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Design Data Hand Book


Contents:1 Friction Clutches
Single plate clutches05 Multi plate clutches05 Cone clutches06 Centrifugal clutches06

2 Brakes
External Contracting Brakes08 Internal Expanding Brake09 Band Brakes10 Thermal Considerations11

3 Belt Drives
Geometrical Relationships12 Analysis of Belt Tensions13 Condition for Maximum Power13 Selection of Flat Belts from the Manufactures Catalogue13 Selection of V-Belts15

4 Chain Drives
Roller Chains20 Geometrical Relationships20 Power Rating of Roller Chains21 Sprocket Wheels24

5 Rolling Contact Bearings


Stribecks Equation25 Equivalent Bearing Load26

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2 Load Life Relationship26 Selection of Bearing from the Manufactures Catalogue27 Selection of Taper Roller Bearings32 Design for Cyclic Load and Speed38 Bearing With a Probability of Survival Other Than 90 Percent38

6 Sliding Contact Bearings


Effect of Temperature on Viscosity39 Hydrostatic Step Bearing40 Energy Losses in Hydrostatic Bearing40 Reynolds Equation41 Raimondi and Boyd Method41 Temperature Rise43 Bearing Design Selection of Parameters44

7 Spur Gears
Standard System of Gear Tooth45 Force Analysis50 Beam Strength of Gear Tooth47 Effective Load on Gear Tooth48 Estimation of Module Based on Beam Strength50 Wear Strength of Gear Tooth50 Estimation of Module Based on Wear Strength51 Gear Design for Maximum Power Transmitting Capacity51

8 Helical Gears
Virtual Number of Tooth52 Tooth Proportions53 Beam Strength of Helical Gears54 Effective Load on Gear Tooth54 Wear Strength of Helical Gears55

9 Bevel Gears
Force Analysis57

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3 Beam Strength of Bevel Gears58 Wear Strength of Bevel Gears59 Effective Load on Gear Tooth60

10 Worm Gears
Proportions of Worm Gears62 Force Analysis64 Friction in Worm Gears64 Strength Rating of Worm Gears65 Wear rating of worm gears67

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FRICTION CLUTCHES
Notations:D = outer diameter of friction disk. d = inner diameter of friction disk. p = intensity of pressure. P = total operating force. M t f = torque transmitted by friction. z = number of pairs of contacting surfaces, for single plate clutch z=one. (z = number of plates 1). = coefficient of friction.

pa

= intensity of pressure at the inner edge. = semi cone angle. = radius of the drum.

= radius of the centre of gravity of the shoe in engaged position. m = mass of each shoe.

rd rg

Pcf = centrifugal force. Ps Spring force


2

= running speed. (Rad/sec) = speed at which engagement starts. (Rad/sec)

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Single Plate & Multi Plate Clutches


Uniform pressure theory

P
Mt
f

(D 2

d2)

Pz (D3 d 3 ) 3 (D 2 d 2 )

Uniform wear theory pad P (D d ) 2

Mt

Pz (D 4

d)

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Cone Clutches
Uniform pressure theory

P
Mt
f

(D 2

d 2)

Pz (D3 d 3 ) 3sin (D2 d 2 )

Uniform wear theory pad P (D d ) 2

Mt

Pz (D 4 sin

d)

Centrifugal Clutches
Ps
M
t

2 1 g

1000
mr g rd z (
f 2 2 2 1

1000

Note: - here z = number of shoes.

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Brakes
Notations:E = total energy absorbed by the brake. K.E = kinetic energy absorbed by the brake. P.E = potential energy absorbed by the brake. m = mass of the system. I = mass moment of inertia of the rotating body. k = radius of gyration. v1 , v2 = Initial and final velocities of the system
1

= Initial and final angular velocities of the body

M t = braking torque.
= angle through which the brake drum rotates during the braking period.
1 2 m(v12 v 2 ) 2 1 2 K .E I ( 12 2) 2 1 2 K .E mk 2 ( 12 2) 2 P.E mgh K .E

Mt

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External Contracting Brakes


Block brake with short shoe

Mt
Where
Mt

NR

= Braking Torque R = Radius of the Brake Drum = Coefficient of Friction N = Normal reaction

plw

Where p = Permissible pressure between the block and the brake drum l = length of the block w = width of the block

RX RY

N (N P)

(a b

c)

Pivoted block brake with long shoe

P
h

Pmax cos
4R sin 2 sin 2

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Mt
RX
RY

2 R 2 wp max sin
1 Rwp max ( 2 2 1 Rwp max (2 2 sin 2 )
sin 2 )

Internal expanding brake


p max Rw 4 R cos Mn
2

Mf

cos 4 sin
1

2 max

h cos 2
2

cos 2
1

pmax Rwh 2
cos

sin 2
max

sin 2

4 sin
2

Mt

R p max w(cos 1 sin max

P
P

Mn C
Mn C

Mf
Mf

(Clock wise rotation of the brake drum)

(Anti clock wise rotation of the brake drum)


2

max max

90 0 when
2

90 0 90 0

when

Where p max = maximum intensity of pressure. = coefficient of friction.

