(Higher only in italics)

The Periodic Table
History At the start of the 1800s quite a lot of elements had been discovered, but there had been no real attempt to organize them. Newlands, an English chemist and Mendeleev, a Russian chemist both worked on the problem by arranging the elements or order of their atomic weight (mass) and looking for patterns in their properties. Both were successful to some extent, but Mendeleev was much more successful because. a) He recognized that there were some elements still to be discovered, so he left gaps in his table b) He was not afraid to change the order of some elements in the table where it seemed to make sense. c) He was able use the table to successfully predict the properties of some elements which had not yet been discovered. Later when more elements had been discovered and chemists realized that the elements should be in order of atomic number rather than atomic mass, Mendeleev’s Table was shown to be extremely successful. The Modern Table The periodic tables patterns are now known to be based on the structure of the atom. Elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus) The group number of an element shows the number of electrons in the outer shell. The period number shows the number of shells of electrons e.g. Sodium is element number 11 and has the structure 2.8.1 It therefore has 11 protons, it is in Group1, period 3 of the periodic table. GROUP 1 , The Alkali Metals.(Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) Similarities 1) All elements have 1 electron in the outer shell: Li: 2.1 Na: 2.8.1 K: etc. 2) For this reason they all form 1+ ions when they react: Ions are Li+, Na+, K+ etc.

soft metals which are shiny when cut. All are very light. .3) They have similar physical properties.

(F. Cl2. alkali metals are stored under oil. but going down the group from Li to Cs.) 3) All elements have 7 electrons in the outer shell: F: 2. K = 64oC etc. Differences 1) The metals are all soft and light. The Halogens. Na more vigorously. Na = 98oC. 4) For this reason they all form 1. At) Similarities 1) All are non-metals 2) They are diatomic (F2.7 Br: 2.7 Cl: 2. and only very small amounts should ever be reacted with water using safety screen. and allow the outer electron to be lost more easily. .8. Br2 etc. This is because the atoms lower down have more inner shells of electrons. Cl-. GROUP 7 . they are called alkali metals Because of the violence of this reaction with water.) b) Become softer 2) There is a definite increase in reactivity going down the group from Li to Cs.8.etc. K quite violently etc. they become more reactive. These 'shield' the outer electrons from the attraction of the nucleus. Since metals react by losing electrons. In particular they react vigorously with water giving hydrogen and an alkaline solution of the hydroxide.18.4) They have similar chemical properties.7 etc.ions when they react with metals Ions are F-. Cl. I. Br. they a) Have decreasing melting points (Li = 180oC. (They get the extra electron by sharing if they combine with another nonmetal) Differences APPEARANCE MELTING POINT REACTIVITY Fluorine Yellow gas -220 Extremely reactive Chlorine Green gas -101 Very Reactive Bromine Brown liquid -7 Quite reactive Iodine Black solid 113 Not very reactive Note: 1) The differences in appearance and state 2) The clear increase in melting point 3) The clear decrease in reactivity.g. 2Na + 2H2O = 2NaOH + H2) For this reason. Li reacts quite mildly. (e. Br. goggles etc.

and their reactivity is medium to low. It contains many of the metals in everyday use.REACTIONS 1.3 V= 2.g. V are transition metals.8. the 3rd rather than the 4th shell is being filled. Like metals.2 Sc= 2. . Iron (II) chloride contains Fe2+ ions and is pale green in colour Iron (III) chloride contains Fe3+ ions and is brown-yellow in colour Transition metal compounds have a variety of colours Iron (II) compounds are pale green Iron (III) compounds are yellow-brown Copper compounds are blue Nickel compounds are green Electronic Structure Transition elements are elements in which the penultimate shell is being filled.8.8. e. but many transition metals can have ions with different charges. Their reactions are similar to other metals. and in these elements.g. then iodine) e.g. such as iron. the first 5 elements in period 3 are: K = 2. Ti.3 Ti= 2. Mg + Cl2 = MgCl2 2Na + I2 = 2NaI 2. e. with a fairly high melting point.g. They react readily with metals to form salts (chlorine does this most readily. Compounds Like other metals. Iron ions can be Fe2+ or Fe3+.1 Ca = 2.11. Properties These metals tend to be strong and dense. e.9. nickel and copper. chlorine + potassium bromide = bromine + potassium chloride Cl2 + 2KI = Br2 + 2KCl or bromine + sodium iodide = iodine + sodium bromide Br2 + 2NaI = I2 + 2KBr THE TRANSITION METALS This is the block which appears in the middle of the periodic table.8. compounds are ionic. then bromine.8.g. a more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive one: e. so that it can form 2 sets of compounds called iron (II) compounds and iron (III) compounds.10.3 etc Sc.8.8.

