can be affected by leaving an empty space in the holds, or in the 'tween decks, according as it is desired

design.

With those of
as
;

lighter

space

may be

filled

before,

to

diminish

or

increase

the

value

of

G M.
oil,

SPECIAL HOMOGENEOUS CARGOES OIL. Bulk


becoming increasingly important, and
special

as

a freight,

is

care

is

necessary in

dealing with

OIL CARGOES IN BULK.


it.

275
vessel,

In explanation of
to

this,

suppose an oil-carrying

in

the

process

of

loading,

Fig. 232 illustrates by some external means. It will the case and is a section through a partially filled compartment. be noted that the act of heeling has transferred the small wedge of oil

be

slightly

heeled

SiOSs
gravity,

across
to

the

ship

into

the

position

S2

$& causing

G,

the

centre

of

be drawn out in the same direction to


act

Gv
the

The
arm

forces of weight

and buoyancy
drawn, form
being
It

through

G and
x

the
right

deflected

centre

of buoyancy, and, as

couple

tending

to

the vessel,

of

the

couple

m Zv
is

thus

seen

that
is

the

effective

centre

of gravity, so far as the

initial

stability

is

concerned,
to

raised

to

m,

and the
the
is

metacentric
in

height

reduced
of
the

from

GM

mM.

If

we assume
in

that

liquid

the

hold

is

same
in

density as the water in which

the vessel

floating,

the

reduction

Gm

feet

may be obtained

any actual case from the formula

Gm
where
1

= y,
in cubic feet.

/*

is

the

moment

of inertia of the free surface of the fluid in foot units,

and V the volume of displacement of the ship


*

This formula

is

This formula

is

obtained as follows:

Referring

to

fig.

232,

Let
/
l

6=hatf breadth of

free surface in feet.


feet.

= length

of free surface in

w = weight
lf

per cubic foot of liquid cargo in

lbs.
is floating in lbs.

= weight V = volume
vessel

per cubic foot of water in which vessel

of displacement in cubic
to

feet,

Assuming the
at

be heeled as

in

fig.

232,

and compartment to be rectangular

the level

of the free liquid surface,

Volume of wedge 8 % 0$ a or S z 0S t = ^b 2 fd cubic foot. Weight of wedge SJS, or S 2 08 4 = $b*f6 wjbs. Moment of wedge 8.08, or S..0S, about"* x \=\b*iewb foot j ft f In fore-and-aft axis k through U )
,

,.

lbs.

And, since weight of

vessel

= Vxw

lbs.

Let a vertical

middle

line,

m.

line be drawn through G lt and Then, the inclination being small,

call

the

point in which

it

intersects

the

GG^Gmd,
therefore,

G
/ is

GG, $6 / w, m =j- = -y- x


liquid

But 6
middle

the

moment

of inertia of the
/',

surface

about the axis through 0,

i.e.,

the

line.

Calling this

we

get by substitution,

Gm= v x--,
which becomes

when, as assumed above, liquid cargo and water


density.

in

which the vessel

is

floating are of

same

276
seen to
the

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
of the transverse metacentre above
takes

be similar to that
of

for

the

height

centre

buoyancy,
resulting
that
is,

except

that

the

place

of

as

the the

point
greater

from
the

which
of

the
/',

distance
larger

must be measured.
the
free

Clearly,
oil,

the value

the

surface of
It

the greater will be

be specially noted that the reduction does not depend on the quantity of oil in the compartment, as a small quantity having a large free surface will have more effect than a
reduction in
the

metacentric

height.

should

large

quantity with
Practical

a small free surface.

Example.
is

A
filled

midship compartment of a vessel


with
It

of

4,500

tons

displacement

partly
is

liquid

of the

same density
that

as the water in

which

the

vessel

floating.

being

given

the

free

surface

is

30

Fig.

232.

feet

long,

38

feet

broad,,

and rectangular

in

shape,

estimate

the

reduction

in

metacentric

height.

Applying the formula,

we

get

Gm = ^ 12
If the

X4500X35

^-=-87
'

feet.

liquid

water

supporting
ratio

by the
cargo

oil different in density from the above value would require to be multiplied of the density of the oil to that of the water. Thus, if the

in

the

compartment were
the

the

vessel,

were petroleum, and the vessel


height

afloat

in

salt

water,

the

reduction

in

metacentric

would be

G
the
ratio

m = '87

-8

-69

feet,

of the

density

of petroleum

to

that

of salt

water

being

'8.

OIL CAkGOES IN BULK.

277

In the above case there


bulkhead, however,
is

is

assumed
in

to

never omitted

be no middle line bulkhead. modern oil-carrying vessels, as


This

Such a
it

is

of

great value in minimising the detrimental effect of a free surface.


in
fig.

is

shown

233.

The continuous
lines

line,
3

St
5

S^
}

indicates the oil surface with the vessel

upright,

and the two


here
is

S S^ S

Sq

the

surface

the presence of the bulkhead restricting the


transferred

when the vessel is heeled, movement as shown. The wedge

from one side to the other of each portion of the divided


half

and one-fourth the volume of that of the wedge of fluid is a half, and the moment an eighth. But two wedges of fluid move instead of one, so that the total moment is one-fourth of what it was in the previous case. The reduction in metacentric height due to the restricted oil surface, since it varies directly as the moment, is thus also a fourth.
the

compartment
previous

breadth

case;

also

the travel of the centre of gravity of the

Fig.

233.

278

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
being

AND CALCULATIONS.
but
as

admitted liquid
surface

low in the vessel;

the

liquid

rises,

its

upper
vessel

broadens

rapidly,

and

quickly

overtakes

and passes M, the


Yft

becoming unstable.
In a case* investigated by the
late

Professor Jenkins,
15
inches.

coincided with

when

the liquid reached a depth of


oil

Heeling then began, and

rapidly increased as the


inclination

rose in the
that

hold, the vessel reaching a


to right
herself,

maximum
finally
re-

of 19!.

After

she

began slowly

turning to the upright


the liquid

when

had passed below M, which took place when


the top of the tank.
oil

came within a few inches of


out,
;

A
scarcely

point of special importance in loading

vessels,

which, perhaps, need

be pointed

is

that
if

adjacent

compartments
dealt

should be
with
the

filled

or

emptied
effect

simultaneously
naturally

for

one side only were


Vessels

inclining
to

would

be
this

great.

have

frequently

been

inclined
;

dangerous angles when


there are cases

precaution as to loading has been neglected

and

when an

on record even of actual capsizing from this cause. Of course, compartment is quite full, no movement is possible, and the oil becomes virtually a solid homogeneous cargo. Expansion Trunkways. A point which must not be overlooked in connection with bulk oil cargoes, is the loss due to evaporation, and unless
oil

specially
in

provided

against,

the

reduction
oil

in

bulk

may

lead

to

free

surfaces

the

holds.

Accordingly,
it,

every

compartment
oil
is

has

one or more open


fill

trunkways rising above


the

and
fill

sufficient

holds

and

partially

these
as

passages.

pumped into the vessel to The horizontal areas of


with
the

the
oil

trunkways are kept as small


in

possible,

consistent

volume of
fully
oil

them above the


to

level
loss

of the

tops

of

the

compartments being
without
bringing
to

suffi-

cient

allow

for

due

to

evaporation
too,

the

level

These trunkways, below the trunkways. serve the purpose of allowing the oil
volume with change of temperature.

being
freely

to

open expand

the

holds, also

and

contract

in

GRAIN
analysis,

CARGOES. Dr.
carrying grain
coal.

Elgar,

in

the

paper

previously

referred

to,

pointed out that between the years 1881 and 1883, the period covered by his
vessels

had a greater number of


striking, as the

losses

than

all

other

cargoes
is

except

This

is

number
of

of vessels carrying grain

a small proportion of those engaged in the coal trade, and points to the
of
special
characteristics

existence

in

the

nature

grain

cargoes

and

their

stowage.
It

Investigation

has

proved these surmises to be correct.

found that bulk cargoes, such as grain, even when loaded with is have a tendency to settle down during a voyage and to leave empty These spaces have been estimated at spaces immediately under each deck. to 8 per cent, of the depth of hold, and in fairly large vessels may, 5
care,

therefore,

be of considerable magnitude.
it

After such settlement, the

grain has
vessel
is

a free surface, and


*

is

here

that

the

danger

lies,

for

when the

See a paper in the

Transactions of the Institution of

Shipbuilders and

Engineers in

Scotland for 1889.

GRAIN CARGOES.
rolling
at
sea,
if

2?rJ>

the

grain

tends
is

to

put

its
is

surface
the

parallel

with
result.

the

wave

slope, and,

the
to

rolling

heavy, shifting
free

inevitable

The
sliding

angle

which the
ensue,

surface
easily
is

of

grain

must be inclined before


If
it

motion

will

may be
until

obtained.

wheat,

for

example,
to

be poured
the

on
side

to

floor

there

heap,

will

be

found

take

form of a cone-shaped
the
of
this

pyramid.

When
grain
;

sliding

has
is

stopped,
called

the angle
the

which
of

pyramid
this

makes with the


for,

floor,
if

angle

more wheat be poured on to the heap, the angle of the cone will be increased, and the particles will run down the side of the cone until the same angle as before is attained. This is one of the principal differences between a liquid and a
friction

or

repose,

of

kind of

grain

cargo.

On
the

the

slightest

inclination

of

the

vessel,

liquid
is

puts

itself

parallel
friction

with

water

surface

with

grain

the

tendency
until

the

same,

but

between the
reached;
the

particles

prevents
in

any movement
fact,
if

a certain inclina-

tion

is

this

inclination,

the vessel

be

heeled

in

quiet

water, being

angle

of repose

of the grain.
of

The
wheat

value
it

of this angle has

been obtained
peas

for

various

kinds

grain;

for 28-J

is

23^ degrees,

for

two kinds of Indian corn, 26^ degrees and

degrees respectively, for mixed

and beans, 27 J degrees.