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M f = moment due to friction. M n = moment due to normal force. M t = elemental torque due to frictional force.

R = radius of the brake lining. w = face width of frictional lining.

Band Brakes
P = tension on the tight side of the band. 1 P2 = tension on the loose side of the band.

= angle of wrap (rad).

M t = torque capacity of the brake.


R = radius of the brake drum.
Mt ( P1 P2 ) R

p pmax

P Rw P 1 Rw

p = intensity of pressure. w = width of the frictional lining. Differential band brake. P2 (a b e ) p l

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Thermal Considerations

E mc

Where t = temperature rise of the brake drum assembly (0C ) E = total energy absorbed by the brake m = mass of the brake drum assembly c = specific heat of the brake drum material

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Belt Drives

GEOMETRICAL RELATIONSHIPS
Open belt drive
s

D d ) 2C d 1 D 180 2 sin ( ) 2C 180 2 sin 1 (


2C (D d ) 2 (D d ) 2 4C

Cross belt drive


s b

180 2 sin 1 (
(D d ) 2 ( D d )2 4C

D d ) 2C

2C

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Analysis of belt tension

P1 P2

mv 2 mv 2

ef

(For flat belts)

P1 P2

mv 2 mv 2

sin(

1 ) 2

(For V-belts)

Power transmitted= ( P 1

P2 )v

Condition for maximum power transmission

Pi 3m

SELECTION OF FLAT BELT FROM THE MANUFACTURES CATALOGUE


(kW ) max Fa (kW )

Where (kW ) max = power transmitted by the belt for the design purpose
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(kW ) = actual power transmitted by the belt

Fa = load correction factor


Type of load (i) Normal load (ii) Steady load, e.g. centrifugal pumps-fans-light machine tools-conveyors (iii) Intermittent load, e.g. heavy duty fansblowers-compressors- reciprocating pumps-line shafts-heavy duty machines (iv) Shock load, e.g. vacuum pumps-rolling millshammers-grinders

Fa
1.0 1.2 1.3

1.5

Arc of contact factor


s

(degrees) 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 1.33 1.26 1.19 1.13 1.08 1.04 1.00 0.97 0.94 Fd

HI-SPEED FORT

0.0118 kW per mm width per ply 0.0147 kW per mm width per ply

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Standard widths of the belt are as follows


3-Ply 25 4-Ply 40 5-Ply 76 6-Ply 112 40 50 63 76 44 50 63 76 100 112 125 152 125 152 180 200 90 100 112 125 152

( kW ) corrected
For HI-SPEED belt,

(kW ) max

Fd

Corrected kW rating= For FORT belt, Corrected kW rating=

0.0118v (5.08) 0.0147v (5.08)

SELECTION OF V-BELTS
Dimensions of standard cross-sections Belt Section Width Thickness Minimum pitch W(mm) T(mm) diameter of pulley(mm) A 13 8 125 B 17 11 200 C 22 14 300 D 32 19 500 E 38 23 630

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Conversion of inside length to pitch length of the belt Belt section A B C D E Difference between pitch length and inside length (mm) 36 43 56 79 92 Preferred values for pitch diameters (mm) 132 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 212 224 250 265 280 300 315 355 375 400 425 450 500 530 560 600 630 670 710 750 800 900

125 236 475 1000

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Number _ of _ belts
Where

(transmitted _ power _ in _ kW ) Fa kW _ rating _ of _ belt Fd Fl

Fa = correction factor for industrial service Fl = correction factor for belt length

Fd = correction factor for arc of contact

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Li
3658 4013 4115 4394 4572 4953 5334 6045 6807 7569

A -

B 1.11 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.18 1.19 -

Belt section C 1.00 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.07 1.08 1.11 1.14 1.16

D 0.90 0.92 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.96 0.96 1.00 1.03 1.05

E 0.94 0.96 0.99 1.01

0.9 0.8

Fd

0.7 0.6 0.5 120 150 180

(Degrees)

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Chain Drives Roller Chains


Dimensions and breaking loads of roller chains
ISO chain number Pitch p (mm) Roller diameter d1 (mm) Width b1 (mm) Transverse Breaking load for pitch p t single strand chain (kN) (mm)

06 B 08 B 10 B 12 B 16 B 20 B 24 B 28 B 32 B 40 B

9.525 12.70 15.875 19.05 25.40 31.75 38.10 44.45 50.80 63.50

6.35 8.51 10.16 12.07 15.88 19.05 25.40 27.94 29.21 39.37

5.72 7.75 9.65 11.68 17.02 19.56 25.40 30.99 30.99 38.10

10.24 13.92 16.59 19.46 31.88 36.45 48.36 59.56 58.55 72.29

10.7 18.2 22.7 29.5 65.0 98.1 108.9 131.5 172.4 272.2

Geometric Relationships
Velocity ratio, i
n1 n2 z2 z1 zpn 60 10 3

Average velocity, v Length of the chain, L Number of links in the chain, L n


a 2 p z1 2 z2

Ln

p
2

z 2 z1 2

p a

Where a = centre distance between the axis of the driving and driven sprockets.

