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Practical ways to manage and minimise hazardous waste

GG490

Practical ways to manage and minimise hazardous waste

This Good Practice Guide was produced by Envirowise

Enviros Consulting Limited ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd

Summary

The way in which the UK disposes of hazardous waste is changing to meet the requirements of the Landfill Directive. This changes the way that hazardous wastes are classified and how they can be disposed of. For some businesses, this means they will become hazardous waste producers for the first time and for others, disposal costs may rise. This Good Practice Guide gives tips on how to reduce and re-use hazardous waste, and provides data on technologies and techniques for managing and treating hazardous waste. Companies that take a closer look at their sites hazardous waste arisings can reduce their operating costs, improve efficiency and reduce disposal costs. Effective management of your hazardous waste can help your company to: I reduce raw material costs; I reduce waste disposal costs; I improve environmental performance; I enhance its image; I comply with the hazardous waste regulations. Measuring and monitoring programmes can give you a good understanding of your current processes to help you identify areas where improvements can be made. Solutions need not be complex or involve large capital outlay - as this Guide shows, savings can often be made through simple, low-cost measures. This Guide considers various options for the treatment of hazardous waste, including: I elimination; I redesign; I reduction; I re-use; I recycling. Free advice on all aspects of hazardous waste treatment and hazardous waste legislation can be obtained from the Environment and Energy Helpline on 0800 585794. Free Envirowise publications referred to in this Guide, that will assist you to improve your environmental performance, can be ordered through the Helpline or via the Envirowise website (www.envirowise.gov.uk).

Contents

Section 1 Introduction 1.1 What is hazardous waste? 1.2 Legislation Actions to reduce hazardous waste Electronics sector 3.1 WEEE and RoHS Directives 3.2 Waste codes for the electronics sector 3.3 Hints and tips Engineering sector 4.1 Waste codes for the engineering sector 4.2 Hints and tips Furniture sector 5.1 Waste codes for the furniture sector 5.2 Hints and tips Metal finishing sector 6.1 Waste codes for the metal finishing sector 6.2 Hints and tips Printing sector 7.1 Waste codes for the printing sector 7.2 Hints and tips Speciality chemicals sector 8.1 Waste codes for the speciality chemicals sector 8.2 Hints and tips Textiles sector 9.1 Waste codes for the textiles sector 9.2 Hints and tips Packaging 10.1 Waste codes for packaging 10.2 Hints and tips Volatile organic compounds 11.1 Waste codes for waste organic solvents 11.2 Hints and tips Useful contacts 12.1 Advice 12.2 Websites

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Introduction

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This Good Practice Guide collates many hints and tips from a number of Envirowise guides, all of which help companies to make cost savings by reducing their levels of hazardous waste. Effective management of your hazardous waste can help your company to: I reduce raw material costs; I reduce waste disposal costs; I improve environmental performance; I enhance its image; I comply with the hazardous waste regulations.

1.1 What is hazardous waste?


Waste is classed as hazardous when it contains properties that might make it harmful to our health or the environment. The European Commissions directive controlling the management of such waste defines an official hazardous waste list. However, this has recently been revised to incorporate the European Waste Catalogue. The revised list includes a number of waste streams not previously considered to be hazardous, for example, fluorescent tubes, television sets, batteries and computer monitors. This means some businesses will become hazardous waste producers for the first time.

1.2 Legislation
The way the UK manages hazardous waste is changing. In July 2004, landfill legislation was amended to implement the Landfill Directive. Landfill operators are now banned from mixing hazardous wastes with other inert or non-hazardous wastes (known as co-disposal) in landfills. Hazardous waste must go to special sites, which dramatically reduces the amount of landfill space available for its disposal. In January 2002, changes to the Hazardous Waste List were applied in the EU and incorporated into the European Waste Catalogue. The 1996 Special Waste Regulations have provided a system of control to ensure that hazardous wastes are soundly managed. New regulations are being developed to replace the Special Waste Regulations. In Scotland, new arrangements came into force on 1st July 2004 under the Special Waste Amendment (Scotland) Regulations 2004. In England, the Hazardous Waste Regulations are expected to come into force by summer 2005. Separate regulatory arrangements are being prepared for Wales and Northern Ireland. The 30,000 manufacturers and retailers of electrical and electronic goods in the UK will also be impacted by the introduction of the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and Restriction of Use of Certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directives due to come into force in stages from 2004 to 2006. These directives are to tackle the UKs rapidly increasing number of waste electrical and electronic items, which use valuable resources and contribute to the volumes of hazardous waste disposed of to landfill. The WEEE Directive reduces this waste by giving households the opportunity to return their unwanted electrical goods for recycling.

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Actions to reduce hazardous waste

Envirowise Good Practice Guides provide advice to companies on the cost and environmental benefits of adopting a systematic waste management programme. Each programme is based largely on an environmental management system and, where applicable, the waste management hierarchy (eliminate, reduce, re-use, recycle, dispose). Sections 3 to 9 of this Guide focus on seven sectors which are covered by Envirowise. For these sectors, the benefits of reducing hazardous waste are seen as a real opportunity. The sectors are: Electronics Engineering Furniture Metal finishing (including vehicle finishing) Printing Speciality chemicals Textiles

Sections 10 and 11 of this Guide focus on two areas that can apply to all sectors, namely: Packaging Volatile organic compounds There are various methods of minimising hazardous waste in the sectors above, for example, by following the principles of the waste hierarchy. Actions that are further up the hierarchy are better environmental options and often provide the most cost-effective solutions.
Fig 1 Flow chart for reducing hazardous material

yes

Can you eliminate hazardous material at source? no Can you reduce the amount of hazardous material used? no Can you re-use any hazardous material? no Can you recycle/recover the hazardous material? no Calculate the cost of disposal

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yes

yes

Implement waste minimisation

In all sectors, the advice on hazardous material places an emphasis on elimination and reduction at source. Key messages are: I Eliminate or reduce hazardous materials entering the product or process by choosing nonhazardous or less hazardous alternatives.

I Recover materials from the process for direct re-use on-site, or recycling off-site following further treatment. The options for this must be investigated prior to resorting to disposal. The bottom line is: the disposal of hazardous waste is expensive and the cost is rising. This Guide contains advice on methods to reduce the cost of waste and many of these can be implemented with little or no extra cost to the company. By designing out hazardous materials from your product or process you can eliminate the root cause of hazardous waste. This can be a low-cost option with immediate payback, removing the need for the disposal of hazardous materials in the future.

More information on cleaner design can be found in GG296 Cleaner product design: a practical approach.

Cleaner design considers the choice of materials used in a product. Many materials cannot be recycled and create significant environmental impacts during production. One example is lead, which constitutes a significant proportion of the solder used by the electronics industry. It is often possible to replace this with lead-free solder to reduce the products environmental impact.
Crawford Hansford & Kimber Ltd

Using cleaner design, we were able to reduce the quantity of lead used in the solder by 80%. This reduced the environmental impact and increased the recycling potential of our product.

A good start is to prepare a list of all the materials used to make a product. Research can then be undertaken to find alternatives with lower environmental impacts, for example: I those containing recycled materials; I those sourced from environmentally conscious suppliers; I those that can be recycled at the end-of-life. Suppliers and customers may be able to suggest alternative materials or potential opportunities for recovery, re-use and recycling.

Consider how the product is manufactured, ie does the manufacturing process generate hazardous materials? Design out where possible.

It may be possible to design out the use of hazardous materials altogether; prevention at source should be a high priority. Also consider how the product will be disposed of, ie will any parts of it require disposal as hazardous waste? Examination of the current method of disposal could reveal opportunities for increasing the products recycling potential. I Could the product be re-used or recycled instead of being sent to landfill? I If products with only minor faults are typically discarded, is it possible to salvage some of the hazardous parts or components? I Does the product contain hazardous materials or components that can be easily recovered and recycled?

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I Increase the efficiency of the process to reduce material consumption and waste generation (including minimising the need for cleaning which generates contaminated effluents).

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Electronics sector

The introduction of new legislation along with existing legislation affects the way electronics companies run their business. A significant number of companies have looked at cleaner design as a method of reducing the environmental impact of their products, from manufacture to end-of-life. This involves reviewing a products function, material content and physical organisation, and then examining how these three aspects give rise to environmental impacts. Adoption of cleaner design techniques will help to reduce the amount of hazardous materials requiring disposal. Cleaner design will also aid compliance with the WEEE and RoHS Directives.

3.1 WEEE and RoHS Directives


The legislation applies to the disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment and the banning of certain hazardous substances. The WEEE Directive requires producers of electrical and electronic goods to finance collection arrangements for their products at end-of-life. This includes the costs of appropriate treatment and meeting specific targets. The directive does not just apply to new products. Producers will be made responsible collectively for goods already on the market. The RoHS Directive restricts the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
For more information, see:

I GG415 Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and Directive on the Restriction of Use of Certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS): actions you need to take. I GG416 Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and Directive on the Restriction of Use of Certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS): a guide to the marketing, product development and manufacturing actions you need to take.

3.2 Waste codes for the electronics sector


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from the electronics industry as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 16 Wastes not specified in the list 16 02 Wastes from electrical and electronic equipment 16 02 09 Transformers and capacitors containing PCBs 16 02 10 Discarded equipment containing or contaminated by PCBs other than those mentioned in 16 02 09 16 02 11 Discarded equipment containing chlorofluorocarbons, HCFC, HFC 16 02 12 Discarded equipment containing free asbestos 16 02 13 Discarded equipment containing hazardous components (2) other than those mentioned in 16 02 09 to 16 02 12 16 02 15 Hazardous components removed from discarded equipment

This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information, refer to the guides identified.

Nature of hazardous waste: effluent from PCB manufacture reduction of effluent generation will reduce quantities for hazardous waste disposal.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG303 Reducing water and effluent costs in PCB manufacture.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Reduce at source

Review your upstream operations before considering changes to your effluent treatment. Small changes in operating procedures or process plant can reduce the volume and/or strength of wastewater. The volume of process solution dragged out when the board is removed from the process bath depends on the shape of the boards and the viscosity, surface tension and temperature of the solution. As the temperature of a process solution is increased, its viscosity and surface tension are reduced and, therefore, the drag-out volume is decreased. The speed with which the board is withdrawn from the process bath has a major impact on drag-out volume. The faster the board is pulled out of the bath, the more drag there will be. The speed of board withdrawal used intuitively by a careful operator on a manual line - about 0.5 metre/second - provides an optimum level of board drainage without compromising the process time. Allow sufficient drip time over the process bath to ensure effective drainage of the process solution from the boards. Studies show that a drip time of 30 seconds is a maximum level beyond which minimal additional benefit is achieved. However, for most PCB manufacturers, a drip time of about 15 seconds provides an optimum level of drainage set against increased process time. If the drip time is again reduced to only 8 seconds, the amount of drag-out increases by 50%. Significant reduction in drag-out can be achieved by improving the design of the board separators and baskets used to transport boards between process baths. Design the transport equipment to avoid hollows and minimise the amount of surface area. This will minimise the amount of process solution dragged out of the process bath by the basket and separators.

Reduce drag-out

Reduce

Optimise board withdrawal rate (vertical process lines, VPL)

Reduce

Allow sufficient drip time (VPL)

Reduce

Reduce entrapment (VPL)

Reduce

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3.3 Hints and tips

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Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Agitate boards to assist drainage (VPL) A careful operator intuitively carries out the agitation actions needed to minimise drag-out. Others may require training and management to ensure that they adhere to good practice. Altering the position of boards as they are withdrawn from a process solution can reduce drag-out. Studies show that boards drawn out at an angle to the solution surface drain faster than those drawn out perpendicular to the surface. Position two pairs of polyvinylacetate (PVA) squeegee pinch rollers directly after each process spray bath. The sponge surfaces of these squeegee rollers are effective at removing solution from holes and hollows on the boards. Use an air knife to direct a curtain of low pressure air against the board as it exits from the bath. This causes the drag-out to be blown back into the process spray booth. Key to reducing rinse water consumption is effective rinsing. Simply reducing the flow rate in a rinse system without regard to rinsing effectiveness may reduce the product quality or contaminate the next bath in the processing sequence. Often, a dilution ratio of 5 000:1 after a 200 g/litre process solution bath is considered to be the maximum level beyond which minimal additional benefit is achieved. In practice, a dilution ratio of 2 000:1 is commonly used. A key objective is the fast and effective removal of process solution resulting from drag-out from the board. This reduces the time needed for rinsing, and for a given rinse water flow rate the concentration of contaminants on the board when it leaves the rinse tank is minimised. To maintain optimum performance, operate a preventative maintenance programme for process baths and rinse tanks. Use flow restrictors to improve rinse water control.

Angle boards to assist drainage (VPL)

Reduce

Use squeegee rollers (horizontal process lines)

Reduce

Use air knives

Reduce

Reduce rinse water use

Reduce

Optimise rinse tank performance

Reduce

Improve control of rinse water use Use rinse timer controls Use conductivity coils

Reduce

Fit a timer control to regulate the amount of dilution water added to a rinse tank. Conductivity coils monitor the concentration of metal ions in the rinse tanks and, thus, control the amount of dilution water added. Connecting two or more rinse tanks in a counter current arrangement reduces rinse water consumption significantly. Two main types of nozzle are applicable to board rinsing operations. Discuss merits with your equipment suppliers.

Reduce

Reduce

Use alternative rinsing configurations Use low-flow spray rinsing

Reduce

Reduce

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Use dual-purpose rinsing on vertical process lines Some PCB manufacturers use dual-purpose rinsing on VPL to reduce the number of rinse tanks they operate. The technique uses the same static rinse tanks or recirculating spray rinse for rinsing operations following more than one process tank. Install a closed-loop system to recirculate cooling water. Use surplus cooling water from exothermic process baths in non-critical rinsing applications. Warm rinse water provides more effective rinsing than cold water. Use a filtration system to remove particles from water used in brushing/surface preparation activities so that the water can be re-used. Reduce

Recirculation and re-use

Re-use

Re-use water in brushing/surface preparation

Re-use

Purify waste water The technologies and treatment processes used to purify for re-use wastewater for re-use at a site depend on several factors, including operating costs, cost savings, payback period and consent requirements. Before installing a water treatment plant it is important to consider first all options to reduce water consumption and effluent generation. Ion exchange Ion exchange reduces the concentration of ions in wastewater to a level that enables the water to be re-used in the process. Companies can reduce their consumption of rinse waters by about 70% by introducing ion exchange and recirculating the treated water back into the process.