The
to

late

Professor

Jenkins,

who

investigated this subject,* drew attention

some
the
at

points

of importance with regard to the sliding angle.


forces,

He showed
cargo
angle

that

accelerative
sea,

which
to

act

on

a
at

vessel

and

her

when
than

rolling

qause

shifting

take

place

much

smaller

the still-water angle of repose.


of 25
degrees, he
as to

In the case of grain with an angle of repose

ticulars

stability

degrees.
will,

He
a
this

also

it to be, in a certain vessel of which the parand radius of gyration were assumed, as low as i6| found that heaving motions, when accompanied by rolling,

found

at

certain
angle.

point

during
the
this

each

oscillation,

cause

still

further

diminuless

tion

of

In

example
angle
of
is

above,

it

proved
exceeded
there
shifting

to

be
a

rather

than

14^ degrees.
waves,

As
It

frequently

by vessels
is

rolling

among
in

the

probability

shifting,

where
that

free

surface,

becomes manifest.
the

should
14 J

be

mentioned
at
at

would

take
the

place
oscilla-

above vessel
also,

at

degrees

one
the

point

only during
roll

tion,

namely, when she


;

had arrived

end of a
slide

and was about


angle, but

to

return

that
it

the

a portion

of

at

whole surface would not the upper part of the side

at

this

only

about

to

descend.
in

At any
excess
/,<?.,

other part, the angle of shifting would be greater, reaching a value

of the still-water angle of repose at the other extreme of the free surface,

on the
other

side about to ascend. side

Of
this

course,
state

when

the vessel

became

inclined to the

of

the

vertical,

of things would
to

be reversed.
the

On

the

whole,
to

the

effect

of

rolling

appears

increase

considerably

tendency

shifting.

See a paper on the Shifting of Cargoes in the Transactions of the Institution of Naval

Architects for 1887.

2S0
Piofessor
sliding

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Jenkins
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
that

showed
the
effect

further

the

decrease of

angle
the

at

which
time
case
also

begins
out

greater,

greater
shift

the

stability.,
is

but

at

same
in

pointed
of a

that

the

of a

of cargo

more

serious

the

vessel
that

of small stability than

in that of

one of great

stability.

He

showed
the

the

part

of the cargo

centre

of

gravity,

which,

in

most subject to movement is that above double-decked vessels, would apply to the
the
carriage
for

'tween

decks.
in

Government Regulations prohibit


decks
except
is

of

grain

in

bulk
cargo
it

'tween
the

such

as

may be
shifting

necessary

feeding
;

the

in

holds and
carried
in

carried
;

in properly constructed feeders

generally,
this

is

largely

bags

dangerous
of

of

the

cargo
of

at

part

is

thus

obviated.

The stowage
special

grain

in

the

holds
of

vessels

having a
vessels,

'tween

decks

requires

care.*

In the

case

single-decked
rectified

when
ing

shifting of

cargo has
the

taken place the

effect

may be
there

by opendecks

the

hatches when
of grain

weather permits, and


for

filling

up the empty spaces


is

with
this

bags

carried

the

purpose.
are
to
fit

Where

'tween

cannot be done, as
It

the
is

holds
usual

inaccessible,

and

shifting

once begun

cannot be corrected.
deck,

trimming hatches through the lower

and these to some extent allow the settlement in the holds to be made up from the cargo in the 'tween decks, the grain in way of the trimming hatches being in bulk but empty spaces under the beams are still likely to exist between these hatches. Allowing for certain exceptions, the Government Regulations require onefourth the grain to be carried in bags in all spaces which have no efficient
;

feeding

arrangements.
level

In

such

cases,

before

stowing

the

bags,

the

grain

must be trimmed
above,
this
rule,

and covered with


is

boards.

For
serious

the

reasons
of

given
cargo,

which

calculated

to

prevent

shifting

should obviously apply specially to compartments constituting the lower holds


of

vessels

having one or more 'tween decks.


against

As a safeguard
carrying
vessels,

the

effects

of
in

possible

shifting
in

of

cargo,

grainto

whether

the

grain

be

bags

or

bulk, are

required

have a centre division in the holds and in the 'tween decks, which
the

restricts

extent of the movement of a grain cargo much as it restricts the Generally, the centre division consists ot movement of a cargo of liquid. portable wood boards fitted edge on edge and reeved between the centre but in some modern line of pillars, which are reeled for the purpose

vessels

it

consists

of

permanent

steel

bulkhead

(see

page

161)

except

in

way of

the

main hatchways, the exigencies of stowage demanding portable

boards at these places.

COAL CARGOES. Owing


stowed
'tween
at

There
*

to its density, coal can, in general, be such a rate as to ensure a certain amount of empty space in the decks, the vessel at the same time being down to her load mark. therefore, no apparent reason why coal-laden vessels should is, not

See a paper by the

late

Mr. Martell

in

the

Transactions of the

Institution

of Naval

Architects for 1SS0.

TIMBER CARGOES.
have
sufficient
lost,

28
of such vessels which have
fair

stability.

From

the great
to

number
a

been
the

some

of

them known
it

possess

amount
that

of

stability of

at

start

of their fatal voyages,


the

has been conjectured


of

shifting

the

cargo
are

may have been


fitted

cause
shifting

not

few

of

the
is

disasters.

Colliers

not usually

with

boards, and
decks,

there
as

no

restriction
;

placed

on the stowage of coal


the angle

in

the
is

'tween

with

grain

and,

although
the

of repose

of coal
it

considerably

greater

than

that
at

of grain,

diminishing process
less

undergoes
the

during
range

rolling

motions
appear

sea

may doubtin

often

bring

it

within

of
it

vessel's

oscillations

stormy
near

weather.

From which

considerations

would

that

the

suggested
quite

reason of shifting for the loss of


the

many

coal-laden vessels

may be
are,

mark.

The
at

lessons

to

be deduced here by the


vessel
as to

ship's

officer

first,

to

aim
at

so

loading

his

ensure

easy

motion

when among waves


left

sea;
as

and

second,
inevitably

to

see
to

that

no vacant spaces are


of the
cargo.

under

the

decks,

these

lead

shifting

TIMBER CARGOES. In
the
full

the

case

of

cargoes

of

the

heaviest

woods,

and loading should simply follow the lines already indicated for ordinary heavy deadweight cargoes. With cargoes of mixed timbers, satisfactory conditions of stability and trim can always be attained by a proper distribution of the light and heavy woods. In the case of cargoes of the lightest timbers, however, the problem of stowage becomes more difficult, because, as well as full holds, there is usually a considerable deck load carried. Many vessels that are good deadweight carriers, and quite suitable for general trades, could not, without a considerable amount of ballast, be safely employed to carry a cargo of timber of the last description, the high position of the centre of gravity, due to the presence of the deck cargo, making the stability quite inadequate. In some cases, indeed, there might be actual instability in the upright position, and no seaman would care to face a sea voyage in a ship having a pronounced list to port or
hold capacity
is

not

required,

starboard.

In
as

this

trade,

vessels

should

be

specially

broad
of

in

relation

to

draught,
sufficient

this

ensures

a
a

relatively

high

position

metacentre,
ballast.
It

and

margin of

stability,

without

having to resort to
cargo
of

should,

of

course,

be

noted
in

that

deck

wood,

when

well

packed
which

and
a

securely

lashed

place,

affords

valuable

surplus

buoyancy,

has

marked effect on the form of the stability curve, giving it increased area and range, although at initial angles, owing to a high position of the centre
of gravity,
the
righting

arms may be small.


this

We
223),
perfect
vessel

have already referred to curves of


that
in

type

(see

curve

No.

3,

fig.

and have pointed out


safety,

such cases the value of


this

GM

may, with
a

be quite small;

and as

ensures
roller,

a long rolling period,

so

circumstanced should prove an easy


value
of

and thus a comfortable


be
limited

boat in a seaway

The

in

a case

like

this,

should

by the con-

282
sicleration

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of
the
vessel

AND CALCULATIONS.
and
is,

being

stable,

not

too

tender,

in

the

upright

position throughout the voyage.


to

That

over and above

a sufficient margin

cover

diminutions
out
of
the

from

causes
coal

that

may

be

anticipated,
in

such
of

as

the

burning
of

bunker

and the increase


water,

weight

the

deck
value

cargo through

becoming saturated with sea


as

certain

minimum

G M, such

previous

experience with

the vessel
is

may

suggest,

should be
the

provided.
extent
vessel.

A
the

metacentric
excess,

height of greater value

unnecessary, and, to the

of

might

be

considered

as

actually

detrimental

to

EFFECT ON STABILITY OF A SHIFT OF CARGO. To


the

calculate

quantity

involved

in

any
of

particular
oil

shift

of

cargo
is

is

not

always

an

easy matter.

In the case

cargoes,

where there

a free surface, the

Fig.

234.

quantity

shifted

through
oil

the

heeling
is

of

the

vessel

may be
but,
as

accurately

deter-

mined,

since

the

owing to
quickly
Still,

friction

nor

so

we have seen, between the parts, dry homogeneous cargoes do not move so definitely as oil, and the same rules cannot be applied.
cargo

always

horizontal,

with grain, an
of
the
is

approximation
is

may be
to

made

to

the
in

heeling

effect

of

the worst shift the

cargo that
vessel

likely

take

place

given

case,

when

plans
Fig.

of

are

available.
vessel.