the Swedish Chemist Arrhenius came up with the idea that all acids produced hydrogen ions (H+) in water. while a base is a proton acceptor (accept H+ ions). the English chemist Lowry and the Danish chemist Bronsted came up with new definitions: An acid is a proton donor (it releases H+ ions). However. Alkalis and Bases Definitions In 1887. these ideas were not readily accepted because a) It did not explain why ammonia (NH3) behaved as an alkali. acids HCl = H+ + ClH2SO4 = 2H+ + SO42Bases OH.g.Acids. e. b) Ideas about particles and ions were not widely understood In 1920s.+ H+ = H2O NH3 + H+ = NH3 Acid – Base Reactions MgO + H2SO4 = MgSO4 + H2O (here. nor how insoluble bases such as magnesium oxide (MgO) behaved.g.ions. the sulphuric acid gives 2 protons to the oxide ion to form water) NH3 + HCl = NH4Cl (here the HCl gives a proton to the ammonia) Strong and Weak Acids Strong acids are completely split up in water to their ions. e. HCl = H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) H2SO4= 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) HNO3 = H+(aq) + NO3-(aq) The H+ ion is always produced . while all alkalis produce OH.

Note that weak acids (like ethanoic acid in vinegar. The low concentration of H+ ions makes them weak. When a strong alkali such as NaOH or KOH is dissolved in water. This concentration is given in mol dm-3 or is sometimes written M.alkali reactions. Choice of Indicators for Titrations The volumes of solution which react with each other can be measured by titration using a burette.strong alkali titrations you can use either indicator For strong acid.ions.weak alkali titrations you must use methyl orange For weak acid. it produces dissolved OH. e. the ionic equation is: H+ + OH. e. 2. the solution is said to have a concentration of 2 mol/dm3.g.strong alkali titrations you must use phenolphthalein TITRATION CALCULATIONS (H) 1.g. if 2 moles of a substance are dissolved in 1 dm3 of water. e. The most commonly used indicators are Indicator Methyl Orange Phenolphthalein Colour in Acids Pjnk Colourless Colour in Alkalis Orange Pink For strong acid. The concentration of solutions is measured as the number of moles dissolved in one dm3 of water (1dm3 = 1000cm3 = 1 litre). citric acid in lemons or carbonic acid in fizzy water) do not completely split up into hydrogen ions.= H2O This is the ionic equation for all acid . The concentration of a solution can be found by using the relationship Moles Conc Vol . NaOH = Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) A weak alkali is only partly ionised.g. ammonia NH3 + H2O = NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) (the ionisation reaction is reversible) When an acid reacts with an alkali. a pipette and suitable indicator.

5M solution.5 0.2 moles dm-3 reacts with hydrochloric acid.2 0.g.2 moles are dissolved in 250cm3 of water? volume = 250/1000 = 0. so always divide cm3 by 1000 before using this relationship.8 0.05 dm3 .2mol dm-3 Vol = 50/1000 = 0. How much hydrochloric acid is used? Na2CO3 + 2HCl= NaCl + H2O + CO2 Moles = Concentration x Volume Conc = 0.025/2 = 0.25 dm3 So Moles of NaOH = 0. 3) Use conc = moles/volume to find the molar concentration of the other substance if required.1 x 0.1M solution. b) CuSO4 in 200cm3 of a 0.1M Vol = 250/1000 = 0. Examples: a) 250 cm3 of a solution of NaOH of concentration 0.1 moles dm-3 reacts with hydrochloric acid.25 dm3 concentration = 0.01 2 0.8 mol/dm3 Questions Find the number of moles of a) NaCl in 3 dm3 of a 0. a) What is the molar concentration if 0. the moles of H2SO4 is half this: 0.1 0.0125 b) 50 cm3 of a solution of sodium carbonate of concentration 0.25 = 0. How much acid is used? 2NaOH + H2S04 = Na2SO4 + 2H2O Moles = Concentration x Volume Conc = 0.025 From the equation.2/0. 2) Use 'big' numbers in equation to find moles of other substances.15 0. c) HCl in 50cm3 of a 0.25 = 0.5 Volume 3dm3 200cm3 1dm3 600cm3 CALCULATIONS FROM EQUATIONS Once the number of moles has been calculated.2M solution. e. the balanced equation can be used in the normal way: 1) Use ' moles =conc x vol' to find number of moles of one substance.Concentration is measured in mol/dm3 and volume is measured in dm3 1000cm3 = 1 dm3. Complete the following table: Moles Concentration (mol dm-3) 0.