Re-use

Re-use

Reverse osmosis (RO)

Reverse osmosis uses a semi-permeable membrane to Re-use separate water from dissolved salts. The purified water is of high quality and can be re-used in the process. The use of RO is likely to become a viable waste minimisation practice for PCB manufacturers in the longer term.

Nature of hazardous waste: materials used during the manufacture of PCBs - utilisation of laminates, chemicals and drills.
Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG396 Reducing material costs in PCB manufacture.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Reduce laminate waste

Use panel sizes that use the whole of the sheet of laminate. Use panel sizes appropriate for the boards being produced. Use larger panel sizes to reduce the percentage of the panel that becomes the tooling margin (trim). Good panelisation will avoid the generation of excessive laminate waste.

Rationalise panel size

Reduce

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Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

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Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Improve board layout and reduce trim Improve chemical utilisation This technique involves improving the number and configuration of individual circuit boards on a laminate manufacturing panel. Improving board layout involves making better use of laminate material. The cost of chemicals used in PCB manufacture is the second largest raw material cost after laminates. The best ways of reducing costs are by good housekeeping, reducing waste at source (eg reducing drag-out loss), improved chemical sourcing, improved process control and improved process technology. One of the largest sources of chemical waste in PCB manufacture is due to process solution drag-out (see above). It is important to reduce this loss as drag-out has costly implications, eg chemicals are wasted, thus increasing the bill for raw materials, more water is needed and contamination of subsequent baths. Process chemicals are often selected on purchase price alone without considering the benefits of using products that are more expensive but have a higher performance. Differences in composition between process chemicals can have an impact on downstream costs, such as chemical use, solution use, process efficiency, effluent treatment, product quality and energy consumption.

Reduce

Reduce drag-out

Reduce

Improve chemical sourcing

Reduce

Improve process control

A poor regime of process control can lead to more Reduce chemicals being used to produce the desired results, reduced life of the process chemicals and increased scrap. Cost savings can be achieved through measures to extend chemistry life, a programme of planned chemical maintenance and the use of statistical process control. Effective chemical control has a significant impact on the life of chemicals in process baths. The benefits of extending chemistry life include more efficient purchase of chemicals, less waste and effluent, and improved process efficiency. To improve chemistry life, analyse chemical baths regularly, discard chemicals on an analytical basis, not a time basis, install self-dosing systems and prevent cross-contamination between baths by reducing drag-out. A programme of planned chemical maintenance will help control processes and ensure that chemical use is maintained at an optimum. A chemical monitoring regime will reduce the risk of excessive chemical use, unnecessary waste and the generation of scrap board. Reduce

Extend chemistry life

Planned chemical maintenance

Reduce

Consider installing The installation of a real time monitoring system, such real time as statistical process control (SPC), is a way of monitoring monitoring a process during its operation in order to control the quality of product during production, hence the operator can take action while the process is on-going. Improve process technology New and alternative process technologies are available that can be installed at little or no cost using existing plant and equipment, eg alternative oxide process system (AOPS), eductors, feed and bleed systems.

Reduce

Reduce

Engineering sector

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The engineering industry is large and diverse and manufactures a vast range of products from a wide range of raw materials including metals, plastics and ceramics. Raw materials and components may undergo many processes before the final product is formed, each process forming part of a value added chain. The supply chain is a fundamental characteristic of the industry, with many engineering companies selling their components to other manufacturers. Another important characteristic is the size distribution of the industry; there are a modest number of large companies (usually operating as a group of separate manufacturing or assembly centres), relatively few mediumsized companies and a large number of small companies.

4.1 Waste codes for the engineering sector


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from the engineering sector as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 03 Wastes from water and steam degreasing processes (except 11) 03 01 Aqueous washing liquids 03 02 Steam degreasing wastes Oil wastes and wastes of liquid fuels (except edible oils, 05, 12 and 19) 01 Waste hydraulic oils 01 01 Hydraulic oils, containing PCBs 01 04 Chlorinated emulsions 01 05 Non-chlorinated emulsions 01 09 Mineral-based chlorinated hydraulic oils 01 10 Mineral based non-chlorinated hydraulic oils 01 11 Synthetic hydraulic oils 01 12 Readily biodegradable hydraulic oils 01 13 Other hydraulic oils 02 Waste engine, gear and lubricating oils 02 04 Mineral-based chlorinated engine, gear and lubricating oils 02 05 Mineral-based non-chlorinated engine, gear and lubricating oils 02 06 Synthetic engine, gear and lubricating oils 02 07 Readily biodegradable engine, gear and lubricating oils 02 08 Other engine, gear and lubricating oils 03 Waste insulating and heat transmission oils 03 01 Insulating or heat transmission oils containing PCBs 03 06 Mineral-based chlorinated insulating and heat transmission oils other than those mentioned in 13 03 01 03 07 Mineral-based non-chlorinated insulating and heat transmission oils 03 08 Synthetic insulating and heat transmission oils 03 09 Readily biodegradable insulating and heat transmission oils 03 10 Other insulating and heat transmission oils 04 Bilge oils 04 01 Bilge oils from inland navigation 04 02 Bilge oils from jetty sewers 04 03 Bilge oils from other navigation 05 Oil/water separator contents 05 01 Solids from grit chambers and oil/water separators 05 02 Sludges from oil/water separators

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05 05 05 05 06 06 06 06 06 06

03 06 07 08

01 02 03 04 05

Interceptor sludges Oil from oil/water separators Oily water from oil/water separators Mixtures of wastes from grit chambers and oil/water separators Waste organic solvents, refrigerants and propellants (except 07 and 08) Waste organic solvents, refrigerants and foam/aerosol propellants Chlorofluorocarbons, HCFC, HFC Other halogenated solvents and solvent mixtures Other solvents and solvent mixtures Sludges or solid wastes containing halogenated solvents Sludges or solid wastes containing other solvents

4.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information, refer to the guides identified.

Nature of hazardous waste: metalworking fluids - techniques to improve fluid management and thereby reduce volumes for disposal.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG199 Optimising the use of metalworking fluids.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Select the correct fluid

Metalworking fluids are designed for either general or specific machining applications. Using an unsuitable fluid for a particular operation and metal will lead to waste raw materials, increased waste disposal costs, poor quality products, lower yields, shorter lifetime of tools, greater machine downtime and wasted effort. The development of metalworking fluids with reduced environmental impact is becoming increasingly important. New, less hazardous products include those based on vegetable oils instead of mineral oils. These fluids are more biodegradable and less toxic. Bans and anticipated bans on certain hazardous chemicals led to the formulation of fluids from additives, such as short-chain chloroparaffins used as lubricating agents, triazine compounds used as biocides, nitrites and secondary amines used as corrosion inhibitors. Some fluid formulators have developed products with low misting characteristics. This technique uses a small quantity of specialised fluid - as a fine mist spray - for the cutting process. This reduces the volume of fluid used.

Choose a less hazardous fluid

Reduce

Choose a fluid free of additives

Reduce

Use low mist products Spray mist or minimal lubrication to reduce volume

Reduce Reduce

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Use alternative minimal lubrication A system is available which produces a fine spray without misting that can be used in the workshop without extraction. Savings of over 85% in fluid use and a 500% increase in tool life have been reported with this system. Dry machining that uses no metalworking fluid is expected to become increasingly popular. Benefits include cost savings on buying fluids, reduced manufacturing costs, reduced disposal, less impact on the environment and improved conditions for operators in the workshop. Ensure good housekeeping to avoid fluid contamination. This also contributes to more pleasant and safer working conditions. Label all containers, vessels and pipework clearly. Keep fluid contact surfaces clean. Do not add clean fluid to a dirty machine or return fluid spills to the machine pump. Use only freshly diluted fluid at concentrations recommended by suppliers. Add the fluid concentrate to the water slowly; never add water to the fluid concentrate. Do not mix excessive amounts of diluted fluids. Use a stock rotation scheme to ensure materials are used before their use-by date. Over 90% of fluid-related complaints are due to poor management. Contamination accelerates fluid degradation and thus shortens its operational life. The commonest forms are tramp oil leaking from parts of the machine, small metal particles from the cutting process, airborne particles and re-use of fluid recovered from swarf. Continuous assessment of the physical and chemical properties of metalworking fluids during use allows the appropriate corrective action to be taken on a regular basis to maintain the fluids. Concentration and pH are the most important parameters to monitor. It is important to build a profile of fluid conditions by recording monitoring data on a chart. This will help you identify trends and provide an overall picture of the fluid condition. Diluting a fluid to a concentration below the recommended level is false economy. Typical repercussions are emulsions more susceptible to degradation, corrosion of the machine tool and reduced tool life, poor surface finish and insufficient lubrication. If the fluid concentration is too high, this can lead to foam formation and spillages. Lubrication and cutting performance are reduced and the cost of the excess fluid is wasted. Reduce

Use dry machining

Reduce

Good housekeeping Keeping fluid clean Mixing fluids

Reduce

Reduce

Reduce

Stock rotation Increase fluid lifetime

Reduce Reduce

Carry out condition monitoring to extend fluid life Assess monitoring data for trends

Reduce

Reduce

Use fluids of the correct concentration

Reduce

Remove tramp oil Tramp oil is unwanted oil introduced into the fluid from metalworking system from the machine tool, eg hydraulic or fluid slideways oils.

Reduce

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Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

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Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Control bacteria and fungi Preventing contamination is the best way of keeping microbial growth in check. If levels of bacteria or fungi (yeasts and moulds) are outside specified limits then add biocide to control bacteria and fungicide to control fungi. Particulates originate from many sources, but the commonest are the machining process and airborne contamination. Excessive build-up of particulates provides an ideal environment for other contamination, leading to fluid breakdown. Where appropriate, these systems with intelligent sensor technologies and compatible computer systems remove the need for subjective judgements in fluid management. To optimise performance, it is important to get maximum life out of your metalworking fluids. There is no universal definition of what constitutes a spent fluid and there are many different perceptions of when a fluid is ready for disposal. Testing the fluid condition will provide a more objective basis for the decision to discard the fluid. This will avoid wasting money and effort through disposing of fluid that has not actually reached the end of its working life. Spent fluids can be separated into organic and aqueous phases by adding chemicals. The separated water phase (if meeting specified consent conditions) can be discharged to sewer. A sludge will be produced that must be collected by a licensed waste treatment company. Alternative fluid disposal options include evaporation, which concentrates spent fluid and produces a residue with potential as a fuel. Other alternatives include biotechnology and hybrid systems. Produce a check sheet for solid waste arisings. This will help you identify typical sources and types generated. For more information see GG205 Environmental management systems workbook for engineering manufacturers. This practical guide will assist companies to identify, assess and manage the environmental consequences of their operations. On-site effluent treatment reduces contaminant levels to below the consent levels set by your local water company. Rainwater and surface water can also become contaminated as a result of spills and leaks. Control is essential as contaminated surface water is often discharged directly to controlled waters. For more information see GG109 Choosing cost-effective pollution control.

Avoid excessive build-up of particulates

Reduce

Employ automatic fluid management systems Ensure fluid is ready for disposal

Reduce

Reduce

Treatment of fluid to allow re-use

Re-use

Investigate alternative disposal technologies Produce a check sheet

Dispose

Reduce

Employ on-site effluent treatment

Reduce

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Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG227 Costeffective management of lubricating and hydraulic oils.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Improve handling equipment and monitor use

For companies whose plants use large amounts of oil, the potential for reducing consumption and rationalising grades is significant. This can be achieved by: I improving handling of equipment and air pumps in oil storage areas; I using specifically designed vehicles for transporting and dispensing oil; I recording and monitoring plant performance; I installing meters in hydraulic lines to monitor use; I comparing consumption between similar areas to identify sudden changes in usage; I ensuring staff are aware of the type of oil and filling required by an item (stickers are useful); I rationalising the types of oil used.

Use-by dates

All oils and greases have a use-by date, normally a code provided by the manufacturer. To ensure that the oil performs to its specification, the product should be used before this date. Your oil supplier can inform you of its data code system, so that you can avoid problems associated with out-of-date products. Before stock control can be tackled, it is important to establish who is responsible for oil management in your organisation. For effective management, oil stock and use must be controlled, and several approaches can be used, such as: control of the oil store is given to a small number of staff with site-wide responsibility, application of oils is given to a site team, individual manufacturing cells are given responsibility for oil application. Using one supplier for all oils has a number of benefits; it helps to minimise waste, simplifies the control of stock movements, makes rationalisation more effective, and may lead to discounts for larger orders. Effective stock control will enable you to produce a balance of the oil dispensed and the waste oil generated. Records of quantities of oil dispensed, the time and date and the location of use can be used to monitor plant performance and assist in maintenance planning. Monitoring waste oil generation can be as important as monitoring fresh oil application. To understand the use of plant items, it is useful to know the quantity of waste oil arisings.

Reduce

Assign responsibilities for oils

Reduce

Procurement of oils

Reduce

Ensure effective stock control

Reduce

Log waste oil

Reduce

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Nature of hazardous waste: lubricating and hydraulic oils techniques to improve oil management and minimise amounts for disposal.

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Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Set targets The data gathered for oil movements and usage will allow you to identify trends and to set some targets for the reduction of oil consumption. Reliable data are a vital component of any monitoring and targeting system and it is important to win the confidence of staff. Written procedures may be needed. Training of relevant staff is important to ensure that they are aware of the procedures and the oils used. Condition monitoring involves analysis of oil samples from plant items to identify any problems, such as any debris within an oil due to wear of machinery and components, eg bearings. This service offered by many oil suppliers is best applied to sites that have a considerable use of oil. In many cases, the oil supplier will have an employee on-site to look after the oil store, distribute oils and monitor use.