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p 4

Ln

z1 z2 2

Ln

z1 z2 2

z z 8 2 1 2

POWER RATING OF ROLLER CHAINS


kW P1v 1000

Where

P1 = allowable tension in the chain (N)


v = average velocity of chain

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kW rating of chain = Where

kW _ to _ be _ transmitted K1 K 2

Ks

K s = service factor

Multiple strand factors ( K1 ) Number of strands

K1

1 2 3 4 5 6

1.0 1.7 2.5 3.3 3.9 4.6

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Tooth correction factor ( K 2 ) Number of teeth on the K 2 driving sprocket 15 0.85 16 0.92 17 1.00 18 1.05 19 1.11 20 1.18 21 1.26 22 1.29 23 1.35 24 1.41 25 1.46 30 1.73

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SPROCKET WHEELS

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Rolling Contact Bearing


Stribecks Equation
C0
2 1 23 2 1

P1

2 P2 cos

2 P3 cos 2

.......... .....

cos P2 P 1

C0
Where, M

P1 M
1 2 cos
5 2

2 cos 2

5 2

C 0 = Static load
1

... = radial deflections at the respective balls.

360 z
Where z is number of balls
z M

is practically constant and Stribeck suggested a value of


z M

5 for

C0

1 zP1 5

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Where d is, the ball diameter and factor k depends upon radii of curvature at the point of contact and on the modulii of elasticity of the materials. Stribecks Equation

P1

kd 2

C0

kd 2 z 5

Equivalent Bearing Load


P XFr YFa

Where, P= equivalent dynamic load Fr = radial load Fa = axial or thrust load X and Y are radial and thrust factors respectively and there values are given in the manufactures catalogue.

Load Life Relationship


C L P Where L = bearing life (in million revolutions) C = dynamic load capacity (N) p=3 (for ball bearing) p = 10/3 (for roller bearing)
p

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Relationship between life in million revolutions and and life in working hours is given by 60nLh L 10 6 Where Lh =bearing life (hours) n = speed of rotation (rpm)

Selection of bearing from manufactures catalogue


X and Y factors for single-row deep groove ball bearings

Fa C0

Fa Fr
X

Fa Fr
X 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56

Y 0 0 0 0 0 0

Y 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.37 0.44

0.025 0.040 0.070 0.130 0.250 0.500

1 1 1 1 1 1

XFr

YFa
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Dimensions and static and dynamic load capabilities of singlerow deep groove ball bearings. Principal dimensions (mm) d D B 10 19 5 26 8 30 9 35 11 12 21 5 28 8 32 10 37 12 15 24 5 32 9 35 11 42 13 17 26 5 35 10 40 12 47 14 62 17 20 32 7 42 8 42 12 47 14 52 15 72 19 25 37 7 47 8 47 12 Basic load ratings(N) C 1480 4620 5070 8060 1430 5070 6890 9750 1560 5590 7800 11400 1680 6050 9560 13500 22900 2700 7020 9360 12700 15900 30700 3120 7610 11200
C0

Designation

630 1960 2240 3750 695 2240 3100 4650 815 2500 3550 5400 930 2800 4500 6550 11800 1500 3400 4500 6200 7800 16600 1960 4000 5600

61800 6000 6200 6300 61801 6001 6201 6301 61802 6002 6202 6302 61803 6003 6202 6303 6403 61804 16400 6004 6204 6304 6404 61805 16005 6005

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30

35

40

45

50

55

52 62 80 42 55 55 62 72 90 47 62 62 72 80 100 52 68 68 80 90 110 58 75 75 85 100 120 65 80 80 90 110 130 72

15 17 21 7 9 13 16 19 23 7 9 14 17 21 25 7 9 15 18 23 27 7 10 16 19 25 29 7 10 16 20 27 31 9

14000 22500 35800 3120 11200 13300 19500 28100 43600 4030 12400 15900 25500 33200 55300 4160 13300 16800 30700 41000 63700 6050 15600 21200 33200 52700 76100 6240 16300 21600 35100 61800 87100 8320