234 a

the

midship section of a grain-laden


the
is

The

horizontal
to

dotted

line

Ct r

shows

grain
at

level,

assuming
of
the
the

the

settlement

have
per

taken place
ing
cent,

evenly,

and
of

drawn
hold.

a distance

below the deck,


grain,
i.e.,

correspond-

to

the
the

anticipated

maximum
the

settlement
b bx
is

about
of
the
lie

of

depth
the
the

ultimate

line

grain

surface

when

cargo
angle

has

shifted,

and

may

be

taken

to

to

the

horizontal at

of repose

of the

grain.

The wedge

of grain

a x (Ibx

EFFECT OF A SHIFT OF CARGO.

283

now
</ 2)

occupies

the

position

ctcbd,
of

its

centre of

of

gravity

and
to
If

the

common

centre

gravity

vessel

and cargo

moving from moving

#,

to

from

Gv

w =

weight of cargo

shifted

in

tons,

W
9i3%

~ =

displacement of vessel in tons,


travel of centre of gravity of shifted cargo in feet,

GG

will

be

parallel

to

the

line

joining

and g 2

the

point

will

thus

be raised
however,

relatively to

the keel as well as

moved

laterally.

For small

angles,

GG = GM
X

x e (nearly).

From which equation Q


be obtained.
This
reduction
lateral

the

angle at

which

the

vessel

comes

to

rest,

may

movement
righting

of

the

danger her
if

safety.
fitted,

the centre of gravity obviously means a and in a vessel originally tender might enIn the case assumed there is no middle line bulkhead;

of

arms,

such were

the

angle

of

heel,

as

in

the

case

of

liquid

cargo,

would be reduced. Practical Example.


displacement,

In

a grain-laden

vessel

of 48

feet
is

beam, 9000 tons


transversely

and

18

inches

M,

50

tons

of

cargo

shifted

through a distance of 27

feet.

Calculate

the angle

of heel.

In

this case

GG
.*.

5^H7
9000

GM

x Q

KO X -^ 27 9000 x '5
1

-io

6 nearly.
it

If the

shift

of cargo were considerable,


well as the transverse

might be necessary
in

to allow for the

vertical as

movement

determining the angle of heel.

Let

h the

vertical

distance between

d =
,r

the horizontal distance between


r

g x and g g x and g 2
2i

then,

Vertical

movement

of

centre 01 gravity

IV

X H
7^

feet,

TT

Horizontal

movement

of centre 01 gravity

==

w a
x
rr.

feet.

place.
line

This determines the position of the centre of gravity after shifting has taken Join this point with M, the metacentre, then the angle between this

and the middle

line

is

the angle of heel required,

provided

it

does not

exceed

io to 15 degrees.

GM

BALLASTING.
sails
;

285

small,
all

the case of many steamers, that the stability would be dangerously and, in owing to a relatively high position of the centre of gravity such cases, even assuming sufficient stability, that their slight grip of the
in
;

water,

of wind

and their greatly exposed surfaces, would cause them to be the sport and waves, with a probability of serious damage before the end of
Accordingly,
if

the voyage.

he cannot get cargo, he takes ballast aboard,


Frequently, a
is

i.e.,

sand, gravel, rubbish, or of


in

water.
ballast

combination of water and one

the
this

other

forms of

used.

In steamers,

bunker coal
should

is

useful

way.
to

As
(1)

the

total
:

amount

of

ballast

required,

it

be

sufficient

to

secure the

following

An

adequate
of the

immersion
engines

of

the

propeller

in

steamers

to

prevent

(2)

and breaking of the tail shaft, and undue strains being brought upon the stern frame. A stability curve of suitable area and range, with considerable
racing
righting

moments
floating

at

large
to

angles
give

of inclination
grip

in

all

vessels.

(3)

A
as

good
far

depth

of

the

water,

and

to

reduce,

as possible,
as

when among waves,


will
roll.

the effective wave-slope angle, the

which,

we have

seen, directly affects

magnitude

of

the

arcs

through which a vessel

It would appear that a great variety of opinion exists as to the ratio which should hold between the amount of ballast and the full deadweight. In

a paper
in

by Mr. Thearle
Transactions
of
in

on "Ballasting of
the are
Institution
given,

Steamers

for

Atlantic
for

Voyages''
1903, the

the

of

Naval

Architects

actual

figures
"5,

from
51

to

and show the ballast draught to vary 72 of the load draught, and the amount of ballast from '24 to
41
cases
full

of

the

deadweight,

shelter-deck

vessels

with

high

sides

having
flush

the

greatest

proportion
very
short the

of ballast and draught, and small vessels with


erections

decks
for

or

with

the

smallest
in

Mr. Thearle points


steamers
less

out,

that

good
the

results,

amount

of

ballast

ordinary tramp

when making
and the
there
proin

voyages
full

across

the

Atlantic

in

winter
vessels

should

not
feet

be

than one-third of
stern,

deadweight, with

the

4 to

by the
to

pellers

about two-thirds
of
loose of

immersed,
at

experience

having

shown
result
less

that

damage
is

the
less

form
a

rivets
ballast.

the

ends
in
is

is

likely

where

proportion

point

ballasting
that
fact,

not

important

than

having
stowed.

sufficiency

of

deadweight,

The same
operations
;

principles
that
is,

should, in the
ballast

the latter should be carefully be followed here as in ordinary

loading
the

should
low,

not
or

be
there

placed

too high,

or

stability

may be endangered, nor


the
ship's

too

may be an undue
in-

depression

of

centre

of

gravity,

and

consequent abnormal

crease in the metacentric height, a state of things, as

we have
hull.

seen, inevitably

leading

to

excessive

rolling

and

great

straining

of the

the

In
rubbish,

vessels

having

'tween

decks,
;

part
in

of

ballast,

if

of

sand

or

should

be

placed

there

single-decked
the

vessels

some
by

special
fitting

arrangement should be made to

raise

centre of gravity,

either

286

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
to

AND CALCULATIONS.

temporary bulkheads
part

of

it

properly

secured

bank up the ballast in the holds, or by carrying on deck, or by any plan which experience and

the

special

circumstances

not always taken, and thus


particularly
in

may suggest. many vessels


ballast

Unfortunately,
in ballast are
largely

such

precautions
stiff.

are

unduly
It

Nowadays,
the

steamers,

water

is

used.
easily,

has

obvious

and cheaply loaded and discharged. Moat modern cargo steamers have double bottoms and peak tanks some large vessels have also one or more deep tanks extending from the bottom of the vessel to the first or second deck; while in a few instances ballast tanks have been built into the corners under the deck, also on top of the deck between the hatches, and in other places.
advantage over sand or rubbish of
being more
quickly,
;

For
the

details

of

the

construction
details.

of

ballast

tanks,

the

reader

is

referred

to

chapter

on

practical

double bottom,

of
side,

course,
is

except
the
is

in

the

special
for

case

in

which

it

extends up the ship's

not

best

place

ballast.

The amount

carried in a double bottom, however,

not of

itself sufficient

for a sea voyage,

and
deck,

if

the remainder of

is

loaded

in

deep tanks, or

in

corner

tanks under the


a
satisfactory
at

which

the

capacity

has

been
such
to

carefully

considered,

immersion and
sea

metacentric

height

as

to

ensure

good behaviour
bottom
a

may be attained. Where the ballast supplementary


stones
or

that

in

the
so
as

double
to

consists suitable

of

rubbish,

it

should
than

be
the

disposed

obtain

position

of the

centre

of gravity.
vertical

Scarcely less

important

distribution

of

ballast,

is

the

placing of

it

longitudinally.
aft

In steamers, as already noted, there should be

a preponderance
for,

to

properly

immerse
so

the
as

propeller.
to

But
a

this

allowed
pitching

the

remainder should be
This
period
is,

disposed

obtain

suitable

period.

towards the
obtain,

extremities

we know, lengthened by winging out the weights and shortened by concentrating them amidships. To
quick
fore-and-aft

therefore,

satisfactory

motion,
to

and

avoid

the

constant
in

tendency which

slow-moving vessel

has

bury her

extremities

the waves, supplementary ballast, whether water in deep tanks, or stones and rubbish, should be placed towards amidships, while peak tanks, where such are required, should be kept within moderate limits.

Unfortunately,
to

concentrating

the

ballast

amidships

in

lead

to

the

development

of

considerable

bending

this way is moments, but

likely

these

cannot well be avoided, and the strength of vessels should be to meet all such demands.
already been

made

sufficient

DANGER OF FILLING BALLAST TANKS AT SEA. Mention


made
of this
point,

has

which should be abundantly clear from the remarks on the loading of liquid cargoes. It is to be feared that many officers do not fully appreciate the danger of this practice. The ballast is
loaded in order to increase the metacentric height and, therefore, the but, as we have seen, the presence of the free surface during the
stability,

process
to

may

deprive

vessel

of

her

effective

metacentric

height

and cause her

DANGER OF FILLING BALLAST TANKS AT


heel
that to

SEA.

287

a dangerous angle,
formula

if

not to capsize.

It

is

important to remember

the

Gm = L
as

previously

remarked, shows that


the

it

is

the

extent

of the

area of

the

free

magnitude of the quantity of liquid in the tank, which influences the metacentric height. And commanding officers should see that
surface, not

when

the ballast

is

out,

the

tanks

are

quite

empty, particularly in

the

case

of midship

compartments which are of considerable breadth.


the
following

As a concrete example, take


tons

: In

a certain vessel of 7000

displacement,

it

is is

intended to run up a 'midship

compartment of the
4 feet deep,
approxi-

double bottom,

which

80

feet

long,

35

feet

broad,

mately rectangular in shape,

and has a capacity for 320 tons of salt water. Given that the distance between the ship's centre of gravity and the top
tank
in
is

of the

the

12

feet,

calculate
is 1

the

reduction
the

in

metacentric

height

when
to

water
at

the

tank

foot

deep,

metacentre

being

assumed
centre
in

remain

the

same height above the base throughout.


here
the
to

We
gravity

have

consider

two
of
free

things,

viz.,

the

fall

in

the

of

due
of

to

admission
to

the

water,

and
its

the

virtual

rise

the

centre
gravity

gravity

due

the

liquid

surface.