Train staff

Reduce

Undertake condition monitoring Consider oil management services offered by oil suppliers Oil storage

Reduce

Reduce

The correct storage and handling of oils will avoid Reduce waste resulting from damage or contamination. Ideally, oils should be stored inside or, at least, under cover. Where drums are stored in their vertical position and exposed to the elements, there is a high chance of contamination, particularly from rainwater. The fitting of taps allows oils to be dispensed into smaller containers in a controlled manner. Drip trays under each tap are also needed. Bunding should be in place and intact around racking. Waste oil should be stored in separate, clearly labelled containers to avoid any mistaken use of waste oil instead of fresh. The quantities of waste oil removed from the store should be logged as part of the overall management. It is important to ensure that all containers are clearly labelled so staff can easily identify the oil they require. As oil is moved around, ensure that the contents label is left in a visible position. Signs next to rows or columns of oil containers will help you to organise the oil store. There are a range of devices for handling drums that allow simple movement. Devices are also available for manoeuvring drums from horizontal to vertical positions or vice versa. When selecting devices to handle oils, it is important to establish the requirement of all staff who handle the oils. Poor handling leads to many spills that waste oil and require expensive clean-ups. Intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) can hold 1 000 litres and are easily transported around the site. Once dispensed from larger containers, oil will often be transferred into plant items via a jug or similar container. It is vital to use clean containers to avoid contamination of fresh oil. Ideally, try to use the same jug for one type of oil and avoid any contact with waste oil. Reduce

Fit taps

Ensure storage in a bunded area Store waste oil separately

Reduce Reduce

Ensure oil containers are labelled

Reduce

Ensure good handling techniques to avoid spills

Reduce

Use IBCs

Reduce

14

4
Re-use waste oil as a low-grade lubricant If oils are to be re-used they must be reclaimed under controlled conditions to avoid any degradation of their quality. The recovery equipment should not contact the oils for disposal. Pumps and containers for the oil should be free of any contaminants to maintain the quality of the oil that is being reclaimed. Ideally, reclaimed oil should be of one type. Mixed oils cannot be used for their original application. If oil is to be reclaimed and re-used in the same plant item, it should be kept separately from other reclaimed, waste or virgin oils. Where only basic filtration and water removal is required to launder oil, on-site recovery may be possible. Small on-site recovery kits can be bought to clean up oil for re-use. Where oil can be recovered but not used for its original application, there may be opportunities for re-use as lower grade oil. This requires some investigation into the condition of the used oil and the requirements of the secondary application. Failure to investigate the secondary usage could lead to plant problems. Where oils are used on industrial sites, there will often be discharges into the drainage system that should ideally be removed prior to discharge from the site. Belt skimmers are used to remove oil from water in a sump. These are small devices that use a belt which passes into the oil and water mixture, adsorbing oil before lifting it out. The oil is then removed by passing the belt through rollers. A number of companies offer interceptor systems that can be built into a drainage system to separate oil and water. When oil cannot be reclaimed and re-used, off-site recycling or disposal is the best option. A number of companies offer a collection, laundering and return service. They normally use a process of filtration, dewatering and then replenishment of the additives, returning oil that is of equal quality to the original. Waste oils that cannot be re-used or recycled, need to be disposed of in an environmentally responsible manner. An option is direct burning, which is a form of energy recovery. There are three uses for oil as a direct burn fuel: in cement manufacture, space heaters and municipal/chemical waste incinerators. Re-use

Avoid mixing different oils

Re-use

Consider on-site recovery kits

Re-use

Recycle waste oil

Recycle

Consider use of belt skimmers

Re-use

Collection, laundering and return service

Recycle

Disposal of waste oils as a fuel

Dispose

15

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

4
section

Nature of hazardous waste: cutting oils - techniques to help machine shops manage their metal wastes which are considered hazardous when contaminated by oil.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG264 Reducing costs through effective swarf management.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Reduce the cutting fluid content of swarf

Reducing the cutting fluid content of swarf has a number of advantages, including the possibility of direct sale of swarf to a foundry or recycler (with an increase in value), a greater likelihood of being able to re-use the swarf in-house, easier and safer swarf storage, and less environmental risk. Dry machining techniques have been developed to eliminate the need for cutting oils. Dry swarf is produced and the potential hazards associated with handling cutting fluids are removed. When swarf is left in a bin or a skip, some of the excess cutting fluid will naturally drain under gravity. Use a bin with a mesh layer above the base and a tap to drain off the cutting fluid. Shovelling the swarf out of the bin instead of tipping it will keep the swarf drier. Use a skip with drainage holes, taking care to ensure the skip is within a bunded area to avoid polluting the soil or water sources with cutting fluid. In a centrifuge, the liquid separates from the swarf. Automatic machines have a continuous feed from a conveyor and generally deliver the swarf directly to a bin or a skip. The coolant can then be sent for cleaning and recycling. Magnetic separation is only applicable to steel swarf in systems where the swarf is transported by flowing cutting fluid. The swarf is removed from the fluid by a strong magnet and then scrapped mechanically from the magnet. Steel swarf has little value, so the technique is mainly used to allow the cutting fluid to be recycled. Swarf can be dried in a kiln to reduce cutting fluid contamination. Waste heat, eg from a compressor, can be used as a source of energy. This technique is normally only worthwhile for a company re-using the swarf itself.

Dry machining

Reduce

Gravity drainage

Reduce

Centrifugation

Reduce

Magnetic separation

Reduce

Drying in a kiln

Reduce

16

Furniture sector

5
section

The furniture industry in the UK is large, with manufacturing sales estimated at 6 billion. Only 4% of companies show a turnover of greater than 5 million. The industry is dominated by small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The UK market is well served by domestic producers, with imports comprising 25% of the total. It is estimated that there are 8 500 companies engaged in furniture manufacture. These employ approximately 128 000 staff. About 75% of companies employ fewer than nine staff. The largest 300 companies represent 45% of total employment in the industry. The industry is traditionally segmented into three primary sectors: I Domestic - serving the public through retail outlets - comprising 58% of the UK market (based on manufacturers selling price). I Office - desks, seating, tables and other items for the office environment - 13%. I Contract - furniture for public areas such as hotels and airports - 29%.

5.1 Waste codes for the furniture sector


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from the furniture sector as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 08 08 01 08 01 11 08 01 13 08 01 15 08 01 17 08 01 19 08 12 12 12 15 01 21 03 03 01 03 02 Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use (MFSU) of coatings (paints, varnishes and vitreous enamels), adhesives, sealants and printing inks Wastes from the MFSU and removal of paint and varnish Waste paint and varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Sludges from paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Aqueous sludges containing paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Wastes from paint or varnish removal containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Aqueous suspensions containing paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Waste paint or varnish remover Wastes from water and steam degreasing processes (except 11) Aqueous washing liquids Steam degreasing waste Waste packaging: absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials and protective clothing not otherwise specified Absorbents, filter materials, wiping cloths and protective clothing Absorbents, filter materials (including oil filters not otherwise specified), wiping cloths, protective clothing contaminated by dangerous substances

15 02 15 02 02

17

5
section

5.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information, refer to the guides identified.

Nature of hazardous waste: solvents - improving efficiency by switching to low solvent coatings.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG340 Savings through low solvent wood coatings.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Prepare a solvent inventory

In order to manage solvent use, it is necessary to measure it. The first step is to identify current solvent consumption. A solvent inventory quantifies annual solvent use and helps to identify major areas of use and opportunities.

Ensure tins are empty before disposing

Coatings are typically delivered in 25-litre tins. Ensuring Reduce that tins are as empty as possible prior to disposal will avoid wasting expensive coating and reduce the environmental impact of disposal. Larger users may find it cost-effective to switch to 205-litre drums, thus reducing handling and losses due to residue left in containers. If handled incorrectly, two-pack materials can give rise to large amounts of waste. Use two-pack mixing systems that ensure that the correct proportions and amounts are mixed, thus minimising wastage. Thinners are often used liberally. Controls on the issue of thinning solvents can lead to significant savings, as operators are required to think before using excess. Water-borne stains typically contain around 10% solids and 10% solvent. They can cost more per litre, but savings can be made as a significantly smaller volume is generally needed to coat an area. The use of thinners for cleaning can account for up to 70% of total solvent use. However, there is little reason for a typical site to exceed 5% using manual spraying. One of the benefits of converting to a water-borne coating is that the bulk of cleaning can be done with water. Only a small amount of solvent is needed to soften emulsions and prevent scaling by hard water. Training is essential to achieve the changes that will secure long-term solvent reduction. A training programme will raise awareness of the environmental impact of solvents and the benefits of reduction. Powder coating technology is more traditionally associated with metal finishing industries, but has now been adapted to coat timber. Powder coatings are solventfree and the overspray can be captured and recirculated. Reduce

Ensure two-pack materials are handled correctly Reduce use of thinners Use water-borne stains and lacquers Clean spray lines with water

Reduce

Reduce

Reduce

Implement a training programme Use powder coatings

Reduce

Reduce

18

5
Improve coating efficiency Improving the efficiency of the coating operation by improving the equipment will reduce operating costs, reduce solvent use, increase productivity and improve working conditions. Hand spraying systems are essential for small volume users and companies with a wide variety of products. More efficient transfer uses less material to achieve the desired finish, and less coating and solvent are wasted. Hand spraying accounts for the bulk of wood coating operations in the UK. However, automated systems are widespread due to greater process control, increased consistency, potentially high outputs (m2 coated per minute) with reduced labour costs, the ability to apply a wide range of coatings and enclosed working to minimise overspray into the workplace. These systems use atomisation technology similar to that used in hand spraying. Good for moulded and profiled panels using solvent-borne or water-borne UV-cured coatings. This traditional system applies high film weights to flat panels. The workpiece passes through a cascade or curtain of coating material created from a reservoir of coating stored above the workpiece. A variable speed roller releases the coating; the rate of the rotation of the roller determines the density of the curtain and the weight of the resulting film. Excess is collected and recirculated. These systems use a combination of rollers to apply coating to flat panels. The application roller takes coating from the reservoir and applies it to the workpiece. The second roller, known as the doctor roller, alters the amount of lacquer on the application roller. In this system, workpieces are passed through a small vacuum unit in which the coating is suspended. The system is suited to a regular flow of consistent components. Transfer efficiencies of up to 98% can be achieved. Forced drying can overcome problems associated with standard air drying and ensures consistent drying times whatever the weather. If spray lines and guns are cleaned by spraying solvent through the system, ensure that the used solvent is collected and either re-used directly or treated for re-use. Waste thinners can be sent off-site for re-use or recovered for re-use. Sites sending more than 1 000 litres/year off-site may find it more cost-effective to clean dirty solvents on-site using a solvent recovery still. This enables cleaning solvent to be re-used a number of times, thus reducing both purchase and disposal costs. Reduce

Hand spraying

Reduce

Automated coating

Reduce

Spray lines

Reduce

Curtain coating

Reduce

Roller coating

Reduce

Vacuum coating

Reduce

Drying systems

Reduce

Capture dirty thinners On-site solvent recovery

Re-use

Re-use

19

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

6
section

Metal finishing sector

The metal finishing and surface engineering industry comprises a wide range of companies, sites and processes. The unifying feature of these is that they are concerned with the surface treatment or coating of metal components to enhance the properties of the finished item. The environmental and commercial issues faced by individual companies in the sector depend very heavily upon the processes they operate, which may include any of the following, listed in (an approximate) descending order of UK annual turnover: I vehicle refinishing; I organic coating (paint and powder); I electroplating; I galvanizing; I heat treatment; I pre- and post- treatments; I anodising; I thermal spraying.

6.1 Waste codes for the metal finishing sector


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from the metal finishing sector as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 08 08 01 08 01 11 08 01 13 08 01 15 08 01 17 08 01 19 08 08 08 10 10 10 10 10 01 05 05 03 03 03 03 03 21 01 04 08 09 15 Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use (MFSU) of coatings (paints, varnishes and vitreous enamels), adhesives, sealants and printing inks Wastes from the MFSU and removal of paint and varnish Waste paint and varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Sludges from paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Aqueous sludges containing paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Wastes from paint or varnish removal containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Aqueous suspensions containing paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Waste paint or varnish remover Wastes not otherwise specified Waste isocyanates Wastes from aluminium thermal metallurgy Primary production slags Salt slags from secondary production Black drosses from secondary production Skimmings that are flammable or emit, upon contact with water, flammable gases in dangerous quantities Tar-containing wastes from anode manufacture Flue-gas dust containing dangerous substances Other particulates and dust (including ball-mill dust) containing dangerous substances

10 03 17 10 03 19 10 03 21

20

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11

03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 06 06 06 06 06

23 25 27 29

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 09 01 03 05 06 08 10

03 06 07 09

11 01

11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15

01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 03 03 03 06 06 06 06 06 06

05 06 07 08 09 11 13 15 16 98 02 01 02

01 02 03 04 05

15 02

Solid wastes from gas treatment containing dangerous substances Sludges and filter cakes from gas treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from cooling-water treatment containing oil Wastes from treatment of salt slags and black drosses containing dangerous substances Wastes from lead thermal metallurgy Slags from primary and secondary production Dross and skimmings from primary and secondary production Calcium arsenate Flue-gas dust Other particulates and dust Solid wastes from gas treatment Sludges and filter cakes from gas treatment Wastes from cooling-water treatment containing oil Wastes from zinc thermal metallurgy Slags from primary and secondary production Flue-gas dust Solid waste from gas treatment Sludges and filter cakes from gas treatment Wastes from cooling-water treatment containing oil Dross and skimmings that are flammable or emit, upon contact with water, flammable gases in dangerous quantities Wastes from copper thermal metallurgy Flue-gas dust Solid wastes from gas treatment Sludges and filter cakes from gas treatment Wastes from cooling-water treatment containing oil Wastes from chemical surface treatment and coating of metals and other materials: non-ferrous hydrometallurgy Wastes from chemical surface treatment and coating of metals and other materials (for example galvanic processes, zinc coating processes, pickling processes, etching, phosphating, alkaline degreasing, anodising) Pickling acids Acids not otherwise specified Pickling bases Phosphatising sludges Sludges and filter cakes containing dangerous substances Aqueous rinsing liquids containing dangerous substances Degreasing wastes containing dangerous substances Eluate and sludges from membrane systems or ion exchange systems containing dangerous substances Saturated or spent ion exchange resins Other wastes containing dangerous substances Wastes from non-ferrous hydrometallurgical processes Sludges from zinc hydrometallurgy (including jarosite, goethite) Wastes from water and steam degreasing processes (except 11) Aqueous washing liquids Steam degreasing wastes Waste organic solvents, refrigerants and propellants (except 07 and 08) Waste organic solvents, refrigerants and foam/aerosol propellants Chlorofluorocarbons, HCFC, HFC Other halogenated solvents and solvent mixtures Other solvents and solvent mixtures Sludges or solid wastes containing halogenated solvents Sludges or solid wastes containing other solvents Waste packaging: absorbents, filter materials, wiping cloths and protective clothing not otherwise specified Absorbents, filter materials, wiping cloths and protective clothing

6
section 21

6
section

15 02 02 Absorbents, filter materials (including oil filters not otherwise specified), wiping cloths, protective clothing contaminated by dangerous substances

6.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information refer to the guides identified.

