TEXTILE PRINTING Printing is the process to make colors on the textile materials with the presence of thickener to give

sharp design.The thickener will be removed after the printing process to make softer handle. OR Textile printing is the process of applying color to fabric in definite patterns or designs. In properly printed fabrics the color is bonded with the fiber, so as to resist washing and friction. Textile printing is related to dyeing but, whereas in dyeing proper the whole fabric is uniformly covered with one color, in printing one or more colors are applied to it in certain parts only, and in sharply defined patterns.
COMPARISON BETWEEN DYEING AND PRINTING

Though the dyeing and printing are the coloration processes using the same classes of dyes and other chemicals, they differ in the following aspects.

Dyeing 1. Uniform application on both sides of the fabric surface with single color only. 2. Dyes are applied in dilute form. 3. In fabric preparation, Half bleaching is enough. 4. Color penetrates through the fabric. 5. More time is required in batch application. 6. Fabric need not be in dry condition. 7. Requires single machine and the process is simple. 8. Dyeing consumes more water.

Printing 1. Single or multicolor application on one side of the fabric at selected portions only. 2. Dyes are applied in paste form. 3. full-bleaching with optical whitener is necessary. 4. Color is applied only on the surface. 5. Not applied in batch process. 6. Fabric should be in dry state. 7. Requires complex machinery and the process is also complex. 8. Printing consumes less water.

The printed fabric is steamed and then thoroughly washed.Textile Printing The application of color to a fabric in a design or pattern (localized dyeing). DISCHARGE PRINTING In this technique. Nowadays gums or alginates derived from seaweed are preferred as they allow better penetration of color and are easier to wash out. the resist paste is removed leaving a pattern on the background of the fabric. a resist paste is fixed onto the fabric and then it is dyed. mostly three techniques are applied: Direct Printing. Most pigment printing is done without thickeners because the mixing up of resins. solvents and water produces thickening anyway. Sometimes. If done on colored fabric. To prepare the print paste. The dye affects only those parts that are not covered by the resist paste. RESIST PRINTING In this technique. the fabric is dyed in piece and then it is printed with a bleaching agent that destroys the color in the designated areas. a thickening agent is added to a limited amount of water and dye is dissolved in it. . DIRECT PRINTING It is the most common approach to apply a color pattern onto a fabric. Discharge Printing and Resist Printing. Earlier starch was preferred as a thickening agent for printing. Modern printing generally incorporates one of the following techniques: • Flat-bed screen printing • Rotary screen printing • Engraved roller printing • Heat transfer printing STYLES OF PRINTING Printing color on a fabric. The desired pattern is produced by pressing dye on the fabric in a paste form. the base color is removed and other color is printed in its place. After dyeing.

Jet Spray Printing. BLOCK PRINTING The designs are carved on a wooden or metal block and the dyestuff in paste form is applied to the design on the face of the block. Electrostatic Printing. A copper roller is engraved by some acids to have some areas acted as an ink reservoir. The printed cloth is passed into a drying chamber and then in a steam chamber where the moisture and heat sets the dye. Photo Printing. Requires highly skilled workers. Batik Dyeing. When the rollers move. Stencil Printing. a repeat of the design is printed on the fabric. Duplex Printing. ROLLER PRINTING In this method which can be called a machine counterpart of block printing engraved copper cylinders or rollers are used in place of hand carved blocks. Tie Dyeing. Approximately 26% of printed goods ADVANTAGES 1. Transfer Printing. Roller Printing. b. 2. Not economical for short runs. The block is pressed down firmly by hand on the surface of the fabric. DISADVANTAGES 1. Copper cylinders very expensive. . Multiple tones.Block Printing. High design capability. Airbrush (Spray) Painting and Digital printing. the fabric will have a design like the roller. a. When pressing the roller with some ink on it. Screen Printing. 3.Methods of printing There are various methods of printing in which one of the above three techniques is used . Fine detail.

Approximately 17% of printed goods ADVANTAGES 1. polyester. Slow.DUPLEX PRINTING Duplex Printing Printing is done on both sides of the fabric either through roller printing machine in two operations or a duplex printing machine in a single operation. 2. DISADVANTAGES 1. Multiple strokes for pile fabrics. it is known as 'Flat Screen Printing' or 'Rotary Screen Printing'. The printing paste or dye is poured on the screen and forced through its unblocked areas onto the fabric. Based on the type of the screen used. (A) Flat-Bed Screen Printing Mechanization of hand screen process Fabric glued to blanket Screens rise and fall Printing done while screen in down position Rod or blade squeegee system Up to four strokes possible Slow process. SCREEN PRINTING It is done either with flat or cylindrical screens made of silk threads. Large repeats. nylon. 2. . No continuous patt. or metal.

Rod or blade squeegee system. Small repeats. Disadvantages. Fine adjustments easily made. Fabric moves under rotating screens. Fast. Continuous patterns. Design limitations.(B)ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING • • • • • • Continuous screen printing process Fabric glued to blanket. 3. 1. Speeds up to 100 yd/min. 2. . 2. Quick changeover of patterns. Approximately 50% of printed goods Advantages 1.

4. 5. 2. ADVANTAGES 1. 3.HEAT TRANSFER PRINTING In this method. Fewer seconds. 2. . 6. Various types of cylinders such as electrically heated cylinder. perforated cylinder etc. the design on a paper is transferred to a fabric by vaporization. Economical for short runs.Dry Heat Transfer Printing and Wet Heat Transfer Printing. are used for pressing a fabric against a printed paper which transfers the pattern to the fabric. Primarily only for polyester. High quality prints. Easier handling of units Easier training of operators Better registration and clarity DISADVANTAGES 1. There are two main processes for this. 7. Practically pollution free. Approximately 7% of printed goods. Slow.

an adhesive is used to affix the flocks on the fabric. The digital image file has the data to control the droplet output so that the image quality and color control may be achieved. Then. The outside portion of the immersed fabric is dyed but the color does not penetrates the inside portions of the tied knots. called "flock" onto a surface of a fabric to produce design. Instead of dyes. FLOCKING Flocking is the technique of depositing many small fiber particles. roller printing produces design on its surface. In Plangi Dyeing the gathered. BATIK DYEING It is a resist dyeing process.TIE DYEING Tie Dyeing Firm knots are tied in the cloth before it is immersed in a dye. Designs are made with wax on a fabric which is then immersed in a dye. this . DIGITAL PRINTING In this form of printing micro-sized droplets of dye is placed onto the fabric through an inkjet print head. There are various forms of Tie dyeing like Ikat Dyeing where bundles of warp and/ or weft yarns are tie dyed prior to their weaving. folded or rolled fabric is usually held with stitching to form specific patterns. The portion not having wax absorbs the color. This is the latest development in textile printing and is expanding very fast. Nowadays. The print system software interprets the data supplied by a cademic_Textile digital image file.

Flocks of cotton. wool. nylon and acrylic are all used for the purpose.is done by the application of high-voltage electric field too. rayon. .

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