6950 11400 19600 2080 5850 6800 10000 14600 24000 3000 6950 8500 13700 18000 31000 3350 7800 9300 16600 22400 36500 3800 9300 12200 18600 30000 45500 4250 10000 12300 19600 36000 52000 5600

6205 6305 6405 61806 16006 6006 6206 6306 6406 61800 16007 6007 6207 6307 6407 61808 16008 6008 6208 6308 6408 61809 16009 6009 6209 6309 6409 61810 16010 6010 6210 6310 6410 61811

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60

65

70

75

90 90 100 120 140 78 95 95 110 130 150 85 100 100 120 140 160 90 110 110 125 150 180 95 115 115 130 160 190

11 18 21 29 33 10 11 18 22 31 35 10 11 18 23 33 37 10 13 20 24 35 42 10 13 20 25 37 45

19500 12200 28100 17000 43600 25000 71500 41500 99500 63000 8710 6100 19900 13200 29600 18300 47500 28000 81900 48000 108000 69500 11700 8300 21200 14600 30700 19600 55900 34000 92300 56000 119000 78000 12100 9150 28100 19000 37700 24500 61800 37500 104000 63000 143000 104000 12500 9800 28600 20000 39700 26000 66300 40500 112000 72000 153000 114000

16011 6011 6211 6311 6411 61812 16012 6012 6212 6312 6412 61813 16013 6013 6213 6313 6413 61814 16014 6014 6214 6314 6414 61815 10615 6015 6215 6315 6415

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Dynamic load capacity


L C P
p

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Selection of Taper Roller Bearings


0.5Fr Y

Fa

Where Y is the thrust factor Equivalent dynamic load for single row taper roller bearings is given by

P P

Fr when Fa Fr 0.4 Fr

e e

YFa when Fa Fr

Dimensions, Dynamic capabilities and calculation factors for single row taper roller bearing d D B C Designation e Y 20 42 15 22900 32004X 0.37 1.6 47 15.25 26000 30204 0.35 1.7 52 16.25 31900 30304 0.30 2.0 52 72.25 41300 32304 0.30 2.0 25 47 15 25500 32005X 0.43 1.4 52 16.25 29200 30205 0.37 1.6 52 19.25 34100 32205B 0.57 1.05 52 22 44000 33205 0.35 1.7 62 18.25 41800 30305 0.30 2 62 18.25 35800 31305 0.83 0.72 62 25.25 56100 32305 0.30 2 30 55 17 33600 32006X 0.43 1.4 62 17.25 38000 30206 0.37 1.6 62 21.25 47300 32206 0.37 1.6 62 21.25 45700 32206B 0.57 1.05

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30

35

40

45

50

62 72 72 72 62 72 72 72 72 80 80 80 80 68 75 80 80 80 85 90 90 90 75 80 85 85 85 95 95 100 100 100 100 80

25 20.75 20.75 28.75 18 18.25 24.25 24.25 28 22.75 22.75 32.75 32.75 19 26 19.75 24.75 32 33 25.25 25.25 35.25 20 26 20.75 24.75 32 29 36 27.25 27.25 38.25 38.25 20

60500 52800 44600 72100 40200 48400 61600 57200 79200 68200 57200 89700 88000 49500 74800 58300 70400 96800 114000 80900 69300 110000 55000 79200 62700 74800 101000 84200 140000 101000 85800 132000 128000 57200

33206 30306 31306 32306 32007X 30207 32207 32207B 33207 30307 31307 32307 32307B 32008X 33108 30208 32208 33208 T2EE040 30308 31308 32308 32009X 33109 30209 32209 33209 T7FC045 T2ED045 30309 31309 32309 32309B 32010X

0.35 0.31 0.83 0.31 0.46 0.37 0.37 0.57 0.35 0.31 0.83 0.31 0.54 0.37 0.35 0.37 0.37 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.83 0.35 0.40 0.37 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.88 0.33 0.35 0.83 0.35 0.54 0.43

1.7 1.9 0.72 1.9 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.05 1.7 1.9 0.72 1.9 1.1 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.72 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.68 1.8 1.7 0.72 1.7 1.1 1.4

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50

60

70

80 85 90 90 90 100 105 110 110 110 110 95 95 100 110 110 110 115 115 125 130 130 130 130 110 110 120 125 125 125 130 140 140 150

24 26 21.75 24.75 32 36 32 29.25 29.25 42.25 42.25 23 27 30 23.75 29.75 38 39 40 37 33.5 33.5 48.5 48.5 25 31 37 26.25 33.25 41 43 39 32 38

64400 80900 70400 76500 108000 145000 102000 117000 99000 161000 151000 76500 85800 110000 91300 119000 157000 157000 183000 145000 161000 134000 216000 205000 95200 121000 161000 119000 147000 190000 220000 168000 264000 209000