Nature of hazardous waste: paint and solvents - ways in which a vehicle finisher can reduce costs when repairing vehicles primarily through reducing paint and solvent consumption.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG36 Reducing costs in vehicle refinishing.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Eliminate

Dry guide coat

Many body shops use aerosol paints or thinned paint to produce a guide coat for subsequent wet or dry sanding of body fillers or primers. A novel dry coat system has been developed and is powder-based, thus completely solvent-free. The advantages of this are no solvent emissions, no need to use expensive aerosol paints or thinners to produce a guide coat, no waiting for the coat to dry and no need to mask the job. Where bodywork is dented but the paint surface unharmed, a dent can be repaired without re-spraying by massaging the dent from the inside. Tools are used to reach awkward areas. This is processing paint jobs of the same colour at one time, or one after the other. It is particularly relevant for large dealer franchises. The benefits of CCS are reduced paint make-up, less wastage at the end of the job, reduced set-up time, increased throughput and less spray gun cleaning time. The way you use cleaning solvents can have an enormous effect on the amount of solvent consumed by your body shop. The traditional way of dispensing cleaning solvent is from a 5-litre can tipped onto a cloth. The amount of solvent on the cloth is often many times more than is required and the discarded rag becomes a health and safety risk with solvent evaporating into the workshop. Alternative methods are dip cans or plastic spray bottles. Dip cans are wall or floor mounted; they consist of a solvent reservoir with a plunger pump in the middle, and a measured quantity of solvent is then pumped onto the cloth. Plastic spray bottles allow the solvent to be sprayed onto the item to be cleaned and wiped off with a cloth.

Paintless dent repair

Eliminate

Common colour scheduling (CCS)

Reduce

Reduced use of solvents during cleaning

Reduce

22

6
Introduce water-based basecoats Use HVLP spray guns Tests have shown that the introduction of water-based basecoats for some applications can reduce solvent emissions by 13%. High volume low pressure (HVLP) spray guns are recognised as being one of the most efficient ways of applying paint to surfaces. Traditional spray guns achieve transfer efficiencies of between 30 and 50%, whereas efficiencies with HVLP spray guns are between 65 and 85%. HVLP spray gun techniques are different from those used with air or airless spray guns. However, the techniques can be learnt and are very straightforward; consult guide GG36 or your equipment supplier. A good way of avoiding waste is to use gravity paint cups. No paint is wasted in this type of cup as long as the correct amount is mixed for each job. When the gun runs out of paint, the only paint left in the cup will be the small amount that adheres to the side of the cup. Fully automatic gunwashing machines have a number of advantages; once the machine is loaded, you can leave it while the gun cleans, the correct amount of solvent is used to clean the spray gun, reducing any wastage, and solvent emissions are significantly reduced thus lowering operator exposure to solvent vapours. High solids paints and primers are proportionally higher in solids than traditional paints. Less solvent means the paint is more viscous (so more difficult to apply). The paint builds up faster during application, so fewer coats are needed. The lower solvent content results in lower VOC emissions during application. Water-based coatings are paints and primers in which a large proportion of the solvent is replaced by water, while retaining the same solids content as traditional coatings. Accurately measure the area to be painted to avoid wastage, for example: I mixing too much paint for the job, so wasting money on paint and paying to get rid of the leftovers; I mixing too little paint, so wasting time in repeating the process. In addition, if the mix is incorrect, this will waste paint and may require a complete rework of the job if not detected in time. Use paint manufacturers charts and specifications to mix the right quantities. Small solvent recovery machines are available and are easy to operate. The machine heats up the waste, boils off the solvents and collects the cooled vapours in a separate tank. Recovered solvent can then be used as gunwash. Reduce

Reduce

Ensure HVLP spray guns are used correctly Use gravity paint cups

Reduce

Reduce

Use spray gun cleaning machines

Reduce

Use high solids coatings

Reduce

Use water-based coatings

Reduce

Accurately measure the area to be painted

Reduce

Use on-site solvent recovery

Re-use

23

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

6
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Re-use Pour excess paint into a separate container before cleaning the spray gun To get the most out of your gunwashing machine, keep it clean. Pouring paint into the machine dirties the solvent faster. This means more gunwash is needed (costing money). Excess paint should be poured into a separate container before cleaning spray guns. Use a spatula to scrape out any residue from the cup to reduce contamination of the gunwash.

Nature of hazardous waste: metal finishing effluent techniques to assist metal finishing companies to identify, assess and manage their environmental responsibilities whilst minimising the consumption of chemicals and improving the end-of-pipe treatment facilities.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG118 Environmental management systems workbook for metal finishers and GG160 Minimising chemical and water waste in the metal finishing industry.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Log aqueous effluents Log solid wastes On-site effluent treatment

Keep a detailed log that identifies major types and sources of aqueous effluent, and type of treatment and monitoring undertaken. Log all major sources and types of solid waste, storage method, annual amount and current disposal route. On-site effluent treatment can reduce contaminant levels to below the local water companys consent levels. Polluted effluents can damage the bacterial beds at the sewage treatment works, contaminate sewage sludges and lead to pollution of controlled waters. Contaminated surface water can discharge directly to controlled waters, therefore, careful control of spills and leaks is essential to prevent surface water contamination. Drag-out is a significant cause of chemical loss from plating and other treatment baths. The quantities of solution lost vary with the shape of pieces being plated, drip time and bath temperature, the latter affecting the viscosity of the solution. Greater drag-out occurs with more concentrated and viscous solutions. Drag-out has costly implications, including contamination of subsequent process baths, chemical waste (which increases raw material requirements), increased water needed to achieve adequate dilution ratios for rinsing, higher effluent treatment plant costs and additional filter cake and sludge generation.

Reduce Re-use

Reduce drag-out

Reduce

24

6
Extend drip time Extending the drip time allows process solutions to drain from the items. It can be undertaken either over the process solution before the item is moved, or over drip tanks. Studies show that doubling the drip time from 15 seconds to 30 seconds increases the amount of electrolyte returned to the plating solution by 50%. Rapid extraction of a workpiece from solution generates greater quantities of drag-out than slow withdrawal. Drag-out increases where process solution remains trapped in hollows in the workpiece. It can be reduced by adjusting the positioning, eg by wiring the workpiece at an angle, plugging holes, or adding additional holes for drainage. Drip boards between tanks capture the run-off as workpieces move between rinse stages and dips. The boards should be tilted so run-off drains back into the tank. A drip tank is an additional tank for catching the run-off. On automated lines these allow one load to drip while others are moved. The solution is then returned to the process bath. Drainage is more efficient when the layers of workpieces are staggered rather than hanging directly above one another. Training and management are needed to ensure that recommended drip times are maintained. Staff may feel that extending drip times reduces productivity, not recognising the cost savings. An idea is to link bonus payments with water, chemical and waste disposal costs. Good purchasing and stock control is vital in the metal finishing industry. Chemicals are purchased for immediate use or stored. Buying too much, or failing to rotate stock, may necessitate their disposal with an expired shelf-life. Reviewing and controlling purchases reduces such wastes. It is good practice to purchase only the quantities needed for processes. Label containers clearly with the date of purchase and use-by date. Keep an inventory and control raw material use so that new solutions are not used before older ones. The measurement and control of operating conditions are important in metal finishing. Chemicals are used in cleaning, process baths and in wastewater treatment units. Use accurate thermostats, pH probes and measuring devices. This helps to ensure that the minimum amounts of chemicals are used. Consider installing automatic dosing from larger containers. This is a safer and more accurate method of measuring and adding chemicals to baths. Reduce

Withdraw workpiece slowly Reduce entrapment

Reduce

Reduce

Install drip boards

Reduce

Install a drip tank

Reduce

Improve racking arrangements during drainage Implement staff training

Reduce

Reduce

Review and control purchases

Reduce

Use the minimum amount of chemical in a solution

Reduce

25

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

6
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Install meters on process lines Measure water use as a precursor to control. Install meters on each process line or water inflow point to identify large users. Do not simply meter water input to a site as a whole. Keep records of water use, so you can review the success of water minimisation practices. The volume of water passing through continuous flow lines and rinsers can be excessive if not controlled. Flow restrictors are simple devices controlling water input at source. Flexible orifice valves expand and contract to maintain a constant flow of water into the process, whatever the water pressure. Rinsing uses either a dilute solution or clean water to remove excess chemicals remaining after the plating process. The simplest form is flow rinsing using a continuous stream of water. Large volumes of water are used and chemicals lost as they transfer to the rinse water in drag-out. Countercurrent rinsing uses a series of connected rinsing baths. Water from the bath with the lowest concentration of chemicals flows back into the previous rinse bath and then through the other baths in sequence. The volume of water used is significantly reduced and rinsing is more effective as concentrations of drag-out chemicals in the rinse baths are kept low. Spray and fog rinsing above the process bath are effective rinsing techniques and water efficient. Both use jetting water to mechanically wash drag-out solutions from workpieces. This helps to drain off solutions by reducing the viscosity of the drag-out solution. There is a temptation to leave hoses running; this wastes water and creates more effluent. Manually operated trigger hoses overcome this problem by automatically cutting off the water once hand pressure on the trigger is released.

Install flow restrictors

Reduce

Countercurrent rinsing

Reduce

Spray and fog rinsing

Reduce

Manually operated trigger hoses

Reduce

Pre-programmable Pre-programmable water delivery systems ensure that water delivery only a specified volume of water is delivered at any system one time. Precipitation of metals Conventional methods of wastewater treatment are generally chemical methods involving the precipitation of metals through pH adjustment. Many sites use this procedure to treat concentrated baths, thereby avoiding the need to pay for the liquid to be tankered away by a waste disposal company. Ion exchange can be used for the treatment of cyanide plating baths, nickel, copper, tin and zinc, and aluminium anodising rinse waters. Ion exchange can be used to recover metals and to clean water for recycling.

Reduce

Re-use

Ion exchange

Re-use

26

6
Electrochemical recovery Electrochemical recovery allows metal to be recovered in either powder or solid form. The metal can then be melted down, re-used as a soluble anode or regenerated as a concentrated process solution. Electrochemical recovery is a cost-effective method for recovering precious metals from rinse water and exhausted plating baths; it also reduces the amount of metal sludges requiring subsequent disposal. An evaporation unit consists of a pump plus evaporative panels with a surface area of up to 1 000 m2. Its main advantage is that it can recover chemicals that would otherwise be lost in rinse waters; more than 96% of drag-out chemicals can be recovered. Reverse osmosis uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate water from dissolved salts. The treatment of rinse waters using reverse osmosis generates two products: water and a concentrated liquid consisting of metals and salts. The latter is drawn off for further treatment or returned to the process baths. This is a very fine filtration process used to filter out molecules from a contaminated wastewater stream. It is useful for a final cleaning of water before recycling back to the process. Re-use

Evaporation

Recycle

Reverse osmosis

Recycle

Ultrafiltration

Recycle

27

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

6
section

Nature of hazardous waste: metal finishing solvents - techniques to assist metal finishing companies to reduce operating costs, solvent consumption, VOC emissions and waste by improving the management of their pretreatment, surface cleaning processes, materials and paintshop management.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG354 Surface cleaning and preparation: choosing the best option, GG385 Cost-effective paint and powder coating: materials management, GG386 Cost-effective paint and powder coating: coating materials, GG387 Cost-effective paint and powder coating: application technology and GG405 Paint and powder coating: use less, save more.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Eliminate

Change working methods to eliminate the need to clean

Components are cleaned to remove surface substances that are detrimental to subsequent coating, assembly operations, performance or people handling the parts. There are material, energy, waste disposal and labour costs associated with all cleaning methods. Reducing or eliminating cleaning without compromising quality will reduce costs. Consider: I changes to working methods to eliminate the need to clean between processes; I improvements to handling procedures to prevent soiling between operations; I application of a temporary protective coating (with the aim of avoiding subsequent cleaning); I using sealed containers (to control the air in contact with the components); I using absorbents such as silica gel to remove moisture (thus preventing corrosion occurring); I protecting components between operations by wrapping them in VPI paper; I impregnating with chemicals such as amines; I preventing unauthorised cleaning.

Substitute hazardous substances Spin-off excess oil prior to degreasing Review levels of protective grease used Improve efficiency

Cleaner technology options are mainly related to substituting hazardous substances with less hazardous substances, eg replacing trike with less hazardous solvents, biocleaners or aqueous cleaning. Avoid excessive cleaning by spinning off excess oil prior to degreasing. Talk to component manufacturers about protective greasing used in shipping. Over-greasing needs more cleaning and results in higher costs. Waste reduction can be achieved by optimising processes to increase yield, increasing transfer time to reduce drag-out, using lower solution concentrations, avoiding rework and using countercurrent rinsing.