05/0. .5mol dm-3 Vol = 100/1000 = 0. hardness cannot be removed by boiling.So Moles of NaOH = 0.05 = 0.05 moles ii) For the HCl. Concentration = Moles/ Volume Moles = 0. NaOH + HCl= NaCl + H2O i) How many moles of hydrochloric acid is used? ii) What is the concentration of the hydrochloric acid? i) Moles = Concentration x Volume Conc = 0.1 = 0.02 moles c) 100 cm3 of a solution of sodium hydroxide of concentration 0. This decomposes the calcium hydrogen carbonate to calcium carbonate.01 x 2 = 0. dissolving out minerals. This is called permanent hardness (although. Hard water contains Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions in solution. pipes etc. These are taken by rivers to the seas where the minerals are concentrated through evaporation.1 dm3 So Moles of NaOH = 0. which reacts with calcium ions to form insoluble calcium stearate which is scum.01 From the equation. If calcium sulphate is present. It is an extremely good solvent for a wide variety of chemicals. This is because soap is sodium stearate.05 From the equation. the moles of HCl is twice this: 0. The most common is sodium chloride (salt) but there are many others as well. it can in fact be removed by other water-softening methods). 3) Lime scale forms in kettles.2 x 0. This is called temporary hardness.025 = 2 mol dm-3 WATER CHEMISTRY WATER Water is the most common chemical on the planet. These ions react with soap to form scum. HARD & SOFT WATER Hard water has the following properties: 1) It is difficult to make a good lather.5 moles dm-3 reacts with 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid. it can be removed by boiling. and for this reason it is difficult to obtain pure. Sea water is formed when rainwater runs through rocks & soils. the moles of HCl is the same: 0. which forms scale.5 x 0. If calcium hydrogen carbonate is present. 2) Scum is formed with soap.05 Volume = 25/1000 = 0.025 dm3 Concentration = 0. One of its most important properties is as a solvent. Calcium is usually dissolved in the form of calcium sulphate or calcium hydrogen carbonate.

Sodium carbonate (washing soda) reacts to form insoluble calcium carbonate. 2) An ion exchange resin can be used. There are 2 popular methods 1) Calcium ions may be taken out of solution by adding another ion to form an insoluble calcium salt. By reading off the amounts which can be dissolved at different temperatures. CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 = Ca(HCO3)2 The presence of dissolved Ca2+ ions from the calcium hydrogen carbonate makes the water hard. SOLUBILITY Water is good solvent for many substances.g. Usually more can be dissolved at higher temperatures. 3) No lime scale is formed. If water containing calcium hydrogen carbonate is heated. e. This is a material containing a high concentration of sodium ions. but many do not. SOLUBILITY CURVES A solubility curve shows how much of a substance can be dissolved in a certain amount of water at different temperatures. When hard water is passed through. 2) No scum is formed. and this dissolves the calcium carbonate to form soluble calcium hydrogen carbonate. the calcium ions in the water are replaced by sodium ions.The hardness usually comes about by rainwater falling on limestone or chalk. you can work out how much will crystallise out of solution when the temperature changes. Ca(HCO3)2 = CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Some people choose to soften their water because 1) Less soap is used. . which do not cause hardness. Rainwater is made acidic by dissolved CO2. insoluble calcium carbonate is formed again as lime scale in your kettle. pipes etc. It will dissolve most ionic substances Some covalent simple molecular substance will dissolve.

SOLUBILITY OF GASES Many gases dissolve in water (e.g. Water filters containing carbon. . For humans. passing the water through filter beds to remove any solids and then sterilising with chlorine. Fizzy water is a solution of carbon dioxide. silver and ion exchange resins can remove some dissolved substances from tap water to improve the taste and quality. (a solution dissolving as much solute as it can is called a saturated solution) Therefore. but if the temperature rises. drinking water should have sufficiently low levels of dissolved salts and microorganisms. if 1 kg of a saturated solution of sodium sulphate is cooled from 70C to 50C then 10g (40g . ammonia & carbon dioxide). but only remains fizzy if kept under pressure. This is achieved by choosing an appropriate source. but become less soluble as the temperature rises. Pure water can be produced by distillation. Fish need the oxygen that is dissolved in water.Solubility Curve for Sodium Sulphate 60 Grams dissolving in 1kg of water 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Temperature/oC This shows that at 50C 100g of water can dissolve a maximum mass of 30g of sodium sulphate. They dissolve more under pressure. while at 70C 100g of water can dissolve a maximum of 40g of sodium sulphate. the amount of dissolved oxygen will decrease. WATER QUALITY Water of the correct quality is essential for life.30g) of sodium sulphate would be precipitated out.