33010 33110 30210 32210 33210 T2ED050 T7FC050 30310 31310 32310 32310B 32012X 33012 33112 30212 32212 33212 T5ED060 T2EE060 T7FC060 30312 31312 32312 32312B 32014X 33014 33114 30214 32214 33214 T2ED070 T7FC070 T4FE070 3014

0.31 0.40 0.43 0.43 0.40 0.35 0.88 0.35 0.83 0.35 0.54 0.43 0.33 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.54 0.33 0.83 0.35 0.83 0.35 0.54 0.43 0.28 0.37 0.43 0.43 0.40 0.33 0.88 0.44 0.35

1.9 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.7 0.68 1.7 0.72 1.7 1.1 1.4 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.8 0.72 1.7 0.72 1.7 1.1 1.4 2.1 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.8 0.68 1.35 1.7

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70

80

90

100

150

150 150 150 125 125 130 140 140 140 145 170 170 170 170 140 140 150 155 160 160 190 190 190 145 150 150 165 180 180 180 215 215 215 225

38 54 54 29 36 37 28.25 35.25 46 46 42.5 42.5 61.5 61.5 32 39 45 46 32.5 42.5 46.5 46.5 67.5 24 32 39 47 37 49 63 51.5 56.5 77.5 48

176000 275000 264000 128000 157000 168000 140000 176000 233000 264000 255000 212000 358000 336000 157000 205000 238000 270000 183000 238000 308000 251000 429000 119000 161000 212000 292000 233000 297000 402000 380000 352000 539000 347000

31314 32314 32314B 32016X 33016 33116 30216 32216 33216 T2ED080 30316 31316 32316 32316B 32018X 33018 33118 T2ED090 30218 32218 30318 31318 32318 T4CB100 32020X 33020 T2EE100 30220 32220 33220 30320 31320X 32320 32030X

0.83 0.35 0.54 0.43 0.28 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.31 0.35 0.83 0.35 0.54 0.43 0.27 0.40 0.33 0.43 0.43 0.35 0.83 0.35 0.48 0.46 0.28 0.31 0.43 0.43 0.40 0.35 0.83 0.35 0.46

0.72 1.7 1.1 1.4 2.1 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.9 1.7 0.72 1.7 1.1 1.4 2.2 1.5 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.7 0.72 1.7 1.25 1.3 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.7 0.72 1.7 1.3

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150

200

300

270 270 320 320 280 310 360 360 420

49 77 72 82 51 70 64 104 76

402000 682000 765000 837000 446000 704000 737000 1140000 990000

30230 32230 30330 31330X 32940 32040X 30240 32240 32960

0.43 0.43 0.35 0.83 0.40 0.43 0.43 0.40 0.40

1.4 1.4 1.7 0.72 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5

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Design for Cyclic Load and Speeds

Pe

BP 3 N

Bearing With a Probability of Survival Other Than 90 Percent


1b

L L90

log e log e

1 R 1 R90

Where b = 1.17

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Sliding Contact Bearing


Effect of Temperature on Viscosity

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Hydrostatic Step Bearing


The following notations are used in the analysis, W = Trust load

R0 = outer radius of the shaft Ri = inner radius of the shaft


Pi = supply of inlet pressure Po = outlet or atmospheric pressure

h0 = fluid film thickness


Q = flow of the lubricant = viscosity of the lubricant
Q
3 Pi h0

6 log e

R0 Ri

Pi 2

R 02 log
e

R i2 R0 Ri

Energy Losses in Hydrostatic Thrust Bearing


(kW ) p
(kW ) f

Q( Pi

P0 )(10 6 )
n 2 ( R04 Ri4 ) h0

( kW ) p = power loss in pumping

1 58.05 10 6

( kW ) f = power loss due to friction

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(kW ) t

( kW ) p

( kW ) f

( kW )t = total power loss

Reynolds Equation
x h3 p x z h3 p z 6 U h x

Raimondi and Boyd Method


Dimensionless performance parameters for full journal bearings with side flow

l d

h0 c
0 1.0 0.1 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.9 0.1 0.97 0.03 1.0 0 0 1.0 0.1 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.9 0.1

r f c
70.92 69.10 4.80 67.26 2.57 61.94 1.52 54.31 1.20 42.22 0.961 31.62 0.756 _ _ 0 0 85 79.5 26.4 74.02 12.8 63.10 5.79 50.58 3.22 36.24 1.70 26.45 1.05

Q rcns l

Qs Q

p p max

0.240 0.123 0.0626 0.0389 0.021 0.0115 _ 0 1.33 0.631 0.264 0.121 0.0446 0.0188

0 3.03 0 2.83 0 2.26 0 1.56 0 0.760 0 0.411 0 _ 0 0 0 0 3.37 0.150 3.59 0.280 3.99 0.497 4.33 0.680 4.62 0.842 4.74 0.919