Reduce

Reduce

Reduce

Reduce

28

6
Use mechanical cleaning methods Install a time controller/alarm and an idling cut-out Aqueous cleaning Once cleaning has been avoided or minimised, residual contamination can be removed by mechanical methods such as brushing or blasting. Excessive cleaning wastes time, energy and solvent. Once load conditions and effective cleaning times are established, control the process using timers and alarms. Use appropriate lid designs and fit interlock devices to prevent poor operation and minimise solvent use. Aqueous cleaning systems include processes that use water, water-based cleaners or semi-aqueous cleaners. These may be a good alternative to organic solvents for surface cleaning. Several aqueous cleaning systems are available for washing and drying in the plant or in a washing tunnel. This well-developed technology removes oils, greases, paints and solvents from components. Biocleaners are a cost-effective alternative to conventional cleaners. The substances used are generally less hazardous to human health and the environment. Many metal surfaces require treatment with a conversion coating to increase corrosion resistance. There are many systems in use, but they all have common wastes including rinse water, drag-out of treatment agents and energy losses. Cost savings can be achieved in all these areas and with any type of conversion coating system. See GG354 for more information. Waste can be minimised through the re-use of raw materials in the cleaning process, eg water used to cool trike can be re-used in rinsing processes; re-use of dry blast media for mechanical cleaning. Recycling can optimise the performance of an existing plant, eg using spent alkaline cleaners to adjust the pH of acidic wastewaters prior to treatment; recovering spent solvent and using treated cleaning water on-site. Solvent in waste can be recovered and recycled on-site by distilling the sump contents in the degreaser. If further solvent recovery is not possible, follow the correct procedure for disposal: segregate, package and label all spent solvents; allow only trained personnel to handle and store spent solvent; adopt correct handling procedures; document and record movements of both spent solvent for reclaim and final waste. Stop the casual waste of materials and energy, which occurs through habit, poor practices and the use of unsuitable equipment. Employ no-cost measures, such as ensuring cans are fully emptied into the solvent waste before discarding, using a stock rotation system to prevent material becoming out of date and mixing only sufficient paint for the job. Reduce

Reduce

Reduce

Biological cleaning

Reduce

Conversion coating

Reduce

Re-use of waste

Re-use

Recycling of waste

Recycle

On-site solvent recovery Waste disposal

Re-use Dispose

Employ good housekeeping

Reduce

29

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

6
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Improve scheduling Scheduling can significantly reduce the amount of time and materials used for setting up and cleaning equipment. Scheduling light-to-dark production every day or shift could enable spray guns and paint pots to be used without cleaning as the darker colours may mask the lighter ones. Where various finishes are used, group together large batches of similarly coated objects to reduce time and material losses due to cleaning and set up. Reduce solvent use in paints by using high-solids, water-based paints or powder coatings. Solvent recovery machines heat waste, boil off solvent and collect the cooled vapours. The recovered solvent is low quality, but can be used as gunwash or as low grade cleaning solvent. Transfer efficiency is a measure of how well a technology applies a layer of paint, ie how much of the applied paint ends up on the workpiece. It is defined as the percentage of coating used that becomes attached to the workpiece. Waste can be induced by the properties of the spray gun and the way it is used. Overspray can be reduced by good operator practice. Transfer efficiency of dipping is nearly 100%. In its simplest form, items to be coated are immersed in a reservoir. Electrodeposition and autodeposition dipping are often found in medium-to-high volume coating operations. These systems dip components in special polymer-based coatings. Both systems use water-based coating materials, with little or no VOC content. Flow coating is suited to large or oddly shaped parts that are difficult or impossible to dip coat. As in dipping, excess coating material is allowed to drain and is collected for re-use. This is used in coating processes where only a low quality finish is needed. Items are loaded into a mesh or perforated drum/barrel. The barrel is immersed in a bath of coating material and rotated to ensure adequate coverage. The barrel is then withdrawn and allowed to drain. This system results in less waste than spraying and reduces the time taken in conventional dipping to load onto hooks. There are a number of spray guns on the market. Conventional spray guns have relatively low efficiency when compared to HVLP guns. Even low volume users would save money through reduced wastage of coating materials. See guide GG387 for more information. Electrostatic spraying and hot spraying are two techniques to help achieve high coating efficiencies. See guide GG387 for more information.

Reduce solvent use On-site solvent recovery

Reduce Re-use

Improve transfer efficiency

Reduce

Dipping

Reduce

Electrodeposition and autodeposition dipping Flow coating

Reduce

Reduce

Barrelling

Reduce

Spraying systems

Reduce

Enhancement techniques

Reduce

30

6
Powder coating This is essentially an electrostatic coating process. There are a number of powder coating techniques that can be employed, which include corona electrostatic charging, tribo-charging and combination charging. See guide GG387 for more information. Poor operator practice can lead to high rework rates and material consumption even with a good spray gun system. If a new spray gun technique is introduced, it is essential for sprayers to be trained and given time to practice the technique before production starts. Many spray gun manufacturers and paint manufacturers operate training courses. To minimise use of solvents, investigate using mechanical or thermal cleaning. There are a number of paint delivery systems on the market. Depending on the paint shop requirements, try to select a system that will minimise paint wastage, eg gravity cup feed systems. There are many approaches to surface preparation, for example, mechanical methods such as brushing, blasting and tumbling to remove dirt or grease and provide a better key for coatings. Common chemical pretreatment methods include acid baths and solvent vapour degreasing. Aqueous/alkaline or water-based degreasing offers equivalent performance, but with much lower environmental and health and safety risks. Reduce

Training operators in good spray gun techniques

Reduce

Use alternatives to solvent cleaning Use an appropriate paint delivery system Consider alternative approaches to surface preparation

Reduce

Reduce

Eliminate

31

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

7
section

Printing sector

The printing industry is one of the largest of the UKs manufacturing industries but one of the least well documented. This is because most official documentation does not classify it as a separate industry. It is an industry serving all sectors of the economy (public authorities, financial services, publishers, distributive services and manufacturers) and the customers range from major institutions to the smallest business. The structure of the printing sector reflects the diversity of its products and fragmented nature of its market. There are fewer than 20 printing companies employing more than 500 people and only around 550 employing between 50 and 499 people. These companies tend to specialise in a narrow range of products in national and international markets. There is a vast army of small firms (employing fewer than ten staff), numbered at more than 12 000, which are usually general printers catering for a local market.

7.1 Waste codes for the printing sector


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from the printing sector as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 08 08 08 08 08 08 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 15 03 03 03 03 03 03 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use of printing inks Waste ink containing dangerous substances Ink sludges containing dangerous substances Waste etching solutions Waste printing toner containing dangerous substances Disperse oil Wastes from the photographic industry Wastes from the photographic industry Water-based developer activator solutions Water-based offset plate developer solutions Solvent-based developer solutions Fixer solutions Bleach solutions and bleach fixer solutions Waste containing silver from on-site treatment of photographic waste Waste packaging: absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials and protective clothing not otherwise specified Absorbents, filter materials, wiping cloths and protective clothing Absorbents, filter materials (including oil filters not otherwise specified), wiping cloths, protective clothing contaminated by dangerous substances

12 14 16 17 19

01 02 03 04 05 06

15 02 15 02 02

7.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information, refer to the guides identified.

32

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG163 Cost-effective ink management for printers.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Measure ink losses

Measuring your ink losses will provide you with the information needed for an effective ink management programme. A breakdown of your operating costs will help to identify the greatest opportunities to improve performance. There are many benefits from measuring ink losses, including awareness of raw material costs, additional cleaning, downtime and labour costs caused by ink losses, and disposal costs for inky effluent, rags, organic solvents etc. Establishing how much ink your company wastes gives you an indication of the scope for improvement. Cost-effective ink management is important for all printers, because even small amounts of waste ink can cause significant losses, due to the additional costs of labour, downtime, cleaning materials and spoilage. Therefore, it is advisable to set up a systematic programme to minimise ink waste. In large companies, a senior member of staff with the skills and authority to take a waste minimisation project forward should be appointed as waste manager. The person will be responsible for collecting data and monitoring progress. Even in smaller companies, an ink stock controller should be appointed to take responsibility for ink supplies. A key factor in good process control is training: management training; training tailored to key individuals; training technical staff to take responsibility for waste; health and safety training; and a continuous improvement programme. Once you have determined how much ink-related waste your company generates and what it costs, you can set reduction targets. When setting targets, it is important to distinguish between avoidable waste and to set realistic reduction targets. These targets should be reviewed regularly. Good housekeeping measures can significantly reduce the amount of waste generated. With minimal cost or additional effort, this can yield significant savings. To prevent and reduce ink-related waste: keep lids on containers when not in use; reduce the possibility of spills by using pumps when dispensing new materials; store products in locations that will preserve their shelflife, eg protected from temperature extremes; and avoid mixing wastes together, this may make recycling impossible and make waste disposal more expensive.

Implement a programme to minimise ink waste

Reduce

Appoint a waste manager

Reduce

Undertake training to raise awareness

Reduce

Set targets to reduce waste

Reduce

Improve housekeeping

Reduce

33

section

Nature of hazardous waste: solvent based inks improving ink management.

7
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Avoid overordering The approach adopted for estimating and ordering can have a fundamental effect on both cash flow and the amount of waste produced. Over-ordering depletes cash reserves and affects cash flow. If the ink is not used and becomes redundant stock, raw materials are wasted and waste disposal costs are incurred. Poor storage of new materials is likely to result in waste due to deterioration or spillage. In addition to the wasted material, money and effort will be needed to dispose of the unusable inks and to clean up. Ink storage areas often have little or no space heating. When inks get cold, they become more viscous. This leads to more thinner being added, resulting in too dilute ink being applied, reducing the quality of work. Material lockers located next to the printing areas can hold smaller amounts of solvent-based ink. This allows greater control of ink temperature and a more even application throughout the year.

Ensure good handling and storage

Reduce

Use of readymixed inks

Ink mixing and matching is crucial to the printing Reduce process. Buying-in special colours ready-mixed from an ink manufacturer is an option. However, this can be expensive in terms of paying for the service, further ink material costs and the amount of waste ink produced. When a special colour is mixed-to-order by the supplier, it may not meet the clients specifications when applied to the substrate. The entire batch of ink then has to be adjusted by the printer, which uses further raw materials. Waste can also occur when printers are not able to store, re-use or remix special ink colours for another print job. Automated ink mixing systems dispense base colours, extender or polymer medium, and varnish according to predetermined formulae. Stock mixtures from ink returns can be used or incorporated into new colours. The computer printouts also allow you to compare current data with previous jobs. A crucial part of ink management is the transfer of ink from its delivery container, mixing vessel or other source to the press. Regardless of the size of your company, the ink delivery system should be efficient and effective. The majority of small printers do this manually. Compared to automated handling, manual handling generates waste pots requiring disposal, and involves more effort and the use of more cleaning materials. There is also a greater risk of spillages and evaporation. Lids should be kept on at all possible times to prevent loss and when decanting inks to the press, ladle as much as possible out of the tub. Also look to reduce manual handling by using a manually operated conveyancing system such as a trolley or pallet truck. Alternatively, look at using closed pumping systems to provide a continuous delivery of base colour inks. This reduces spillages, employee exposure and contamination risk and gives greater control of ink volume. Reduce

Use computerised ink mixing systems

Choose the most appropriate ink delivery system

Reduce

34

7
Recycle ink Recycling ink by re-using it on the press saves money and reduces waste. Identify opportunities for re-use of inks and take steps to ensure that this approach becomes commonplace on the factory floor. Label ink returns and keep accessible records. Store ink returns appropriately to avoid deterioration or contamination of the ink. Opportunities for solvent recovery depend on the type of ink and the mixture of solvent used. The recovered solvent can be either re-used in the process as a thinner or sold to an ink manufacturer for recycling. Adsorption, condensation and absorption are the main solvent recovery techniques used by UK industry. Waste solvent blends can be recycled without loss of print quality, eg for low-grade cleaning work. Larger printers purify their waste solvent blends, eg using an automatic distillation machine, to produce material suitable for higher grade cleaning duties. Another alternative is to send waste solvent to a specialist recovery and recycling company. Recycle

Reclaim solvent

Recycle

Nature of hazardous waste: solvent, inky washdown effluents, contaminated inks, cleaning cloths improving management of cleaning materials.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG231 Cost-effective management of cleaning materials for printers.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Quantify cleaning material use

Conduct a full review of cleaning materials used in a printing operation. With the information from this, it is easier to implement measures that reduce the use of cleaning materials and target products for possible replacement with lower organic solvent or non-organic solvent alternatives. Once the location of the chemicals and wastes has been identified, the next stage is to undertake stock level measurement. You should go to each storage location and note what chemicals are stored. Areas that you will need to look at include stock rooms, external chemical stores, pre-press and pressroom cabinets and shelves, pre-press machines, the press and other surfaces, and cleaners cupboards. This is a useful exercise, as you will find that many cleaning materials are out-of-date, are part of a completed trial, are no longer used, have no label, or are in need of safe and legal disposal. Once the stocktake is complete, consider a spring clean. This will remove out-of-date or unknown cleaning materials, make space and record stock levels of commonly used materials, thus avoiding over-ordering.

Measure stock levels

Reduce

35

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

7
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Identify where cleaning materials are used After determining the quantity of materials purchased, determine where the cleaning materials are actually used. This helps to identify where improvements can be made. For each cleaning material your company uses, estimate its use in each cleaning process you operate and compare the amount used with either press or equipment manufacturers recommended quantities required for cleaning, or the quantity you have determined is the optimum required to carry out the cleaning operation - perhaps by comparing best practice between machines or shifts. There are several areas of good practice relating to cleaning materials operation. They include: reducing the use of cleaning materials and increasing the efficiency of cleaning material use; recovery of cleaning materials; modification of presses to reduce cleaning requirements; and replacement of conventional cleaning materials with products that have lower environmental impacts. Plan job loads to reduce waste. Planning allows for scheduling of the daily runs to reduce colour changes and to run inks from lighter to darker. Both reduce the need for heavy cleaning. Simple procedures reduce the amount of solvent used for press cleaning and the associated VOC emissions. These include: minimising the solvent applied to a cleaning wipe by using plunger cans with a piston type dispenser or squeeze bottles; using press wipes for as long as possible before discarding; and using soiled wipes for the initial pass and clean ones for the last. Cloth cleaning wipes covered in ink and solvent can be sent to industrial laundry services. Remove the majority of liquids prior to shipping. The recovered solvent can be used initially for parts washing, recaptured, and then distilled for re-use. During cleaning operations, equipment can be introduced that will reduce wipe and solvent use. The least technical of these are squeegees to remove excess liquids from the equipment. This, in turn, will reduce the number of wipes required. Many printers use organic, solvent-based cleaning materials for all cleaning operations irrespective of whether or not these properties are required. Less harmful cleaning products are being developed all the time and many effective alternatives are available. Vegetable oil-based cleaning agents virtually eliminate inhalation hazards, thus the effects on health and the environment are reduced.

Improve cleaning material use

Reduce

Plan overall jobs

Reduce

Press cleaning

Reduce

Re-use cleaning wipes

Re-use

Use squeegees to remove excess liquid

Reduce

Consider use of low-solvent materials

Reduce

36

7
Recover solvents for re-use Steps to minimise the amount of solvent used for cleaning should be taken first before solvent recovery options are considered. On-site recovery is an option that may be available to larger printers. Centrifugal systems are available that recover excess solvent which is then re-used for cleaning operations. Installing automatic washing equipment on lithographic presses can increase press efficiency and improve safety. There are several options available for a variety of presses. Automatic ink dispensing systems pump ink directly to the press ink ducts, removing the need for manual filling. This avoids the cleaning of ancillary equipment such as buckets and can reduce spillage. An alternative (for sheet-fed litho presses) is an ink cartridge dispensing system. Ink is supplied in cardboard or plastic cartridges. This removes the need for cleaning of ancillary equipment such as containers and can reduce spillage and clean-up. Re-use

Automated washing machines Consider automatic ink dispensing systems

Re-use

Re-use

37

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

8
section

Speciality chemicals sector

The speciality chemicals industry is very diverse in the types of materials manufactured, scale of manufacture and size of organisation. Speciality chemicals cover the production of pharmaceutical intermediates, specialised organics, dyes, pigments, varnishes and paints, toiletries, soaps and detergents, and a range of other specialist intermediates and products.