reactions in which a substances is split up by heat.ENERGY. i. ENDOTHERMIC reactions are reactions which take in heat from the surroundings the most usual examples are thermal decompositions. the products of the reaction have less energy than the reactants. Most reactions are exothermic. which is measured in kJ per mole. FUELS AND POLLUTION EXOTHERMIC reactions are reactions which release heat or other forms of energy to the surroundings. since some energy has been released. CaCO3 = CaO + CO2 H = +345 kJ/mole  Practical Measurement of Energy of Reaction .g. Another example is photosynthesis.e.g. since some energy has been taken in. e.g. Other examples are respiration & fermentation e. which is measured in kJ per mole. and is negative for exothermic reactions. This can be shown on an 'Energy Profile' Calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide Energy Heat taken in from surroundings (+345kJ) Calcium carbonate The energy change is represented by H. This can be shown on an 'Energy Profile' Magnesium + Oxygen Energy Heat given out to surroundings (-1245kJ) Magnesium oxide e. Calcium carbonate = Calcium Oxide + carbon dioxide When an endothermic reaction occurs.g. and is positive for endothermic reactions. the products of the reaction have more energy than the reactants. 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO   = -1254 kJ/mole H The energy change is represented by H. the most obvious ones are combustion reactions. Magnesium + oxygen = Magnesium oxide When an exothermic reaction occurs. e.

e. ΔH = mcΔT where n is the number of moles used. The formula used is q= mcΔT Where q= Energy change is measure in Joules m = mass in grams of water or solution whose temperature is raised. the reaction is exothermic (ΔH -ve) and vice versa. 1000 n Remember that if the temperature increased. then divide by the number of moles of reactant. 10g of octane (C8H18) is burned and used to raise the temperature of 100cm3 of water from 18oC to 57oC q= mcΔT m = total mass of solution whose temperature was raised = 100g c = heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J/K/g) ΔT = change in temperature If the value of ΔH is required in kJ.0877 ΔH = 16.g.0877 = -186kJ/mol 9negative because reaction is exothermic) Bond Energies 1.g. i. H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl Showing the bonds: H-H + Cl-Cl = H-Cl + H-Cl The bonds between the 2 hydrogen atoms in H2 and between the 2 chlorine atoms in Cl2 must be broken before new bonds between H & Cl can be made The process of bond breaking is endothermic (takes in energy) The process of bond making is exothermic (gives out energy) To calculate the energy change for the above reaction. (remember 1cm3 of water weighs 1g) c = heat capacity of water (usually given as 4.18 = 39oC Energy given out = 100 x 4. the enthalpy change is divided by 1000 If the value is required is in kJ /mol. we need to know the bond energies: Bond energy of H-H bond = 436 kJ/mole Bond energy of Cl-Cl bond = 242 kJ/mole Bond energy of H-Cl bond = 431 kJ/mole Energy needed to break 1 H-H bond and 1 Cl-Cl bond = 436 + 242 = 678 kJ . it is usually carried out in such a way that the heat evolved is transferred to some water (in some cases a dilute solution is used in place of water.When a reaction is carried out. the bonds between the atoms in the reactants must be broken. before the new bonds in the products can be formed.38/0. When a chemical reaction occurs.e.2 x 39 = 16380J Energy in kilojoules = 16380/1000 = 16.2 ΔT = 57 .38kJ The number of moles octane used = Mass/Mr = 10/114 = 0. but the effect is very similar). e.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS TESTS FOR METAL IONS FLAME TEST Clean a piece of nichrome wire with sandpaper. . Cars and lorries are another major source of atmospheric pollution.Energy given out when 2 H-Cl bonds are formed = 2 x 431 = 862 kJ The difference is 862-678 = 184 kJ given out. So we can write H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl  = -184 kJ/mole H (remember that a minus H means an exothermic reaction) Activation Energy Many exothermic reactions need a small input of energy before the main reaction will start (e. then water. oil and gas). and is needed to start breaking the bonds in the reactants so that new ones can be formed. This is called ACTIVATION ENERGY. Power stations use huge amounts of these fuels and so are a major source of pollution. E n d o t h e r m ic R e a c t io n E x o t h e r m ic R e a c t i o n A E C N T E I V A R G T I O Y N R E A C T A N T S A C T IV A T IO N ENERG Y PRO D U CTS E R N E E A R C G T Y I O O N F EN ER G Y O F R E A C T IO N P R O D U C T S R E A C TA N TS Fuels & Pollution Pollution of the atmosphere is mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuels (coal.g. and viable alternatives to fossil fuels will need to be developed. and dip it into your test substance. however the use of fuels is essential for our economy. Now hold the wire at the edge of a blue Bunsen flame. the match that lights the bonfire).