_ 0.826 0.814 0.764 0.667 0.495 0.358 _ 0 _ 0.540 0.529 0.484 0.415 0.313 0.247

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0.97 0.03 0.00474 15.47 1.0 0 0 0 0 1.0 88.5 0.1 0.9 4.31 81.62 0.2 0.8 2.03 74.94 0.4 0.6 0.779 61.45 0.6 0.4 0.319 48.14 0.8 0.2 0.0923 33.31 0.9 0.1 0.0313 23.66 0.97 0.03 0.00609 13.75 1.0 0 0 0 0 1.0 89.5 0.1 0.9 16.2 82.31 0.2 0.8 7.57 75.18 0.4 0.6 2.83 60.86 0.6 0.4 1.07 46.72 0.8 0.2 0.261 31.04 0.9 0.1 0.0736 21.85 0.97 0.03 0.0101 12.22 1.0 0 0 0

0.514 0 85.6 40.9 17.0 8.10 3.26 1.60 0.610 0 322.0 153.0 61.1 26.7 8.8 3.50 0.922 0

4.82 0 3.43 3.72 4.29 4.85 5.41 5.69 5.88 _ 3.45 3.76 4.37 4.99 5.60 5.91 6.12 _

0.973 1.0 0 0.173 0.318 0.552 0.730 0.874 0.939 0.980 1.0 0 0.180 0.330 0.567 0.746 0.884 0.945 0.984 1.0

0.152 _ _ 0.523 0.506 0.441 0.365 0.267 0.206 0.126 0 _ 0.515 0.489 0.415 0.334 0.240 0.180 0.108 0

c = R-r Where c = radial clearance (mm) R = radius of bearing r = radius of journal

e c
Where e =eccentricity ratio, = eccentricity ratio
1 h0 c

Where h0 =film thickness

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h0 c is called the minimum film thickness variable The Sommerfed number is given by

r c

ns p

Where n s =journal speed p = unit bearing pressure The Coefficient of Friction Variable (CFV) is given by r (CFV ) f c Where f is the coefficient of friction Frictional power ( kW ) f

2 n s fWr 10 6

The Flow Variable (FV) is given by Q ( FV ) rcn s l Where l = length of the bearing Q= flow of the lubricant

Temperature Rise
t 8.3 p (CFV ) ( FV ) t Ti 2

Tav

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44

Bearing Design Selection of Parameters

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Spur Gears
The pitch circle diameter is given by

d1
a

mz
mn ( z p 2
zg zp np ng

Centre to centre distance,

zg )

Here transmission ratio i

Standard System of Gear Tooth


Choice 1 1.00 1.25 (preferred) 5.00 6.0 Choice2 1.12 1.375 5.5 7.00 1.50 8.00 1.75 9.00 2.00 10.00 2.25 11.00 2.5 12.00 2.75 14.0 3.00 4.0 16.00 20.00 3.50 4.5 18.00

Addendum ha =(m) Dedendum h f =1.25m Clearance(c) =0.25m Tooth thickness = 1.5708m Fillet radius = 0.4m

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Force Analysis
Mt 60 10 6 (kW ) 2 n

pt
Pr

2 mt d1
Pt tan

Pt cos Number of Teeth PN

2 sin 2 Pressure angle z min

14.5 0

20 0

25 0

z min (Theoretical) z min (Practical)

32 27

17 14

11 9

Face Width (3m)<b< (12m) In preliminary stages of gear design, the face width assumed as ten times of module.

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47

Beam Strength of Gear Tooth

Sb

mb

Values of the Lewis form factor Y for 20 0 full depth involute system z Y z Y z Y 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 0.289 0.295 0.302 0.308 0.314 0.320 0.326 0.330 0.333 0.337 0.340 0.344 27 28 29 30 32 33 35 37 39 40 45 50 0.348 0.352 0.355 0.358 0.364 0.367 0.373 0.380 0.386 0.389 0.399 0.408 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 150 200 300 Rack 0.415 0.421 0.425 0.429 0.433 0.436 0.442 0.446 0.458 0.463 0.471 0.484

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Effective Load on Gear Tooth (1)For ordinary and commercially cut gears made with form cutters with v<10m/s

Cv

3 3 v 6 6 v
5 .6 5.6 v

(2) For actually hobbled and generated gears with v<20m/s,

Cv

(3) For precision gears with shaving, grinding and lapping operations and with v>20m/s,
Cv

The pitch line velocity is given by d 'n v 60 10 3 The effective load between two meshing teeth is given by

Peff

C s Pt Cv

n the final stages of gear design, when the gear dimensions are known, the errors specified and the quality of gears determined, the dynamic load is calculated by the equations derived by Prof. Spotts. The effective load is given by

