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TOPIC FORCES:

1. Physics a. a dynamic influence that changes a body from a state of rest to one of motion or changes its rate of motion. The magnitude of the force is equal to the product of the mass of the body and its acceleration b. a static influence that produces an elastic strain in a body or system or bears weight. 2. Physics any operating influence that produces or tends to produce a change in a physical quantity 3. Criminal law violence unlawfully committed or threatened 4. Philosophy Logic that which an expression is normally used to achieve 5. in force (of a law) having legal validity or binding effect

Newton's first law;


Newton's first law of motion states that objects continue to move in a state of constant velocity unless acted upon by an external orresultant force This law is an extension of Galileo's insight that constant velocity was associated with a lack of net force Newton proposed that every object with mass has an innate that functions as the fundamental equilibrium "natural state" in place of the Aristotelian idea of the "natural state of rest". That is, the first law contradicts the intuitive Aristotelian belief that a net force is required to keep an object moving with constant velocity. By making rest physically indistinguishable from non-zero constant velocity, Newton's first law directly connects inertia with the concept of Specifically, in systems where objects are moving with different velocities, it is impossible to determine which object is "in motion" and which object is "at rest". In other words, to phrase matters more technically, the laws of physics are the same in every , that is, in all frames related by a

For example, while traveling in a moving vehicle at a, the laws of physics do not change from being at rest. A person can throw a ball straight up in the air and catch it as it falls down without worrying about applying a force in the direction the vehicle is moving. This is true even though another person who is observing the moving vehicle pass by also observes the ball follow a curving in the same direction as the motion of the vehicle. It is the inertia of the ball associated with its constant velocity in the direction of the vehicle's motion that ensures the ball continues to move forward even as it is thrown up and falls back down. From the perspective of the person in the car, the vehicle and every thing inside of it is at rest: It is the outside world that is moving with a constant speed in the opposite direction. Since there is no experiment that can distinguish whether it is the vehicle that is at rest or the outside world that is at rest, the two situations are considered to be . Inertia therefore applies equally well to constant velocity motion as it does to rest.

The concept of inertia can be further generalized to explain the tendency of objects to continue in many different forms of constant motion, even those that are not strictly constant velocity. The of planet Earth is what fixes the constancy of the length of a and the length of a . Albert Einstein extended the principle of inertia further when he explained that reference frames subject to constant acceleration, such as those free-falling toward a gravitating object, were physically equivalent to inertial reference frames. This is why, for example, astronauts experience when in free-fall orbit around the Earth, and why Newton's Laws of Motion are more easily discernible in such environments. If an astronaut places an object with mass in mid-air next to herself, it will remain stationary with respect to the astronaut due to its inertia. This is the same thing that would occur if the astronaut and the object were in intergalactic space with no net force of gravity acting on their shared reference frame. This was one of the foundational underpinnings for the development of the .
Though 's most famous equation is that did not use , he actually wrote down a different form for his second law of motion

Newton's second law;


Main article A modern statement of Newton's second law is a vector

where

is the of the system, and

is the net force. In equilibrium, there is zero net force

by definition, but (balanced) forces may be present nevertheless. In contrast, the second

law states an unbalanced force acting on an object will result in the object's momentum changing over time. By the definition of

where m is the and becomes

is the Newton's laws of motion only apply to systems of so the

use of the allows the mass to move outside the derivative operator, and the equation

. By substituting the definition of , the algebraic version of is derived:

It is sometimes called the "second most famous formula in physics Newton never explicitly stated the formula in the reduced form above. Newton's second law asserts the direct proportionality of acceleration to force and the inverse proportionality of acceleration to mass. Accelerations can be defined through measurements. However, while kinematics are well-described through analysis in advanced physics, there are still deep questions that remain as to what is the proper definition of mass offers an equivalence between and mass, but lacking a coherent theory of it is unclear as to how or whether this connection is relevant on micro scales. With some justification, Newton's second law can be taken as a quantitative definition of mass by writing the law as an equality; the relative units of force and mass then are fixed. The use of Newton's second law as a definition of force has been disparaged in some of the more rigorous textbooks, because it is essentially a mathematical. The equality between the abstract idea of a force and the abstract idea of a "changing momentum vector" ultimately has no observational significance because one cannot be defined without simultaneously defining the other. What a force or "changing momentum" is must either be referred to an intuitive understanding of our direct perception, or be defined implicitly through a set of self-consistent mathematical formulas. Notable physicists, philosophers and

mathematicians who have sought a more explicit definition of the concept of force include, and .Newton's second law can be used to measure the strength of forces. For instance, knowledge of the masses of along with the accelerations of their allows scientists to calculate the gravitational forces on planets.

Newton's third law;


Main article: Newton's third law is a result of applying to situations where forces can be attributed to the presence of different objects. For any two objects (call them 1 and 2), Newton's third law states that any force that is applied to object 1 due to the action of object 2 is automatically accompanied by a force applied to object 2 due to the action of object.

This law implies that forces always occur in action-and-reaction pairs If object 1 and object 2 are considered to be in the same system, then the net force on the system due to the interactions between objects 1 and 2 is zero since

This means that in a of particles, there are no that are unbalanced. That is, action-and-reaction pairs of forces shared between any two objects in a closed system will not cause the of the system to accelerate. The constituent objects only accelerate with respect to each other, the system itself remains uncelebrated. Alternatively, if an acts on the system, then the center of mass will experience acceleration proportional to the magnitude of the external force divided by the mass of the system. Combining Newton's second and third laws, it is possible to show that the. Using

And with respect to time, the equation:

is obtained. For a system which includes objects 1 and 2,

Which is the conservation of linear momentum? Using the similar arguments, it is possible to generalizing this to a system of an arbitrary number of particles. This shows that exchanging momentum between constituent objects will not affect the net momentum of a system. In general, as long as all forces are due to the interaction of objects with mass, it is possible to define a system such that net momentum is never lost nor gained.[3]

Gravity;

Ropes

What we now call gravity was not identified as a universal force until the work of Isaac Newton. Before Newton, the tendency for objects to fall towards the Earth was not understood to be related to the motions of celestial objects. Galileo was instrumental in describing the characteristics of falling objects by determining that the of every object in was constant and independent of the mass of the object. Today, this towards the surface of the Earth is usually designated as and has a magnitude of about 9.81 per squared (this measurement is taken from sea level and may vary depending on location), and points toward the center of the Earth. This observation means that the force of gravity on an object at the Earth's surface is directly proportional to the object's mass. Thus an object that has a mass of m will experience a force:

In free-fall, this force is unopposed and therefore the net force on the object is its weight. For objects not in free-fall, the force of gravity is opposed by the reactions of their supports. For example, a person standing on the ground experiences zero net force, since his weight is balanced by an exerted by the ground Newton's contribution to gravitational theory was to unify the motions of heavenly bodies, which Aristotle had assumed were in a natural state of constant motion, with falling motion observed on the Earth. He proposed a that could account for the celestial motions that had been described earlier using Newton came to realize that the effects of gravity might be observed in different ways at larger distances. In particular, Newton determined that the acceleration of the Moon around the Earth could be ascribed to the same force of gravity if the acceleration due to gravity decreased. Further, Newton realized that the acceleration due to gravity is proportional to the mass of the attracting body. Combining these ideas

gives a formula that relates the mass ( gravitational acceleration:

) and the radius (

) of the Earth to the

where the vector direction is given by , the directed outward from the center of the Earth. In this equation, a dimensional constant G is used to describe the relative strength of gravity. This constant has come to be known as though its value was unknown in Newton's lifetime. Not until 1798 was able to make the first measurement of G using a ; this was widely reported in the press as a measurement of the mass of the Earth since knowing the G could allow one to solve for the Earth's mass given the above equation. Newton, however, realized that since all celestial bodies followed the same, his law of gravity had to be universal. Succinctly stated, states that the force on a spherical object of mass m1 due to the gravitational pull of mass m2 is