8.1 Waste codes for the speciality chemicals sector


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from the speciality chemicals sector as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 07 07 07 07 Wastes from inorganic chemical processes Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use (MFSU) of acids Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluoric acid Phosphoric and phosphorous acid Nitric acid and nitrous acid Wastes not otherwise specified Wastes from the MFSU of bases Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Sodium and potassium hydroxide Other bases Wastes not otherwise specified Wastes from the MFSU of salts and their solutions and metallic oxides Solid salts and solutions containing cyanides Solid salts and solutions containing heavy metals Metallic oxides containing heavy metals Metal-containing wastes other than those mentioned in 06 03 Wastes containing arsenic Wastes containing mercury Wastes containing other heavy metals Sludges from on-site effluent treatment Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of halogens and halogen chemical processes Wastes containing asbestos from electrolysis Activated carbon from chlorine production Barium sulphate sludge containing mercury Solutions and acids, for example, contact acid Wastes from inorganic chemical processes not otherwise specified Inorganic plant protection products, wood-preserving agents and other biocides Spent activated carbon (except 06 07 02) Wastes from asbestos processing Soot Wastes from organic chemical processes Wastes from the MFSU of basic organic chemicals Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids

01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 05 05 07 07 07 07 07 13 13 13 13 13

01 02 03 04 05 99 01 03 04 05 99 11 13 15 03 04 05 02 01 02 03 04 01 02 04 05

01 01 01 01 03

38

07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07

01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 06 07

04 07 08 09 10 11 01 03 04 07 08 09 10 11 01 03 04 07 08 09 10 11

01 03 04 07 08 09 10 11 01 03 04 07 08 09 10 11 01 03 04 07 08 09 10 11

07 07 01 07 07 03

Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of plastics, synthetic rubber and man-made fibres Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of organic dyes and pigments (except 06 11) Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of organic plant protection products (except 02 01 08 and 02 01 09), wood preserving agents (except 03 02) and other biocides Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of pharmaceuticals Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of fats, grease, soaps, detergents, disinfectants and cosmetics Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of fine chemicals and chemical products not otherwise specified Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids

8
section 39

8
section

07 07 07 07 07 07 08

07 07 07 07 07 07

04 07 08 09 10 11

08 01 08 01 11 08 01 13 08 01 15 08 01 17 08 01 19 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 15 01 03 03 03 03 03 03 21 12 14 16 17 19

15 02 15 02 02 16 08 16 08 02

16 08 05 16 08 06 16 08 07

Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of coatings (paints, varnishes and vitreous enamels), adhesives, sealants and printing inks Wastes from the MFSU and removal of paint and varnish Waste paint and varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Sludges from paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Aqueous sludges containing paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Wastes from paint or varnish removal containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Aqueous suspensions containing paint or varnish containing organic solvents or other dangerous substances Waste paint or varnish remover Wastes from the MFSU of printing inks Waste ink containing dangerous substances Ink sludges containing dangerous substances Waste etching solutions Waste printing toner containing dangerous substances Disperse oil Waste packaging: absorbents, wiping cloths, filter material and protective clothing not otherwise specified Absorbents, filter materials, wiping cloths and protective clothing Absorbents, filter materials (including oil filters not otherwise specified), wiping cloths, protective clothing contaminated by dangerous substances Spent catalysts Spent catalysts containing dangerous transition metals (scandium, vanadium, manganese, cobalt, copper, yttrium, niobium, hafnium, tungsten, titanium, chromium, iron, nickel, zinc, zirconium, molybdenum, tantalum) or transition metal compounds Spent catalysts containing phosphoric acid Spent liquids used as catalysts Spent catalysts contaminated with dangerous substances

8.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information, refer to the guides identified.

40

8
Nature of hazardous waste: chemical effluents, waste oils and waste scrubbing liquors - optimisation of vacuum systems to reduce costs and improve environmental performance.
Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG101 Reducing vacuum costs.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Improve filtration rates

The use of vacuum to remove filtrate significantly enhances liquid-solid separation by reducing the need for filtration and, sometimes, improving the properties of the filter cake. Other benefits include less material loss in the filter cake, improved yield of filtrate, improved product or reduced processing to remove contaminants from the filter cake. Efficient operation could reduce running costs by at least 10%. Changing the system completely could produce savings of up to 50%. Use a dead-end filling technique to reduce the problem of excessive discharges of pollutants when vacuum is used to charge vessels from drums or transfer between vessels. Vacuum equipment is frequently ignored until its performance drops or something fails. This breakdown maintenance regime is inefficient as breakdowns rarely occur at convenient times. Vacuum equipment maintenance should be carried out on a routine basis to identify and repair faults before they become more serious. Significant benefits can be achieved by eliminating the unnecessary use of water in liquid ring pumps. One solution is to fit solenoid valves on the seal and cooling water supplies and interlocking these valves to the main power supply to the pump drive. Water will then flow only when the pump is running. Another solution is to convert the pump from a oncethrough water seal to a recirculating water seal. The feasibility of this option will depend on the degree of contamination picked up on each pass of the liquid. Replace the seal water with an alternative liquid to produce waste that is easier to handle and dispose of.

Effective use of vacuum system Use a dead-end filling technique

Reduce

Reduce

Planned/ preventative maintenance

Reduce

Fit solenoid valves

Reduce

Convert the pump to a recirculating water seal Replace the seal water

Reduce

Reduce

41

section

8
section

Nature of hazardous waste: chemical effluents minimising waste and maintaining product quality through effective vessel washing.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG120 Cost-effective vessel washing.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Establish a wash procedure

In some companies, vessel washing operations are based on habit rather than on a proper understanding of the levels of cleanliness required to avoid contamination. This increases the risk of over-washing, thereby using more wash liquor and generating more effluent than is necessary. To establish when a washing process has achieved the levels of cleanliness required, companies should analyse the contaminant concentrations in the effluent from each wash. The effective management of vessel washing depends on improving staff awareness of the environmental and financial implications of these activities. The operator ultimately determines the effectiveness of vessel washing operations. Raising awareness is an effective way of generating practical ideas for improvement. Many cost-effective changes introduced by companies have been identified by operators. Production scheduling to minimise the need for vessel washing between product batches will reduce the wash frequency. Generally, the longer the lead-time, the easier it is to schedule. Inspection and monitoring are used to identify efficient vessel washing practice. Changes need to be based on accurate data provided by systematic inspection and monitoring, ie learning by logging.

Improve staff awareness

Reduce

Production scheduling

Reduce

Enhance inspection and monitoring Redesign process/product

Reduce

Changes to the production process can sometimes Reduce reduce or eliminate the need for vessel washing. Various options include: switching to water-based solvents, thereby reducing the need for washing with organic solvents and minimising the risk of gaseous solvent emissions; adding colours or odorants to the base product outside the main mixing vessel, thereby avoiding the need for washing after each sub-product; and using the same base solvent in a range of different products to enhance their chemical compatibility, thereby reducing the need for washing between products. Spray nozzles, balls and rotating heads which produce dense sprays and jets of wash liquor offer a relatively simple technique for reducing the amount of wash liquor used and, when fitted with partial recirculation, they can increase washing efficiency by 90%. Reduce

Technical improvement options

42

8
Recovery and re-use of wash liquors Recovering or re-using vessel washing liquors can bring significant reductions in effluent volumes and discharge costs, and can also reduce product loss. Procedures may involve recovering solvent from the wash liquor, re-using the wash liquor by returning it to the next product and re-using the wash liquor for other purposes, such as general cleaning. Using an alternative solvent as wash liquor can have a number of potential benefits. These include a reduction in the costs of washing and effluent disposal, less damage to the environment and improved health and safety. The opportunities for using vessel design to enhance drainage are limited. Such opportunities really arise only during the design of a new process or during refurbishment. Nevertheless, it is important for companies to be aware of good practice so they can take advantage of opportunities when they arise. Increasing wash pressure improves the efficiency of cleaning and helps to reduce the volume of wash liquor required. Automated vessel washing techniques, particularly when in enclosed vessels, can incorporate remotely controlled valves, flow meters, concentration meters etc. PC-based control suites are used to control these automated systems. The systems can be programmed with pre-tested washing procedures for exact washing performance. Closed-loop vessel washing systems minimise the release of gaseous emissions, contain any liquid for disposal, allow recirculation of the solvent to maximise its use and protect the operator from contact with, or inhalation of, the wash liquors. Re-use

Switching to alternative wash liquors

Re-use

Ensure complete vessel drain-down

Reduce

High pressure wash systems Automated vessel washing control systems

Reduce

Reduce

Closed-loop wash systems

Re-use

43

section

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

8
section

Nature of hazardous waste: chemical effluents - reducing the costs associated with effluent treatment plant, pretreatment techniques, physical/chemical processes, biological processes and sludge management.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG175 Improving the performance of effluent treatment plant.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Diversion

Diversion facilities, to which effluents can be redirected quickly and easily, are essential as a temporary storage facility at most chemical plants. Diversion facilities are used to control occurrences that could put the plant or the sites discharge consent at risk. Equalisation controls fluctuations in the effluent characteristics arising from batch manufacturing processes, thus ensuring optimum conditions for subsequent downstream treatment processes. Many effluents contain acidic or alkaline materials and require the pH to be adjusted either before discharge or prior to treatment by biological processes. At sites with both acidic and alkaline effluents, consider using these streams to neutralise each other in a diversion facility. This minimises the need for chemical additions for pH control. Sedimentation is used at both the pretreatment and main treatment stages to remove suspended solids through gravity settlement in a settlement tank or basin. Dissolved air flotation is generally used to remove suspended solids and part of the organic load prior to biological treatment or other treatment. Pretreatment of certain high COD effluents and sludge can be achieved by oxidation of organic pollutants at high temperature and pressure using air, hydrogen peroxide or oxygen. Depending on the conditions, wet air oxidation can be used to convert organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen, or to break down complex structures into more degradable compounds prior to secondary biological treatment. The activated sludge process is an aerobic biological treatment in which bacteria and other micro-organisms feed on biodegradable organic material in the effluent and degrade it. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are required to support good growth. Sludge thickening and dewatering are mechanical operations used to produce a more concentrated sludge by reducing the volume. Currently used methods include gravity thickeners, decanters and drum thickeners. Dewatering is typically carried out using a centrifuge, belt press or plate and frame press.

Equalisation/ balancing

Reduce

Neutralisation

Reduce

Sedimentation

Reduce

Dissolved air flotation Wet air oxidation

Reduce

Reduce

Activated sludge

Reduce

Sludge thickening and dewatering

Reduce

44

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG216 Increasing product output in batch chemical manufacture.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Prepare a mass balance

Preparing a mass balance helps to identify where the greatest losses are occurring and thus the potential for improvement. It also highlights opportunities to reduce the use of, or recycle, solvents. To ensure adequate standards, it is important to compare product yield with a benchmark or reference point. For existing processes or products, the previous years production can be used as the base-line against which to compare performance. Benchmarks for reactor and product yields should be reviewed at specified intervals. If yield values are regularly either above or below the target values, the benchmark may need to be reviewed. Although some products require specific active ingredients, many processes involve a range of basic raw materials. Reviewing the number, quality and source of the raw materials can produce significant cost savings and other benefits. One way of reducing spillage is to use whole containers of material wherever possible, eg by revising formulae to optimise the use of 25 kg sacks of material. Another method is to automate filling. The benefits of using whole containers of material include: I a full measure is added to the batch and waste is minimised; I less waste due to deterioration of residual material in a partly filled container; I less surplus material needs to be stored in a container that requires cleaning prior to return or disposal; I easier compliance with COSHH.

Set targets and benchmark

Reduce

Review materials used

Reduce

Reduce spillages

Reduce

Optimise production of small batches

Producing small batches in large vessels can be less efficient than using a dedicated reactor. For example, the mass loss from a boil-out is the same for both half-size and full-size batches; the percentage loss is effectively doubled and the yield correspondingly reduced. For small batch quantities of a chemical that is not produced regularly, the sale contract should specify that the customer must take the entire batch. Otherwise, revenue will be lost and the excess stock could become a waste disposal problem.

Reduce

45

section

Nature of hazardous waste: chemicals and chemical effluents - optimising product yield for batch processes, improving yield results and reduced material consumption.

8
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Train staff in new procedures To ensure that optimum conditions are maintained, it is vital to explain the reasons for change to operators and supervisors. Involving staff at an early stage of the yield improvement programme will help to instil a sense of ownership and promote awareness. Having taken action to improve product yield, it is vital to monitor and control yield to maintain improvement. Use performance records, waste management records, utility costs and product assays.

Monitor and control the yield

Reduce

Nature of hazardous waste: chemical effluents - improving water management performance by adopting a systematic approach to reducing the costs of water purchase and operational use.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG363 Managing water use in speciality chemicals manufacture: a signposting guide.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Meter areas

Metering individual product areas and setting reduction targets is an effective method of reducing water consumption and can result in savings of 30%. Improvements in plant washdowns and the use of trigger hoses can reduce water consumption by 50%. Improvements in housekeeping to avoid cleaning can reduce water savings by 10%. Flow restrictors on vessel cooling lines can reduce water use by 5%. Process plant modifications can facilitate the re-use of cooling water, which can reduce water consumption by 21%. Trials have shown that the re-use of wash water for batch dilution can reduce water consumption by 25%. Installation of high pressure washers for cleaning blending tanks can reduce water use by 5%. Recirculation of water in liquid ring vacuum pumps can reduce water consumption by 50%. Replacement of water seal vacuum pumps with dry versions can reduce water consumption by 24%. Reduction of the site distribution pressure can assist in reducing water consumption.