Peff

C s Pt

Pd

where Pd is the dynamic load Depending upon the materials of the pinion and the gear, there are three equations for the dynamic load. (1) Steel Pinion with steel gear: en p z p br1 r2 Pd 2530 r12 r22

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(2) C.I Pinion with C.I gear: en p z p br1r2 Pd 3785 r12 r22 (3) Steel Pinion with C.I Gear en p z p br1r2 Pd 3260 r12 0.92 r22 e = sum of errors between two meshing teeth (mm)
e ep eg

where e p =error for pinion e g =error for gear Source of power Type of driven machines
Generators-feeding mechanisms-belt conveyorsblowers-compressors-agitators and mixers Electric motor Turbine/Multi cylinder engine Single-cylinder engine

1.10

1.25

1.50

Machine tools-hoist and cranes-rotary drives-piston pumps-distribution pumps

1.25

1.50

1.75

Blanking and shearing presses -rolling mills-centrifuges-steel work machinery

1.75

2.00

2.25

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Estimation of Module Based on Beam Strength


13

60 10 6

kW C s fs b S ut znCv Y m 3

Wear Strength of Gear Tooth


K
2 c

sin cos 1 E1 1 E 2 1 .4

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51

Sw
Q

bQd 1 K p
2z g zg zp

Expression for the load stress factor K can be simplified when all the gears are made of steel with a 20 0 pressure angle . in this special case,

E1
c

E2
20 0

207000 N mm 2

0.27(9.81)( BHN ) N mm 2 where BHN=Brinell Hardness Number. Therefore,


K BHN 0.16 100
2

Estimation of Module Based on Wear Strength


13

60 10 6

kW C s fs b z 2 n p Cv QK p m

Gear Design for Maximum Power Transmitting Capacity


Sw
Pt Pd

2 Pd
Sw 2

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52

Helical gears
Pn
mn

P cos
m cos

mn = normal module
m = transverse module

pa
cos d

p tan
tan tan zmn cos
n

a
i

m n ( z1 z 2 ) 2 cos
p g

zg zp

Where i=speed ratio for helical gear Suffixes p and g refer to the pinion and gear respectively a is the centre to centre distance between two helical gears having z1 and z 2 as the number of teeth. The normal pressure angle is usually 20 0 .

Virtual number of teeth


z1 z cos 3

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Tooth proportions
In helical gears, the normal module mn should be selected from standards. The first preference values of the normal module are m n (mm) 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5,3,4,5,6,8 and10. The standard proportions of the addendum and dedendum are, Addendum ( ha ) mn Dedendum (h f ) 1.25m n Clearance (c) 0.25mn Addendum circle diameter d a is given by
da mn z cos 2

Dedendum circle diameter d f is given by


df mn z cos 2.5
n

m sin

This is the minimum face width. Force Analysis

pt pr pa pt
pa

Tangential component Radial component Axial or thrust component

p cos
p t tan

cos

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pr

pt

tan cos

2 mt pt d Beam strength of helical gears


Sb mn
b

Effective load on gear tooth


60 10 6 (kW ) 2 n

Mt

Pt

2M t d

Peff

C s Pt Cv

C s = service factor (from table)


C v = velocity factor
The velocity factor ,
Cv 5.6 5.6 v

Dynamic load is given by

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55

Pd

en p z p br1r2 2530 r12 r22

Peff

(Cs Pt

Pd cos

cos )

Sb

Peff ( fs )

Wear strength of helical gears


Sw bQd p K cos 2

Q Q

2 z1 g z1 g zg z1 p zp 2 zg

for internal helical gear

2 zg zg zp

2 c

sin

n cos

1 E1

1 E2

1.4

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Normal pressure angle


BHN 0.16 100
2

(20 0 )

Sw

Peff ( fs )

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Bevel Gears
rb z1
tan
tan

D 2 cos z cos zp
zg zg
zp

The cone distance

A0 is given by
2

A0

Dp 2

Dg 2

Force Analysis
rm Dp 2 b sin 2

Where rm = radius of the pinion at the mid point along the face width b = face width of the tooth

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Pt
Ps

Mt rm
Pt tan

Where Pt = tangential or useful component which is perpendicular to the plane of the paper.