Taking the

centre

of

of the

admitted water to be at half

depth,

we have

Fall

centre
effect

of gravity of vessel of the


free

=
if

80 x 15*5

"17

feet.

In finding the
of the

surface,

we suppose the
to

fore-and-aft

girders, including the

middle one, to be pierced with holes, the whole breadth


the shifting

tank will

be available in estimating the moment due

wedges of water, and, therefore

'

=
.

80 x

-ik

x
I2

?.<

-ik

n n = 285833

(fo0t units) '

and
.

Virtual rise in centre of gravity & J

2^5833 = 5 x
7080

=
-

35

i*ij J

feet.

We

thus

get,

Reduction of metacentric height

= =

1*15

'17.

-98 feet.

This reduction
instability
in

is

serious,

and

in
It

the
is

case

of

many

vessels

would cause
fit

the

upright
division
gravity

position.

the

general

practice,

however, to

the
in

centre
the

line
ot

without

perforations.

In that case, the virtual


of
the

rise

centre

would be
ot

fourth

above

amount,

or

*2Q

feet,

and the reduction

the
29

metacentric height

would only be

"17

"12

feet,

showing
bottom.

the

powerful

effect

of

watertight

centre

division

in

double

25S

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

STABILITY INFORMATION FOR COMMANDING OFFICERS. common plan with many shipbuilders in supplying stability information
new
vessels
for

A
to

the guidance of the officers,


the
stability

is

to

provide diagrams
anticipated
as

of curves of
for

depicting the

nature of
ballasting,

under
such

certain

conditions

loading
the

and
give

along
of

with
the of

remarks
In

may be
the

necessary

proper
shall

interpretation

curves.

closing

present

chapter,

we

two

examples

such
in

stability

diagrams,

and

shall
vessels.

discuss
Fig.

briefly

how
395

they

may be employed
6

the

actual

working of

235 Length
is

a diagram for a modern cargo steamer of the following dimensions:


feet

inches, breadth

51

feet

inches,

inches,

mean

load-draught
forecastle,

23

feet

inches.

moulded depth 29 feet The vessel has a short


;

poop, bridge, and

disconnected,
in

adapted to carry water ballast


'

a double
for
:

she and a main 'tween decks bottom and in both peaks. a


smaller

is

Fig.

236
design.
3

is

similar

diagram
are

cargo
feet

steamer
o
inches,

also

of

modern
49
also
feet

The dimensions
moulded depth 28
erections
consist

Length
5

351

breadth

inches,

feet

inches,
bridge,
for

mean
and
water

load-draught 23 feet
forecastle;
ballast
in

6| inches.
a

The

of

poop,

there

is

main 'tween decks, and accommodation bottom and in the after peak.
Curves A
1st

a double

to

in

each diagram

refer
/>.,

to

the

following conditions

condition (curve A).

Light

ship,

vessel complete,

water in boilers,
aboard,

but

no

cargo,

bunker
B).

coal,

stores

or

fresh

water

and

all

ballast

tanks

empty.

2nd
3rd

condition

(curve

Same

as

1st,

but

with

bunker

coal,

stores,

and
coal,
filled

fresh

water aboard.
(curve

condition

stores,

Vessel ready for sea, water in boilers, bunker C). and fresh water aboard, and the holds and 'tween decks with a homogeneous cargo of such density as just to bring
to

the

vessel

her

legal

summer
as

load-line.

4th

condition

(curve

D).

Same

3rd,

but

with
to

bunker
the

coal,

stores
at

and fresh water consumed, approximating end of a voyage.


5 th

condition

the

condition
coal,

(curve

E).

Vessel
water

ready for
aboard,
as
5th,

sea,

water

in

boilers,

bunker
stores

stores

and
water

fresh
F).

and
but but

all

ballast

tanks

filled.

6th

condition

(curve

Same Same
Same
vessel,

with

bunker
with

coal,

and
7th

fresh

consumed.
G).

condition
part

(curve

as

3rd,

laden

coal

cargo,

of the

bridge

'tween

decks being empty.


as
yth,

Sth

condition

(curve

H).

but

with

bunker

coal,

stores

and
In
dition
small.

fresh

water

consumed.
it

the

case
<?,

of the larger
fig.

will

be
the

observed that the


stability
it

3rd

convery

(curve

235)
in

is

critical

one,

reserve

being

When
cargo

loading a

cargo
the

of

the

given
the

density,
vessel's

would

probably be

considered
of the

desirable,

interests

of

safety,

from the bridge 'tween decks,

and run

to remove some up a compartment of

CO
Cvj

z o <
_j

c ^

*
?

STABILITY INFORMATION.
the the

2C)t

double bottom
stability.

so

as

to

bring

down

the

centre

of

gravity

and improve
the
righting

In vessels of

this

size

and

description, safety

demands

that

and 45 degrees should not be less than about *8 of a foot. Let us find what fall in the centre of gravity would be necessary to secure this in the present case. At 30 degrees the righting lever is '26 feet it has thus to be increased by ('8 - "26) = '54 feet. Assuming the draught to remain unchangedarms
at

inclinations

of 30

degrees

Increase of righting arm at . ,. [ inclination 01 30 degrees )


.

_ = Fall
..

in centre of gravity x sin. 30 degrees,


in centre of gravity

54

= Fall
~
'5

*5,

Fall in centre of gravity

1*08 feet.

The

curve

of stability
the
ordinates

under

the

increasing

of curve

new conditions may now be obtained by G throughout by the amount

1 '08

x sine of angle of inclination.


fig.

In

this

way curve
stability

/C,

236, has
like
fig.

been derived.
235
or
fig.

With a
officer

diagram

236

ready

to

hand,

an

should be able in most cases to

satisfy

himself as to

the state of his

vessel.

can only deal with draughts


in

In making deductions, however, he must be careful to note that he for which he has curves also, that differences
;

stowage
with
in

may

quite

alter

the

nature

of the

stability.
it

This would appear to limit the


out,

utility

of the curves, but


is

may be pointed
fully

regard
so

to

draughts, that
in
this

a ship
the

usually either

light,

loaded,

or

ballast,

that

respect

curves

should

be found generally

applicable.

Differences
cargo,

in

stowage give

of a general
special

or

of

rise to more trouble. The stowage homogeneous cargoes other than those for which

curves are provided, lead to variations in

the positions of the


at

centre

of gravity

from those of the standard conditions


stability

the

obtain a

curve

for

any such new condition,

same draught. the amount of the

To
rise

or fall of the centre of gravity from the position of a standard case must be known, and, with the information usually given, the only way of obtaining this would be by means of a special heeling experiment. If, however, the
position

of the centre of gravity above the

base corresponding to the various


given, a
to

conditions of
the

were

stated,

as

in

the

examples
be
then, to

change
by
a

in

the

position

centre
It

of

gravity

might
the

approximated

simple

moment

calculation.

would only remain,


those
of

new curve
adding
at

from

appropriate

deduce the righting levers of the standard curve, by deducting or

each inclination the amount


fall

Rise or

of centre of gravity

x sine of angle of inclination.


Suppose, for instance,
a
full

The
it

tables of conditions supplied with the diagrams of stability curves are

very useful in working

out problems like the foregoing.


the

were intended to load

smaller

of

the

two given vessels with

292
general
cargo.
is

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
It

AND CALCULATIONS.
means
vessels,
;

would be

first

necessary, by
all

of
to

the

capacity

plan,

which

part

of the equipment of

modern

approximate to the

positions
culation,

of the
to

then, by a moment calvarious weights forming the cargo combine these weights and heights with those of the light ship
to

(taken

from the table)

obtain the height of the

common

centre of gravity

of vessel

to

and cargo. Such a case is worked out in detail on page 192. Suppose this done in the present case,* and the centre of gravity found be '5 feet above the position corresponding to a full coal cargo (curve
236).

G, G,

fig.

The

levers

of the required
the

curve

are

equal

to

those

of curve

decreased throughout by

amount
of angle of inclination,

5
as already described.

x sine

In the subjoined table the righting levers at 15 degrees,


tabulated,

30 degrees,
in
fig

etc.,

are

and the

stability

curve,

marked

K,

is

plotted

236,
Angles of
Inclination.

Ordinate* of

De.uTee^
x

3 45 60
75

90

STABILITY INFORMATION.
Referring to the
table
to

293

of conditions, the

metacentric height in the given


this
is

standard

case

is

found

be

7*57

feet.

As

excessive,

the

supple(see

mentary ballast should be stowed high, particularly as the


E,
fig.

stability

curve

235)

is

of great
to

area and range.

With regard

the

amount of the

additional

ballast,
full

let

it

be

sufficient

make the been shown


to

total

equal to about a third of the

deadweight, this having

to

be a good average.
is

Including bunker coal, stores and fresh


the
total

water, the

deadweight

7677

tons,

ballast

should

therefore

be

7677 "
Including
Table),

= 2559
1954

tons.

bunker coal and

water

ballast,

tons

is

already

loaded

(see

therefore

Supplementary
or,

ballast

= 2559 - 1954 = 605 tons,


suit

in

round
the

figures,

say
case,

600
if

tons.