Friction
Main article: Friction is a surface force that opposes relative motion. The frictional force is directly related to the normal force which acts to keep two solid objects separated at the point of contact. There are two broad classifications of frictional forces: and. The static friction force (FRS) will exactly oppose forces applied to an object parallel to a surface contact up to the limit specified by (use) multiplied by the normal force (FN). In other words the magnitude of the static friction force satisfies the inequality: . The kinetic friction force (Fife) is independent of both the forces applied and the movement of the object. Thus, the magnitude of the force equals:

Fkf = kfFN,
Where kf is the. For most surface interfaces, the coefficient of kinetic friction is less than the coefficient of static friction.

Tension;
Tension forces can be modeled using which are massless, frictionless, unbreakable, and unstretchable. They can be combined with ideal which allow ideal strings to switch physical direction. Ideal strings transmit tension forces instantaneously in action-reaction pairs so that if two objects are connected by an ideal string, any force directed along the string by the first object is accompanied by a force directed along the string in the opposite direction by the second object. By connecting the same string multiple times to the same object through the use of a set-up that uses movable pulleys, the tension force on a load can be multiplied. For every string that acts on a load, another factor of the tension force in the string acts on the load. However, even though such machines allow for and there is a corresponding increase in the length of string that must be displaced in order to move the load. These tandem effects result ultimately in the since the is the same no matter how complicated the machine

Elastic force;

Fk is the force that responds to the load on the spring.

An elastic force acts to return a to its natural length. An is taken to be massless, frictionless, unbreakable, and infinitely stretchable. Such springs exert forces that push when contracted, or pull when extended, in proportion to the of the spring from its

equilibrium position. This linear relationship was described by in 1676, for whom is named. If x is the displacement, the force exerted by an ideal spring equals:

Where k is the spring constant (or force constant), which is particular to the spring. The minus sign accounts for the tendency of the elastic force to act in opposition to the applied load.

Continuum mechanics;

Where V is the volume of the object in the fluid and P is that describes the pressure at all locations in space. A specific instance of such a force that is associated with is fluid resistance: a body force that resists the motion of an object through a fluid due to. For so-called the force is approximately proportional to the velocity, but opposite in direction:

Where:

b is a constant that depends on the properties of the fluid and the dimensions of the
object (usually the, and is the velocity of the object. More formally, forces in are fully described by a with terms that are roughly defined as

Where A is the relevant cross-sectional area for the volume for which the stress-tensor is being calculated. This formalism includes pressure terms associated with forces that act normal to the crosssectional area (the of the tensor) as well as terms associated with forces that act to the cross-sectional area (the off-diagonal elements). The stress tensor accounts for forces that cause all including.

Centripetal force;
For an object accelerating in circular motion, the unbalanced force acting on the object equals:[

UNITS OF FORCE;
Units of force

newton
(SI unit)

dyne

kilogram-force, kilopond

pound-force

poundal

1 N 1 kgm/s = 105 dyn 0.10197 kp

0.22481 lbF

7.2330 pdl

1 = 105 N dyn

1 gcm/s

7.2330105 pdl 1.0197106 kp 2.2481106 lbF

1 kp

= 9.80665 = 980665 gn(1 kg) N dyn

2.2046 lbF

70.932 pdl

1 4.448222 444822 0.45359 kp lbF N dyn

gn(1 lb)

32.174 pdl

1 0.138255 13825 pdl N dyn

0.014098 kp

0.031081 lbF

1 lbft/s

The value of gn as used in the official definition of the kilogram-force is used here for all gravitational units.

TYPES OF FORCES;
FORCES ;
(fors) energy or power; that which originates or arrests motion. Symbol F.