Improve plant washdown Improve housekeeping Use of flow restrictors Cooling water

Reduce Reduce Reduce Re-use

Re-use of wash water Installation of high pressure washers Recirculation of water Replacement of water seal vacuum pumps Distribution pressure

Re-use Reduce

Re-use Reduce

Reduce

46

8
Prepare a mass balance Water that comes into a process must leave in one way or another, ie inputs must equal outputs. Knowing this information allows certain unknowns, typically leaks and evaporative losses, to be estimated. Staff at all levels can play an important role in reducing water consumption and effluent generation. Train process operators and supervisors in the correct use of machinery and procedures and the correct handling of materials. Emphasise the cost of wasted water and the impact that improvements can have on profits. Monitoring water consumption and effluent volumes is essential to control and reduce costs. Where possible, fit sub-meters to monitor consumption for each production area. Check water use during silent periods, such as overnight and during shutdowns. If it is not close to zero, find out why; there may be a leak or plant left running unnecessarily. Set a scheduled maintenance programme involving proactive (rather than just reactive) maintenance combined with resetting and recalibration of process equipment, eg flow control valves, metering devices on mixing vessels and thermostats on cooling equipment. Cleaning as you go is less intensive and less water is required if residues, spillages etc are cleaned before they are dry and stick. When cleaning sticky and viscous materials, use mechanical methods such as scrapers, shovels and brushes before hosing down with water. Match the cleaning water quality to the application, ie use slightly contaminated water to wash floors and moderately contaminated water to wash very contaminated areas. Use clean water only for the final rinse. The wash water can be re-used for earlier rinses, this is known as the water use hierarchy. Use spillage kits and squeegees to soak up spillages, and brushes to sweep spillages down drains. All are preferable to hosing spillages to drain. Pressurised spraying is generally more efficient than merely filling and swilling, or boil-outs. High-pressure cleaning systems are usually the best option when dealing with sticky and viscous materials. Plan the sequence of production so that compatible products follow each other, thus minimising the washing needed between them. If necessary, extend product storage time slightly. Using one wash procedure irrespective of the batch sequence is generally inefficient. Identify the levels of cleanliness required between different products and devise the optimum washing requirements between product batches. You may find that no washing is required or that wash liquor can be re-used. Present this information in a matrix for operators to refer to. Reduce

Employee training

Reduce

Measure water and effluent

Reduce

Scheduled maintenance programme

Reduce

Cleaning practices

Reduce

Cleaning devices

Reduce

Production scheduling

Reduce

Vessel washing matrix

Reduce

47

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Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

8
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Re-use Re-use Re-use of wash liquor Materials recovery Re-use wash liquor for cleaning Vessel design Wash liquor can be re-used directly in subsequent compatible product batches where dilution is required. Where wash liquors cannot be re-used directly, use membrane systems to recover high value materials or product from effluent. Store and re-use wash liquor for cleaning vessels of compatible batches until it becomes too heavily contaminated. Position valves at the lowest point of the vessel to improve drainage. Replace flat-bottomed vessels with vessels with smooth contours and a cone-shaped bottom to assist drainage and cleaning. Use fully enclosed vessels to reduce evaporation and, hence, the need for cleaning. Use polished stainless steel or plastic lined vessels (where appropriate) to make cleaning and maintenance easier. Make it easier to re-use wash liquor by linking vessels and wash/holding tanks to form a closed system. Closed systems also help to reduce odours, VOCs and other gaseous emissions.

Re-use

Reduce

Closed-loop wash systems

Re-use

48

Textiles sector

9
section

Faced with pressure to compete with cheap imports or identify new market opportunities, the textiles and clothing sector has undergone significant reorganisation over recent years. Many UK firms are successfully repositioning themselves to concentrate on the UKs advantages of strong design skills and close relationships with retail and automotive customers.

9.1 Waste codes for the textiles sector


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from the textiles sector as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 15 Wastes from the leather, fur and textile industries Wastes from the leather and fur industry Degreasing wastes containing solvents without a liquid phase Wastes from the textile industry Wastes from finishing containing organic solvents Dyestuffs and pigments containing dangerous substances Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use (MFSU) of plastics, synthetic rubber and man-made fibres Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes from the MFSU of organic dyes and pigments (except 06 11) Aqueous washing liquids and mother liquids Organic halogenated solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Other organic solvents, washing liquids and mother liquids Halogenated still bottoms and reaction residues Other still bottoms and reaction residues Halogenated filter cakes and spent absorbents Other filter cakes and spent absorbents Sludges from on-site effluent treatment containing dangerous substances Wastes not otherwise specified Waste isocyanates Waste packaging: absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials and protective clothing not otherwise specified Absorbents, filter materials, wiping cloths and protective clothing Absorbents, filter materials (including oil filters not otherwise specified), wiping cloths, protective clothing contaminated by dangerous substances

01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 05 05

03 14 16 19

01 03 04 07 08 09 10 11 01 03 04 07 08 09 10 11 01

15 02 15 02 02

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9.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information, refer to the guides identified.

Nature of hazardous waste: textile dyeing and finishing industry effluents - reducing water and effluent costs.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG62 Water and chemical use in the textile dyeing and finishing industry.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce

Use trigger hoses

People are often unaware of the cost of leaving taps and hoses running. Reduce water use by fixing hand trigger hoses. With the continual improvements in chemical performance, processes should be reviewed regularly to ensure every stage is still necessary. Many firms have dramatically reduced rinse water by reducing the number of process steps involved. Also, one possible option is to reduce rinse water use for lighter shades. Many cooling water systems are operated on a oncethrough basis. The resulting hot water is generally uncontaminated and can be re-used in the process as make-up or rinse water. It is sometimes possible to re-use certain waste streams, eg dilute wash water in other parts of the process such as process water in other textile operations with or without the addition of chemicals. Countercurrent washing/rinsing is an established technique common on continuous ranges. This system can significantly reduce water use. Most of the chemicals used in textile processing are not retained on the fibre but are washed off. Controlling the quantity of each chemical used and replacing more polluting chemicals with less polluting substances can reduce effluent strength and treatment costs. The chemical recipes used in wet processing are often fail-safe under the most extreme conditions. This results in the overuse of chemicals and increased effluent strength. Check whether the recipes are mixed to specification and if the chemical is vital to the process. In some cases, it is possible to achieve a 20 - 50% chemical reduction by reviewing recipes and chemical use. If recipes are mixed manually, check how operators measure and control dosing. If automatic dosing systems are used, check whether they are properly calibrated.

Reduce process steps

Reduce

Recycle cooling water

Recycle

Re-use process water

Re-use

Countercurrent washing/rinsing Reduce chemical use

Reduce

Reduce

Recipe optimisation

Reduce

Dosing control

Reduce

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9
Pre-screen chemicals Check material safety data sheets, available from manufacturers, which should contain chemical, ecotoxicological and environmental information and will help to pre-screen chemicals and select those with the least effect on effluent strength and toxicity. Raw textile fibres can contain a number of toxic substances, which end up in the effluent after processing. Where possible, select raw materials from countries that ban the use of toxic chemicals, ie choose the least hazardous. The need for machine cleaning between dye and print runs can be dramatically reduced by careful production scheduling. By progressing from lighter shades of dye to darker shades (and back again) some companies have eliminated many of the cleaning cycles. The objective of chemical substitution is to replace the process chemicals that have a high pollutant strength or toxic properties with others that have less impact on effluent quality, eg for dye bath acid replace acetic acid (0.64 kg BOD/kg) with formic acid (0.12 kg BOD/kg). The recovery and re-use of chemicals have been applied successfully in three main areas: the re-use of dye solutions from the dye bath, the recovery of caustic after the mercerising process, and the recovery of size cotton processing. Considerable attention is given to the fixation of dyes to yarn and fabric, and new techniques are continually being developed. Better fixation contributes to lower chemical use and lower effluent contamination. Textile managers should regularly monitor specific dye consumption to ensure that optimum performance is maintained. Some companies have to correct the pH of their final effluent to sewer by dosing with acid or alkali. Examine the range of waste streams available and consider neutralising one stream with another, thereby eliminating the need for additional chemicals. Reduce

Pre-screen raw materials

Reduce

Production scheduling

Reduce

Chemical substitution

Reduce

Chemical recovery and re-use

Re-use

Improved dye fixation

Reduce

Effluent treatment

Reduce

Use dyes with lower toxicity

Dye manufacturers recognise the environmental impact Reduce of using dyes. This has led to the development of new dyes with a lower toxicity, improved levelling and exhaust characteristics, and narrow quality tolerances. A number of man-made fibres are available to the textile industry. Check if they have a greater affinity for dyestuffs and may help to improve exhaust dyeing and reduce the problem of coloured effluent. Reduce

Use newer fibres with a greater affinity for dyestuffs

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Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

9
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Install new equipment to reduce cleaning loss Install new equipment to reduce cleaning loss, such as screen printing squeegee wash (wash water use for squeegee cleaning can be reduced from 100 litres to 20 litres per squeegee by replacing manual washing with automatic high pressure water cleaning) and conveyor belt wash water recycling (older machines use substantial quantities of water to remove lint and dye from the print machine conveyor in a blanket wash at the end of the line). New equipment uses staged rinsing with countercurrent rinse water flow, significantly reducing water use and effluent generation.

52

Packaging

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Packaging is the term used to describe any material used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods (from raw materials to processed goods) from the producer to the end-user or consumer. There are three main categories of packaging: I Primary (sales) packaging around the goods at the point of purchase by the user or consumer; an example of primary packaging is the crisp packet. I Secondary (grouped) packaging which groups a number of items together until the point of sale; an example is the box in which packets of crisps are supplied to retailers. I Tertiary (transit) packaging, which allows handling and transport of a number of grouped items as one unit; examples are the pallet on which boxes of crisp packets are stacked and any banding or shrink-wrap used to hold them fast. The two sets of key packaging regulations that businesses should be aware of are: Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations & Packaging (Essential Requirements) Regulations 2003 (As Amended) The Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) Regulations aim to encourage companies to reduce quantities of packaging and to re-use/recover packaging. The regulations affect companies that: I have an annual turnover of more than 2 million; I handle more than 50 tonnes/year of packaging. Companies that meet these criteria are obliged to take responsibility for the recovery and recycling of their packaging waste. The obligation is evaluated by: I the amount of obligated packaging a company handles; I particular activities, ie raw material manufacturer 6%, converter 9%, packer/filler 37%, seller/final retailer 48%; I UK recovery and recycling targets. The term packaging handled describes the companys annual throughput (in tonnes) of packaging during the last calendar year. This includes packaging that is imported and packaging that is passed on (whether or not this was imported). The main exemptions to the obligations are packaging that is: I discarded on-site unless it was imported packaging, for this you are considered the end-user; I exported (even by a third party); I re-used (apart from its first use); I reconditioned and second-hand (eg pallets); I leased or owned by others.

53

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If your company is obligated, you are required to: 1. Register and provide data on the packaging handled to the relevant environment agency by 7 April of the year you become obligated. 2. Take responsibility for the recovery (including recycling and energy from waste) and recycling of your obligation amount for particular materials (you can arrange for this to be done on your behalf). 3. Certify and provide evidence (usually by obtaining Packaging Recovery Notes [PRNs]) that you have fulfilled your recovery and recycling obligations. If you join a registered compliance scheme, you pass on your obligations but will have to pay a membership fee and pay for your PRNs. I For further information on the application of the packaging waste regulations in England, Wales and Scotland, see the Users Guide available for downloading from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs website (www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/ packaging/index.htm). I Separate but similar regulations apply in Northern Ireland. (See www.ehsni.gov.uk/ environment/wastemanage/regulations_packaging.shtml) Companies are advised to contact the Environment and Energy Helpline (0800 585794) or the Environment and Heritage Service (www.ehsni.gov.uk). The Packaging (Essential Requirements) Regulations 2003 (As Amended) require certain conditions to be met in relation to the manufacture and composition of packaging and to its re-usability and recoverability. They complement the packaging waste regulations and are effectively eco-design regulations. The regulations are enforced by local authority trading standards officers and apply to packers/fillers, importers of packaged goods from outside the European Economic Area (EEA) and brand owners (where the brand/trademark is shown). These regulations apply regardless of company size and apply only to packaging placed on the EEA market (packed/filled packaging) after 31 December 1994. The three key legal requirements for companies are to: I comply with the limits on heavy metal content (lead, cadmium, hexavalent chromium and mercury combined in packaging and any of its components must be limited to 100 parts per million); I keep appropriate records for four years after the packaging was put on the market; I meet the essential requirements, which relate to: minimising the volume and weight (for a given material/system), subject to fitness for purpose criteria; permitting re-use (fulfil a number of trips and meet health and safety requirements) or recovery; allowing at least one of the following recovery options on disposal - materials recycling, composting/biodegradation, or energy from waste; minimising the presence of noxious and/or hazardous substances in the packaging and hence the environmental impacts of its disposal.

The main exemptions include: I re-usable packaging already in use, but not the first time it is put on the market (ie refurbished packaging is not exempt);

54

Some exemptions on the heavy metal requirements apply to certain types of re-usable plastic boxes and plastic pallets containing recycled material. The requirement for minimising packaging means that you have to reduce the material weight and pack volume until a fitness for purpose limit is reached. This fitness is judged on criteria called the critical area, these are: I product protection; I packaging manufacturing process; I packing/filling process; I logistics - transport, warehousing, handling, etc; I product presentation and marketing; I user/consumer acceptance - ease of opening, tamper-free evidence, etc; I information provision, eg product information, instructions, bar codes and expiry dates; I safety, eg safe handling requirements, child resistance, hazard warnings and pressure release closures; I legislation - any requirements from national or international legislation or standards; I other issues - economic, social, environmental implications not considered above. The form of records is not specified in the regulations. The following are suggested: I weight/volume minimisation - critical area and why; I suitability for re-use and recovery; I minimisation of hazardous substances and heavy metal content. Records must be made available at the request of your local trading standards officer. Noncompliance is a criminal offence with the possibility of prosecution in a Magistrates or Crown Court, with a resulting fine. For further information about the application of these regulations, see the Government Guidance Notes available for downloading from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) website (www.dti.gov.uk/sustainability/packaging.htm). For free advice and information on these regulations and other environmental legislation, contact the Environment and Energy Helpline free on 0800 585794.

For more information on packaging, see GG411 Packaging reduction saves money: industry examples and GG482 Cutting costs and waste by optimising packaging use.

10.1 Waste codes for packaging


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from packaging as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf

55

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I packaging exported straight out of the EEA without being put on the European market.

10

10
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15

Waste packaging: absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials and protective clothing not otherwise specified 15 01 Packaging (including separately collected municipal packaging waste) 15 01 10 Packaging containing residues of or contaminated by dangerous substances 15 01 11 Metallic packaging containing a dangerous solid porous matrix (for example, asbestos), including empty pressure containers 15 02 Absorbents, filter materials, wiping cloths and protective clothing 15 02 02 Absorbents, filter materials (including oil filters not otherwise specified), wiping cloths, protective clothing contaminated by dangerous substances

10.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For further information refer to the guides identified.

Nature of hazardous waste: heavy metals, industrial solvents, coatings, adhesives, paper bleaching chemicals - improving packaging design with a view to reducing costs and the impact on the environment.
Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG360R Packaging design for the environment: reducing costs and quantities.

Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy Eliminate

Packaging elimination

If possible, eliminate packaging altogether. Eliminate unnecessary layers, eg box plus tube, collation trays and shrink-wrap. Eliminate the use of adhesives and tapes by using only interlocking tabs. Eliminate the need for labels by using in-mould embossing or direct printing wherever possible. Avoid having a leaflet in a cartonboard pack by printing information on the inside of the box or sleeve. Reduce the thickness of the material used. Strengthen materials locally to allow an overall reduction in material use. Use double-walled rather than triplewalled corrugated board where extra strength given by the latter is not necessary. Do not use hollow, double-walled containers (eg plastic tubes) unless these are specifically needed for strength/insulation. There are three key areas of concern regarding hazardous substances and packaging; they are heavy metals, industrial solvents in inks, coatings and adhesives, and paper bleaching chemicals. Use paperboard that is unbleached or uses a chlorine-free or elemental chlorine-free bleaching process. Consider using water-based adhesives and hot-melts instead of solvent-based products. Alternatives to organic solvent-borne inks (which have related VOC issues) are water-borne, ultra-violet (UV) curable and litho inks.

Use less packaging

Reduce

Design packaging to reduce the use of hazardous substances

Reduce

56

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Minimise contamination Design packaging for re-use Minimise the use of inks, adhesives, coatings, labels etc. Packaging designed for re-use (eg plastic totes) can last for at least 30 trips and often 100 or more. However, so-called one trip packaging is often re-used several times. Where this is the case, the best environmental option may be to encourage re-use by increasing material thickness slightly, rather than opting for an ultra-lightweight one-trip design. Packaging designers should consider recycling and composting, and the ways in which segregation, collection, sorting and reprocessing will take place. Materials that are likely to create problems in the recycling process or in the quality of the recycled material need to be identified and excluded. Where re-use or recycling is neither environmentally beneficial nor cost-effective, some packaging has to be disposed of to landfill or, more beneficially, through thermal treatment with energy recovery. The key considerations are, has the use of biodegradable packaging been looked into, has calorific value been considered where incineration/energy recovery is inevitable, and can chlorine content be reduced to minimise emissions to air/ash during incineration. Reduce Re-use

Design packaging for recycling

Recycle

Design packaging for final disposal

Dispose

57

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Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

11
section

Volatile organic compounds

Many companies use organic solvents, and improvements in solvent management will reduce solvent use and emissions of volatile organic compounds. Solvents that evaporate readily at room temperature, escaping into the atmosphere, are known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), trichloroethylene and white spirit are widely used in industry to degrease, thin and dissolve. They are also found in many proprietary paints, inks and adhesives. Industrial solvents and solvent-based coatings are expensive, costing hundreds or even thousands of pounds per tonne, while waste solvents, inks and coatings are costly to dispose of because they are classified as hazardous waste. In addition, there are health, safety and environmental issues. Many organic solvents can harm human health, acting as irritants and, in some cases, carcinogens. Liquid organic solvents can contaminate the ground or water supplies; 1 litre is enough to contaminate about 100 million litres of drinking water - equivalent to 50 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

11.1 Waste codes for waste organic solvents


The table below lists typical examples of waste arisings from waste organic solvents as defined in the European Waste Catalogue, including codes. This is not a comprehensive list and further information can be found at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/consleg/pdf/2000/en_2000D0532_do_001.pdf 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 Waste organic solvents, refrigerants and propellants (except 07 and 08) Waste organic solvents, refrigerants and foam/aerosol propellants Chlorofluorocarbons, HCFC, HFC Other halogenated solvents and solvent mixtures Other solvents and solvent mixtures Sludges or solid wastes containing halogenated solvents Sludges or solid wastes containing other solvents

06 06 06 06 06 06

01 02 03 04 05

11.2 Hints and tips


This section contains various hints and tips that will improve your resource efficiency and reduce the quantities of hazardous waste that may subsequently require disposal. For more detailed information, refer to the guides identified.

Nature of hazardous waste: solvent use - recovery and re-use of organic solvents and reducing VOC emissions by better management.

Detailed information for all the following tips is included in GG12 Solvent capture for recovery and re-use from solvent-laden gas streams, GG60 Practical measures to save money in screen printing, GG87 Solvent consumption in dry-cleaning, GG100 Solvent capture and recovery in practice: industry examples, GG124 Solvent management in practice: industry examples and GG413 Reducing solvent use by good housekeeping.

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Solvent recovery systems There are a number of processes for the recovery of solvents. These include adsorption, desorption, continuous adsorption-desorption processes, adsorption capture systems, condensation and associated recovery techniques, membrane processes, absorption (scrubbing), plasticiser/solvent recovery systems, adsorbent regeneration and condensation systems. Could recovered solvent mixture be re-used in the process itself or for other duties? Using recovered solvent as a cleaning solvent or for thinning paint, ink etc, will offset the cost of new materials. Measuring to manage is a systematic method of analysing and controlling solvent consumption, thus enabling companies to save money by producing more of the product for the same amount of solvent. The essential elements are: I measuring the solvent consumption of a company, department, or production line over a specified period of time; I relating consumption to a measure of production and thus defining a solvent consumption standard; I setting targets for reduced solvent consumption; I regularly comparing actual consumption with the standard or target consumption level; I reporting changes in consumption and determining the reasons for the variation; I taking action to correct these changes; I continually aiming to minimise solvent consumption while maintaining product quality, production efficiency and safety. Take action to reduce solvent consumption The causes of excessive solvent use and waste must be investigated. These include leaks, equipment malfunction and poor operator practice. Ensure good maintenance practice and housekeeping, adequate operating procedures and production planning. Good equipment and installation are important, but real improvements in solvent performance and cost reductions are made only if staff operate and maintain the equipment correctly. Make sure that all staff are aware of the companys goals in relation to solvent consumption and the associated safety issues, ensure all staff are fully trained in every aspect of machine operation and solvent handling, and that they understand why specific procedures must be followed. Reduce Re-use

Re-use of recovered solvent

Re-use

Measure solvent use and set targets

Reduce

Staff training

Reduce

59

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Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

11
section
Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Minimise spills during solvent delivery If solvent is delivered by tanker, make sure that every storage tank is fitted with a reliable means of measuring its contents. Check that the storage tank has sufficient room for the quantity of solvent being delivered. Check that all valves are set properly to receive the solvent. Wherever possible, make sure that the storage tanks are positioned so that the delivery tanker can approach the filling point as closely as possible with safety. Make sure that any extended filling pipe is capped off and provided with a valve at the coupling points. The filling pipe should be self-draining; if this is not possible, make safe provision for draining it. Reducing solvent use in your operations will lead to less spent solvent waste requiring disposal, fewer VOC emissions requiring abatement and a reduced risk of pollution. There are many ways of minimising solvent use and waste: I eliminate the need to use organic solvents; I change to an alternative material with no or less solvent content; I change to a less volatile or less hazardous solvent/material; I use recycled solvent where possible; I use low purity or dirty solvents for initial rinses; I change working methods and handling procedures to minimise the need to use solvent, eg for cleaning between processes; I reduce the amount of solvent used, eg for thinning; I increase staff training; I preventative maintenance and testing; I optimise the process; I on-site recovery of spent solvent. Avoid overordering Ordering too much material at a time and paying inadequate attention to stock rotation can be costly. In addition to tying up money in stock that is not needed, these practices can lead to stock going out of date or becoming obsolete. Buying in bulk by the tanker load or in intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) can significantly reduce costs and wastage in terms of packaging (possibly contaminated) and material residues. Proper maintenance procedures are important in terms of preventing vapour release, leakage and spillage. LAPPC/LAPC guidance requires an effective preventative maintenance programme to be employed on all aspects of the process/activity concerned with the control of emissions to air. Avoid over-estimating when decanting from large drums or IBCs. Use measures of a known size, eg litre jugs, or mark on the side of the container with set measures, eg 100, 200 litres, to prevent waste. Use drip trays to recover spilled solvents for re-use. Reduce

Eliminate/reduce solvent use as part of a solvent management plan

Eliminate/ reduce

Buy in bulk

Reduce

Planned preventative maintenance

Reduce

Avoid overestimating when decanting Use drip trays

Reduce

Re-use

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Use alternative cleaning products and systems Cleaning operations often use unnecessarily large quantities of solvent. Such operations can be avoided or the process improved to reduce the quantity of solvent used. I Examine all cleaning operations to determine whether alternative cleaning solutions are already being used. I Use only the minimum amount of solvent required for specific cleaning operations. I Remove deposits as soon as possible following a clean as you go policy, a build-up of coating can become difficult to remove and require a disproportionate amount of effort and cleaning material. I Use mechanical cleaning methods where possible. I Make sure that cleaning areas and washbasins have sumps or drains fitted with solvent interceptors/tanks from which solvent can be pumped for recovery or appropriate disposal. I Where possible, dedicate vessels, pipelines and other equipment to specific formulations/colours to avoid cleaning between batches. I Consider line pigging for cleaning pipelines for re-use of solvent. Segregate hazardous waste Minimise the need for degreasing Use mechanical and aqueous cleaning Segregate hazardous waste from non-hazardous waste to avoid contamination and reduce volume for disposal as hazardous. Eliminate/minimise the need for degreasing operations by keeping items well protected (using covers or stretchwrap) and free from contamination between processes. Degreasing of components using organic solvent methods can be a significant source of emissions and waste. Alternative mechanical methods of cleaning such as scraping, brushing, blasting and tumbling/ vibration can be useful to remove dirt/grease. Aqueous cleaning systems generally have a wash stage combined with rinse and hot-air drying stages. Some use alkaline aqueous solutions and some incorporate a conversion dip to provide extra corrosion protection. Such systems should eliminate the need for any form of manual preparation such as hand wiping with organic solvent. Many companies have moved from high solventcontent coatings for reason of cost, quality, environmental compliance, and health and safety. Alternative coating systems involve medium/high-solids paints, water-based paints, powder coatings and thermal/plasma coatings. Better application techniques and equipment are often the key to reducing waste and costs. Application is by dipping or, more generally, by spraying. Consider using electrophoretic and autophoretic dipping for priming and corrosion resistance coating. Both techniques offer high material yield and quality, and are water-based processes with no VOC emissions. Reduce Reduce

Reduce

Reduce

Use alternative coatings

Reduce

Use better application techniques

Reduce

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Tip

Detail

Where in the waste hierarchy

11
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Tip Detail Where in the waste hierarchy Reduce Reduce Preserve shelf-life of products Consider purchasing an enclosed/closedloop wash machine Schedule print runs Preserve shelf-life of products by avoiding temperature extremes and exposure to light. For larger items such as screens, print rollers and containers, consider purchasing an enclosed/closedloop wash machine preferably linked to distillation equipment. This reduces emissions, recovers a large proportion of waste solvents and reduces waste storage and disposal problems. Schedule print runs (ie use of same inks/colours on adjacent jobs) to reduce the need for cleaning and the wastage related to start-ups. When printing separate jobs in more than one colour, complete the run of the first colour before starting the second colour; you may need to store part-finished jobs.

Reduce

Screen cleaning

Screen printers use large quantities of organic solvents Reduce/ to clean and reclaim screens. Simple good housekeeping re-use measures can produce solvent savings of around 10%. Use squeeze or trigger spray bottles rather than pouring solvent onto cleaning cloths; collect and re-use screen cleaning and reclaimation materials. Cleaning/ reclaiming screens in a tray (with a drain at one end) can achieve this. The collected material can then be re-used for low-grade cleaning work. Waterless printing is an offset lithographic process that eliminates the water-based dampening system used in conventional printing. Waterless printing has a number of inherent benefits, including: no need for IPA and other solvents; reduced water and energy consumption; shorter make-ready times; and no need for dampening system cleaning. Reduce

Consider eliminating the use of waterbased treatments

62

Useful contacts

12
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12.1 Advice
Further advice about hazardous waste may be obtained from the Environment and Energy Helpline on 0800 585794 and from the organisations listed below. In England and Wales, information can be obtained from the Environment Agency on 0845 9333111 or enquiries@environment-agency.gov.uk. In Wales, the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) is providing support to companies through ARENA Network. Substantial on-site advice is available. Please call ARENA Network on 01443 844001. In Scotland, contact the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) on 01786 457700 or go to www.sepa.org.uk. In Northern Ireland, contact the Environment and Heritage Service (EHS) Special Waste Unit on 028 9054 6462 or call Gillian Stewart at Invest NI on 028 9263 3426.

12.2 Websites
www.envirowise.gov.uk/hazwaste - Envirowises website for information on hazardous waste. Practical support is available for SMEs through Envirowise site visits (call 0800 585794 for more information). www.environment-agency.gov.uk/newrulesonwaste - information on hazardous waste and links to the consolidated version of the European Waste Catalogue and WM2 Technical Guidance on the definition and classification of hazardous waste. www.sepa.org.uk/guidance/waste/hazardous/index.htm - the Scottish Environment Protection Agencys website for information on hazardous waste. www.ehsni.gov.uk/environment/wastemanage/regulations_special.shtml - the Environment and Heritage Services website for information on hazardous waste. www.netregs.gov.uk - for simple, plain English advice on environmental legislation. www.defra.gov.uk - the website for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. www.hazardouswaste.org.uk - a new dedicated portal for basic information on hazardous waste and signposting to all the information, guidance and support you will need regarding the regulations.

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Envirowise - Practical Environmental Advice for Business - is a Government programme that offers free, independent and practical advice to UK businesses to reduce waste at source and increase profits. It is managed by Momenta, an operating division of AEA Technology plc, and Technology Transfer and Innovation Ltd.

Envirowise offers a range of free services including: Free advice from Envirowise experts through the Environment and Energy Helpline. A variety of publications that provide up-to-date information on waste minimisation issues, methods and successes. Free, on-site waste reviews from Envirowise advisors, called FastTrack visits, that help businesses identify and realise savings. Guidance on waste minimisation clubs across the UK that provide a chance for local companies to meet regularly and share best practices in waste minimisation. Best practice seminars and practical workshops that offer an ideal way to examine waste minimisation issues and discuss opportunities and methodologies.

For further information please contact the


Practical Environmental Advice for Business

Harwell International Business Centre | Didcot | Oxfordshire | OX11 0QJ E-mail: helpline@envirowise.gov.uk Internet: www.envirowise.gov.uk

Crown copyright. First printed June 2005. Printed on paper containing a minimum of 75% post-consumer waste. This material may be freely reproduced in its original form except for sale or advertising purposes.

Environment and Energy Helpline 0800 585794