Ps = the separating force between the two meshing


teeth Pr Pt tan cos

Pa

Pt tan sin

Beam Strength of Bevel Gears


Sb mb
bY 1

b A0

Where S b beam strength of the tooth m = module at the large end of the tooth b = face width = permissible bending stress ( S ut 3 ) Y = Lewis form factor based on formative number of
b

teeth

A0 = cone distance
Pt 2M t D
face width of the bevel gear is generally taken as (10 m) or ( A0 3 ) whichever is smaller

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b = (10 m) or A0 3

(Whichever is smaller)

WEAR STRENGTH OF BEVEL GEARS


Buckinghams equation

Sw

bQd 1 K p

Where

S w = wear strength
b = face width of gears Q = ratio factors d 1 = pitch circle diameter of the formative pinion p K = material constant

d1 p

2rb

Sw
Q

0.75bQD p K cos
2z g zg
2 c

(Buckinghams equation)

z p tan
1 Ep 1 Eg

sin cos

1. 4 When pinion as well as the gear is made of steel with 20 0 pressure angle, the value of K is given by
K BHN 0.16 100
2

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EFFECTIVE LOAD ON GEAR TOOTH


Mt 60 10 6 ( kW ) 2 n

Pt

2M t D

Peff

C s Pt Cv
Source of power Type of driven machines
Electric motor Turbine/Multi cylinder engine Single-cylinder engine

C s = service factor (from table)

Generators-feeding mechanisms-belt conveyorsblowers-compressors-agitators and mixers

1.10

1.25

1.50

Machine tools-hoist and cranes-rotary drives-piston pumps-distribution pumps

1.25

1.50

1.75

Blanking and shearing presses -rolling mills-centrifuges-steel work machinery

1.75

2.00

2.25

C v = velocity factor
The velocity factor for cut teeth is given by

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Cv
For general teeth,
Cv

6 6 v
5.6 5.6 v

Dynamic load is given by en p z p b1 r1 r2 Pd 2530 r12 r22

r1 , r2 Radii of the pinion and gear respectively b1 Axial width of the gear blank
r1
r2

Dp 2
Dg 2

b sin 2
b cos 2

Peff

(C s Pt

Pd )

Stress in gear tooth due to bending S b Peff ( fs ) Stress in gear tooth due to pitting

Sw

Peff ( fs )

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Worm Gears
Notations:z1 = number of starts on the worm z2 = number of teeth on the worm wheel q = diametral quotient m = module d1 = pitch circle diameter of the worm

d a1 = outer diameter of the worm d a 2 = outer diameter of the worm wheel d 2 = pitch circle diameter of the worm wheel
l = lead of the worm

p x = axial pitch of the worm


a = the centre distance i = the speed ratio. F = the effective face width lr = the length of the root of the worm gear teeth.

Proportions of Worm Gears

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d1 m p x z1

d 2 mz 2 px m

l
a

mz 1
1 m( q 2 z2 )

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64 z2 z1 2m (q 1)

i F

lr

( d a1

2c) sin

F d a1 2c

Force Analysis
( P1 ) t = tangential component on the worm ( P ) a = axial component on the worm 1 ( P1 ) r = radial component on the worm
( P1 ) t 2M t d1

( P1 ) a
( P1 ) r

( P1 ) t
( P1 ) t

cos cos cos sin


sin (cos sin

sin cos
cos )

Friction in worm gears


v s = rubbing velocity v1 = pitch line velocity of the worm

v2 = pitch line velocity of the worm wheel d 1n 1 v1 ( 60 )( 1000 )


vs d 1 n1 (60000 ) cos cos tan (cas cot )

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Strength Rating Of Worm Gears


( M t )1 (M t ) 2 17.65 X b1 S b1ml r d 2 cos 17.65 X b 2 S b 2 ml r d 2 cos

( M t )1 , ( M t ) 2 = permissible torque on the worm wheel


, X b 2 = speed factors for the strength of worm and worm wheel
b1

b1

Sb2

= bending stress factors for worm and worm

wheel

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m = module

l r = the length of the root of the worm gear teeth.


d 2 = pitch circle diameter of the worm wheel
= lead angle of the worm Power transmitting capacity of the worm gear based on the beam strength is given by

kW
Where
(M t)

2 nM t 60 10 6

is the lower value between (M t)1 and (M t) 2 .

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Wear Rating of Worm Gears


(M t ) 3 (M t ) 4 18.64 X c1 S c1YZ ( d 2 )1.8 m 18.64 X c 2 S c 2YZ (d 2 )1.8 m

( M t )3 , ( M t ) 4 = permissible torque on the worm wheel

X c1 , X c 2
worm wheel

= speed factors for the strength of worm and

S c1 , S c 2 = surface stress factors of the worm and worm


wheel

Yz = zone factor
Thermal Considerations H g 1000(1 ) kW Where H g = rate heat generation

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= efficiency of the of the worm gear (fraction) kW = power transmitted by the gears

Hd

k (t t 0 ) A

Where H d = rate of heat dissipation k = overall heat transfer coefficient of housing 20 walls W m C t = temperature of the lubrication oil. ( 0C )

t 0 = temperature of the surrounding air ( C )


0

A = effective surface area of housing

kW t

k (t t 0 ) A 1000(1 ) 1000(1 )kW t0 kA

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