In

present

such

would

also

the

trim,

it

would be an
If only

advantage to put the whole amount into the


half

bridge
is

'tween

decks.
into

of

it

can
of

be
the

so

placed,

and the remainder


ballast

passed

the

main
the

'tween
the

decks, the

height

of the centre of gravity will

be as obtained below,
taken

centres

supplementary

being

assumed

from

capacity

plan

as before.
Items.

294
discharge
part

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
of her

AND CALCULATIONS.
port,

cargo at

a certain

and afterwards proceed


for

to

sea

under the reduced load.


so
as
to

The

question

is,

how should
tons.

the unloading be

done

leave

her in a favourable
to

condition

prosecuting

the voyage?

Let the amount


scale,

be discharged be 2000
to
rise

From
in

the

deadweight

assuming the vessel


coal
is

evenly,
feet

the 9

reduction
inches.

draught

due to

unloading the
draught
the
fore
aft

found to be 4
coal

right,

the

should

be

In order to keep the taken out forward, say 1000 tons from from
the

main-hold,

and the
from

remainder
the the

main
and

and
the

bridge

'tween

decks.

Taking
of gravity

the

centres

capacity

plan,
for

figures

for

the

loaded condition from


is

the
:

table,

calculation

the height of the

centre

as

follows

Items.

QUESTIONS.
3.
If,

295
observed
to

in

the

process

of loading,

vessel

is

suddenly

list

to

port

or

starboard,

what may be inferred

as the probable cause,

and how should

the subsequent loading

be conducted so as to bring the vessel back to Ihe upright?


4.

Whether does

a.

general or a homogeneous cargo afford greater

facilities for

loading so

as to produce a comfortable vessel at sea?


5.

Give reasons

for

your answer.

vessel b33

entirely

fills

her,

been loaded to her maximum draught, with a homogeneous cargo which and the master desires to ascertain the metacentric height before sailing.
readily obtain this knowledge.

Explain

how he may

If the

metacentric height were found to be deficient, what steps should

the master take

to correct it?
6.

Write

down

the

formula

for

the

reduction

in

the

metacentric

height

due

to

the

presence of a free liquid suiiace in the hold.

One

of the compartments of an

oil

steamer

is

partially filled with

petroleum.

Calculate
is

the reduction in the metacentric height due to the free surface, given that the
situated amidships,
is

compartment

the level of the


7.

oil,

30 feet long, 42 feet broad, and approximately rectangular in shape and that the total displacement is 6500 tons. Ans. '65 feet.

at

Show

that the presence of a middle-line bulkhead greatly modifies the effect of a tree
in

liquid surface

question,
8.

in the holds. Assuming a middle-line bulkhead what would be the reduction in metacentric height?
in

the vessel

of the previous

Why
9.

Enumerate the precautions which should be taken are trunkways fitted in oil vessels ?

loading a vessel with

oil

in bulk.

Explain
n

why

it

is

that

grain

cargoes

loaded

in

bulk

are

frequently found

to

shift

during

voyage when bad weather has been encountered.


transversely through a distance of 18 feet, what will be the angle

A
If

grain-laden vessel of 7000 tons displacement has a metacentric height of 2 feet 6 inches.
shift

100 tons of cargo

of heel,

assuming the vessel to have been upright before the shifting took place?
Ans.

6,

nearly.

10.

Show

that

the burning

out

of bunker coal

may have an
is

important

influence

on

vessel's condition.

If the coal in

particular vessel,

decks as well as lower bunkers,


the vessel
11.
?

how

whose margin of stability should it be worked out

small,

is

contained in 'tween

in

the interest of the safety of

A
is

steamer 470
aft,

feet

in

length,

15,600 tons displacement, drawing

27

feet

inches

forward and
the latter

has a reserve bunker containing 500 tons of coal.

The

centre of gravity of

10 feet below that of the vessel, and 35 feet before the centre of gravity of the

load-waterplane.

The

tons per inch

is

60, the longitudinal metacentric height

is

equal to the
is
-

length of the vessel, and the transverse metacentric height at the start of the voyage

5 feet.
to

Assuming the transverse metacentre


coal in the reserve

to

remain at the same point while the vessel

rises

the

lighter draught, estimate approximately the draught

and transverse metacentric height when the


(

bunker

is

consumed.
[

Forward, 26
27

feet, feet,
feet.

2| inches. 4 f inches.

Am,.-

DraUghtS

{
I

\Aft,

Metacentric height,

117

12.

What

is

a sea voyage?

What should be aimed at in ballasting a steamer for meant by ballasting? How would you expect a vessel to behave if laden with heavy ballast placed
to be

low down in the holds?


13.

cargo steamer of 7000 tons deadweight


coal,

is

ballasted for an Atlantic voyage.

With bunker
3350

stores

and

fresh water
feet

aboard, and water in boilers, the


aft

displacement

is

tons, the
feet

draught forward 8

and
is

10 feet 9 inches, and the centre of gravity


follows:

195

above the base.

Water

ballast

then loaded as

1000

tons in

double

2g6
bottom, centre 2
centre 16 feet
feet

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
above base and 2
feet

AND CALCULATIONS.
;

engine-room, centre 14
the parallel layer
to

feet before 'midships 650 tons in a deep tank abaft above base, and 54 feet abaft 'midships; 140 Lons in the fore-peak, Assuming the centre of gravity of above base, and 163 feet before 'midships.

be 3

feet

forward of 'midships, the average tons per inch in

way
;

of in-

creased immersion to be 34, the average


height
of the transverse metacentre

moment

to

alter

trim

inch 670 foot tons,

and the
estimate

above the base with

the ballast aboard

19 feet

approximately the draught and metacentric height when in ballast trim.


f

Am.-)
I

Drau g hts

Forward,

II feet,

4^ inches.
ij inches.

(Aft,

16

feet,

Metacentric height,
<

37

feet.

14.

If,

while on her voyage, a vessel should exhibit signs of


to

tenderness,"

show

that

it

would be unsafe
bottom.

attempt to remedy matters by running up a compartment of the double

Referring to example 11,

it

is

proposed to
purpose

fill

a compartment of the double bottom, with


shape, and

a view to making good the reduction in


coal.

metacentric height due to the consumption of the


is

The tank chosen


centre
division

for
;

the
it

approximately rectangular in

has

perforated

is

60

feet

long,

44

feet

broad,

and

4
to

feet

deep,
feet

and

has

capacity for 300 tons of salt water.


centre
is

Assuming the top of the tank

be 18

below the
the tank

of gravity of the vessel, estimate approximately the


full,

metacentric height

when
(
[
,

half

and

also

when

it

is

full.

Ans. \i

'58 feet.
H~

c *p feet.
.

15.

A
If

vessel

whose load displacement


water in the dock

voyage.
centre

the

is 7500 tons is being loaded in dock for a. summer weighs 63 lbs. per cubic foot, to what extent may the

of

the

disc

that

is,

the
is

legal

summer

load-line
feet.

in

salt

water

be

immersed?

The

area of the

load

waterplane

12,000 square

Ans.
16.

inches.

In loading a general cargo,

how

should the heavy items be disposed longitudinally to

ensure a vessel behaving well at sea?


17.

Give reasons.
01

What

stability information

should be supplied with a new vessel for the guidance

the officers?

APPENDIX

A.

CHANGE OF DRAUGHT IN PASSING FROM FRESH TO SALT WATER. Taking salt water to weigh 64 lbs. to a cubic foot, and fresh
water 62*5
lbs.,

the

number
r,
1

of cubic

feet

to a

ton in each

case

is

2240 2240

Salt water,

-p -

35,

_
Let

Fresh water,

35*84.

now

a vessel's

displacement in tons,
salt

then immersed volume in

water
water

=
=

and immersed volume


In passing from fresh to
to
salt

in

fresh

35 x 35*84 x
thus

cubic

feet, feet.

cubic
out

water,

the

vessel

rises

of the

water

the
If

extent

35-84

- 35

'84

cubic square

feet.
feet,

A be the area of the waterplane through which the vessel rises in inches

in

and d the distance

298

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
draught
sea
is

AND CALCULATIONS.
at

load
into

3$,

were to pass from river water

6$

lbs.

per

cubic foot

water,

she

would

rise

9500
63 x 35
4*3 inches.

MEAN DRAUGHT. In
scale,
it

reading

displacement
vessel's

from

displacement
i.e.,

is

the

usual

custom to employ the


read
off

mean

draught,

the
2.

sum

of

the

actual

draughts

at

the

stem and stern divided by


to

This assumes the waterplane drawn at


of equal volumes forward

this

mean draught

cut

off

wedges

and

aft,

which in ordinary cases would not happen.


approximating to that of the vessel when

To
the

cut

off

displacement closely
trim,

out of the
point

normal
in

be drawn parallel to the base through which the actual waterline intersects the locus of the centres
a line should

of gravity
Fig.
flotation

of waterplanes.

237
at

shows
it

a
is

vessel

trimming
to

by the
the

stern

WL

is

the

line

of the

which

required

know

displacement.

Let
S,

S T be

locus

of the

centres

of gravity

of the waterplanes.
line

Through

the point of

intersection of this locus

and the

W L,
237.

let

W.Z L 2 be drawn parallel to the

Fig.

I
base.

The displacement
original

to the waterplane

L 2 will be very nearly equal to that

to

the

waterplane

W L.

At amidships draw Q R normal to the keel


to

line.

is

the

mean draught corresponding


scale,

but

this

mean
a

draught,
less

marked
W.,L2

off

on the displacement

would

obviously

give

reading

than the actual displacement


.

by the amount of the layer between


therefore

and

The draught
the

QR

should

be employed.
are

Since

triangles

WW

Q and
qj?

SRO

similar

_ wj/i

RS

o'

WW, 0R = TO"
But
abaft

RS.
and
WL>.