ELECTRO MOTIVE FORCE ; that which causes a flow of electricity from one place to
another, giving rise to an electric current. Abbreviated EMF. Symbol E. OCCLUSAL FORCE; the force exerted on opposing teeth when the jaws are brought into approximation. RESERVE FORCE; energy above that required for normal functioning; in the heart, the power that will take care of the additional circulatory burden imposed by exertion. VAN DER WAL FORCE; the relatively weak, short-range forces of attraction existing between atoms and molecules and arising from brief shifts of orbital electrons; it results in the attraction of nonpolar organic compounds to each other. VITAL FORCE; the energy that characterizes a living organism; most systems of seek to affect or use it.

BY WIKIPEDIA; Force (physics);


In physics force is what changes or tends to change a state of rest or motion in an object. Force causes objects to , or Force is measured in Newtons! ('N'). According to the formula for finding force is:

'''F = ma''' where F is the force, m is the of an object, and a is the of the object. If one sets a to the standard g, then another formula can be found: '''W = mg''' Where W is the of an object, m is the mass of an object, and g is the acceleration due to gravity at . It is about 9.8m / s2. Force is a , so it has both a and a . Another equation that is useful is: F=Gm1m2/d^2 F is force m1 is the mass of one object m2 is the mass of the second object d^2 is the distance between the objects

Acceleration;
is how much your velocity changes each second Velocity is measured in metres per second (m/s), so acceleration is measured in metres per m/s ) We work out acceleration using

second per second (written as m/s/s or

Example: a car accelerates from 8 m/s to 20 m/s, and takes 6 seconds to do it.
What is the acceleration? Answer: change in velocity is 20 minus 8 = 12 m/s. Time taken for change is 6 seconds. Acceleration = 12 divided by 6 = 2 m/s/s (that's a pretty impressive car!)

Force and acceleration:


If the forces on an object are in balance, then its velocity will be constant (see Forces page)

If the forces aren't in balance, then the object will accelerate - which may mean speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction.
If we apply an unbalanced force to an object, it will accelerate. If we apply twice the force, we'd expect to get twice the acceleration. If we apply the same force to an object with twice the mass, we'd expect to get only half the acceleration.

Advanced:
We have more flexibility to cope with the calculations if we use an equation:

Where a = acceleration (m/s/s) v = final velocity (m/s) u = initial (starting) velocity (m/s) t = time (seconds) Thus v - u is the change in velocity

Example: a wombat falls out of a tree into a vat of custard. It accelerates at 10


m/s/s, and falls for 5 seconds. How fast is it going when it hits the custard?

Answer: first, realise that the wombat starts from rest, so u = 0.


we have: a = 10 m/s/s, t = 5 sec, and we want v.

, so v = 10 x 5 = 50 m/s
)

Newton's Second Law tells us how much an object accelerates if the forces are
unbalanced. It comes down to an equation:

F = ma
where F = force (in Newtons) m = mass of object (in kilogram) a = acceleration (in metres per second per second)

Example: a guinea pig of mass 1 kg sits on a skateboard of mass 2kg. If the skateboard is pushed, and accelerates at 4 m/s/s, how big is the force pushing it? Answer: first, we need to add the mass of the guinea pig and the skateboard together. That's 1kg + 2kg = 3kg we know that acceleration = 4 m/s/s using F = ma, we have F = 3 x 4 = 12 Newtons

Forces : pushes and pulls


We can't actually see forces, but we see their effect on objects. We see the Moon orbit the Earth, objects fall to the ground, and birds fly - all of these are because of forces.

A force is a push or a pull. We measure forces in "Newtons" (N) named after Sir Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727).
1 Newton isn't a very big force: it's about the weight of an apple. Forces are vectors, because the direction is important.

Forces can change:-

the speed of an object the direction that an object is moving in the shape of an object.

Gravity
is a force that acts towards the centre of the Earth. This means that, wherever you are in the world, "down" is always towards the ground - even though your "down" isn't the same direction as anybody else's. The gravitational pull of the Earth is what gives objectsweight. Thus weight is a force - it's how hard the Earth is pulling on an object. The Earth pulls on every kilogramme with a force of ten Newtons. We say that the Earth's gravitational field strength (at

ground level) is 10 Newtons per kilogramme (10 N/kg) (Actually, it's more like 9.81, but for GCSE we usually call it 10.)

