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Background Consider the system of two masses and two springs with no external force. Visualize a wall on the left and to the right a spring , a mass, a spring and another mass. Assume that the spring constants are . See Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Coupled masses with spring attached to the wall at the left. Assume that the masses slide on a frictionless surface and that the functions denote the displacement from static equilibrium of the masses , respectively. It can be shown is by using Newton's second law and Hooke's law that the system of D. E.'s for

Remark. The eigenfrequencies can be obtained by taking the square root of the eigenvalues of the matrix .

Example 1. Equal Masses, Unequal spring constants. Find the general solution to the system of D. E.'s and plot the solution curves.

Solution 1. Example 2. Find the general solution to the system of D. E.'s and plot the solution curves.

Solution 2. Example 3. Find the general solution to the system of D. E.'s and plot the solution curves.

E.'s and plot the solution curves. Unequal Masses.Solution 3. E. Figure 2. Find the general solution to the system of D. Assume that the spring constants are . Equal spring constants. a spring. a mass.'s and plot the solution curves. a spring and another wall. Solution 5. More Background Consider the system of two masses and three springs with no external force.'s for is . E. Solution 4. Coupled masses with springs attached to walls at the left and right. respectively. Example 4. Assume that the masses slide on a frictionless surface and that the functions denote the displacement from static equilibrium of the masses . Visualize a wall on the left and to the right a spring . a mass. It can be shown by using Newton's second law and Hooke's law that the system of D. Find the general solution to the system of D. See Figure 2 below. Example 5.

Example 10. Find the general solution to the system of D. Example 6. . Solution 9. The eigenfrequencies can be obtained by taking the square root of the eigenvalues of the matrix . Unequal spring constants. Find the general solution to the system of D. Unequal spring constants. Equal spring constants.'s and plot the solution curves. E.Remark. Solution 7. Solution 8. Unequal Masses. Find the general solution to the system of D. Example 8. E. Equal spring constants. Equal Masses. Equal Masses.'s and plot the solution curves. E. Solution 6. E. Find the general solution to the system of D. Equal Masses. E.'s and plot the solution curves.'s and plot the solution curves.'s and plot the solution curves. Example 9. Equal Masses. Find the general solution to the system of D. Example 7. Unequal spring constants.

Internet hyperlinks to an old lab project. t ng ng. Download this Mathematica Notebook Spring-Mass Systems Spring-Mass Systems B i c nh Hãy xem xét h th ng c a hai kh i và hai lò xo không có l c l ng bên ngoài. Xem hình 1 d i ây. Gi s r ng các slide qu n chúng trên m t b m t ma sát và các ch c n ng bi u th s chuy n t tr ng thái cân b ng t nh c a qu n chúng. Hình dung m t b c t ng bên trái và bên ph i là m t mùa xuân. lò xo và kh i l ng khác. Old Lab Project (Spring Mass Systems Spring Mass Oscillations). Nó có th c hi n th b ng cách s d ng nh lu t th hai c a Newton và pháp lu t c a Hooke r ng h th ng c a DE cho là . Gi s r ng các h ng s mùa xuân c. Hình 1.Solution 10. Cùng v i qu n chúng mùa xuân thu c t ng bên trái. kh i l ng. Research Experience for Undergraduates Spring Mass Oscillations Spring Mass Oscillations Internet hyperlinks to web sites and a bibliography of articles.

Gi i pháp 1. không bình ng h ng mùa xuân. Gi i pháp 4. Ví d 3. . Gi i pháp 2. Ví d 4. Các eigenfrequencies có th thu giá tr riêng c a ma tr n. c b ng cách l y c n b c hai c a các Ví d 1. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp.Ghi chú. Gi i pháp 3. Ví d 2. Thánh L b ng.

B i c nh khác Hãy xem xét h th ng c a hai kh i và ba lò xo không có l c l ng bên ngoài. Xem Hình 2 d i ây. m t mùa xuân. Hình dung m t b c t ng bên trái và bên ph i là m t mùa xuân. bình ng h ng mùa xuân. c b ng cách l y c n b c hai c a các . Gi s r ng các h ng s mùa xuân c. m t kh i. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. Các eigenfrequencies có th thu giá tr riêng c a ma tr n. Hình 2.Ví d 5. t ng ng. m t mùa xuân và b c t ng khác. Cùng v i lò xo kh i l ng thu c các b c t ng bên trái và bên ph i. Nó có th c hi n th b ng cách s d ng nh lu t th hai c a Newton và pháp lu t c a Hooke r ng h th ng c a DE cho là Ghi chú. m t kh i. Gi i pháp 5. Gi s r ng các slide qu n chúng trên m t b m t ma sát và các ch c n ng bi u th s chuy n t tr ng thái cân b ng t nh c a qu n chúng. Thánh L không bình ng.

Ví d 9. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. không bình ng h ng mùa xuân. Thánh L b ng. . Thánh L b ng. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. Gi i pháp 8. Thánh L b ng. bình ng h ng mùa xuân. bình ng h ng mùa xuân. Thánh L không bình ng. không bình ng h ng mùa xuân. Ví d 8. Gi i pháp 9. Gi i pháp 7. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. Gi i pháp 6.Ví d 6. Ví d 7. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. Tìm các gi i pháp chung cho h th ng c a DE và lô ng cong gi i pháp. không bình ng h ng mùa xuân. Thánh L b ng. Ví d 10.