W Wi
to

is

half the trim,

half the vessel's length,

RS

the distance
/?,

amidships of the centre of gravity

of waterplane
to

Thus
to

the
with

amount
the

be added
actual
6

to
is

the

mean draught
obtained.

get

the

draught

use

displacement

scale,

readily

In

an

case,

if

RS

were

feet,

the
get

length

of

vessel

360

feet,

and the trim

feet

by

the

stern,

we should

APPENDIX

A.

299

OR

180
4
5

x 4 x 12

of an inch,

corresponding to an increase of

displacement

over

that

given

by the mean

draught of about

30 tons.

PROOF OF FORMULA
height
of

BM

= p. In

this

formula, which

expresses the

the

metacentre above the centre of


of buoyancy.

buoyancy

BM =

Height of metacentre (transverse or longitudinal) above centre

/=

Moment

of

inertia

of

the

waterplane about

the

middle

line

about as axis in the case of the transverse metacentre, and gravity of the watera transverse axis through the centre of plane in the case of the longitudinal metacentre.

= Volume

of displacement.

Fig.

238.

Consider
case, is

first

the

transverse

metacentre.

Fig.

238,

which

illustrates

the

transverse

the
at

upright.

from view of a vessel inclined through a small angle Before the inclination took place, the centre of buoyancy was

it

is

now

of the
line

resultant

and has thus travelled the distance B B v The line at B upward pressure passes through B x and intersects the middle
lt

in M, which by definition is the transverse metacentre. In the act of heeling the wedge of displacement

WSW

passes

across
to
g.,

the
in

ship into

the

position

LSU
V x

its

centre

of gravity

moving from g x
ship's

If V be the volume of the a line parallel to B B v and u the volume of either wedge

displacement,

BB =
X

u x g y g2

or

l/xBI\/lx0 =
of
small.

ux

g g*
x

(1)
is

Where 9 sumed to be

is

the circular measure

the angle of inclination, which

as-

very

300
1/

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
is

AND CALCULATIONS.

assumed
of the

to

be

to

calculate

the value

of the

known, so that to find B M it is only necessary quantity u x g Y g,, i.e., the moment due to the
ship.

movement
line.

the point of intersection of

wedge of displacement across the the water lines W L and


of the

being small,
is

S,

L^

in

the

middle

Calling

the

half breadth

waterplane amidships,

6,

Sectional

area of wedge

WS W

or

LS L =
x

6 .ft

and

Volume

of a

thin

slice

of either

wedge
2

~*ft 5 -*,

8X being the thickness of the slice. Moment due to movement of Also

thisl
)

b
2

4
u
3

volume across the ship

= Now
all

b\0.dX.

the

moment
into

of the whole

wedge

is

equal to the

sum

of the
is

moments

of

the

slices

which

it

may be supposed
to
1

divided.
x 2 = ^-b
, , .
t J
,

That
.0.5x.

Moment due
But

movement

of

1
;

u a whole wedge

S-65x

is

the

expression
axis.

for

the

moment
this
/,

of inertia

...

of the waterplane

about the middle line as

Calling
to

we

get

Moment due
of

movements wedge J
in
(1)

Substituting

this

for

u x

g g2
}

1.6
or,

= V.BM.O
-

BM= T
the

Take now
Fig.

longitudinal

metacentre.

The

inclination

here
is

is

a fore-

and-aft one, but except as modified by this circumstance, the proof

the same.
inclina-

239 shows

fore-and-aft

view of the vessel with

slight

tion

aft.

is

the centre of buoyancy

when
./??,*

floating at

the waterplane of the

W\L U

Bi

its

position

when
ls

at

the

line

L,

the

intersection
;

verticals

through
plane

B and B

being the longitudinal metacentre


the
line

0,

the projection in the

of the
is

paper of

of

intersection

of

the

waterplanes

WL

and

WiLu

called the centre of flotation

and occurs

at the

same point
case,

in the length

as the centre of gravity of

the waterplane

WL
the x

h ly h 2 are the centres of the

immersed and emerged wedges.


1

As

in

previous

we have

ix h,h,= V
wedge,
small,

BB,
that

being the volume

of either

and V
x

of the
ft

displacement.

The

inclination

being very
u x

BB = Bm x

So that

hih % = V x B

x 9

(2).

used here instead of

ll/l

to distinguish the longitudinal

metacentre from the transverse.

APPENDIX

A.

3 OI

To
volume
element
5

calculate

the

quantity

u x

h h^
x

consider

small

element
thickness
at

of
of

the
this

of
is

emerged wedge distant x from 0. X x 0, and if y be the breadth of the


the
in

The
vessel

the

place,

and
its

X the dimension of the element volume will be

the

direction

of

the vessel's

length,

x.y.0.sx

and

its

moment about
of the

a transverse

axis

through

The

moment

whole

x 2 .y.0.dx. wedge is the

sum

of

the

moments

of

the

Fig.
1

239.
TO

elements,

or

^xly.Q.sx,

and the moment of both wedges, double

this

quantity,

or

2'2x\y.0.$x.

But
axis

2^x iy.dx
i

is

the

moment
of of the

of inertia of the watcrplane about a transverse


0.

through
for

its

centre

gravity

Calling

this

I,

and
(2),

substituting

the

value

the

moment

wedges thus obtained

in

we

get

LB = V.Bm.Q
or,

Bm = V
are useful in

J_

CO-EFFICIENTS OF FORM. These


with another.

comparing one vessel


:

The

following are the usual co-efficients employed

302
i,

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

Co-efficient of area of load- water plane.


Co-efficient of area of

2.

immersed midship

section.

3.

Block

co-efficient.

4.
1.

Prismatic co-efficient.

Co-efficient of
important to

Area of Load-Waterplane,
ratio

This

is
it.

the ratio of

the area of the load-waterplane to that of a rectangle enclosing

In a new

design

it

is

ratio of a vessel of

know how this known performance.


360
feet

compares with the corresponding


broad,

Example.

vessel

long,

48

feet

is

used as a basis in

designing another vessel 340 feet long and 46 feet broad.


area in the standard case
is

The

load-waterplane

13,000 square

feet,

and

it

is

intended to give the

new

vessel the

same

co-efficient of load-waterplane.

Calculate the area of load-

waterplane in the

latter

case.

The
in the

standard co-efficient
vessel will thus be

is

1
:

3000
7:

360 x 48

= '7 ^2: /J

the area of the load-waterplane v

new

340 x 45 x '752

11505 square
useful
in

feet.

The

load-waterplane
:

co-efficient

is

also

approximate calculations

like

the following

A
If

vessel

of 330 feet length and 45 feet breadth floats at her

load draught.
ships,

150 tons of cargo be discharged from a compartment amid-

calculate the decrease in draught, assuming the co-efficient of the plane


"83,

of flotation to be

and the

vessel to rise to a parallel waterplane.

Area of L.W.P.

= 330

x 45 x '8$

i2325"5 square

feet.

Tons per inch immersion = ^


.'.

= 20^.
420
y

Decrease

in

draught

S'12 inches.

Immersed Area of Midship Section. This is the immersed midship section to that of a rectangle having a depth equal to the vessel's moulded depth, and a breadth equal to the Thus, in the case of a vessel of 28 feet breadth and 8 breadth of the vessel. feet mean draught, which has an area of immersed midship section of 210
2.

Co-efficient of
of

ratio

of the area

square

feet,

this

co-efficient

is

210

The immersed midship


in

section

co-efficient,

like

the

previous

one,
is

is

useful

designing,

and should be

carefully considered

where speed
ratio

an important

condition.
3.

Block
between

Co-efficient.
the

This
it.

is

volume
of

relation

immersed

volume

vessel's

and expresses the body and that of

a rectangular

figure

surrounding

APPENDIX
If

A.

303

length

of vessel,
of vessel,

B = breadth

D =
rr.i

draught of vessel,

Inen,

Block
,

co-efficient

rr

volume of displacement n n x x
-,

Example.
draught
efficient

A
28

vessel
feet.

500

feet

long,

57

feet

broad,

has a

moulded
block
co-

of

Calculate

the

displacement,

assuming

of 76.

Displacement

500 x 57 x 28 x
cubic
vessel,

76

= 606480
Again,
ticulars:

feet.

find

the

block
feet,

co-efficient

of

given

Length

the

following
in
salt

par-

185

breadth
tons.
.

26

feet,

mean

draught

water

10

feet,

displacement,

1000

Block
This
it

co-efficient

-5

1000 x 35 =='727. ? ' ' 185 x 26 x 10

co-efficient is of great value in comparing the forms of vessels, must be used with care. It is easy to show that two vessels of displacement, may be very the same dimensions, block co-efficient, and different in shape. In one case the midship section may be full and the

but

ends
full.

fine;

in

the

other,

the
in that

midship
cargo
is

section

may be
large

fine

and
for

the

ends
ends,

Generally
fining

speaking,
the

boats

having

block

co-efficients,

any
the

of

body

done
full.

should
"Where

be

reserved

the

midship

section

being

kept

this

has

not

been

done,

vessels
4.

hard to drive and

difficult

to

steer

have resulted.

the ratio of the volume volume of a prism, whose section is the vessel's immersed midship section, and length the length of the vessel. Thus, in the case of a vessel 140 feet in length, which has an immersed midship feet, and a displacement of 640 tons, the section area of 210 square

Prismatic

Co-efficient.
the

This

expresses

of

displacement

to

prismatic

co-efficient

is

640 x 35 140 x 210


It
will

, A

76.

be

readily

seen

that

this

co-efficient

affords

closer
in

means of
case of

comparing immersed the two vessels above


section

forms

than

the
to,

block

co-efficient,

and
one
be

the
fine

referred

would
vessel.
2, 3,

show
the
It
4.

the

of

midship
being
that

and

full

ends to be of poor design,


than
in

prismatic

co-efficient

relatively

higher
exists

the

other

should

observed

relation
If
section,

between

co-efficients

and

y be the volume of displacement, A the area of immersed midship G% G C the co-efficients 2, 3, and 4 above described, then
3t 4i

304

SHIP CONSTRUCTION A
o.