In other words, an object with a mass of 1kg has a weight of 10N.

Gravity is a very weak force, you need avery large mass in order to get a noticeable gravitational pull. An odd thing about gravity - it always attracts objects and never repels them.

Friction: slowing things down


Whenever anything moves, there's usually some form of friction trying to stop it.
Friction is sometimes useful, at other times it's a problem. There are two main types of friction:-

1. "Static" or "sliding" friction;


This type of friction occurs when dry surfaces rub together. The frictional force depends only on:1. the type of surfaces 2. how hard the surfaces are pressed together.
Friction makes this lorry difficult to move, but it does help by giving the man a good grip on the road.

In this diagram, the weight of the block provides the force pressing the surfaces together. Watch the animation carefully:
If this picture isn't moving, click on "Refresh"/"Reload"

If we push the block harder and harder, the frictional force will increase, until it reaches a maximum (in this case, 2.5N). If we push harder still, (say, 2.6N), the block will start to move, because we're now pushing harder than the frictional force.

2. "Fluid" friction;
This type of friction is what happens with liquids and gases (In Physics, liquids and gases are both called "fluids". They behave in similar ways.) Fluid friction is also known as "drag". On aircraft it's also called "air resistance". It depends on:-

1. how thick the fluid is


(its "viscosity") 2. the shape of the object 3. the speed of the object A thin, runny liquid has a low viscosity. A "viscous" liquid is thick and gooey. Aircraft and car designers want to reduce drag, so that the vehicle can go fast without having to waste too much fuel. To reduce drag, we need a shape that the fluid can flow past easily and smoothly, without any swirls (called "eddies"). This tends to mean using long, pointed, "streamlined" shapes.

Using friction

We use friction to help us grip. This means that our shoes grip the floor, so we don't fall over. Right now you're using a mouse, which works because of friction between the ball and the mouse mat.

If it wasn't for friction between the tyres and the road, driving a car would be like trying to drive on an ice rink. This would make cornering and stopping very difficult! Friction provides the force to accelerate, stop or change the direction of the car. Ice and water on the road reduce this friction, and make is easier to skid.

Pressure: force divided by area


Pressure depends on two things:

The Force (in Newtons) and The Area it's pressing on (in square metres)

We work it out using:

Pressure = Force Area Pressure is measured in Pascals (Pa for short),


1 Pascal means 1 Newton per square metre

Using Pressure;

When the area is small, a moderate force can create a very large pressure. This is why a sharp knife is good at cutting things: when you push the very small area of the sharp blade against something, it creates a really large pressure. Ice skates have sharp edges, and thus a small area in contact with the ice. This means that your weight creates a very large pressure on the ice, far more than if you were standing in ordinary shoes. Ice has an unusual property: it can melt under pressure, even if it's below 0C. When you're ice skating, you're actually skating on a layer of water that you've just melted, which quickly re-freezes when you move on (you're not skating on ice at all!) This is called regelation, and means that there's very little friction as you skate along.

Even a slender supermodel can damage floors by walking on then in high-heeled shoes. This is because the area of the heel is small, so you can easily create enough pressure to cause a dent in the floor. The pressure can be greater than if an elephant was standing there, even though the force is much less. So you should be able to figure out why elephants and camels have large feet.

As you go deeper into a liquid, the pressure increases. You can feel this on your ears as you swim down to the bottom of a swimming pool. We need to remember this when designing the walls of pools and dams: the wall must be thicker at the bottom, to withstand the increased pressure down there.

We can use pressure in liquids to move a piston and do useful work. This is how the hydraulic systems in diggers, car brakes and fairground rides work: a pump creates pressure in an incompressible liquid, which acts on a piston. By adjusting the area of the piston, we can adjust the force we get.