then ammonia gas will be given off which turns red litmus paper blue (alkaline) White Precipitate which does not redissolve in excess NaOH CALCIUM (Ca2+) or MAGNESIUM (Mg2+) must be present.CALCIUM (Ca2+) Apple green – BARIUM (Ba2+) TESTING WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE Since most metal hydroxides are insoluble. Method The substance is dissolved in water. Copper sulphate + Sodium hydroxide = Copper Hydroxide + sodium sulphate.POTASSIUM (K+) Crimson . as Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 are both white and insoluble. If ammonium ions (NH4+) are present. This indicates a CARBONATE (CO32-) 2) Test for Halides (Chloride. White Precipitate which dissolves in when excess NaOH is added ALUMINIUM (Al3+) present. CuSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) = Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq) The copper hydroxide is seen as a blue precipitate.SODIUM (Na+) Lilac .g. test for CO2.Bright orange flame . but soluble in sodium hydroxide solution. Bromide & Iodide) . No Precipitate Sodium (Na+). Al(OH)3 is insoluble in water. e.LITHIUM (Li+) Brick red . Sodium hydroxide solution is added until in excess. If it fizzes. as the hydroxides of these are soluble. potassium (K+) or ammonium (NH4+) must be present. adding sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of a metal salt will give a precipitate. Coloured Precipitate COPPER (Cu2+) ions give a blue ppt of Cu(OH)2 IRON (II) (Fe2+) ions give a dirty green ppt of Fe(OH)2 IRON (III) (Fe3+) ions give a brown ppt of Fe(OH)3 TESTS FOR NON-METAL IONS 1) Test for Carbonates Add dilute acid.with lime water (goes cloudy).

6g Mass of hydrogen = 3. and hence the empirical formula. followed by a few drops of silver nitrate solution. the amounts of carbon and hydrogen present can be calculated. Unsaturated compounds containing a carbon-carbon double bond. followed by barium chloride solution.8 x 12/44 = 2.2 = 1 0. When organic compounds undergo complete combustion. mass of CO2 molecule =44) e.2 0.4g Mass of H2O = 3.g. An organic compound is burned and produces 8. INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS Many modern labs use instrument to analyse compounds rather than ‘wet’ chemistry. they form carbon dioxide and water.6g of H2O.4g Empirical Formula Element Carbon Hydrogen Mass 2.4 Divide thru by smallest 0.8 g of CO2 and 3. In water 2/18 of the mass is hydrogen (mass of H atoms =2. These will decolourise bromine water. CHLORIDE (Cl-) gives a white ppt of AgCl. These include Absorption Spectrophotometers which analyse the elements in a compound .6 x 2/18 = 0.4g Ar 12 1 Mass/Ar 0. organic substances may char (turn black) because of the carbon in them.4g 0. Find its empirical formula Mass of CO2 = 8. Mass of carbon = 8. By weighing the amounts of these produced. 4) Test for Nitrates Add a little aluminium powder and dilute sodium hydroxide solution and warm gently.2 = 2 So the ratio of C:H = 1:2 and the empirical formula is CH2. mass of H2O molecule =18) In carbon dioxide 12/44 of the mass is carbon (mass of C atom =12. NITRATE (NO3-) will produce ammonia gas which turns damp litmus paper blue ORGANIC COMPOUNDS When heated.4/0.8g.Add a little nitric acid.2/0. BROMIDE (Br-) gives a cream coloured ppt of AgBr IODIDE(I-) gives a yellow ppt of AgI 3)Test for Sulphates Add a little dilute HCl. SULPHATE (SO42-) gives a white ppt of BaSO4.

Disadvantages Instrumental methods use much more expensive equipment. Advantages These methods use much smaller quantities of chemicals than traditional methods. .Mass Spectrometers which can find the mass of particles Infrared Spectrometers which give information about bonds in substances. and require a greater skill level to operate and interpret results. and generally produce more accurate results.

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