AND CALCULATIONS.

APPENDIX
Angle

B.

Table of Natural Tangents, Sines, and Cosines.

306
Angle
in

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

APPENDIX
Angle

B.

307

3 o8

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

Rates of Stowage."
Cargoes.

APPENDIX
I.
i.

C.

Additional Questions.
Define the term area as applied to a plane surface,
plate

Calculate

the

area of the

shown

in

the

following

sketch

Ans.
2.
1

^'75
3I
of

square

feet.

Calculate
side.

the
(2)

area in square feet of the following:

(i)
(4)

A
^eet

square of
(3)

*5

feet

rectangle

of

15

feet
(4)

length,
circle (3)

feet

breadth.

Triangle 6-5 feet base, 8-25 feet height.

12-25

diameter.

Ans. (1)
3.

132*25.

(2)

56*25.

26-81.

117-85.

The
a

ordinates

in

feet

of

plane

respectively, the

common

interval

being 8
feet
is

ordinates,

half

ordinate

4*6

are 3, 5-5, 7-5, 8, and 9 Between the first and second introduced, and another of 8*6 feet

curve

feet.

between the fourth and

fifth

ordinates.

Calculate

the

area in

square

feet.

Ans.
4.

220*4.
it

State

the

Five-Eight

Rule

upon

what

assumption

is

based

Show how the Five-Eight Rule and Simpson's First Rule may be combined. The half ordinates in feet of a portion of the load waterplane of a vessel
are
3j
!>

8,

8*5,

6'^,

and

respectively,

and the
feet,

common

distance

between

them,
of the

12

feet.

Calculate

the

area

in

square
First

employing a combination
Ans.

Five-Eight

Rule and Simpson's


No.

Rule.

822.
inch
lbs.

5.

Referring

to

question

1,

if

the

plate

be

steel

of an

thick,

what

is

its

weight in

lbs.?

Ans.
6.

937
4^

solid

wrought
its

iron

pillar,

18

feet

in

length,

is

inches

in

diameter.

Find

weight.

Ans.
* in

851

lbs.

Many

of these examples are based on questions set at the Board of Education Examinations

Naval Architecture.

309

310
7.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
\\ inches
its

portion

of

a cyclindrical steel shaft tube,

thick,

is

20

feet

long,

and

its

external

diameter

is

16

inches.

Calculate

weight.
lbs.

Ans.
8.

4646
with

deck

9000

square

feet

in

area

is

to

be

laid

pitch-pine

planks 4 inches thick and 5 inches wide.


12
feet

and one opening 24


(1) (2)

feet

There are two openings 16 feet x x 12 feet, which are not to be covered.
feet

Calculate

The number of running The weight of the wood

of deck

planking;

deck,

excluding fastenings.
19,987.
is

Ans.
9.

(1)

(2)

124,920
of

lbs.

derrick

post

18

inches

external

diameter
feet,

built

J-inch

steel
rivets.

plates.

Estimate the weight of a length of 15

neglecting straps and

Ans.
10.

1402

lbs.

Define displacement.

The
145,

areas
in
30,

of

the

vertical
feet

transverse
are

sections
25,

of

ship
180,

up
250,

to

the

load

waterplane

square

respectively
interval

105,

295,

290, 235,

and
6.

and

the

common
the

between
is

The displacement them is 20 feet. 5, and abaft the aftermost section is feet and in tons (salt water).
n.
draught

in

tons

before

foremost section
in

Find the load displacement


Ans.

cubic

30,900;

882

'8.

Deduce
may be
-2,

a formula
ascertained.

by

which the
feet 13*4,

tons

per

inch

immersion

at

any

Given that the half ordinates in


are

of the
10-4,

load waterplane
7*2,

of a vessel

respectively

4,

8-3,

11*3,

of the plane

130

feet,

calculate

and 2*2, and the length the tons per inch immersion in salt water.
13*4,

Ans.
12. floats

'42.

A
a
also

prism

of

rectangular
15
feet.

section

120
the

feet

long and

30

feet

broad,
in
salt

at

draught of
construct
for

Calculate

displacement in

tons

water;

the
this

curve of displacement and the


vessel.

curve of tons per

inch

of immersion

Ans.
13.

1543.
the
1

The
feet

tons

per inch
are

at

the

successive waterplanes of a vessel, which


6'5,
1

are

rj

apart,

respectively

2,

5 "6,

4*5,
1

and
foot

o.

Construct
draught,

curve

of tons
1

per inch

on a scale of

inch

to

of

and
is
it

inch to
14.

ton.

How

is

"deadweight scale" constructed?

Of what use
that
is

to

the

commanding officer? What is meant by "mean draught"? 15.


floating
in

Show
it

in

the case of a

vessel

considerably out of her normal trim,

incorrect to use the


scale.

mean draught

reading
feet

the

displacement from
the

the

displacement

A
stern.

vessel
If

300
a

in

length floats in salt


intersects
feet

water and trims 8 feet by the


of the centres of
gravity
to

the

waterplane
point 3

locus

of of

waterplanes at

abaft

amidships,

measured

parallel

top

APPENDIX C
keel,

311

the

actual

and the tons per inch immersion be 23, estimate the difference between displacement of the vessel and that obtained from the displacescale,

ment

using

the

mean

draught.

Ans.
16.

22

tons.

Obtain an expression giving the extent to which


fresh

a vessel

rises

in

passing from

to

salt

water.
is

A
1

vessel
is

whose
partly

displacement

4000
to sea.

tons,
If

leaves

a harbour
inches

in

which which
is

the water
o15
ozs.

salt,

and proceeds
foot,

the water in harbour weighs

per

cubic

calculate

the

number

of

through

the vessel will rise

on reaching

salt water,

given that the tons per inch

Ans.
17.

30.

'18.

vessel

of box

form
feet

is

210

feet

long,

30

feet

broad, and has an


If a sheathing

even draught of water of 10


of teak 3 inches thick were

when

floating in sea water.

worked over the bottom, and also over the ends and sides to a height of 12 feet above the bottom, what would be the additional weight, taking teak at 50 lbs. per cubic foot, and what would then be the draught of water.
Ans.
18.
feet.

68

tons,

10 feet z\ inches.
side

vessel

carries

in

her

hold

cube,

each

of

which

is

10

If

the

cube

be

put

overboard
effect

of a

chain,

what

will

be the
feet.

and attached to the ship by means upon the vessel's draught, the cube being

supposed of greater density than


plane
is

salt water.

The
Ans,

area of the vessel's waterrises

4000 square

Vessel
feet

inches.
feet

19.
is

rectangular

pontoon
the

100 feet long, 50


condition

broad, 20
feet.

deep,
altera-

empty, and floating in sea water at a draught of 10


will

What
if

tion

take
is

place

in

floating

compartment
(a)

breached and in

free

of the pontoon communication with the


into
five

the
if

centre

sea,

The
the

pontoons

were

divided

equal

watertight

com-

partments

by transverse
?

bulkheads,

extending

the

full

depth of
not water-

pontoon
12

(b)

The

watertight
feet

bulkheads

tight,

stopped at a deck which from the bottom of the pontoon ?


Vessel will
founder.

is

((a) Vessel will sink bodily 2 feet 6 inches.

Ans.1(b)

II.
1.

Show how
The
from
an(*
9"4

the

principle

of

moments
a

is

applied

in

obtaining

the

centre
2.

of gravity of a

plane area such as


of

vessel's

waterplane.

half-ordinates
aft,

load-waterplane
5,

of

vessel
i6'8,

in
17,

feet,

com16-4,

mencing
I

are,

respectively -i,
tne

ri'6,
is

15-4,

16-9,

4'5)

'h

anc*

common

interval

feet.

Find

312
(i) (2)

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.

The The

area

of the
of

plane in square feet;


its

distance

centre
centre

of of

gravity from gravity


is

the

17-feet

ordinate,
that

stating

whether

the

before
2'83

or

abaft

ordinate.

Ans.
3.

(1)

2732*4.

(2)

feet

forward.

vessel to

is

180
keel

feet

long,

and

the

transverse

sections

from
being

the

load-waterline

the

are

semicircles.

Find the longitudinal position of


of the

the
5,

centre
13, 15,

of
14,

buoyancy,
12,

the

half-ordinates
feet,

load-waterplane

1,

and

10

respectively.

Ans.
4.

73*76
II.,

feet

from
the

10-feet

ordinate.

Given
as

diagram

showing
in

the

locus

of

centre

of

buoyancy,
of the

constructed
centre
5.

described

Chapter
of
the

explain

how

the

height

of

buoyancy corresponding with


the

any waterplane
centre
for

may be
for

ascertained.

Construct
of

locus
section,

of

buoyancy
prism
its

an

upright
is

prism

rectangular
triangle,

and
floats

also

whose
faces

section

an

equilateral

example the arrangement of the numerical 6. Illustrate work usually followed in an ordinary displacement paper for obtaining the displacement and position of the centre of buoyancy of a ship.
7.

and which by a simple

with

one of

horizontal.

The
is

load
ro
of

displacement

of

ship

is

buoyancy
layer

feet

below the
ship
is

load-waterline.
tons,
light

5000 tons, and the centre of In the light condition the


the
is

displacement

the

2000
the

and
lines,

centre
feet

of

gravity

of

the

between
light

the

load

and
of

below the

loadline.