The pressure of the atmosphere on you right now is around 100,000 Pa. OK, that's just a number, so think of it this way: - you probably have a skin area of around 2 square metres, - Pressure = force area, so force = pressure x area thus the force on you = 100,000 x 2 = 200,000 Newtons. That's about the same force as having over a dozen cars piled on top of you! Otto von Guericke, (1602-1686), a German physicist, born in Magdeburg, performed a famous experiment: the "Magdeburg Hemispheres". These were two halves of a large, hollow metal ball. When all the air was sucked out of the ball, two teams of eight horses couldn't pull them apart, because the pressure of the Earth's atmosphere created a very large force on the ball. You may have seen a smaller version of this experiment in school.

Speed and Velocity: how fast


we're going

Speed is simply how fast something is going.


In Science, we measure it in metres per second (written as m/s or ms ) We work out speed using

Example: if I walk 6m and it takes me 3 seconds, what is my speed? Answer: speed = distance divided by time, = 6 divided by 3, = 2 metres per second So long as you remember to show your working and get the units right, that's pretty much it for GCSE - apart from one thing: average speed. If we think about the speed of a car during a journey from town to town, it'll vary hugely throughout the journey. Sometimes the car will be stopped at traffic lights, other times it'll be whizzing along a motorway. However, it's useful to be able to work out the average speed over the whole journey.

Average speed is really easy to work out: total distance divided by total time for the journey

Springs: Hooke's Law & Elastic Limits


If this picture isn't moving, click on"Refresh"/"Reload"

"Hooke's Law" is about stretching springs and wires.


When we apply a force to a spring, it stretches. If we apply double the force, it stretches twice as much, so long as we don't over-do it.
So far, this is pretty obvious. Now let's look in more detail... We measure the original length of the spring when we start. When it stretches, we measure the extension - that's how much longer it is than it was when we started.

Extension = present length original length

Hooke's Law states:

the extension is proportional to the force the spring will go back to its original length when the force is removed limit.

so long as we don't exceed the elastic

The elastic limit is where the graph departs from a straight line. If we go past it, the
spring won't go back to its original length. When we remove the force, we're left with a permanent extension.

Below the elastic limit, we say that the spring is showing "elastic behaviour": the extension
is proportional to the force, and it'll go back to it's original length when we remove the force.

Types of Forces;
In our daily life we come across many kinds of mechanical forces such as pull, push, squeeze, stretch etc. Pictures shown below explain the action of some of the above forces.

Force may be (a) push or (b) pull If a girl pushes a pram she feels the force exerted by her muscles which became taut. [Figure (a) above]. A boy throwing a cricket ball feels a force in the same way. When a tug uses a strong rope to pull a boat from a sand bank the rope becomes taut [Figure (b) shown above].

Contact and non-contact forces;


Examples of contact forces are frictional forces, normal reaction forces, tensions and forces in collisions. Forces at a distance (non-contact forces) include gravitational forces of attraction between two masses, electrical forces of attraction between two masses, electrical forces of attraction (or repulsion) between two electrically charged objects and magnetic forces of attraction (or repulsion) between two magnetised objects or a magnetised object and a magnetic material.

General properties of non-contact forces;


Forces at a distance

Are equal and opposite. Depend upon the distance between the two objects. Depend upon the medium between the two objects for electrical and magnetic

forces but not gravitational forces. Forces are described in different names. Some forces are shown in the following diagram [Figure (a) shown below]. A weight is the pulling force due to gravity which always acts vertically downwards. The weight of an object is measured using a spring balance. The spring balance consists of a spring enclosed in a casing, fixed at one end. A pointer moves along a suitably calibrated scale alongside. There is a hanger which can be used to suspend the balance and a hook on which to hang the object to be weighed. The force registered by the pointer is the weight of the object.

SAD

A tension is the force in a rope or chain as shown in the diagram.

A reaction is the force of a surface on an object resting against it. In [Figure (b) shown above] the ladder rests against a part of the wall which is smooth, the total reaction is perpendicular (normal) to the wall as shown. But to prevent the ladder from slipping, a frictional force must act as the ground. Some of the forces that occur in nature are:

Gravitational force Nuclear force Magnetic force of attraction and repulsion. Electrical force of attraction or repulsion