By Newton's Second Law: 2.Gi i pháp 10. The Ideal Mass: o o The motion of an ideal mass is unaffected by friction or any other damping force. siêu liên k t Internet ih c Mùa xuân Spring Thánh L Thánh L dao ng dao các trang web và th m c m t c a bài báo. Hooke's Law: (valid for small. The Ideal Mass-Spring System: . non-distorting displacements) The spring's equilibrium position is given by . Old Lab D án (Spring Spring dao m t d án phòng thí nghi m c . Nghiên c u Kinh nghi m cho b c ng h th ng l Mass). The Ideal Spring: o o o o o The ideal spring has no mass or internal damping. A positive value of produces a negative restoring force. The ideal mass is completely rigid. ng Internet siêu liên k t n Download này Mathematica Notebook Xuân-Mass Systems ------------------------------------------------------------------ Vibrating Systems Simple Harmonic Motion 1. 3.

the spring is maximally compressed or stretched. The Ideal Mechanical Resistance: o Force due to mechanical resistance or viscosity is typically approximated as being proportional to velocity: . o o o is the characteristic (or natural) angular frequency of the system. the mechanical energy of the system has been completely converted to kinetic energy. the mass is at rest and has no kinetic energy. There are no losses in the system. o The kinetic energy ( ) of the ideal mass-spring system is given by the motion . o of mass: The total energy of the ideal mass-spring system is constant: At the extremes of its displacement. o o System equation: This second-order differential equation has solutions of the form . o When the mass is in motion and reaches the equilibrium position of the spring. 4. and are determined by the initial displacement and velocity. and thus stores all the mechanical energy of the system as potential energy.Figure 1: An ideal mass-spring system. o Damping 1. At the same time. o All vibrating systems consist of this interplay between an energy storing component and an energy carrying (``massy'') component. so it will oscillate forever. Energy in the Ideal Mass-Spring System: o The potential energy ( ) of the ideal mass-spring system is equal to the work done stretching or compressing the spring: .

o o System equation: This second-order differential equation has solutions of the form . is lower than that of the mass-spring system ( ). o is a decay constant and natural) angular frequency of the system. The natural frequency . The Ideal Mass-Spring-Damper System: Figure 2: An ideal mass-spring-damper system. Figure 3: A decaying sinusoid. and is the characteristic (or o o are determined by the initial displacement and velocity.2.

Longitudinal Motion (along x-axis): Figure 5: A one-mass. and is the volume of the A One-Mass. a sinusoidal solution can be found with natural frequency cross-sectional area of the tube. y y y In the ``low-frequency limit''. where is the speed of sound in air. . a cavity is a direct acoustic correlate to the mechanical spring. o The net restoring force on the mass: o System natural frequency: 2. cavity. In the ``low-frequency limit''.The Helmoltz Resonator Figure 4: The Helmholtze Resonator and its mechanical correlate. Using Newton's Second Law to model the air mass in the tube and Hooke's Law for fluids to model the compressibility of the air cavity. is the is the length of the tube. an open tube is a direct acoustic correlate to the mechanical mass. two-spring system: Longitudinal motion. Transverse Motion (along y-axis): . Two-Spring System 1.

o System equations: o Natural frequencies: . two-spring system: Vertical motion. Longitudinal Motion (along x-axis): Figure 7: A two-mass. Equation of Motion : Natural Frequency Figure 2 shows a simple undamped spring-mass system. Three-Spring System 1. the vibration frequency is nearly the same as for longitudinal vibrations. where Multiple Mass Systems y y y y Each additional mass adds another natural mode of vibration per axis of motion. the ``natural'' frequency is much lower and the vibrations are nonlinear o (nonsinusoidal) for all but the smallest of -axis displacements. three-spring system: Longitudinal motion. It has one . Analyses of this type are called ``lumped characterizations''. o If the springs are initially stretched very little from their relaxed length. If the springs are initially stretched a great deal from their relaxed length (but not distorted). which is assumed to move only along the vertical direction. A Two-Mass.Figure 6: A one-mass.

With x chosen to be positive in the downward direction. When placed into motion. we obtain : (6) It is evident that the choice of the static equilibrium position as reference for x has eliminated w. because its motion is described by a single coordinate x. By defining the circular frequency w n by the equation y . all quantities . We now apply Newton's second law of motion to the mass m : y y y y and because kD = w. We now examine some of the basic concepts associated with the free vibration of systems with one degree of freedom. the forces acting on m are and w. y y y y Figure 2 Spring-Mass System and Free-Body Diagram Newton's second law is the first basis for examining the motion of the system. and acceleration are also positive in the downward direction.y degree of freedom (DOF). As shown in Fig. and the spring force kD is equal to the gravitational force w acting on mass m (5) By measuring the displacement x from the static equilibrium y y position. oscillation will take place at the natural frequency fn which is a property of the system. 2 the deformation of the spring in the static equilibrium position is D .force. and the static spring force kD from the equation of motion. velocity. and the resultant force on m is simply the spring force due to the displacement x. the force due to gravity.

(9) y y y y (10) The natural period of the oscillation is established from . (12) can be expressed in terms of the static deflection D as (13) Note that . Equation (8).y y y y (7) Eq. a homogeneous second order linear differential equation. These constants are evaluated from initial conditions can be shown to reduce to . which are properties of the system. . (5). has the following general solution : (9) where A and B are the two necessary constants. 6 can be written as (8) and we conclude that the motion is harmonic. depend only on the mass and stiffness of the system. or (11) and the natural frequency is (12) These quantities can be expressed in terms of the static deflection D by observing Eq. y y y y y y . and Eq. Thus. Eq.

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