Find the
the

vertical

position

the

centre

of

buoyancy below the loadline


Ans.

in

condition.

16

feet.

IV.
1.

Distinguish clearly between hogging


strains,

and sagging

strains.

What
they

causes
likely

these
to

and

at

what parts

of

loaded cargo

steamer are

be a
2.

scribe

maximum ? What is a u curve of how these curves are

weight,"

and a
for

"curve of
a vessel

buoyancy"?
in
still

Dewater.

constructed

afloat

What conditions must these curves comply with in relation to each other? What are the usual assumptions made in constructing curves of weight and buoyancy for a vessel afloat among waves?
3.

A
in

vessel

of

box form
a
level

240

feet

long, 8

40
at

feet

broad,
the

20

feet

deep,
is

floats

salt

water at

draught of
is

feet.

If

vessel's

weight
length of

1000 tons evenly distributed, and she


70
feet

loaded

each

end

for

of

with

600

tons,

also

evenly

distributed,

draw the

curves

weight

and buoyancy.
Write down the formula employed in calculating the longitudinal on the material at any point of a section of a beam under a longitudinal bending moment.
4.

stress

APPENDIX
5.

C.

313
referred
to

What assumptions
question
to

are

made
case

in

applying the formula


ship
12
?
-|

in

the

previous
6.

the

of a
is

steel

beam

of

section

inches deep,

inch thick, and has

6-inch flanges top

and bottom.

Calculate the

moment

of inertia of the section.

Ans,
7.

254
is

inch units.

Referring to

the

previous

question,

if

the

beam

20 feet long and


per
square

supported at each end, and loaded in the middle with a weight of 6 tons,
calculate
inch.

the maximum tensile and compressive stresses The weight of the beam itself may be neglected

in in

tons

working out the


S-$.

problem.

Ans.S'S,
8.

State

the

maximum
small
steel

longitudinal

stress,

as

ordinarily

calculated,

in

large

and
9.

in

cargo

steamer,

when poised on waves

of

their

own

length.

Give reason
light

for

any difference in the values.


steel

In the case of some large


of
build, the
is

passenger vessels
cut

having long

super-

structures
joint

latter

are

about mid length, and a sliding


to

made.
10.

What

the reason
stresses

for

this?

Enumerate the
changes
to
resist

to

which ships are subjected which tend


forms.
State

produce
structure

in

their

transverse

what

parts

assist

the

change of form.

V.
1.

Sketch
In

and

describe

the

three-deck,

spar-deck,

and

awning-deck

type

of vessels.
2.

designing

cargo

vessel

of

full

form,

state

generally

how you
of
vessel.

would proceed to shape the body


3.

with

a view to securing the

best results.

Sketch
are the

in

profile

well-deck
of each
of

and

quarter-deck

type

What
4.

essential
briefly

features

type?

Describe
steamers.

the
in

trend
section

development
vessel

in

the

construction

of

cargo
also

Sketch

on

the

web

frame
steamer.

system,

one with deep frames. Sketch in outline midship section of a turret-deck 5.


6.

What
the

are the advantages claimed for this type over cargo vessels of ordinary form?

Describe

with

the

sketches
are

the
the

Ropner

Trunk
of

Steamer,
these

and

Isherwood Patent Ship.

What

chief features

types?

VI.
1.

Sketch

and describe an ordinary bar


the

keel.

2.

How
scarph

is

scarph
of

of

bar

keel

formed?
the keel?

What

is

the the

length
rivets

of

in

terms
is

the

thickness

of

How
to

are

arranged, and what


3.

their

spacing?
it is

Before proceeding with the framing

necessary

set

the

keel

314
straight

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

AND CALCULATIONS.
the
keel

on
so

the
that
is

blocks,
this

How

are

lengths

temporarily

joined

together
4.

may be

correctly
Is
?

done?
it

What
to

a side-bar keel?
previous

a better or worse

form than that

referred
5.

in

the

questions

Give reasons.
attendant

Mention any
the
side-bar

practical

difficulty

keel

on
it.

system,

and

state

what

on the constructing of a means are taken to over-

come
6.

Sketch

and

What are the advantages and disadvantages of projecting keels ? and describe a form of keel which entails no outside projection, show that the arrangement is satisfactory from a point of view of Show
a

strength.
7.

of the vertical keel

good shift of butts of the flat keel with reference to those and angles connecting them also with reference to the
;

garboard strakes of plating,


8.

Describe,

and show by sketches


keelson
(or

in

section
is

an

intercostal

plate

vertical

keel)

and side elevation, how worked and secured in an


keel.

ordinarily
9.

transversely are

framed vessel with a

flat

plate
fitted ?

What

bilge-keels ?

Why
the

are

they
to

Sketch

an

efficient

form of bilge-keel,
1

indicating

connections
fitted ?

the

hull.

o.

Why

are
is
?

hold keelsons
gained by

Sketch a side and a bilge-keelson.


plates
to

What advantage
the

fitting

intercostal

the

shell

between
bars?

keelson
11.

bars
is

How
What
frame,

the strength maintained at the joints of hold keelson


details

Make
how a

sketch showing
is

of riveting,

etc.

12.

the usual spacing of transverse


frame,

frames?
connected.
are

Show by a sketch
fitted?

reverse

and

floorplate

are

13.

What

are
at

frame
the

heel

pieces?

Where
far

they

They

are

not usually
14.

fitted

ends of a
floor.

vessel.

Why ?
does
it

Sketch an ordinary

How

extend
a

up the
at

ship's
joint,

side?

Where

are

floorplates

usually

joined?

Make

sketch

showing the
15.

rivets.

Show

in

section the

common

forms of ship beams, and state where

each section should be employed.

beams cambered ? Is their strength increased thereby ? camber of upper-deck beams? Deck beams are sometimes fitted at every frame, and sometimes 17. State the circumstances in which each arrangement may at alternate frames. be employed to most advantage. Why are deck beams not reduced towards their ends, as on the 18.
16.

Why

are

What

is

the

usual

principle
19.

of the

girder

they
usual

might be.

Describe

the

methods of
state

forming
in in

"bracket,"
opinion,
is

"slabbed," and

"turned"
20.

beam
Sketch

knees, a

and
are

which,

your

most

efficient.

bracket

knee

showing

detail

the

connections

to

the

frame and beam.


in

What

Lloyd's requirements as to the

number

of rivets

beam knees?

APPENDIX
21.

C.

315
requiring

In

the

design
the

of

certain

vessel,
it

by

rule

tier

of

lower-deck beams at
with
this

usual

spacing,

is

proposed
for

to

modify or dispense

the latter in order to improve the facilities might be done without reducing the strength.
22.

stowage.

Show how

What
all

are

web frames?
relative

Why
of
vice

are

they fitted?

Sketch a web frame


continuous,
the

showing
23.

connections in a vessel having ordinary


the merits

floors.

Discuss

making the web frames


versa.

and hold
tion

stringers

intercostal,

and

Show

in

detail

connec-

of a
24.

web frame to the margin-plate of an inner bottom. What is meant by "deep framing"? What are the advantages

of

this

system of construction over that consisting of

combined ordinary fram-

ing

and web frames. Sketch and describe a M'lntyre 25.


?

ballast

tank.

What

are

its

essential

features
26.

Describe
in
details

the

cellular

system

of constructing
to in

double bottoms;
previous
question.

com-

pare

it

with

the

system

referred

the

27.

Assuming
the

continuous
of the

longitudinals

sketches

construction
indicating

a cellular
man-holes

double

compartment,
top,

and intercostal floors, show by bottom for a length of one through the longitudinals and tank

and showing details of the connections of the longitudinals to the floors, tank top and shell. 28. Show by a sketch how the plating of the tank top or inner bottom is usually arranged, giving details of the butt and edge connections. At certain
parts

the plating

is

increased in thickness.

Name
been
of

these parts, and state

why

the

increase
29.

is

made.
of
straining

Signs
the the

have
to

frequently

observed
the

in

the

riveting
par-

connecting
ticularly

tank

knees
part

the the
to

margin-plate
knees.

double
sketch

bottom,
the

at

upper
are

of

Show by a
such straining.
of

means
edges

usually
30.

taken in modern vessels

prevent

What
in

the

advantages
?

and

disadvantages

flanging

the

of plates
31.

lieu

of fitting angles

Why

are wash-plates fitted in deep ballast tanks

and

in

peak tanks?

32.
33.

Show by a sketch how a deep tank is made watertight at the deck. What considerations determine the diameters of pillars in a ship?
pillars

In

fitting

to

beams, where should they be placed in order


limit

to

develop

their

greatest
34.

efficiency?
is

What
for

the

of

breadth
usual

of

ship

allowed

by Lloyd's
pillars

Rules

for

one and
35.

two rows of
sketches

pillars,

respectively?

Show by

the

methods of attaching

at

their

heads and heels.


36.

may be
37.

efficiently

In the case of a deck having beams at every frame, show how supported by a tier of pillars at alternate frames.
pillars,

it

Sketch an arrangement of wide-spaced


pillars
is

showing how the deck


attachments
to

between the

supported.

Give

details

of

the

tank

top and deck.

316
38.

SHIP CONSTRUCTION
Certain parts
these
parts,

AND CALCULATIONS.
of a ship are thicker than others.

of the

shell-plating
for

Name
39.

and give reasons


Lloyd's

the

increased
the

thickness.

What

are

requirements

regarding

length

of

shell-plates

and the position of end joints?


or
joints.

Sketch a good arrangement of shell butts


various

40.
plating,

Sketch
indicating
is

and

describe

the

plans

adopted
fitting

of of